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1.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 14-19, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the feasibility of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the screening of fetal chromosome aneuploidies in twin pregnancies.@*METHODS@#A total of 2 745 women with twin-pregnancies were subjected for NIPT screening. Chromosomal karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were carried out on amniotic fluid samples from those with a high risk for fetal chromosome aneuploidies, and the diagnosis and pregnancy outcome were followed up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and false positive rate of the NIPT were calculated.@*RESULTS@#Compared with other chromosomal abnormalities, NIPT had a higher efficacy for trisomy 21 and sex chromosomal aneuploidy (SCA) in twin pregnancies (with sensitivity being 100%, 100%, and specificity being 99.93%, 99.9%, respectively). It is difficult to evaluate the efficacy for trisomies 18 and 13 due to the limited data. For chromosome microdeletions and microduplications spanning 15 ~ 21 Mb, NIPT also had a certain detection rate. Compared with women with natural conception, NIPT had a higher detection rate for those with twin pregnancies by assisted reproduction (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#It is feasible to use NIPT for the detection of chromosome aneuploidies in women with twin pregnancies.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Pregnancy, Twin , Prenatal Diagnosis , Down Syndrome/genetics , Chromosome Aberrations , Aneuploidy , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Trisomy
2.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 8-13, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the cause of inconsistency between the results of trisomy 7 by expanded non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT-PLUS) and trisomy 18 by prenatal diagnosis.@*METHODS@#A pregnant woman who received genetic counseling at Jiaozuo Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital on July 5, 2020 was selected as the study subject. NIPT-PLUS, systematic ultrasound and interventional prenatal testing were carried out. The middle segment and root of umbilical cord, center and edge of the maternal and fatal surface of the placenta were sampled for the validation by copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq).@*RESULTS@#The result of NIPT-PLUS indicated that the fetus has trisomy 7. Systematic ultrasound has shown multiple malformations including atrioventricular septal defect, horseshoe kidney, and rocker-bottom feet. However, QF-PCR, chromosomal karyotyping analysis, and CNV-seq of amniotic fluid samples all showed that the fetus was trisomy 18. Validation using multiple placental samples confirmed that the middle segment of the umbilical cord contains trisomy 18, the center of the placenta contained trisomy 7, and other placental sites were mosaicism for trisomy 7 and trisomy 18. Notably, the ratio of trisomy 18 became lower further away from the umbilical cord.@*CONCLUSION@#The false positive results of trisomy 7 and false negative trisomy 18 by NIPT-PLUS was probably due to the existence of placental mosaicism. Strict prenatal diagnosis is required needed aneuploidy is detected by NIPT-PLUS to exclude the influence of placental mosaicisms.


Subject(s)
Child , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Trisomy/genetics , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Placenta , DNA Copy Number Variations , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Aneuploidy
3.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1-7, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the results of prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy for women with a high risk for fetal aneuploidies.@*METHODS@#A total of 747 cases of prenatal diagnosis by amniocentesis due to high risks by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) were selected from January 2015 to March 2022 in the Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School. The amniotic fluid samples were subjected to chromosomal karyotyping and/or chromosomal microarray analysis. All cases were followed up by searching the birth information or telephone calls, and the results were recorded. 2 test or F test were used for comparing the difference between the groups.@*RESULTS@#Among the 747 pregnant women with a high risk by NIPT, 387 were true positives, and the overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 51.81%. The PPVs for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18), trisomy 13 (T13) and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA) were 80.24% (199/248), 60% (48/80), 14% (7/50) and 38.97% (106/272), respectively. The PPV for T21 was significantly higher than T18 and T13 (χ2 = 85.216, P < 0.0001). The PPV for other chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variations (CNVs) were 11.11% (5/45) and 40.74% (22/52), respectively. The PPV for increased X chromosomes was significantly higher than X chromosome decreases (64.29% vs. 22.22%, χ2 = 5.530, P < 0.05). The overall PPV for elder women (≥ 35 years old) was significantly higher than younger women (69.35% vs. 42.39%, χ2 = 49.440, P < 0.0001). For T21 and T18, the PPV of Z ≥ 10 group was significantly higher than that for 3 ≤ Z < 5 group or 5 ≤ Z < 10 group (P < 0.05). Among 52 cases with a high risk for CNVs, the PPV for the ≤ 5 Mb group was significantly higher than the 5 Mb < CNVs < 10 Mb or > 10 Mb groups (60% vs. 30%60% vs. 23.53%, P < 0.05). Among the 387 true positive cases, 322 had opted for induced labor, 53 had delivered with no abnormal growth and development, and 12 were lost during the follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#The PPVs for common chromosomal aneuploidies are related to the age and Z value of the pregnant women, which were higher in the elder group and higher Z value group. In addition, the PPV is associated with high risk types. The PPV for T21 was higher than T18 and T13, and that for 45,X was lower than 47,XXX, 47,XYY or 47,XXY syndrome. NIPT therefore has relatively high PPVs for the identification of chromosomal CNVs.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Aged , Adult , DNA Copy Number Variations , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Down Syndrome/genetics , Aneuploidy , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/diagnosis , DNA , Trisomy/genetics
4.
Femina ; 51(2): 105-113, 20230228. Ilus, Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428706

ABSTRACT

No início do século 20, as altas taxas de mortalidade materna e infantil estimularam o desenvolvimento de um modelo de atendimento pré-natal que mantivesse características parecidas até os dias atuais. Nesse modelo, haveria maior concentração de visitas durante o final do terceiro trimestre de gestação, devido às maiores taxas de complicações nas fases finais da gestação e à dificuldade de prever a ocorrência de resultados adversos durante o primeiro trimestre. Atualmente, a avaliação clínica durante o primeiro trimestre, com auxílio da ultrassonografia e marcadores bioquímicos, pode prever uma série de complicações que acometem a gestação, incluindo cromossomopatias, pré-eclâmpsia, restrição de crescimento fetal, anomalias fetais e trabalho de parto pré-termo.


At the beginning of the 20th century, the high rates of maternal and infant mortality stimulated the development of a model of prenatal care that maintained similar characteristics until the present day. In this model, there would be a greater concentration of visits during the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, due to the higher rates of complications in the final stages of pregnancy and the difficulty in predicting the occurrence of adverse outcomes during the first trimester. Currently, clinical evaluation during the first trimester, with the aid of ultrasound and biochemical markers, can predict a series of complications that affect pregnancy, including chromosomal disorders, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, fetal anomalies and preterm labor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Aneuploidy , Trisomy/diagnosis , Biomarkers/chemistry , Infant Mortality , Maternal Mortality , Risk Assessment
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 618-623, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981800

ABSTRACT

Chromosomal mosaicism (CM) is a common phenomenon in preimplantation genetic testing (PGT). In embryos with CM, genetic contents of trophoblastic ectodermal (TE) cells may be different from that of the inner cell mass (ICM) which will develop into the fetus. Embryos with low mosaic proportion could give rise to healthy live births after transplantation, but are accompanied with high pregnancy risks such as high abortion rate. In order to provide a more comprehensive understanding for CM embryos, this article has systematically summarized the recent progress of research on the definition, mechanism, classification, PGT techniques, self-correction mechanism, transplantation outcome and treatment principles for CM embryos.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Preimplantation Diagnosis/methods , Mosaicism , Aneuploidy , Genetic Testing/methods , Blastocyst
6.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 532-537, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) for fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT) thickness.@*METHODS@#Sixty two pregnant women who had visited Urumqi Maternal and Child Care Health Hospital between June 2018 and June 2020 for NT ≥ 3.0 mm at 11 ~ 13+6 gestational weeks were selected as study subjects. Relevant clinical data were collected. The patients were divided into 3.0 ~ <3.5 mm (n = 33) and ≥3.5 mm groups (n = 29). Chromosome karyotyping analysis and chromosomal microarray analysis were carried out. And trio-WES analysis was performed on 15 samples with NT thickening but negative CMA results. The distribution and incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the two groups were compared by using chi-square test.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the pregnant women was 29 years old (22 ~ 41 years old), the median thickness of NT was 3.4 mm (3.0 ~ 9.1 mm), and the median gestational age at the detection was 13+4 weeks (11+5 ~ 13+6 weeks). Chromosome karyotyping analysis has detected 12 cases of aneuploidies and 1 case of derivative chromosome. The detection rate was 20.97% (13/62). CMA has detected 12 cases of aneuploidies, 1 case of pathogenic CNV and 5 cases of variant of uncertain significance (VUS), with a detection rate of 29.03% (18/62). The aneuploidy rate for the NT ≥ 3.5 mm group was higher than that for the 3.0 ≤ NT < 3.5 mm group [3.03% (1/33) vs. 41.38% (12/29), χ² = 13.698, P < 0.001]. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the detection rate of fetal pathogenic CNV and VUS (χ² = 0.028, P > 0.05). Trio-WES analysis of 15 samples with negative CMA result and no structural abnormality has identified 6 heterozygous variants, including SOS1: c.3542C>T (p.A1181V) and c.3817C>G (p.L1273V), COL2A1: c.436C>T (p.P146S) and c.3700G>A (p.D1234N), LZTR1: c.1496T>C (p.V499A), and BRAF: c.64G>A (p.D22N), respectively. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), all of the variants were rated as VUS.@*CONCLUSION@#NT thickening can indicate chromosome abnormality, and CMA and trio-WES may be used for the prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Adult , Infant , Nuchal Translucency Measurement/methods , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Chromosome Aberrations , Aneuploidy , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , DNA Copy Number Variations , Transcription Factors
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 513-518, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981780

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the result of prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy for fetuses with rare autosomal trisomies (RATs) suggested by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT).@*METHODS@#A total of 69 608 pregnant women who underwent NIPT at Genetics and Prenatal Diagnosis Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2016 to December 2020 were selected as study subjects. The result of prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy for those with a high risk for RATs were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 69 608 pregnant women, the positive rate of NIPT for high-risk RATs was 0.23% (161/69 608), with trisomy 7 (17.4%, 28/161) and trisomy 8 (12.4%, 20/161) being the most common, and trisomy 17 (0.6%, 1/161) being the rarest. For 98 women who had accepted invasive prenatal diagnosis, 12 fetal chromosomal abnormalities were confirmed, and in 5 cases the results were consistent with those of NIPT, which yielded a positive predictive value of 5.26%. Among the 161 women with a high risk for RATs, 153 (95%) were successfully followed up. 139 fetuses were ultimately born, with only one being clinically abnormal.@*CONCLUSION@#Most women with a high risk for RATs by NIPT have good pregnancy outcomes. Invasive prenatal diagnosis or serial ultrasonography to monitor fetal growth, instead of direct termination of pregnancy, is recommended.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Trisomy/genetics , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Fetus , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Aneuploidy
8.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 446-451, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic etiology and related factors in 1 065 women with spontaneous abortions.@*METHODS@#All patients have presented at the Center of Prenatal Diagnosis of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from January 2018 to December 2021. Chorionic villi and fetal skin samples were collected, and the genomic DNA was assayed by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). For 10 couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions but normal CMA results for abortive tissues, non-in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) pregnancies and no previous history of live births and no structural abnormalities of the uterus, peripheral venous blood samples were collected. Genomic DNA was subjected to trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES). Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Multifactorial unconditional logistic regression analysis was carried out to analyze the factors that may affect chromosomal abnormality in spontaneous abortions, such as the age of the couple, number of previous spontaneous abortions, IVF-ET pregnancy and history of live birth. The incidence of chromosomal aneuploidies in spontaneous abortions during the first trimester was compared in young or advanced-aged patients by chi-square test for liner trend.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1 065 spontaneous abortion patients, 570 cases (53.5%) of chromosomal abnormalities were detected in spontaneous abortion tissues, which included 489 cases (45.9%) of chromosomal aneuploidies and 36 cases (3.4%) of pathogenic/likely pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs). Trio-WES results have revealed one homozygote variant and one compound heterozygote variants in two pedigrees, both of which were inherited from the parents. One likely pathogenic variant was detected in the patient from two pedigrees. Multifactorial unconditional Logistic regression analysis suggested that age of patient was an independent risk factor of chromosome abnormalities (OR = 1.122, 95%CI: 1.069-1.177, P < 0.001), the number of previous abortions and IVF-ET pregnancy were independent protective factors for chromosomal abnormalities (OR = 0.791, 0.648; 95%CI: 0.682-0.916, 0.500-0.840; P = 0.002, 0.001), whilst the age of husband and history of live birth were not (P > 0.05). The incidence of aneuploidies in the abortive tissues has decreased with the number of previous spontaneous abortions in young patients (χ² = 18.051, P < 0.001), but was not significantly correlated with the number of previous spontaneous abortions in advanced-aged patients with spontaneous abortions (P > 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Chromosomal aneuploidy is the main genetic factor for spontaneous abortion, though CNVs and genetic variants may also underlie its genetic etiology. The age of patients, number of previous abortions and IVF-ET pregnancy are closely associated with chromosome abnormalities in abortive tissues.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Aged , Abortion, Spontaneous/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Aneuploidy , Abortion, Habitual/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 766-773, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012285

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the report content, the methods and results of prenatal diagnosis of high risk of sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Methods: A total of 227 single pregnancy pregnant women who received genetic counseling and invasive prenatal diagnosis at Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to the Medical School of Nanjing University from January 2015 to April 2022 due to the high risk of SCA suggested by NIPT were collected. The methods and results of prenatal diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed, and the results of chromosome karyotype analysis and chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) were compared. The relationship between NIPT screening and invasive prenatal diagnosis was analyzed. Results: (1) Prenatal diagnosis methods for 277 SCA high risk pregnant women included 73 cases of karyotyping, 41 cases of CMA and 163 cases of karyotyping combined with CMA, of which one case conducted amniocentesis secondly for further fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing. Results of invasive prenatal diagnosis were normal in 166 cases (59.9%, 166/277), and the abnormal results including one case of 45,X (0.4%, 1/277), 18 cases of 47,XXX (6.5%, 18/277), 36 cases of 47,XXY (13.0%, 36/277), 20 cases of 47,XYY (7.2%, 20/277), 1 case of 48,XXXX (0.4%, 1/277), 20 cases of mosaic SCA (7.2%, 20/277), 5 cases of sex chromosome structural abnormality or large segment abnormality (1.8%, 5/277), and 10 cases of other abnormalities [3.6%, 10/277; including 9 cases of copy number variation (CNV) and 1 case of balanced translocation]. Positive predictive value (PPV) for SCA screening by NIPT was 34.7% (96/277). (2) Among the 163 cases tested by karyotyping combined with CMA, 11 cases (6.7%, 11/163) showed inconsistent results by both methods, including 5 cases of mosaic SCA, 1 case of additional balanced translocation detected by karyotyping and 5 cases of additional CNV detected by CMA. (3) NIPT screening reports included 149 cases of "sex chromosome aneuploidy"(53.8%, 149/277), 54 cases of "number of sex chromosome increased" (19.5%, 54/277), and 74 cases of "number of sex chromosome or X chromosome decreased" (26.7%, 74/277). The PPV of "number of sex chromosome increased" and "number of sex chromosome or X chromosome decreased" were 72.2% (39/54) and 18.9% (14/74), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=34.56, P<0.01). Conclusions: NIPT could be served as an important prenatal screening technique of SCA, especially for trisomy and mosaicism, but the PPV is comparatively low. More information of NIPT such as the specific SCA or maternal SCA might help improving the confidence of genetic counseling and thus guide clinic management. Multi technology platforms including karyotyping, CMA and FISH could be considered in the diagnosis of high risk of SCA by NIPT.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , DNA Copy Number Variations , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Aneuploidy , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Sex Chromosomes/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 148-154, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of single sperm sequencing in preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disease (PGT-M).@*METHODS@#A Chinese couple with two children whom had died of Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and attended the Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in June 2020 was selected as the subject. Eleven single sperm samples were isolated by mechanical immobilization and subjected to whole genome amplification. Real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to detect the SMN1 variants in the single sperm samples. Genomic DNA of the wife, her parents and the husband, as well as one single sperm sample harboring the SMN1 variant and two single sperm samples without the variant were used for the linkage analysis. Targeted capture and high-throughput sequencing were carried out to test 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms distributed within 2 Mb up- and downstream the variant site. The haplotypes linked with the SMN1 variants were determined by linkage analysis. Blastocyst embryos were harvested after fertilizing by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Cells from the trophoblasts of each embryo were biopsied and subjected to whole genome amplification and targeted capture and high-throughput sequencing to determine their carrier status. Chromosomal aneuploidy of wild-type embryos was excluded. An euploid embryo of high quality was transferred. Amniotic fluid sample was taken at 18 weeks of gestation to confirm the status of the fetus.@*RESULTS@#Genetic testing showed that the couple both had deletion of exons 7 ~ 8 of the SMN1 gene. The wife has inherited the deletion from her father, while the husband was de novo. The haplotypes of the husband were successfully constructed by single sperm sequencing. Preimplantation genetic testing has indicated that 5 embryos had harbored the heterozygous variant, 4 embryos were of the wild type, among which 3 were euploid. Prenatal diagnosis during the second trimester of pregnancy has confirmed that the fetus did not carry the deletion.@*CONCLUSION@#By single sperm sequencing and PGT-M, the birth of further affected child has been successfully avoided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Child , Male , Preimplantation Diagnosis , East Asian People , Semen , Genetic Testing , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Aneuploidy , Blastocyst/pathology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Spermatozoa
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 143-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970894

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic/single gene disorders (PGT-M) for a Chinese family affected with Molybdenum co-factor deficiency due to pathogenic variant of MOCS2 gene.@*METHODS@#A family with molybdenum co-factor deficiency who attended to the Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in April 2020 was selected as the research subject. Trophoblast cells were biopsied from blastocysts fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Embryos carrying the MOCS2 gene variant and chromosome copy number variation (CNV) of more than 4 Mb were detected by single-cell whole genome amplification, high-throughput sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism typing. Embryos without or carrying the heterozygous variant and without abnormal chromosome CNV were transplanted. During mid-pregnancy, amniotic fluid sample was collected for prenatal diagnosis to verify the results of PGT-M.@*RESULTS@#Eleven oocytes were obtained, among which three blastocysts were formed through culturing. Results of genetic testing suggested that one embryo was heterozygous for the maternally derived MOCS2 gene variant and without chromosomal CNV. Following embryo transfer, intrauterine singleton pregnancy was attained. Prenatal diagnosis by amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation revealed that the MOCS2 gene variant and chromosomal analysis results were both consistent with that of PGT-M, and a healthy male infant was born at 37+5 weeks of gestation.@*CONCLUSION@#PGT-M has helped the couple carrying the MOCS2 gene variant to have a healthy offspring, and may become an important method for couples carrying other pathogenic genetic variants.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aneuploidy , China , DNA Copy Number Variations , Genetic Testing/methods , Preimplantation Diagnosis/methods , Metal Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics
12.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 135-142, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970893

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the clinical efficacy and health economic value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the prenatal screening of common fetal chromosomal aneuploidies.@*METHODS@#10 612 pregnant women from October 2017 to December 2019 presented at the antenatal screening clinic of the General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University were selected as the study subjects. Results of NIPT and invasive prenatal diagnosis and follow-up outcome for the 10 612 pregnant women were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, NIPT data for two periods were analyzed for assessing the health economic value of NIPT as the second- or first-tier screening strategy for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13.@*RESULTS@#The NIPT was successful in 10 528 (99.72%) subjects, with the sensitivity for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13 being 100%, 92.86% and 100%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) being 89.74%, 61.90% and 44.44%, respectively. The PPV of NIPT for sex chromosome aneuploidies was 34.21%. Except for one false negative case of trisomy 18, the negative predictive value for trisomy 21, trisomy 13 and other chromosomal abnormalities were 100%. For pregnant women with high risk by serological screening, advanced maternal age or abnormal ultrasound soft markers, NIPT has yielded a significantly increased high risk ratio. There was no statistical difference in the PPV of NIPT among pregnant women from each subgroup. NIPT would have higher health economic value as a second-tier screening until 2019, while compared to 2015 ~ 2017, its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio as a first-tier screening had declined clearly.@*CONCLUSION@#The screening efficacy of NIPT for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 for a mixed population is significantly better than conventional serological screening, but it is relatively low for sex chromosomal abnormalities. NIPT can also be recommended for populations with relatively high risks along with detailed pre- and post-test genetic counselling. From the perspective of health economics, except for open neural tube defects, it is possible for NIPT to replace the conventional serological screening in the future as its cost continues to decrease.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Trisomy/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Down Syndrome/genetics , Aneuploidy , Chromosome Aberrations , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Fetus
13.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(9): 511-516, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521772

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of the present study is to compare the cavum septum pellucidi (CSP) z-score in euploid and aneuploid fetuses and to investigate the performance of the CSP width/length and CSP width/biparietal diameter (BPD) ratios as a diagnostic marker in aneuploidy. Methods A total of 54 patients, 20 aneuploid and 35 euploid fetuses, between 18 and 37 weeks of gestation, were included in this retrospective study. The CSP width z-score was compared between the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for the CSP width/length and CSP width/BPD ratios to predict aneuploidy. Results The median CSP width was 4.8 mm (range, 1.8 to 8.5 mm) in the euploid group, and 5.4 mm (range 3.1 to 8.4 mm) in the aneuploid group. Cavum septum pellucidi width z-score, CSP width/length ratio, and CSP width/BPD ratio were significantly higher in fetuses with aneuploidy than in fetuses with normal karyotype (p= 0.001; p= 0.013; p= 0.028). In the ROC analysis, the CSP width/length ratio had the optimal cutoff value of 0.59, with 72.0% sensitivity and 58.0% specificity, and for the CSP width/BPD ratio, the cutoff value was 0.081 with 83.0% sensitivity and 61.0% specificity for detection of aneuploidy. Conclusion CSP width z-score was found to be increased in aneuploid fetuses. The CSP width /BPD ratio can be used as a new marker for predicting aneuploidy.


Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo é comparar o escore z do cavum septum pellucidi (CSP) em fetos euploides e aneuploides e investigar o desempenho das relações largura/comprimento do CSP e largura do CSP/diâmetro biparietal (BPD) como marcador diagnóstico de aneuploidia. como marcador de diagnóstico de aneuploidia. Métodos: Um total de 54 pacientes, 20 fetos aneuploides e 35 fetos euploides, entre 18 e 37 semanas de gestação, foram incluídos neste estudo retrospectivo. O escore z da largura da CSP foi comparado entre os dois grupos. As curvas ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) foram calculadas para as relações largura/comprimento da PEC e largura da PEC/BPD para prever a aneuploidia. Resultados: A largura mediana da CSP foi de 4,8 mm (variação de 1,8 a 8,5 mm) no grupo euploide e de 5,4 mm (variação de 3,1 a 8,4 mm) no grupo aneuploide. O escore z da largura do cavum septum pellucidi, a relação largura/comprimento do CSP e a relação largura do CSP/BPD foram significativamente maiores em fetos com aneuploidia do que em fetos com cariótipo normal (p < 0,001; p < 0,013; p < 0,028). Na análise ROC, a relação largura/comprimento da CSP teve o valor de corte ideal de 0,59, com 72,0% de sensibilidade e 58,0% de especificidade, e para a relação largura da CSP/BPD, o valor de corte foi de 0,081, com 83,0% de sensibilidade e 61,0% de especificidade para a detecção de aneuploidia. Conclusão: Verificou-se que o escore z da largura da CSP estava aumentado em fetos aneuploides. A relação A relação largura da CSP /BPD pode ser usada como um novo marcador para prever a aneuploidia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Karyotype , Aneuploidy
14.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1197-1203, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009275

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the identification of numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities and copy number variations (CNVs) in fetuses.@*METHODS@#46 197 pregnant women undergoing NIPT at the Prenatal Diagnosis Center of Chenzhou First People's Hospital from January 2018 to December 2021 were selected as the study subjects. Positive cases were subjected to chromosomal karyotyping and copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) following amniocentesis.@*RESULTS@#Nearly 50% of common chromosomal aneuploidies were found in the elder pregnant women. Among these, sex chromosome aneuploidies were mainly found in pregnant women with advanced age as well as borderline risks by serological screening. Rare autosomal aneuploidies and CNVs were mainly found in those with borderline or high risks by serological screening. The positive predictive values (PPV) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities indicated by NIPT were as follows: T21 (92.37%, 109/118), T18 (53.85%, 14/26), sex chromosome aneuploidies (45.04%, 59/131), T13 (34.62%, 9/26), CNVs (29.17%, 14/48), and rare autosomal aneuploidies (2.60%, 2/77).@*CONCLUSION@#NIPT has a high detection rate for T21, T18, T13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies. It can also detect rare autosomal aneuploidies and CNVs, including some rare structural abnormalities, though verification is required by analyzing amniotic fluid samples.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , DNA Copy Number Variations , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Aneuploidy , Fetus
15.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1062-1067, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the prevalence of chromosomal aneuploidies and pregnancy outcomes of D5 and D6 blastocysts subjected to preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A).@*METHODS@#Clinical and laboratory data of 268 couples who underwent PGT-A at the Reproductive Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from September 2018 to September 2020 were collected. The prevalence of chromosomal aneuploidies and pregnancy outcomes of D5/D6 biopsied blastocysts were compared.@*RESULTS@#Compared with D6 blastocysts, the euploidy rate of D5 blastocysts was significantly higher (49.1% vs. 41.1%, P = 0.001 1), whilst their aneuploidy rate was significantly lower (50.9% vs. 58.9%, P = 0.001 1). The rate of numerical abnormalities of D6 blastocysts was significantly higher than that of D5 blastocysts (27.9% vs. 20.2%, P = 0.000 5). For patients under 35 years old, the euploidy rate of D5 blastocysts was significantly higher than that of D6 blastocysts (53.8% vs. 44.3%, P = 0.001), whilst the numerical abnormality rate was significantly lower (16.3% vs. 23.9%, P = 0.001). For both D5 and D6 blastocysts, the euploidy rates for patients <= 35 were significantly higher than those for > 35. The elder group had the lowest rates for aneuploidies and live births. Compared with those receiving D6 blastocysts transplantation, the pregnancy rate, implantation rate and live birth rate for those receiving thawed D5 blastocysts transplantation were significantly higher (60.2% vs.37.0%, P = 0.000 3; 59.1% vs.37.0%, P = 0.000 6; 47.7% vs. 28.3%, P = 0.002).@*CONCLUSION@#For patients undergoing PGT-A, the chromosomal euploidy rate for D5 blastocysts is higher than that for D6 blastocysts, and the clinical outcome of D5 blastocysts with normal signal is better than that of D6 blastocysts. Elder patients have a higher rate of aneuploidies.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Aged , Adult , Pregnancy Outcome , Aneuploidy , Blastocyst , Genetic Testing , Laboratories
16.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 933-938, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009237

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18), trisomy 13 (T13), sex chromosome aneuploidies, chromosomal microdeletions and microduplications using cell-free fetal DNA from peripheral blood samples of pregnant women.@*METHODS@#A total of 15 237 pregnant women who had undergone NIPT testing at the Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital of Zaozhuang from February 2015 to December 2021 were enrolled in this study. For those with a high risk by NIPT, amniotic fluid samples were collected for G-banding chromosomal karyotyping analysis and chromosomal microarray analysis to verify the consistency of NIPT with results of prenatal diagnosis. All of the women were followed up by telephone for pregnancy outcomes.@*RESULTS@#Among the 15 237 pregnant women, 266 (1.75%) were detected with a high risk for fetal chromosomal abnormality were detected. Among these, 79 (29.7%) were at a high risk for T21, 26 (9.77%) were at a high risk for T18, 9 (3.38%) were at a high risk for T13, 74 (27.82%) were at a high risk for sex chromosome aneuploidies, 12 (4.51%) were at a high risk for other autosomal aneuploidies, and 66 (24.81%) were at a high risk for chromosomal microdeletions or microduplications. 217 women had accepted invasive prenatal diagnosis and respectively 50, 13, 1, 25, 1 and 18 were confirmed with T21, T18, T13, sex chromosome aneuploidies, autosomal aneuploidies and microdeletions/microduplications, and the positive predictive values were 75.76%, 68.42%, 11.11%, 40.32%, 10% and 35.29%, respectively. For 13 042 women (85.59%), the outcome of pregnancy were successfully followed up. During the follow-up, one false negative case of T21 was discovered. No false positive cases for T13 and T18 were found.@*CONCLUSION@#NIPT has a sound performance for screening T13, T18 and T21, and is also valuable for screening other autosomal aneuploidies, sex chromosome aneuploidies and chromosomal microdeletions/microduplications.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Down Syndrome/genetics , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/diagnosis , Aneuploidy , DNA/genetics , Trisomy/genetics
17.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(6): 419-424, dic. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423744

ABSTRACT

The coexistence of double aneuploidy of Down and Turner syndromes is rare; most cases have been due to double mitotic errors. The objective of the study was to report a case with monosomy of the X chromosome and trisomy of chromosome 21, in mosaic variety, highlighting the phenotypic effect that the presence of different chromosomal abnormalities can produce and compare with those reported in the literature. A 10-year-old Ecuadorian female, born to a multipregnant mother with 46 years at conception, is seen in consultation with a predominant clinical phenotype of Down syndrome, associated with menarche, presence of pubic and axillary villu, where a karyotype is verified 45 X[7]/47XX+ 21 [3]/46, X, der (X)(: p11.1-> q11.1)[1]/46,XX [1]. The present case is a double Turner-Down aneuploidy, with predominantly X monosomy cell line, who shows important mental retardation and some signs of puberal development not usually in Turner syndrome. These features highlight the clinical importance of doing a karyotype in mental retardation cases and searching low mosaics of another aneuploidies in atypical cases. Its complex chromosomal formula and support with molecular cytogenetics allowed diagnostic confirmation and genetic counseling.


La coexistencia de doble aneuploidía de los síndromes de Down y Turner es rara; la mayoría de los casos se han debido a dobles errores mitóticos. Reportar un caso con trisomía del cromosoma 21 y monosomía del cromosoma en X, en variedad mosaico, que curiosamente presenta un despertar puberal precoz y comparar con los reportados en la literatura. Paciente ecuatoriana de sexo femenino, de 10 años de edad, nacida de madre multigesta con 46 años a la concepción, que es vista en consulta con fenotipo clínico predominante de Síndrome Down, asociado a menarquia y telarquia, donde se constata un cariotipo. El presente caso es el primero informado de mosaicismo de doble aneuploidía de Turner-Down asociado con un despertar puberal precoz. Su fórmula cromosómica compleja y el apoyo con la citogenética molecular permitió la confirmación diagnostica y la asesoría genética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Turner Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/complications , Turner Syndrome/diagnosis , Turner Syndrome/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Down Syndrome/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis , Aneuploidy , Mosaicism
18.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(2): 97-103, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388725

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analizar la implementación de la prueba rápida de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa y fluorescente (QF-PCR) para la detección de aneuploidías. MÉTODO: Se incluyeron todas las pacientes que se realizaron una QF-PCR entre septiembre de 2017 y mayo de 2021. En todos los casos se consignaron los datos clínicos, ecográficos y de laboratorio, y se efectuó un seguimiento de quienes se realizaron además cariograma y su resultado fue normal. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 213 procedimientos invasivos genéticos prenatales, siendo 72 para detección rápida de aneuploidía mediante QF-PCR. El promedio de edad de las madres con QF-PCR fue de 37 años y 48 pacientes (67%) tenían menos de 15 semanas de gestación. La QF-PCR demostró aneuploidía de los cromosomas 18, 13 y de triploidía en 21 de 49 casos informados como anormales. De los 22 casos sin sugerencia de alteración, 17 accedieron a proseguir el estudio con cariotipo, que resultó anormal en 6 casos. Hubo 4 casos de discordancia entre la QF-PCR y el cariotipo, que pudo afectar el manejo clínico de la gestación. En 25/72 casos (34,7%) la aneuploidía era letal. CONCLUSIONES: Considerando la necesidad de tener un diagnóstico rápido, pero también completo y que permita un consejo genético apropiado, debería integrarse la QF-PCR a un protocolo de diagnóstico que considere variables clínicas y ecográficas.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of QF-PCR test for the detection of aneuploidies. METHOD: All patients who underwent QF-PCR from September 2017 to May 2021, were included. Clinical, ultrasound and laboratory data were recorded in all cases, as well as follow-up of the cases, including those performing karyotype and the result was normal. RESULTS: 213 prenatal genetic invasive procedures were performed in the study period, 72 for rapid detection of aneuploidy by QF-PCR. 48 patients (67%) were less than 15 weeks at the time of ultrasound diagnosis. The QF-PCR test demonstrated aneuploidy of chromosomes 18, 13, and triploidy in 21/49 cases reported as abnormal. Of the cases without suggestion of alteration (22), 17 agreed to continue the study with a karyotype, which was abnormal in 6 cases. There were 4 cases of discrepancy between QF-PCR and karyotype, which could affect the clinical management of pregnancy. 25/72 cases (34. 7%) corresponded to lethal aneuploidy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results justify the use of QF-PCR. Considering the need to have a rapid diagnosis, but also complete and that allows appropriate genetic counseling, it is that QF-PCR should be integrated into a protocol that considers clinical and ultrasound variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Aneuploidy , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetic Analysis , Genetic Counseling
19.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 360-364, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935293

ABSTRACT

To study the parental origin and cell stage of nondisjunction in sex chromosome aneuploidies. Retrospectiving and analyzing the results of 385 cases of SCA confirmed by QF-PCR and karyotype analysis in the prenatal diagnosis center of Guangzhou Women and Children Medical Center from January 2015 to December 2020. The types of samples and prenatal diagnosis indications were analyzed. The parental origin and cell stage of nondisjunction in sex chromosome aneuploidies analyzed by comparing the short tandem repeat (STR) peak patterns of samples from fetuses and maternal peripheral blood. The results show that (1) There were 324 cases of nonmosaic SCA, 113 cases (113/324, 34.9%) were 45, XO, 118 cases (118/324, 36.4%) were 47, XXY, 48 cases (48/324, 14.8%) were 47, XXX and 45 cases (45/324, 13.9%) were 47, XYY. 68 (45/324, 60.2%) cases of 45, X were detected in villus samples. The other SCA cases were mainly detected in amniotic fluid samples. There were 61 mosaic SCA samples, 58(58/61, 95.1%) of mosaic SCA samples were mosaic 45, X. (2) The top two indications of 45, X cases are increased nuchal translucency(53/113, 46.9%) and fetal cystic hygroma (41/113, 36.3%), while the most common indication of other types of SCA was high risk of NIPT(170/272, 62.5%). (3) Among 45, X cases, there were 88 cases (88/113, 77.9%) inherit their single X chromosome from their mother and 25 cases (25/119, 22.1%) from their father. In 47, XXY samples, 47 cases (47/118, 39.8%) of chromosome nondisjunction occurred in meiosis stage Ⅰ of oocytes, 51 cases (51/118, 43.2%) occurred in meiosis stage Ⅰ of spermatocytes, and 20 cases (20/118, 16.9%) occurred in meiosis stage Ⅱ of oocytes. Among 47, XXX samples, 29 cases (29/48, 60.4%) of X chromosome nondisjunction occurred in meiosis stage Ⅰof oocytes, 15 cases (15/48, 31.3%) occurred in meiosis stage Ⅱ of oocytes, and 4 cases (4/48, 8.3%) occurred in meiosis stage Ⅱ of spermatocytes. In summary , the cases of 45, X were mainly diagnosed by villous samples for abnormal ultrasound findings. The other cases of SCA were mainly diagnosed by amniocentesis samples for abnormal NIPT results. Different types of SCA, the origin and occurrence period of sex chromosome nondisjunction were different.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Aneuploidy , Karyotyping , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Sex Chromosomes/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 468-473, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the genomic variation characteristics of fetal with abnormal serological screening, and to further explore the value of copy number variation (CNV) detection technology in prenatal diagnosis of fetal with abnormal serological screening.@*METHODS@#7617 singleton pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis solely due to abnormal Down's serological screening were selected. According to the results of serological screening, the patients were divided into high risk group, borderline risk group and single abnormal multiple of median (MOM) group. CMA and CNV-Seq were used to detect the copy number variation of amniotic fluid cell genomic DNA and combined with amniotic fluid cell karyotype analysis for prenatal diagnosis. Outpatient revisit combined with telephone inquiry was used for postnatal follow-up.@*RESULTS@#Among 7617 amniotic fluid samples, aneuploidy was detected in 138cases (1.81%) by CMA and CNV-Seq, 9 cases of aneuploid chimerism were detected by amniotic fluid cell karyotype analysis, and 203 cases of fetus carrying pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNV (P/LP CNV) were detected, the variant of uncertain significance (VUS) was detected in 437 cases (5.7%), the overall abnormal detection rate was 10.33%. The detection rate of aneuploidy by CMA and CNV-Seq in three group were 123 cases (2.9%), 13 cases (1.3%) and 2 cases (0.4%), respectively,and showing no significant difference (χ 2=7.469, P=0.024). The detection rate of pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNV in three group were 163cases (2.6%); 24 cases (2.6%) and 16 cases (3.3%), respectively, and showing no significant difference (χ 2=0.764, P=0.682). The CMA reported 2.9% (108/3729)P/LP CNV, and CNV-seq reported 2.4% (95/3888)P/LP CNV, both tests showed similar detective capabilities (χ 2=1.504, P=0.22).The most popular P/LP CNV in this cohort were Xp22.31 microdeletion, 16p13.11 microduplication /microdeletion, 22q11.21 microduplication /microdeletion. In fetuses with P/LP CNV CNV, 59 fetuses were terminated pregnancy, and 32 of 112 fetuses born had abnormal clinical manifestations. Non-medically necessary termination of pregnancy occurred in 11 fetuses carrying VUS CNV, 322 fetuses carrying VUS CNV were born, 4 of them presented abnormal clinical manifestations.@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with the traditional chromosome karyotype, CMA and CNV-Seq can improve the detection rate of pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNV. CMA and CNV-seq can be used for first tier diagnosis of pregnant women in the general population with abnormal Down's serological screening.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amniotic Fluid , Aneuploidy , Chromosome Aberrations , DNA Copy Number Variations , Genomics , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Technology
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