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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0016, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365729

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Reticular pigmentary retinal dystrophy, also known as Sjögren's reticular dystrophy, is a rare condition characterized by macular lesions with a reticular pattern, which are best seen on fluorescein angiogram. Choroidal neovascularization secondary to this type of dystrophy is even less common. This report describes a case of reticular pigmentary retinal dystrophy with vision loss due to neovascular membrane, which responded well to treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor.


RESUMO A distrofia reticular pigmentar da retina, também conhecida como distrofia reticular de Sjögren, é uma doença rara, caracterizada por lesões maculares com um padrão reticular, que são mais bem visualizadas na angiografia com fluoresceína. A neovascularização de coroide secundária a este tipo de distrofia é ainda menos comum. Este relato descreve um caso de distrofia reticular pigmentar da retina, com perda de visão devido à membrana neovascular, que respondeu bem ao tratamento com fator de crescimento endotelial antivascular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Retinitis Pigmentosa/complications , Choroidal Neovascularization/etiology , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Retinal Dystrophies/complications , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnosis , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intravitreal Injections , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 225-229, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248976

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate visual function and changes in the central macular thickness of patients with unresponsive neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched from ranibizumab (Lucentis®) to aflibercept (Eylea®) treatment at 30 months. Methods: This retrospective study examined patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched to aflibercept after ≥6 previous intravitreal ranibizumab injections at 4- to 8-week intervals. All patients were switched to intravitreal aflibercept (2.0 mg) and analyzed after 3 consecutive injections followed by a prore nata dosing regimen and after 30 months of treatment. Best corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopic examination, intraocular pressure, fundus examination, and central macular thickness were recorded at the start of treatment, before the transition to intravitreal aflibercept treatment, and at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of intravitreal aflibercept treatment. Results: A total of 33 eyes met the inclusion criteria. The median age of the patients was 73.57 ± 7.98 years, and 21 (61.8%) patients were males and 12 (35.3%) were females. Before the transition, the patients received a mean of 16.8 ± 8.8 ranibizumab injections (range 6-38).After the transition to intravitreal aflibercept treatment, the mean number of aflibercept injections was 9.09 ± 3.94. No significant differences were observed in best corrected visual acuity after the aflibercept switch in any of the months. The central macular thickness was significantly decreased at 6, 12, 18, and 30 months (p=0.01, p=0.03, p=0.05, p=0.05, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched to intravitreal aflibercept treatment due to unresponsiveness to intravitreal ranibizumab exhibited a significant anatomic improvement in the retina, and although this state persisted, there was no significant functional gain.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar, depois de 30 meses, a função visual e as alterações na espessura macular central de pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade sem resposta terapêutica ao ranibizumabe (Lucentis®) que mudaram seu tratamento para o aflibercepte (Eylea®). Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com degeneração macular neovascular relacionada à idade que mudaram o tratamento para o aflibercepte após 6 ou mais injeções intravítreas de ranibizumabe a intervalos de 4-8 semanas. Todos os pacientes mudaram para o aflibercepte intravítreo (2,0 mg) e depois de 3 injeções consecutivas, seguidas de um regime de dosagem pro re nata, foram avaliados após 30 meses de tratamento. A melhor acuidade visual corrigida, o exame biomicroscópico, a pressão intraocular, a fundoscopia e a espessura macular central foram registrados no início do tratamento, antes da transição para o tratamento com aflibercepte intravítreo e aos 6, 12, 18, 24 e 30 meses de tratamento com o aflibercepte intravítreo. Resultados: Satisfizeram aos critérios de inclusão 33 olhos. A mediana da idade dos pacientes foi de 73,57 ± 7,98 anos. Dos pacientes, 21 (61,8%) eram homens e 12 (35,3%) eram mulheres. Antes da transição para o tratamento com o aflibercepte intravítreo, os pacientes receberam em média 16,8 ± 8,8 injeções de ranibizumabe (faixa 6-38).Depois da transição, o número médio de injeções de aflibercepte foi de 9,09 ± 3,94. Não houve diferenças significativas na melhor acuidade visual corrigida depois da mudança para o aflibercepte em qualquer das avaliações. Houve diminuição significativa da espessura macular central aos 6, 12, 18 e 30 meses (respectivamente, p=0,01, p=0,03, p=0,05, p=0,05 e p<0,001). Conclusão: Pacientes com degeneração macular neovascular relacionada à idade que mudaram seu tratamento para o aflibercepte intravítreo devido à falta de resposta ao ranibizumabe intravítreo, tiveram melhora anatômica significativa da retina; mas embora esse estado tenha persistido, não foi observado nenhum ganho funcional significativo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Retina/pathology , Visual Acuity , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Macular Degeneration/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): e0009, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280121

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este trabalho visou evidenciar a importância da detecção precoce da coroidite interna punctata e destacar sua fisiopatologia inflamatória e possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais dentro das white dot syndromes. O destaque foi dado principalmente à coroidite multifocal e à panuveíte, ao se demonstrar sua epidemiologia peculiar em mulheres jovens, caracterizar sua apresentação clínica típica na fundoscopia e explorar as vantagens e as desvantagens de realizar os exames complementares que fazem parte da análise multimodal útil para o diagnóstico (especialmente a angiografia fluoresceínica, a tomografia de coerência óptica e a indocianina verde). Descreve-se o caso de uma mulher de 28 anos diagnosticada com coroidite interna punctata com membrana neovascular coroidal em olho direito. O tratamento foi realizado com injeção intravítrea de aflibercepte e corticoterapia sistêmica 1mg/kg ao dia. Este relato é importante por permitir debater o manejo da coroidite interna punctata durante a gestação e a decisão de realizar o tratamento mediante uma diversidade de opções terapêuticas.


ABSTRACT This work aimed to demonstrate the importance of early detection of punctate inner choroidopathy, highlighting the pathophysiology of inflammation and the differential diagnoses among white dot syndromes. Special attention was given to multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis, by demonstrating the peculiar epidemiology in young women, characterizing the typical clinical presentation in ophthalmoscopy, and exploring the advantages and disadvantages of performing the complementary examinations, which are part of the multimodal analysis useful for diagnosis (particularly fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and indocyanine green). We report the case of a 28-year-old female, diagnosed as punctate inner choroidopathy with choroidal [N.T. no título aparece subretinal = subrretiniana] neovascular membrane in the right eye. She was treated with intravitreal injection of aflibercept and systemic corticosteroid 1 mg/kg/day. This case report is important for addressing the management of punctate inner choroidopathy during pregnancy, and the decision to carry out treatment considering diverse therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Choroiditis/complications , Choroiditis/diagnosis , Choroiditis/physiopathology , Choroidal Neovascularization/etiology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200180, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1287094

ABSTRACT

Snake venoms are composed of pharmacologically active proteins that are evolutionarily diverse, stable and specific to targets. Hence, venoms have been explored as a source of bioactive molecules in treating numerous diseases. Recent evidences suggest that snake venom proteins may affect the formation of new blood vessels. Excessive angiogenesis has been implicated in several pathologies including tumours, diabetic retinopathy, arthritis, inter alia. In the present study, we have examined the effects of P-I metalloproteinases isolated from Bothrops moojeni (BmMP-1) and Bothrops atrox (BaMP-1) and L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO) isolated from B. moojeni (BmLAAO) and B. atrox (BaLAAO) on biochemical and functional aspects of angiogenesis. Methods: P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO were purified from venom by molecular size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography and subsequently confirmed using mass spectrometry. The P-I metalloproteinases were characterized by azocaseinolytic, fibrinogenolytic and gelatinase activity and LAAO activity was assessed by enzyme activity on L-amino acids. Influence of these proteins on apoptosis and cell cycle in endothelial cells was analysed by flow cytometry. The angiogenic activity was determined by in vitro 3D spheroid assay, Matrigel tube forming assay, and in vivo agarose plug transformation in mice. Results: P-I metalloproteinases exhibited azocaseinolytic activity, cleaved α and partially β chain of fibrinogen, and displayed catalytic activity on gelatin. LAAO showed differential activity on L-amino acids. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that both P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO arrested the cells in G0/G1 phase and further induced both necrosis and apoptosis in endothelial cells. In vitro, P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO exhibited significant anti-angiogenic properties in 3D spheroid and Matrigel models by reducing sprout outgrowth and tube formation. Using agarose plug transplants in mice harbouring P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO we demonstrated a marked disruption of vasculature at the periphery. Conclusion: Our research suggests that P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO exhibit anti-angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxidoreductases , Bothrops/physiology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Crotalid Venoms , Metalloproteases
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1908-1919, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887633

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has dramatically altered the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Currently, the emergence of combination strategies in immunotherapy has brightened the prospects of improved clinical outcomes and manageable safety profiles in the first/second-line settings. However, sub-optimal response rates are still observed in several clinical trials. Hence, alternative combination models and candidate selection strategies need to be explored. Herein, we have critically reviewed and commented on the published data from several clinical trials, including combined immunotherapy and chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents, epidermal growth factor receptor/anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors, radiotherapy, and other immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921540

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy(DR)is the major microvascular disease in diabetic patients,and it is also one of the main blinding eye diseases in the current population.The typical pathological change of DR in the eyes is vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)-mediated neovascularization induced by retinal ischemic stimulation.Therefore,anti-VEGF drugs have gradually become one of the mainstream methods to treat DR and DR-induced diseases such as diabetic macular edema.Recent studies have proved that anti-VEGF drugs have certain effects on ocular blood vessels and blood flow in patients with DR,while the specific mechanism has not been fully elucidated.This article summarizes the research progress on the effects of intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drugs on the ocular blood vessels and blood flow in patients with DR.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/therapeutic use
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e10291, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153518

ABSTRACT

The vascular network expansion and functioning are important factors affecting normal intra-uterine fetal development. This study addressed the previously reported antiangiogenic potential of beta-2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) in vivo in the chick embryo model of angiogenesis. The effects of two naturally occurring β2GPI forms on the development of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) vessels and the chicken embryo were investigated. β2GPI monomers and dimers were obtained by fractioned purification and characterized using SDS-PAGE, immunoblot, and ELISA. The egg exposure was performed by injection of small volumes of 2.5 µg/mL solutions of the β2GPI subfractions. Angiogenesis was evaluated through quantitative measurements of vascular architecture parameters in the captured CAM images, using computational analysis of texture contrasts and computer vision techniques. Quantitative information was assigned to the CAM vasculature modifications. In vivo, the β2GPI dimer completely halted the formation of CAM vessels and led to embryo death after 48 h of exposure. The β2GPI monomer allowed the embryo to develop up to the 10th day, despite early changes of CAM vessels. The impaired normal vessel growth proceeded as a self-limited effect. The β2GPI monomer-exposed eggs showed reduced vascularization on the 6th day of incubation, but embryos were viable on the 10th day of incubation, with ingurgitated CAM vessels implying sequelae of the angiogenesis inhibition. Both subfractions impaired CAM vasculature development. The β2GPI dimer proved to be largely more harmful than the β2GPI monomer. β2GPI modification by cleavage or dimerization may play a role in angiogenesis control in vivo.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Chorioallantoic Membrane , Chick Embryo , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , beta 2-Glycoprotein I
8.
Rev. Méd. Paraná ; 79(1): 106-111, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282511

ABSTRACT

- Introdução: As demandas tumorais são supridas pela angiogênese (surgimento de vasos sanguíneos). Em hipóxia, são secretadas moléculas pró-angiogênicas, como o fator de crescimento vascular endotelial (VEGF), ativando vias de progressão, invasão e metástase tumoral; portanto, tais substâncias tornaram-se alvo nas terapias anti-tumorais. Objetivo: Analisar produções científicas sobre câncer e angiogênese, focando em VEGF, seu mecanismo de ação e vias terapêuticas. Método: Revisão integrativa de literatura utilizando base de dados PubMed e Scielo, com os descritores angiogenesis, cancer, VEGF, anti-angiogenic e treatment. Resultados: O VEGF, especialmente VEGF-A, liga-se ao receptor tirosina-quinase VEGFR-2 para induzir a migração de células endoteliais e ativar vias intracelulares, promovendo a liberação de proteases destrutoras da matriz extracelular que permitem o brotamento de vasos sanguíneos. Drogas anti-angiogênicas inibem o mecanismo de VEGF/VEGFR-2. Conclusão: Inibidores de VEGF desaceleram o crescimento neoplásico e melhoram a distribuição sistêmica de fármacos associados, sendo ampla a recomendação da administração conjunta de fármacos anti-angiogênicos e quimioterápicos tradicionais


Introduction: Tumor demands are supplied by angiogenesis (arise of blood vessels). In hypoxia, pro-angiogenic molecules are secreted, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which activate pathways of tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, such substances have become a target in anti-tumor therapies. Objective: Analyse scientific productions on cancer and angiogenesis, focusing on VEGF, its mechanism and therapeutics pathways. Method: Integrative literature review using the online databases PubMed and Scielo and the terms angiogenesis, cancer, VEGF, anti-angiogenic and treatment. Results: VEGF, especially VEGF-2, binds at VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase receptor to induce endothelial cells migration and activate intracellular pathways to promote the release of destructive proteases from the extracellular matrix,, which allow blood vessels to sprout. Anti-angiogenic drugs inhibit the mechanism of VEGF/ VEGFR-2. Conclusion: VEGF inhibitors slow neoplastic growth and improve systemic distribution of associated drugs, which are widely recommended in joint administration of traditional anti-angiogenic and chemotherapeutic drugs


Subject(s)
Humans , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors , Neoplasms , Neoplasms/therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 526-534, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153085

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare visual acuity, macular thickness, and the area of active neovascularization based on fluorescein angiography outcomes associated with standard single-spot panretinal photocoagulation in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) pattern combined with intravitreal ranibizumab injection versus multiple-spot full scatter (PASCAL) panretinal photocoagulation combined with intravitreal ranibizumab injection versus intravitreal injection alone in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and no prior laser treatment were randomly assigned to receive three different types of treatment. Panretinal photocoagulation in the ETDRS group was administered in two sessions (weeks 0 and 2), and panretinal photocoagulation in the PASCAL group was administered in one session (week 0). Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was administered at the end of the first laser session in both the ETDRS and PASCAL groups and at week 0 in the intravitreal injection group. Comprehensive ophthalmic evaluations were performed at baseline and every 4 weeks through week 48. Results: Thirty patients (n=40 eyes) completed the 48-week study period. After treatment, best-corrected visual acuity was significantly (p<0.05) improved at all follow-up visits in the group receiving intravitreal injection alone, at all but week 4 in the ETDRS group, and at all but weeks 4 and 8 for the PASCAL group. A significant decrease in central subfield macular thickness was observed in the PASCAL group at weeks 4, 8, and 48; only at week 48 in the intravitreal injection group; and never in the ETDRS group. There was no significant difference among the three treatment groups with respect to change from baseline to week 48 in best-corrected visual acuity, central subfield macular thickness, or fluorescein leakage from active neovascularization in best-corrected visual acuity, central subfield macular thickness, or fluorescein leakage from active neovascularization. Conclusions: Intravitreal injection alone or combined with single- or multiple-spot panretinal photocoagulation yielded similar outcomes with respect to mean change in best-corrected visual acuity, central subfield macular thickness, and fluorescein leakage from active neovascularization at up to one-year of follow-up. All subjects provided written informed consent to participate (NCT02005432 in clinicaltrials.gov).


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar as medidas de acuidade visual, espessura macular central e área de neovasos ativos na an­giofluoresceinografia submetidos a panfotocoagulação retiniana padrão ETDRS associado a injeção intravítrea de ranibizumabe versus panfotocoagulação padrão PASCAL associado a injeção intravítrea de ranibizumabe versus somente injeção intravítrea de ranibizumabe em pacientes com retinopatia diabética pro­liferativa. Métodos: Pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa e virgens de tratamento, randomicamente divididos nas três diferentes terapias retinianas. Panfotocoagulação no grupo ETDRS em 2 sessões (semanas 0 e 2) e no grupo PASCAL, na semana 0. Injeção intravítrea de ranibizumabe realizado ao fim da primeira sessão de laser em ambos os grupos: ETDRS e PASCAL, e na semana 0 no grupo injeção intravítrea de ranibizumabe. Avaliações oftalmológicas, tomografia de coerência óptica e angiofluoesceinografia realizados na visita basal e a cada 4 semanas por 48 semanas. Resultados: Trinta pacientes (n=40 olhos) completaram as 48 semanas de seguimento. Após o tratamento, a acuidade visual melhorou significantemente em todas a visitas no grupo injeção intravítrea de ranibizumabe (p<0,05); em todas exceto na semana 4 no grupo ETDRS, em todas exceto nas semanas 4 e 8 no grupo PASCAL. Redução significativa na espessura do subcampo central foi evidenciada no grupo PASCAL nas semanas 4, 8 e 48; somente na semana 48 no grupo injeção intravítrea de ranibizumabe, e em nenhuma visita no grupo ETDRS. Redução também na área de neovasos ativos em todas as visitas em todos os grupos. Não houve diferença significante entre os três grupos com relação a mudança media na medidas de acuidade visual, espessura macular central ou área de neovasos ativos da visita inicial para a semana 48. Conclusões: Somente IVB ou este associado a panfotocoagulação ETDRS ou PASCAL, apresentaram efeitos semelhantes em relação a medidas de acuidade visual, espessura do subcampo central e área de neovasos ativos no decorrer de 48 semanas de seguimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy , Diabetic Retinopathy/surgery , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Laser Coagulation , Intravitreal Injections , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use
10.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 552-561, Nov.-Dec. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153080

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss in elderly individuals, as well as a medical and socio-economic challenge. The treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration is based on vitamin supplementation. New treatment studies are focused on preventing the progression of degeneration and repopulating the atrophic macula. Recently, research on the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration experienced a breakthrough with the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. Nevertheless, despite the fact that ranibizumab, aflibercept, and bevacizumab are effective in reducing severe visual impairment, patients usually lose some vision over time. Therefore, the search for new therapies and diagnostic methods is fundamentally important. Current studies are focused on new anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, antibody against sphingosine-1-phosphate, anti-platelet-derived growth factor, gene therapy, and RNA interference. The results of ongoing clinical studies may improve the therapy of age-related macular degeneration.


RESUMO Degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI) é a principal causa de perda de visão em pessoas idosas. É também um desafio médico e socioeconômico. O tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade seca baseia-se na suplementação vitamínica. Novos tratamentos estão focados na prevenção da progressão da degeneração e tentativas de repovoar a mácula atrófica. A degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular experimentou um grande avanço com o advento dos inibidores do fator de crescimento endotelial anti-vascular (anti-VEGF); no entanto, apesar do ranibizumab, aflibercept e bevacizumab serem eficazes na redução do comprometimento visual grave, os pacientes geralmente per­dem visão ao longo do tempo. Portanto, a busca por novas terapias, tratamentos e diagnósticos é de fundamental importância. Os estudos estão focados em novos fármacos sobre fator de crescimento endotelial anti-vascular, inibidores nucleosideos da transcriptase reversa, anticorpos contra esfingosina-1-fosfato, fator de crescimento derivado de plaquetas, terapia genética e RNA de interferência. A terapia para degeneração macular relacionada à idade está prestes a melhorar como resultado desses estudos clínicos em andamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Macular Degeneration , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/therapeutic use , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Intravitreal Injections , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
11.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 63(2): 13-17, nov. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150415

ABSTRACT

La acción terapéutica favorable que los antirresortivos (bifosfonatos BPs, denosumab DS) y drogas antiangiogénicas ocasionan en el tejido óseo en aquellos pacientes que presentan como causa etiológica cáncer o discrasias óseas incluyen hipercalcemias malignas o ­si requieren el consumo de dicha droga a baja concentración­ como ser: osteoporosis, osteopenia, enfermedad de Paget, displasia fibrosa, Osteogénesis Imperfecta. (1) La presente actualización pretende relacionar el tratamiento odontológico con prescripción crónica y drogas antirresortivas, para lo cual American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons AAOMS: define el concepto de Osteonecrosis Maxilar Asociada a drogas Antirresortivas (MRONJ) como: «Área ósea necrótica expuesta al medio bucal con más de ocho semanas de permanencia, en presencia de tratamiento crónico con bifosfonatos en ausencia de radioterapia en cabeza y cuello¼. La AAOMS estableció los siguientes grupos de acuerdo con sus características clínicas en 4 estadios (0, 1 ,2 y 3) de acuerdo con el aspecto clínico y radiológico de la lesión osteonecrótica. Estadío 0: lesión osteonecrótica sin evidencia de hueso necrótico en pacientes bajo consumo de drogas antirresortivas. Estadío 1: lesión osteonecrótica con signos clínicos y ausencia de sintomatología clínica. Estadío 2: lesión osteonecrótica con signo y sintomatología clínica evidente. Estadío 3: lesión osteonecrótica con signo y sintomatología evidente que compromete a estructuras nobles: fracturas patológicas, anestesia del nervio dentario inferior, comunicación buco-nasal, comunicación buco-sinusal, fístulas cutáneas (2) (AU)


It is known the favourable action which antiresorptive (Bisphosphonates BPs, Denosumab: DS) and Antiangiogenic drugs produce in bone tissue. High concentrations are primarily used as an effective treatment in the management of cancer-related disorders, including hypercalcemia of malignant. Besides, low concentrations are used for other metabolic bone diseases including Osteoporosis, Osteopenia, Paget's Disease, Fibrous Dysplasia, Imperfect Osteogenesis. (1) The update relate relationship between dentistry and chronic treatment with antiresorptive drugs. According to the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS), MRONJ is defined as exposed or necrotic bone in the maxillofacial region that has persisted for more than 8 weeks in association with current or previous BPs or DS therapy and with a lack of head and neck radiotherapy. AAOMS divided the MRONJ into 4 stages (0,1, 2 and 3) according to the clinical and radiological aspect of the osteonecrotic lesion: Stage 0: osteonecrotic lesion without sign-pathognomonic evidence of osteonecrosis. Stage 1: osteonecrotic lesion with clinical signs and absence of clinical symptoms. Stage 2: osteonecrotic lesion with sign and evident clinical symptoms. Stage 3: osteonecrotic lesion with signs and evident symptoms that involve noble structures: pathological fractures, anaesthesia of the lower dental nerve, oral-nasal communication, oral-sinus communication, skin fistulas (2) (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Bone Resorption , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Bone Diseases , Dental Care for Chronically Ill , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Denosumab , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use
12.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 372-377, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131635

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess tomographic ganglion cell complex changes in patients with diabetic macular edema treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF). Methods: We analyzed data from 35 eyes of 35 previously untreated patients in whom diabetic macular edema improved after three loading doses of anti-VEGF injection and who did not receive repeated injections. We recorded spectral domain-optical coherence tomography assessments of ganglion cell complex and central macular thickness at baseline and monthly for three months, and on the sixth and ninth month after treatment. We compared the results with those of the unaffected eyes in the same patients and with those in a control group of patients with diabetic macular edema who were untreated. Results: The mean age of the patients in the treatment group was 60 ± 4.38 years. The foveal thicknesses measured using optical coherence tomography decreased significantly from baseline to the third month post-injection (p<0.05). The mean ganglion cell complex thickness was 115.08 ± 16.72 µm before the first injection and 101.05 ± 12.67 µm after the third injection (p<0.05). The mean ganglion cell complex was 110.04 ± 15.07 µm on the sixth month (p>0.05) and 113.12 ± 11.15 µm on the ninth month (p>0.05). We found a significant difference between the patients and the control group in terms of mean ganglion cell complex thickness on the second- and third-months post-injection (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our study showed that the ganglion cell complex thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema decreased after the anti-VEGF injections. We cannot ascertain whether the ganglion cell complex thickness decreases were due to effects of the anti-VEGF agents or to the natural disease course.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as alterações do complexo tomográfico das células ganglionares em pacientes com edema macular diabético tratados com injeções intravítreas do fator de crescimento endotelial anti-vascular (anti-VEGF). Métodos: Analisamos dados de 35 olhos de 35 pacientes previamente não tratados nos quais o edema macular diabético melhorou após três doses de injeção de anti-VEGF e que não receberam injeções repetidas. Registramos avaliações da tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral do complexo de células ganglionares e da espessura macular central na linha de base e mensalmente por três meses e, também no sexto e nono mês após o tratamento. Comparamos os resultados com os olhos não afetados nos mesmos pacientes e com os de um grupo controle de pacientes com edema macular diabético que não foram tratados. Resultados: A média da idade dos pacientes no grupo de tratamento foi de 60 ± 4,38 anos. As espessuras foveais medidas pela tomografia de coerência óptica diminuiram significativamente desde o início até o terceiro mês após a injeção (p<0,05). A espessura média do complexo de células ganglionares foi de 115,08 ± 16,72 µm antes da primeira injeção e 101,05 ± 12,67 µm após a terceira injeção (p<0,05). A média do complexo de célula ganglionar foi de 110,04 ± 15,07 µm no sexto mês (p>0,05) e 113,12 ± 11,15 µm no nono mês (p>0,05). Encontramos uma diferença significativa entre os pacientes e o grupo controle quanto à média da espessura do complexo de células ganglionares no segundo e terceiro meses após a injeção (p<0,05). Conclusão: Nosso estudo mostrou que a espessura do complexo de células ganglionares em pacientes com edema macular diabético diminuiu após as injeções de anti-VEGF. Não podemos determinar se a diminuição da espessura do complexo de células ganglionares ocorreu devido aos efeitos dos agentes anti-VEGF ou ao curso natural da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Macular Edema , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Visual Acuity , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Intravitreal Injections , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 396-401, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131628

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the efficacy of three initial monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections followed by pro re nata (3+PRN) dosing versus five initial monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections followed by pro re nata (5+PRN) dosing in patients with diabetic macular edema. Methods: A total of 60 treatment-naïve patients with macular edema who underwent intravitreal aflibercept injections (2 mg/0.05 mL) with at least one year of follow-up were analyzed in this retrospective and comparative study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the number of intravitreal aflibercept injections administered in the loading phase. The 3+PRN group comprised 27 patients, whereas the 5+PRN group comprised 33 patients. The visual and anatomical outcomes were compared between the two groups at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Results: Both 3+PRN and 5+PRN, showed statistically significant improvements in the best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thicknesse throughout the study period (p<0.001 and, p<0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of changes in the best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness (p=0.453 and, p=0.784, respectively). The mean number of intravitreal aflibercept injections was significantly greater in the 5+PRN group (6.1 ± 0.8) than in the 3+PRN group (3.9 ± 0.8) (p<0.001). Conclusion: The 3+PRN and 5+PRN regimens showed similar 12-month visual and anatomical outcomes following treatment with intravitreal aflibercept injections in patients with macular edema.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia de três injeções intravítreas mensais iniciais de aflibercept, seguidas de dosagem de pro re nata (3+PRN) versus cinco injeções mensais iniciais intravítreas de aflibercept, seguidas de doses de pro re nata (5 + PRN) em pacientes com edema macular diabético. Métodos: Foram analisados neste estudo retrospectivo e comparativo 60 pacientes que não receberam tratamento prévio com edema macular e foram submetidos a injeções intravítreas de aflibercept (2 mg/0,05 mL) com pelo menos um ano de acompanhamento. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o número de injeções intravítreas de aflibercept administradas na fase inicial. O grupo 3+PRN compreendeu 27 pacientes, enquanto o grupo 5+PRN compreendeu 33 pacientes. Os resultados visuais e anatômicos foram comparados entre os dois grupos no período inicial e aos 3, 6, 9 e 12 meses. Resultados: Tanto os grupos 3+PRN quanto 5+PRN mostraram melhoras estatisticamente significativas na acuidade visual melhor corrigida e na espessura macular central ao longo do período de estudo (p<0,001 e p <0,001, respectivamente). Não houve diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos em termos de alterações na acuidade visual melhor corrigida e na espessura macular central (p=0,453 e p=0,784, respectivamente). O número médio de injeções intravítreas de aflibercept foi significativamente maior no grupo 5+PRN (6,1 ± 0,8) do que no grupo 3+PRN (3,9 ± 0,8) (p <0,001). Conclusão: Os regimes 3+PRN e 5+PRN mostraram resultados visuais e anatômicos semelhantes em 12 meses após o tratamento com injeções intravítreas de aflibercept em pacientes com edema macular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Macular Edema , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Visual Acuity , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/administration & dosage , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Intravitreal Injections , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use
14.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 326-335, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139704

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is still the most prevalent type of osteonecrosis with clinical relevance. In Brazil, bisphosphonate use is high but there is a lack of epidemiological studies on BRONJ. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical profile of BRONJ in a Brazilian population through an integrative review. DESIGN AND SETTING: Integrative review of BRONJ in a Brazilian population. METHODS: Cases and clinical research on Brazilians with BRONJ between 2010 and 2019, indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS were reviewed. Age, sex, type and time of bisphosphonate intake, administration route, related diseases, region of the BRONJ, diagnostic criteria, staging, triggering factor and type of treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifteen articles on 128 subjects were included. Most patients were women (82.03%); the mean age was 63 years. Intravenous zoledronic acid was mostly used (62.50%), for breast cancer treatment (46.87%). The main localization of BRONJ was the mandible (54.68%), associated mainly with tooth extractions (45.98%). The diagnostic criteria were clinical (100%) and radiographic (89.06%), mostly in stage II (68.08%). The surgical treatments were sequestrectomy (37.50%) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) (36.71%). Microbial control was done using chlorhexidine (93.75%) and infection control using clindamycin (53.90%). CONCLUSIONS: BRONJ had higher prevalence in Brazilian women receiving treatment for breast cancer and osteoporosis. The mandible was the region most affected with a moderate stage of BRONJ, particularly when there were histories of tooth extraction and peri-implant surgery. Sequestrectomy with additional drugs and surgical therapy was the treatment most accomplished.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Tooth Extraction , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/surgery , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Brazil , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Dental Care , Treatment Outcome , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Diphosphonates/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/etiology , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/diagnostic imaging
15.
Rev. ADM ; 77(4): 197-202, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129803

ABSTRACT

La osteonecrosis de los maxilares está definida como la exposición de hueso necrótico en la región maxilofacial al menos por ocho semanas en pacientes que están recibiendo medicamentos antirresortivos para el tratamiento del cáncer primario o metastásico hacia el hueso, osteoporosis o enfermedad de Paget, sin historia previa de radiación. Desde el año 2003, la terminología utilizada estaba en relación con los bifosfonatos, en la actualidad ha sido introducido el término osteonecrosis de los maxilares relacionada por medicamentos (OMAM). La cirugía oral (implantología o cirugía periapical) incrementa el riesgo de OMAM, así como los desbalances concomitantes de la salud oral (inflamación dental y formación de abscesos). Las estrategias conservadoras en el tratamiento varían desde el cuidado local conservador hasta la resección quirúrgica radical del hueso necrótico. En el presente artículo se expone un análisis sistemático retrospectivo de la literatura en páginas como PubMed, ScienceDirect y Springer, Cochrane Library. Con el objetivo de resaltar el aumento de la incidencia de OMAM a nivel mundial con el uso de antirresortivos y otros medicamentos asociados en su patogenia en el Hospital Regional «General Ignacio Zaragoza¼ del ISSSTE, UNAM, en la Ciudad de México (AU)


Osteonecrosis of the jaws is defined as the exposure of necrotic bone in the maxillofacial region for at least 8 weeks in patients receiving antiresorptive medications for the treatment of primary or metastatic cancer towards the bone, osteoporosis, or Paget's disease, without previous history of radiation. Since 2003, the terminology used was related to bisphosphonates, the term medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws has now been introduced. Oral surgery (implantology or periapical surgery) increases the risk of avascular necrosis, as well as concomitant imbalances in oral health (dental inflammation and abscess formation). Conservative strategies in treatment vary from conservative local care to radical surgical resection of the necrotic bone. In this article, a systematic retrospective analysis of the literature is presented on pages such as PubMed, Science Direct and Springer, Cochrane Library. And in which the objective is to highlight the increase in the incidence of medication related osteonecrosis of the jaws worldwide with the use of antiresorptive, and other associated medications in its pathogenesis at the Hospital Regional «General Ignacio Zaragoza¼ ISSSTE, UNAM in Mexico City (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Osteoporosis , Bone Neoplasms , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Dental Service, Hospital , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Bevacizumab , Sunitinib , Mexico
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 175-179, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131590

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: This survey aimed at assessing the clinical characteristics of patients with inflammatory reactions after intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic agents and the techniques employed by Brazilian retina specialists. Methods: We sent an 18-item questionnaire electronically to retina specialists who are using antiangiogenic agents. We got the responses between September 21 and December 23, 2018. Results: A total of 58 retina specialists participated. Most of them were from Southeastern Brazil (50%), 82.8% were dedicated to both medical and surgical practices, and 86.2% had practiced for more than 5 years. Respondents reported a mean number of 2.14 ± 1.63 patients with inflammation, 44.8% with panuveitis, and 79.3% with onset of symptoms within 72 h. Specialists used aflibercept (53.4%), bevacizumab (29.3%), and ranibizumab (27.6%). Most patients were treated with steroid drops (70.7%), and their inflammation subsided after 11.5 ± 11.5 days (86.2% lacked irreversible complications). The specialists blamed the syringe as the cause of the inflammation in 25.9% of the cases, 41.4% used Becton-Dickinson Ultra-Fine syringes, 43.1% injected the drug at room temperature, and 37.9% removed the air (53.4% by flicking the syringe). Most specialists did not detect silicone oil (67.2%), but 17.2% of them performed vitrectomies to remove vitreous opacities. Finally, 44.8% of specialists injected the same antiangiogenic agent in an eye with prior inflammatory reaction without further inflammation. Conclusions: Most specialists reported cases of early-onset inflammation after intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic agents. The incidence of irreversible complications was low. Aflibercept was the most common agent used. The causes of inflammation remain unknown, but we formulated some relevant hypotheses.


RESUMO Objetivo: Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar as características clínicas de pacientes com reações inflamatórias após injeção intravítrea de agentes antiangiogênicos e as técnicas empregadas por especialistas em retina brasileiros. Métodos: Enviamos eletronicamente um questionário de 18 itens para especialistas em retina que usam agentes antiangiogênicos. Recebemos as respostas entre 21 de setembro e 23 de dezembro de 2018. Resultados: Um total de 58 especialistas em retina participaram. A maioria era do Sudeste do Brasil (50%), 82,8% eram dedicados a práticas médicas e cirúrgicas e 86,2% praticavam há mais de 5 anos. Os entrevistados informaram um número médio de 2,14 ± 1,63 pacientes com inflamação, 44,8% com panuveíte e 79,3% com início dos sintomas dentro de 72 horas. Especialistas utilizaram aflibercepte (53,4%), bevacizumabe (29,3%) e ranibizumabe (26=7,6%). A maioria dos pacientes foi tratada com colírios de esteroides (70,7%), e sua inflamação diminuiu após 11,5 ± 11,5 dias (86,2% não apresentaram complicações irreversíveis). Os especialistas responsabilizaram a seringa como causa da inflamação em 25,9% dos casos, 41,4% usaram seringas Becton-Dickinson Ultra-Fine, 43,1% injetaram a droga em temperatura ambiente e 37,9% removeram o ar (53,4% sacudindo a seringa). A maioria dos especialistas não detectou óleo de silicone (67,2%), mas 17,2% realizaram vitrectomias para remoção de opacidades vítreas. Finalmente, 44,8% dos especialistas injetaram o mesmo agente angiogênicos em um olho com reação inflamatória prévia, sem surgimento de nova inflamação. Conclusões: A maioria dos especialistas relatou casos de inflamação de início precoce após injeção intravítrea de agentes antiangiogênicos. A incidência complicações irreversíveis foi baixa. Aflibercepte foi o agente mais frequentemente usado. As causas da inflamação permanecem desconhecidas, embora formulamos algumas hipóteses relevantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Specialization , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab , Retina , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Intravitreal Injections , Ranibizumab , Inflammation
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 120-126, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088977

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate retinal microvasculature changes in patients treated with anti-VEGF for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods: We examined 38 eyes of 19 patients for the study. We measured superficial and deep capillary plexus vessel densities (%), foveal avascular zone areas (mm2), and central macular thicknesses. Results: Parafoveal superficial and deep capillary plexus values were significantly lower in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion than in fellow eyes (p<0.001). We found a significant increase in parafoveal deep capillary plexus values after the anti-VEGF treatment (p=0.032). The mean foveal avascular zone was larger in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion than in control eyes (p<0.001). The mean central macular thickness was significantly higher in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion than in controls, and we observed a significant decrease in central macular thickness after anti-VEGF treatment (<0.001). In addition, the cystic structures in the deep capillary plexus regressed. Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography angiography enables qualitative and quantitative evaluations during follow-up of patients treated for branch retinal vein occlusion.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar as alterações na microvascu latura da retina em pacientes tratados com anti-VEGF para ede ma macular secundário à oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana. Métodos: Foram examinados 38 olhos de 19 pacientes para o estudo. Medimos as densidades dos vasos do plexo capilar superficial e profunda (%), áreas da zona avascular foveal (mm2) e espessura macular central. Resultados: Os valores do plexo capilar superficial e profundo parafoveal foram significativamente menores nos olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana do que nos outros olhos (p<0,001). Encontramos um aumento significativo nos valores de plexo capilar profundo parafoveal após o tratamento com anti-VEGF (p=0,032). A zona avascular foveal média foi maior nos olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana do que nos olhos controle (p<0,001). A espessura macular central média foi significativamente maior nos olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana do que nos controles, e observamos uma diminuição significativa na espessura macular central após o tratamento com anti-VEGF (< 0,001). Além disso, as estruturas císticas no plexo capilar profundo regrediram. Conclusão: A angiotomografia de coerência óptica permite avaliações qualitativas e quantitativas durante o acompanhamento de pacientes tratados por oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Reference Values , Time Factors , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Capillaries/drug effects , Capillaries/pathology , Capillaries/diagnostic imaging , Macular Edema/etiology , Macular Edema/pathology , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Macula Lutea/drug effects , Macula Lutea/pathology , Macula Lutea/diagnostic imaging
18.
Medwave ; 20(2): e7831, 31-03-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095945

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las hemorragias maculares producen una pérdida de la visión súbita y profunda. Las principales modalidades de tratamiento incluyen observación, inyección intravítrea de fármacos antiangiogénicos, hialoidotomía con láser neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet, inyección intravítrea de gas y/o activador de plasminógeno tisular, en monoterapia o combinadas con cirugía. En el presente trabajo reportamos cuatro casos de hemorragias maculares de distintas causas, tratadas con diferentes abordajes, y realizamos una revisión de la literatura al respecto. PRESENTACIÓN DE CASOS: Los cuatro pacientes mostrados presentaron diferentes causas de hemorragias maculares. El primer caso tuvo una hemorragia prerretiniana debido a retinopatía de Valsalva y fue tratado con cirugía, el Caso 2 tuvo una hemorragia macular multinivel debido a una rotura de un macroaneurisma arteriolar retiniano y fue manejado con desplazamiento neumático, láser y ranibizumab intravítreo, el Caso 3 presentó una hemorragia subretiniana extensa debido a rotura coroidea posterior a un trauma ocular cerrado de alta energía y fue tratado exitosamente con cirugía. El último caso presentó una hemorragia prerretiniana debido a retinopatía diabética, manejada con láser neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet. Los diferentes tratamientos fueron realizados exitosamente con buenos resultados. CONCLUSIÓN: Existen amplias opciones disponibles para el manejo de las hemorragias maculares y la mejor opción depende de las características de cada caso en particular. El manejo apropiado y oportuno de éstas puede lograr un resultado visual bueno, especialmente si la localización de la hemorragia es prerretiniana.


INTRODUCTION: Macular hemorrhages result in a sudden and profound loss of vision. The primary treatment modalities include observation, intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic drugs, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet hialoidotomy, intravitreal injection of gas with or without tissue plasminogen activator, as monotherapy or combined with surgery. In this paper, we report four cases of macular hemorrhages of different causes treated with different approaches, and we review the literature in this regard. CASE PRESENTATION: All four patients presented different causes of macular hemorrhage. The first case had a preretinal hemorrhage due to a Valsalva retinopathy and was treated with surgery. Case 2 had a multilevel macular hemorrhage due to a rupture of a retinal arteriolar macroaneurysm and was treated with pneumatic displacement, laser, and intravitreal ranibizumab. Case 3 presented an extensive subretinal hemorrhage due to a choroidal rupture after high-energy ocular trauma that was also successfully treated with surgery. The last case was a preretinal hemorrhage due to diabetic retinopathy managed with neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. Different treatment approaches were successfully performed in all cases with good outcomes. CONCLUSION: There is an extensive range of options available for the management of macular hemorrhages, and the best option depends on the characteristics of each particular case. Proper and timely management of these diseases can achieve an excellent visual outcome, especially if the location of the hemorrhage is preretinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Laser Therapy , Rupture , Retinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Choroid/pathology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Intravitreal Injections
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 48-54, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088948

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab and bevacizumab for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Methods: We used a decision tree model to analyze the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab and bevacizumab for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, from the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) perspective. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab were administered to patients with the same treatment procedure, and the difference in treatment costs was calculated based on the cost of the drugs. Direct costs were estimated using the information provided by the Brazilian SUS. Effectiveness in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) was calculated based on the utility values for visual impairment. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated by comparing both treatments. The analytical horizon was one year. Results: The decision tree analysis showed that the difference in treatment effectiveness was 0.01 QALY. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio showed that ranibizumab treatment required an incremental annual cost of more than R$ 2 million to generate 1 additional QALY, as compared to bevacizumab. Conclusions: From the Brazilian SUS perspective, bevacizumab is more cost-effective than ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Its use could allow potential annual savings in health budget.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar o custo-efetividade do ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe no tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular. Métodos: Utilizamos um modelo de árvore de decisão para analisar a relação custo-efetividade do ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe no tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade, sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. O ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe foram administrados a pacientes com o mesmo procedimento de tratamento, e a diferença nos custos do tratamernto foi calculada com base no custo dos medicamentos. Os custos diretos foram estimados utilizando as informações fornecidas pelo SUS. A efetividade foi determinada em anos de vida ajustados pela qualidade (QALY) baseados em valores de utilidade em deficiênciavisual. A razãoincremental custo-efetividadefoicalculada comparando os dois tratamentos. O horizonte analítico foi de um ano. Resultados: A análise da árvore de decisão mostrou que a diferença na efetividade do tratamento foi de 0,01 QALY. A razão incremental de custo-efetividade mostrou que o tratamento com ranibizumabe exigiu um custo anual incremental de R$ 2 milhões para gerar um QALY adicional, em comparação ao bevacizumabe. Conclusões: Do ponto de vista do SUS, o bevacizumabe é mais custo-efetivo que o ranibizumabe no tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular. O seu uso poderia gerar uma grande economia anual para o orçamento em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vision Disorders/economics , Vision Disorders/drug therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/economics , Bevacizumab/economics , Ranibizumab/economics , Brazil , Visual Acuity , Health Care Costs , Drug Costs/statistics & numerical data , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , National Health Programs
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1063-1077, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877493

ABSTRACT

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common histological type of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80% of primary lung cancer. Platinum-based chemotherapy is the traditional standard for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, but the 5-years survival rate is still very low, less than 5%. Angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth, proliferation and metastasis of solid tumors. Angiogenesis inhibitors affect the tumor microenvironment, degenerate existing tumor blood vessels and inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis inhibitors are now one of the indispensable treatments for patients with advanced NSCLC through continuous development of new angiogenesis inhibitor and improvement of drug accessibility. This consensus is based on the "Expert consensus on anti-angiogenic drug therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in China (2019 Edition)" , combines with clinical research evidence published in the past years and clinical experience. The consensus-writing group compiles a consensus of guiding clinical departments related to lung cancer treatment to use anti-angiogenic drugs in a standardized manner, and further improves the level of standardized diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , China , Consensus , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
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