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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 436-442, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951571

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study were evaluated the anaesthesia and analgesic effects of clove Eugenia caryophyllata, tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia and basil Ocimum basilicum essential oils (EO) during handling of yellowtail clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Juveniles (3.70 ± 0.75 cm and 1.03 ± 0.50 g; mean ± standard deviation) were submitted to concentrations of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 µl L-1 of clove, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 µl L-1 of basil and 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 µl L-1 of tea tree oils (n=10/concentration), previously defined in pilot tests. Individually and only once, fish from each treatment were placed in a glass recipient containing 1 L of seawater at a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g L-1 and the specific concentration of diluted EO (stock solution). Control (only seawater) and blank (seawater and ethanol at the highest concentration used to dilute the oils) treatments were also conducted. After reaching the stage of surgical anaesthesia, fish were submitted to biometry and a sensibility test. After that, they were transferred to clean seawater for anaesthesia recovery. The times of induction needed to reach each anaesthesia stage and anaesthesia recovery were recorded. Animals were observed for 72 hours after the procedures. All the EO provoked anaesthesia and analgesic effects in A. clarkii, but basil oil is not recommended because it caused involuntary muscle contractions and mortality in 100% and 12% of fish, respectively. The lower concentrations that promote suitable induction and recovery times are 50 µl L-1 of clove oil and 500 µl L-1 of tea tree oil. However, due to its complementary high analgesic efficiency, clove oil is recommended as the ideal anaesthetic for A. clarkii.


Resumo Neste estudo foram avaliados os efeitos anestésicos e analgésicos dos óleos essenciais (OE) de cravo Eugenia caryophyllata, melaleuca Melaleuca alternifolia e manjericão Ocimum basilicum durante manejo de peixes-palhaços Amphiprion clarkii. Juvenis (3.70 ± 0.75 cm e 1.03 ± 0.50 g; média ± desvio padrão) foram submetidos às concentrações de 40, 50, 60, 70 e 80 µl L-1 de cravo, 150, 200, 250, 300 e 350 µl L-1 de manjericão e 200, 300, 400, 500 e 600 µl L-1 de melaleuca (n=10/concentração), previamente definidas em testes pilotos. Individualmente e somente uma vez, os peixes de cada tratamento foram colocados em recipiente de vidro contendo 1 L de água salgada, em temperatura de 25 °C, salinidade de 35 g L-1 e a concentração específica de OE diluída (solução estoque). Tratamentos controle (apenas água marinha) e branco (água marinha e a maior concentração de etanol utilizada para diluição dos óleos) também foram conduzidos. Após atingirem o estágio de anestesia cirúrgica, os peixes foram submetidos à biometria e teste de sensibilidade. Em seguida, foram transferidos para água marinha limpa. Os tempos necessários para atingir cada estágio anestésico e recuperação foram registrados. Os animais foram observados por 72 horas após os procedimentos. Todos os OE provocaram anestesia e analgesia em A. clarkii, porém o óleo de manjericão não é recomendado, pois causou contrações musculares involuntárias e mortalidade em 100% e 12% dos animais, respectivamente. As menores concentrações que promovem indução anestésica e recuperação em tempos adequados são 50 µl L-1 de óleo de cravo e 500 µl L-1 de óleo de melaleuca. Entretanto, devido à sua alta eficiência analgésica complementar, o óleo de cravo é recomendado como o anestésico ideal para A. clarkii.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Oils/toxicity , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Tea Tree Oil/pharmacology , Clove Oil/pharmacology , Analgesia/veterinary , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anesthesia/veterinary , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Species Specificity , Plant Oils/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fishes , Analgesia/methods , Anesthesia/methods , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
2.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 17(1): 1-11, ene.-abr. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991017

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se entiende por interacción farmacológica la capacidad que tiene un fármaco de alterar los efectos farmacológicos de otro que se administre simultáneamente. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión actualizada de la interacción farmacológica de los bloqueadores neuromusculares con fármacos de uso frecuente en el ámbito anestesiológico. Desarrollo: Los mecanismos de interacción medicamentosa son variados y se complican cuando se trata de modificaciones sobre las propiedades farmacocinéticas y farmacodinámicas de cada medicamento. Los bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM) son fármacos que se utilizan para relajar la musculatura estriada y garantizar la intubación traqueal, la ventilación y producir un plano quirúrgico suficiente para que el cirujano pueda realizar de forma adecuada el procedimiento quirúrgico. Muchos medicamentos interactúan con los BNM y con frecuencia potencian el efecto relajante muscular. Esto resulta de importancia clínica en el caso de antibióticos, anestésicos inhalatorios, litio y ciclosporina. Conclusiones: El anestesiólogo moderno debe tener suficientes conocimientos teóricos sobre las diferentes interacciones medicamentosas que se pueden presentar en el perioperatorio. Los bloqueadores neuromusculares pueden interactuar con fármacos de uso común por los pacientes o por el anestesiólogo, por lo que es necesario el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento adecuado para evitar las complicaciones(AU)


Introduction: Drug interaction is understood as the ability of a drug for altering the pharmacological effects of another simultaneously administered. Objective: To carry out an updated review about the drug interaction of neuromuscular-blocking drugs with others frequently used in the anesthesiological field. Findings: The mechanisms of drug interaction are varied and are complicated in cases of modifications on the pharmacokinetical and pharmacodynamical properties of each medicine. Neuromuscular-blocking drugs (NMBs) are used to relax the striated musculature and to ensure tracheal intubation, ventilation. They produce a sufficient surgical plane in order for the surgeon to perform the surgical procedure properly. Many medications interact with NMBs and often potentiate the muscle relaxant effect. This is of clinical importance in the case of antibiotics, inhalational anesthetics, lithium and cyclosporine. Conclusions: Modern anesthesiologists must have sufficient theoretical knowledge about different drug interactions that may occur during the perioperative period. Neuromuscular-blocking drugs can interact with others commonly used by patients or by the anesthesiologists, a reason why early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are necessary to avoid complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Anesthetists/education
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 696-702, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888807

ABSTRACT

Abstract The transport of live fish is a routine practice in aquaculture and constitutes a considerable source of stress to the animals. The addition of anesthetic to the water used for fish transport can prevent or mitigate the deleterious effects of transport stress. This study investigated the effects of the addition of eugenol (EUG) (1.5 or 3.0 µL L-1) and essential oil of Lippia alba (EOL) (10 or 20 µL L-1) on metabolic parameters (glycogen, lactate and total protein levels) in liver and muscle, acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in muscle and brain, and the levels of protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nonprotein thiol groups (NPSH) and activity of glutathione-S-transferase in the liver of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen; Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) transported for four hours in plastic bags (loading density of 169.2 g L-1). The addition of various concentrations of EUG (1.5 or 3.0 µL L-1) and EOL (10 or 20 µL L-1) to the transport water is advisable for the transportation of silver catfish, since both concentrations of these substances increased the levels of NPSH antioxidant and decreased the TBARS levels in the liver. In addition, the lower liver levels of glycogen and lactate in these groups and lower AChE activity in the brain (EOL 10 or 20 µL L-1) compared to the control group indicate that the energetic metabolism and neurotransmission were lower after administration of anesthetics, contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis and sedation status.


Resumo O transporte de peixes vivos é uma prática rotineira na aquicultura e constitui uma fonte considerável de estresse para os animais. A adição de anestésicos na água utilizada para o transporte de peixes pode prevenir ou mitigar os efeitos nocivos do estresse de transporte. Este estudo investigou os efeitos da adição de eugenol (EUG) (1,5 ou 3,0 mL L-1) e óleo essencial de Lippia alba (OEL) (10 ou 20 mL L-1) em parâmetros metabólicos (níveis de glicogênio, lactato e proteína total) no fígado e músculos, a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) no músculo e no cérebro, e os níveis de proteína carbonil (PC), ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) e grupos tióis não proteicos (NPSH) e atividade da glutationa-S-transferase no fígado de jundiás (Rhamdia quelen; Quoy e Gaimard, 1824) transportados por quatro horas em sacos plásticos (densidade de carga de 169,2 g L-1). A adição de várias concentrações de EUG (1,5 ou 3,0 mL L-1) e OEL (10 ou 20 mL L-1) na água de transporte é aconselhável para o transporte do jundiá, uma vez que ambas concentrações destas substâncias aumentaram os níveis do antioxidante NPSH e diminuíram os níveis de TBARS no fígado. Além disso, os níveis mais baixos de glicogénio e lactato no fígado destes grupos e menor atividade de AChE no cérebro (EOL 10 ou 20 mL L-1) em comparação com o grupo controle indicam que o metabolismo energético e neurotransmissão foram menores após a administração dos anestésicos, contribuindo para a manutenção do estado de homeostase e sedação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/physiology , Eugenol/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aquaculture , Lippia/chemistry , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Transportation
4.
Rev. ADM ; 74(3): 123-126, mayo-jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908008

ABSTRACT

La anestesia dental es un tema importante en la práctica cotidiana enlas diversas especialidades odontológicas, motivo por el que nace lanecesidad de hacer una revisión de las técnicas anestésicas actuales. Con base en nuestra experiencia nos dimos cuenta de que la practicidad de utilizar referencias anatómicas confiables nos sirven de guía para obtener una mejor efi cacia al momento de anestesiar el nervio alveolar mandibular. Lo anterior se traduce en menor dolor posterior a la punción, menor dosis anestésica y una profundidad anestésica adecuada en tejidos blandos y duros, del mismo modo nos permite llevar a cabo diversos tratamientos con un margen de seguridad más amplio y disminuir losriesgos de toxicidad. Cabe mencionar que dicha técnica se ha incluido enla práctica clínica cotidiana en nuestra práctica privada en el Postgradode Ortodoncia del Instituto universitario Franco Inglés de México yen el Servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Centro Médico Lic.Adolfo López Mateos en la ciudad de Toluca, Estado de México.


Dental anesthesia is an important issue in daily practice in the variousdental specialties, which is why the need for a review of the anesthetictechnique arises. Based on our experience, we realized the practicalityof using reliable anatomical references that serve as a guide, to obtaina better effi cacy when anesthetizing the mandibular alveolar nerve,resulting in less pain after puncture, lower anesthetic dose and anadequate anesthetic depth in soft and hard tissues, which allows us tocarry out various treatments with a wider margin of safety and reducethe risks of toxicity. It is worth mentioning that this technique hasbeen included in daily clinical practice in our private practice, in theorthodontic postgraduate course of the Instituto Franco in Mexico andin the oral and maxillofacial surgery service of the Licensed MedicalCenter «Adolfo Lopez Mateos¼ in the City of Toluca, State of Mexico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Mandibular Nerve , Anatomic Landmarks , Anesthetics/classification , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Anesthetics/therapeutic use , Mandibular Nerve/anatomy & histology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 367-371, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888737

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study evaluates the influence of anesthesia on the parasitic fauna of monogenea fish parasites, as its intensity and viability. Two experiments were conducted: Evaluation of an anesthetic method by sprinkling eugenol directly on gills and evaluation of monogenea motility and viability; Comparison of immersion and directly sprinkling on the gills with benzocaine and eugenol followed by evaluation on parasite intensity. The results suggest that the anesthetic sprinkling didn't interfere in the parasite motility, morphology and body surface integrity analyzed by fluorescence method. The monogenean intensity in the gills was lower in fish anesthetized by immersion method compared to the sprinkling method and the control group. This method of anesthesia can be used in parasitological studies.


Resumo O presente estudo avalia a influência da anestesia sobre a fauna parasitária de monogeneas em peixes, sua intensidade e sua viabilidade. Dois experimentos foram realizados: Avaliação de um método anestésico por aspersão eugenol diretamente nas brânquias e avaliação da motilidade das monogeneas e sua viabilidade; e Comparação entre imersão e aspersão diretamente nas brânquias com benzocaína e eugenol, seguido de avaliação sobre a intensidade parasitária. Os resultados sugerem que a aspersão do anestésico não interferiu na motilidade, morfologia, superfície corporal e integridade do parasita, analisadas pelo método de fluorescência. A intensidade de monogenéticos nas brânquias foi menor nos peixes anestesiados pelo método de imersão em comparação com o método de aspersão e o grupo controle. O método de anestesia por aspersão nas brânquias pode ser utilizado em estudos parasitológicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Platyhelminths/drug effects , Benzocaine/pharmacology , Eugenol/pharmacology , Characiformes/physiology , Characiformes/parasitology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Gills/drug effects , Gills/physiology , Gills/parasitology , Anesthesia/veterinary
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 445-456, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886648

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study investigated the anesthetic potential of the essential oil (EO) of Aloysia polystachya in juveniles of dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus). Fish were exposed to different concentrations of EO of A. polystachya to evaluate time of induction and recovery from anesthesia. In the second experiment, fish were divided into four groups: control, ethanol and 50 or 300 µL L−1 EO of A. polystachya, and each group was submitted to induction for 3.5 min and recovery for 5 or 10 min. The blood gases and glucose levels showed alterations as a function of the recovery times, but Na+ and K+ levels did not show any alteration. In conclusion, the EO from leaves of A. polystachya is an effective anesthetic for dusky grouper, because anesthesia was reached within the recommended time at EO concentrations of 300 and 400 µL L−1. However, most evaluated blood parameters showed compensatory responses due to EO exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/blood , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Bicarbonates/blood , Hemoglobins/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Gases/blood , Glucose/analysis , Hematocrit , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metals, Alkali/blood
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 203-212, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886624

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Linalool is the main compound of many essential oils and occurs in two isomeric forms: S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool. This study aimed to determine if linalool isomers have different antimicrobial and anesthetic properties in fish. For this purpose, these compounds were previously isolated from Lippia alba (Mill.)N. E. Brown and Ocimum americanum L. essential oils. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated through the microdilution test against Aeromonas hydrophila, an important fish disease etiologic agent. Induction time until sedation, anesthesia and recovery time were determined in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through bath exposure (60, 180, 300 or 500 μL L-1). The results showed different biological properties for the isomers being S-(+)-linalool the only active against A. hydrophila at 3.2 mg mL-1. The sedation was induced without differences between the compounds, however R-(-)-linalool promoted faster anesthesia. There were no differences regarding the recovery time of the animals exposed to the linalool isomers. Although both S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool can be used for sedative purposes, their use in A. hydrophila infection is inadvisable due to the high effective concentration. Considering anesthesia as the main objective, the R-(-)-linalool demonstrated clear advantages at lower concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes , Aeromonas hydrophila/drug effects , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Stereoisomerism , Time Factors , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Ocimum/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Acyclic Monoterpenes
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2209-2218, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886809

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of benzocaine and tricaine methanesulfonate on oxidative stress parameters of juvenile tambaqui tissues. Fish (n=80) were anesthetized with benzocaine (100 mg L-1) or tricaine (240 mg L-1) and two control groups were used (non-anesthetized fish and fish exposed to ethanol-only). After anesthetic induction 10 fish/anesthetic were euthanized after 3, 12 and 24 hours post-anesthesia and tissue samplings (gills, liver and brain) were performed. Samples were submitted to analyses of enzyme activity glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cellular lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (ACAP). ACAP increased in gills of benzocaine treatment after 12 hours. The liver showed a reduction in ACAP of tricaine treatment after 12 hours. Both anesthetic treatments showed an increase of ACAP at 24 hours compared to control group. The activity of the GST enzyme increased in the gills for treatments benzocaine and tricaine after 3 and 12 hours. Liver showed increased GST activity (benzocaine after 24 hours and tricaine after 3 and 24 hours). Lipid damage decreased in gills (both anesthetics) and brain (tricaine) after 24 hours. The results demonstrate that benzocaine and tricaine did not cause oxidative damage in juvenile tambaqui under the experimental conditions herein established.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzocaine/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Aminobenzoates/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Fishes , Gills/drug effects , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Liver/drug effects
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6346, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888962

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the anesthetic potential of thymol and carvacrol, and their influence on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the muscle and brain of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The AChE activity of S-(+)-linalool was also evaluated. We subsequently assessed the effects of thymol and S-(+)-linalool on the GABAergic system. Fish were exposed to thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to evaluate time for anesthesia and recovery. Both compounds induced sedation at 25 mg/L and anesthesia with 50-100 mg/L. However, fish exposed to carvacrol presented strong muscle contractions and mortality. AChE activity was increased in the brain of fish at 50 mg/L carvacrol and 100 mg/L thymol, and decreased in the muscle at 100 mg/L carvacrol. S-(+)-linalool did not alter AChE activity. Anesthesia with thymol was reversed by exposure to picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist), similar to the positive control propofol, but was not reversed by flumazenil (antagonist of benzodiazepine binding site), as observed for the positive control diazepam. Picrotoxin did not reverse the effect of S-(+)-linalool. Thymol exposure at 50 mg/L is more suitable than carvacrol for anesthesia in silver catfish, because this concentration did not cause any mortality or interference with AChE activity. Thymol interacted with GABAA receptors, but not with the GABAA/benzodiazepine site. In contrast, S-(+)-linalool did not act in GABAA receptors in silver catfish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Catfishes , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism , Thymol/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/physiology , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Anesthesia/veterinary , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Catfishes/metabolism , Diazepam/pharmacology , GABA Antagonists/pharmacology , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/enzymology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Picrotoxin/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 757-763, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785047

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effectiveness of menthol as anesthetic and sedative for fat snook (Centropomus parallelus) was tested at different salinities. In the first experiment, the fish were exposed to different concentrations of menthol (25, 37 and 50 mg L–1) in water at different salinities (0, 17 and 36 ppt). In the second experiment, the fish were transported for 10 hours in water with menthol at concentrations of 0, 3.7 and 7.4 mg L–1 under different salinities. Na+ and K+ ions from fish body and water were analyzed after transport. The optimal concentrations of menthol for a short handling period and surgical induction was 37 and 50 mg L–1, respectively, and these values were independent of salinity. After transport, neither mortality nor significant changes in ammonia or dissolved oxygen were observed between treatments at the different salinities. The nitrite levels were lower in freshwater than in brackish and saltwater, but did not change with mentol. The total body levels of Na+ increased with the salinity increase. Menthol is an effective anesthetic for handling of juvenile fat snook at different salinities. Menthol did not influence the measured water parameters and body ions, and it is not necessary for the transport of fat snook.


Resumo A eficácia de mentol como anestésico e sedativo para o robalo peva (Centropomus parallelus) foi testada em diferentes salinidades. No primeiro experimento, os peixes foram expostos a diferentes concentrações de mentol (25, 37 e 50 mg L–1) em diferentes salinidades na água (0, 17 e 36 ppt). No segundo experimento, os peixes foram transportados por 10 horas em água com mentol nas concentrações de 0, 3,7 e 7,4 mg L–1 sob diferentes salinidades. O Na+ e K+ do corpo do peixe e a água foram analisados após o transporte. As concentrações ideais de mentol para um período curto de manipulação e indução cirúrgica foi 37 e 50 mg/L, respectivamente, sendo esses valores independentes da salinidade da água. Após o transporte, não foi verificado mortalidades e nem alterações significativas nos níveis da amônia e oxigênio dissolvido entre os tratamentos para as diferentes salinidades. Os níveis de nitrito foram mais baixos em água doce do que em água salobra e água salgada, mas não se alterou com o mentol. Os níveis corporais de Na+ e K+ aumentaram com o aumento da salinidade. Mentol é um eficaz anestésico para manipulação de robalo peva juvenil em diferentes salinidades. Mentol não influenciou os parâmetros de medição de água e íons do corpo, e não é necessário para o transporte de robalo peva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Transportation/methods , Perciformes/surgery , Perciformes/metabolism , Salinity , Menthol/pharmacology , Brazil , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): e4872, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951644

ABSTRACT

(+)-Dehydrofukinone (DHF) is a major component of the essential oil of Nectandra grandiflora (Lauraceae), and exerts a depressant effect on the central nervous system of fish. However, the neuronal mechanism underlying DHF action remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the action of DHF on GABAA receptors using a silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) model. Additionally, we investigated the effect of DHF exposure on stress-induced cortisol modulation. Chemical identification was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and purity was evaluated using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. To an aquarium, we applied between 2.5 and 50 mg/L DHF diluted in ethanol, in combination with 42.7 mg/L diazepam. DHF within the range of 10-20 mg/L acted collaboratively in combination with diazepam, but the sedative action of DHF was reversed by 3 mg/L flumazenil. Additionally, fish exposed for 24 h to 2.5-20 mg/L DHF showed no side effects and there was sustained sedation during the first 12 h of drug exposure with 10-20 mg/L DHF. DHF pretreatment did not increase plasma cortisol levels in fish subjected to a stress protocol. Moreover, the stress-induced cortisol peak was absent following pretreatment with 20 mg/L DHF. DHF proved to be a relatively safe sedative or anesthetic, which interacts with GABAergic and cortisol pathways in fish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Catfishes/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Lauraceae/chemistry , Hydrocortisone/blood , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Flumazenil/pharmacology , GABA Modulators/pharmacology , Diazepam/pharmacology , Flame Ionization , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(10): e5294, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792520

ABSTRACT

Determination of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using in vivo imaging is the cardiac functional parameter most frequently employed in preclinical research. However, there is considerable conflict regarding the effects of anesthetic agents on LVEF. This study aimed at assessing the effects of various anesthetic agents on LVEF in hamsters using transthoracic echocardiography. Twelve female hamsters were submitted to echocardiography imaging separated by 1-week intervals under the following conditions: 1) conscious animals, 2) animals anesthetized with isoflurane (inhaled ISO, 3 L/min), 3) animals anesthetized with thiopental (TP, 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and 4) animals anesthetized with 100 mg/kg ketamine plus 10 mg/kg xylazine injected intramuscularly (K/X). LVEF obtained under the effect of anesthetics (ISO=62.2±3.1%, TP=66.2±2.7% and K/X=75.8±1.6%) was significantly lower than that obtained in conscious animals (87.5±1.7%, P<0.0001). The K/X combination elicited significantly higher LVEF values compared to ISO (P<0.001) and TP (P<0.05). K/X was associated with a lower dispersion of individual LVEF values compared to the other anesthetics. Under K/X, the left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVdD) was increased (0.60±0.01 cm) compared to conscious animals (0.41±0.02 cm), ISO (0.51±0.02 cm), and TP (0.55±0.01 cm), P<0.0001. The heart rate observed with K/X was significantly lower than in the remaining conditions. These results indicate that the K/X combination may be the best anesthetic option for the in vivo assessment of cardiac systolic function in hamsters, being associated with a lower LVEF reduction compared to the other agents and showing values closer to those of conscious animals with a lower dispersion of results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Ketamine/pharmacology , Mesocricetus , Reference Values , Systole/drug effects , Thiopental/pharmacology , Time Factors , Xylazine/pharmacology
14.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jul; 18(3): 385-391
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162341

ABSTRACT

Objective: Epidural anesthesia is a central neuraxial block technique with many applications. It is a versatile anesthetic technique, with applications in surgery, obstetrics and pain control. Its versatility means it can be used as an anesthetic, as an analgesic adjuvant to general anesthesia, and for postoperative analgesia. Off pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery triggers a systemic stress response as seen in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA), combined with general anesthesia (GA) attenuates the stress response to CABG. There is Reduction in levels of Plasma epinephrine, Cortisol and catecholamine surge, tumor necrosis factor-Alpha( TNF ά), interleukin-6 and leucocyte count. Design: A prospective randomised non blind study. Setting: A clinical study in a multi specialty hospital. Participants: Eighty six patients. Material and Methods/intervention: The study was approved by hospital research ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients were randomised to receive either GA plus epidural (study group) or GA only (control group). Inclusion Criteria (for participants) were -Age ≥ 70 years, Patient posted for OPCAB surgery, and patient with comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, renal dysfunction). Serum concentration of Interlukin: – 6, TNF ά, cortisol, Troponin – I, CK-MB, and HsCRP (highly sensitive C reactive protein), was compared for both the group and venous blood samples were collected and compared just after induction, at day 2, and day 5 postoperatively. Time to mobilization, extubation, total intensive care unit stay and hospital stay were noted and compared. Independent t test was used for statistical analysis. Primary Outcomes: Postoperative complications, total intensive care unit stay and hospital stay. Secondary Outcome: Stress response. Result: Study group showed decreased Interlukin – 6 at day 2, TNF ά at day 2 and 5,troponin I at day 5, and decreased total hospital stay ( p < 0.05). Conclusion: Thoracic epidural anesthesia decreases stress and inflammatory response to surgery and decreases hospital stay. However a large multicentre study may be needed to confirm it.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Biomarkers , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Risk
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(9): 771-779, 19/set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686577

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the sedative and anesthetic effects of the essential oils (EO) of Hyptis mutabilis (Rich.) Briq. and their isolated components on silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Quantitative chemical differences between the EOs obtained from leaves and inflorescences were verified, and a new chemotype rich in globulol was described. Although there were no significant differences in the time of induction for sedation and anesthesia between the EOs, only the leaf EO at 344 mg/L anesthetized all fish without side effects. Fractionation of the leaf EO was carried out by column chromatography. The isolated compounds [(+)-1-terpinen-4-ol and (-)-globulol] showed different activity from that detected for the leaf EO in proportional concentrations and similar sedation to a eugenol control at 10 mg/L. However, fish exposed to 1-terpinen-4-ol (3 and 10 mg/L) did not remain sedated for 30 min. Anesthesia was obtained with 83-190 mg/L globulol, but animals showed loss of mucus during induction and mortality at these concentrations. Synergism of the depressor effects was detected with the association of globulol and benzodiazepine (BDZ), compared with either drug alone. Fish exposed to BDZ or globulol+BDZ association showed faster recovery from anesthesia in water containing flumazenil, but the same did not occur with globulol. In conclusion, the use of globulol in aquaculture procedures should be considered only at sedative concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/L, and its mechanism of action seems not to involve the GABAA-BDZ system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Catfishes , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Hyptis/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Anesthetics/isolation & purification , GABA Agents/metabolism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hypnotics and Sedatives/isolation & purification , Inflorescence/chemistry , Mortality , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Sesquiterpenes/isolation & purification , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacokinetics , Terpenes/isolation & purification , Terpenes/pharmacology
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(3): 161-166, Mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-667924

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the effect of isoflurane (Iso) or propofol (Prop) anesthesia on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) during transient hyperglycemia. METHODS: Thirty six rats were randomly assigned into six groups of six animals each: PHS (Sham-Prop=1mg.kg-1.min-1 + Hyperglycemia=2.5g.kg-1 of glucose solution administered intraperitoneally); HIS (Sham-Iso + Hyperglycemia); PHI (Prop + Hyperglycemia + Ischemia); IHI (Iso + Hyperglycemia + Ischemia); PI (Prop + Ischemia), and II (Iso + Ischemia). After 30 minutes of anesthesia induction, right nephrectomy was performed (all animals) and the left renal artery was clamped during 25 minutes (ischemia). The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and blood collection (to dose creatinine) and left kidney removal were performed for histological analysis, and flow cytometry (FCM): percentage of initial apoptosis (APTi) and viable cells (VC). RESULTS: Serum creatinine (mg/dL) was statistically different in groups PHI (3.60±0.40) and IHI (3.23±1.08), p<0.05. Histological analysis was statistically different in groups PHI (4.0[4.0;5.0]) and IHI (4.5[4.0;5.0]), p<0.05. APTi percentage was statistically different in groups PHI (73.2±7.1), and IHI (48.1±14). VC percentage was statistically different in groups PHI (25.8±6.9) and IHI (38.5±9.2), p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol and isoflurane showed the same level of protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in the normoglycemic groups. Transient hyperglycemia is associated with an increase in IRI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Hyperglycemia/complications , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Kidney/blood supply , Propofol/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Acute Disease , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Cell Survival , Creatinine/blood , Flow Cytometry , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1244-1247, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659644

ABSTRACT

The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a test widely used to assess the integrity of the brain stem. Although it is considered to be an auditory-evoked potential that is influenced by the physical characteristics of the stimulus, such as rate, polarity and type of stimulus, it may also be influenced by the change in several parameters. The use of anesthetics may adversely influence the value of the ABR wave latency. One of the anesthetics used for e ABR assessment, especially in animal research, is the ketamine/xylazine combination. Our objective was to determine the influence of the ketamine/xylazine anesthetic on the ABR latency values in adult gerbils. The ABRs of 12 adult gerbils injected with the anesthetic were collected on three consecutive days, or a total of six collections, namely: pre-collection and A, B, C, D, and E collections. Before each collection the gerbil was injected with a dose of ketamine (100 mg/kg)/xylazine (4 mg/kg). For the capture of the ABR, 2000 click stimuli were used with rarefaction polarity and 13 stimuli per second, 80 dBnHL intensity and in-ear phones. A statistically significant difference was observed in the latency of the V wave in the ABR of gerbils in the C and D collections compared to the pre-, A and E collections, and no difference was observed between the pre-, A, B, and E collections. We conclude that the use of ketamine/xylazine increases the latency of the V wave of the ABR after several doses injected into adult gerbils; thus clinicians should consider the use of this substance in the assessment of ABR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem/drug effects , Ketamine/pharmacology , Xylazine/pharmacology , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Auditory Threshold/drug effects , Gerbillinae , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Reaction Time , Xylazine/administration & dosage
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(5): 436-443, May 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622768

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to identify the possible involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba essential oil (EO). We propose a new animal model using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to an anesthetic bath to study the mechanism of action of EO. To observe the induction and potentiation of the anesthetic effect of EO, juvenile silver catfish (9.30 ± 1.85 g; 10.15 ± 0.95 cm; N = 6) were exposed to various concentrations of L. alba EO in the presence or absence of diazepam [an agonist of high-affinity binding sites for benzodiazepinic (BDZ) sites coupled to the GABA A receptor complex]. In another experiment, fish (N = 6) were initially anesthetized with the EO and then transferred to an anesthetic-free aquarium containing flumazenil (a selective antagonist of binding sites for BDZ coupled to the GABA A receptor complex) or water to assess recovery time from the anesthesia. In this case, flumazenil was used to observe the involvement of the GABA-BDZ receptor in the EO mechanism of action. The results showed that diazepam potentiates the anesthetic effect of EO at all concentrations tested. Fish exposed to diazepam and EO showed faster recovery from anesthesia when flumazenil was added to the recovery bath (12.0 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.7, respectively) than those exposed to water (9.2 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, the results demonstrated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of L. alba EO on silver catfish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Catfishes/physiology , Lippia/chemistry , Models, Animal , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/drug effects , Diazepam/pharmacology , Flumazenil/pharmacology , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , GABA-A Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
20.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 81(1): 33-46, ene.-mar. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-631997

ABSTRACT

Recently, it has been shown that the heart can be protected against the ischemia-reperfusion injury if brief coronary occlusions are performed just at the beginning of the reperfusion. This procedure has been called postconditioning (PostC). It can also be elicited by pharmacologicalinterventions, which are named pharmacological PostC. In general, PostC reduces the reperfusion-induced injury, blunts oxidant-mediated damages and attenuates the local inflammatory response to reperfusion, decreases infarct size, diminishes apoptosis, neutrophil activation, and endothelial dysfunction. The mechanisms that participate in PostC are still not completely understood. In this regard, adenosine, glycine, bradykinin, ciclosporin A are involved in PostC triggering. Similar to ischemic preconditioning, PostC triggers several signaling pathways and molecular components, including nitric oxide (NO), protein kinase C, adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, the Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinases (RISK) pathway, which comprises phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2), and, finally, the Survivor Activating Factor Enhancement (SAFE) pathway. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of reperfusion-induced injury as well as the proposed protective pathways activated by PostC, which seem to converge in inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pores opening. On the other hand, experimental evidence indicates that volatile anesthetics and opioids are capable of exerting cardioprotective effects under certain conditions, constituting a very useful pharmacological PostC. Thus, the first minutes of reperfusion represent a window of opportunity for triggering the aforementioned mediators, which acting in concert lead to protection of the myocardium against reperfusion injury. Pharmacological, especially anesthetic, PostC may have a promising future in the clinical scenarios in the operating room.


Recientemente, se ha demostrado que el corazón puede protegerse contra el daño por isquemia-reperfusión si se aplican breves oclusiones coronarias justo al inicio de la reperfusión. Este procedimiento ha sido llamado posacondicionamiento y puede ser producido mediante intervenciones farmacológicas, las cuales constituyen el posacondicionamiento farmacológico. En general, el posacondicionamiento reduce el daño inducido por la reperfusión, disminuyendo el daño oxidativo y atenuando la respuesta inflamatoria local durante la reperfusión, así también disminuye el tamaño del infarto, disminuyendo el proceso de apoptosis, la activación neutrofílica y la disfunción endotelial. Los mecanismos que participan en el posacondicionamiento aún no son bien entendidos, aunque se sabe que moléculas como la adenosina, la glicina, la bradicinina y la ciclosporina A están involucradas en la activación del posacondicionamiento. De manera similar al preacondicionamiento isquémico, el posacondicionamiento activa rutas de señalización en las cuales participan diversos componentes moleculares como el óxido nítrico, la proteína cinasa C, los canales sensibles a ATP, la ruta de aumento del factor de activación de sobrevivencia, así como la ruta de las cinasas de salvamento de la lesión por reperfusión las cuales comprenden la cinasa de fosfatidilinositol-3-0H y la cinasa regulada por señales extracelulares. En esta revisión describimos los mecanismos de daño inducido por la reperfusión así como las vías protectoras propuestas activadas por el posacondicionamiento, las cuales parecen converger en una inhibición de la apertura de los poros de transición de la permeabilidad mitocondrial. Por otro lado, la evidencia experimental indica que los anestésicos volátiles y los opiáceos son capaces de ejercer efectos cardioprotectores bajo ciertas condiciones, constituyendo un posacondicionamiento farmacológico muy útil. De esta manera, los primeros minutos de la reperfusión representan una ventana de oportunidad para activar los mediadores antes mencionados, los cuales actúan en concierto para llevar a la protección del miocardio contra el daño por reperfusión. El posacondicionamiento farmacológico especialmente el anestésico puede tener un futuro promisorio en los escenarios clínicos de las salas de operaciones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Heart/drug effects , Ischemic Postconditioning , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control
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