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1.
s.l; CONETEC; 8 jul. 2021.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1281399

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La evidencia actual muestra que la infección por el SARS-CoV-2 progresa en diferentes etapas. Los casos de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) se observan en una proporción significativa de los pacientes frágiles, aproximadamente después de la segunda semana desde la infección, y no se relacionan sólo con la replicación viral no controlada, sino también con la respuesta del huésped.3 El virus SARS-CoV-2 ingresa a las vías respiratorias y se une, por medio de la proteína S en su superficie, a la proteína de membrana de la enzima covertidora de angiotensina 2 (ACE2, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) en las células alveolares tipo 2. El complejo proteína S-ACE2 se internaliza por endocitosis y conduce a una disminución parcial o pérdida total de la función enzimática ACE2 en las células alveolares y, a su vez, aumenta la concentración tisular de angiotensina II al disminuir su degradación y reducir la concentración de su antagonista fisiológico, la angiotensina 1-7. Los niveles altos de angiotensina II en el intersticio pulmonar pueden promover la apoptosis iniciando un proceso inflamatorio con liberación de citocinas proinflamatorias, estableciendo una cascada autoamplificada que eventualmente podría conducir al SDRA. Recientemente, Gurwitz y cols propusieron el uso tentativo de novo de agentes como losartán y telmisartán como alternativas para tratar a los pacientes con COVID-19 antes del desarrollo del SDRA. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe es evaluar parámetros de eficacia, seguridad, conveniencia y recomendaciones disponibles acerca del inicio de novo de los bloqueantes de receptores de angiotensina-II para el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19 sin otra indicación para dichos farmacos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una evaluación de tecnología sanitaria, basada en evidencia proveniente de revisiones sistemáticas vivas y guías de práctica clínica de alta calidad metodológica para brindar parámetros actualizados y balanceados que sean de utilidad para la toma de decisiones en los diferentes niveles de gestión. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron tres revisiones sistemáticas vivas que cumplen con los criterios de inclusión del presente informe y que contienen información actualizada acerca inicio o continuación de bloqueantes de receptores de angiotensina-II para el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19. Se identificaron 8 ECAs que incluyeron 1585 pacientes con COVID-19 en los que se comparó inicio o continuación de bloqueantes de receptores de angiotensina-II para el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19, con el estándar de cuidado o placebo. CONCLUSIONES: El inicio de tratamiento con bloqueantes de receptores de angiotensina-II para pacientes con COVID-19 podrían no reducir la mortalidad. Existe incertidumbre sobre su efecto en la duración de la hospitalización y sobre el ingreso en la asistencia ventilatoria mecánica, mientras que podrían no aumentar los eventos adversos graves. Los fármacos bloqueantes de los receptores de angiotensina-II se encuentran disponibles en Argentina y aprobados por la Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica para el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial y condiciones asociadas. No se encuentran aprobados por la agencia regulatoria para su uso en ninguno de los estadios de la enfermedad por COVID-19, ni en la prevención de infección en personas expuestas al virus. El costo comparativo es bajo. Las guías de práctica clínica basadas en evidencia recomiendan no utilizar bloqueantes de los receptores de angiotensina-II para el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19 que no recibían este tipo de fármacos previamente. El presente informe contempla el empleo de bloqueantes de receptores de angiotensina-II para el tratamiento específico de COVID-19. Sin embargo, de la evidencia analizada podría concluirse que no existen razones para modificar o suspender el tratamiento con bloqueantes de receptores de angiotensina-II en aquellos pacientes que los reciben por otros motivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS Virus/drug effects , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis
2.
Brasília; s.n; 9 jun. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1100308

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos e 16 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Almitrine/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
3.
Brasília; s.n; 5 jun. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1100288

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 11 artigos e 7 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Thalidomide/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Vasopeptidase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 20(2): 22-36, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990967

ABSTRACT

Resumen La insuficiencia cardiaca es una de las principales enfermedades a nivel cardiaco debido a su mayor riesgo de mortalidad y de hospitalizaciones por descompensaciones agudas o por presencia de novo de falla cardiaca, por eso en los últimos años se desarrollaron a partir de estudios clínicos randomizados, medicamentos que mejoraran estos eventos, a partir del estudio PARADIGM-HF. Con el surgimiento de sacubitril/valsartan se evaluó su efecto en diferentes escenarios, así el enfoque de este artículo se basa en la revisión de artículos con el objetivo de analizar la importancia de los efectos be neficiosos del sacubitril/valsartan en comparación con enalapril en diferentes análisis y subestudios basado en el estudio PARADIGM-HF, en los cuales se evaluó el impacto del sacubitril/valsartan en diabetes mellitus tipo 2, en la función renal, hipertensión arterial, a nivel de mortalidad y seguridad, a nivel de edad, de hiperkalemia e hiperkalemia severa, en los factores asociados con la falta de cumplimiento durante el período de ejecución antes de la aleatorización y la influen cia en el beneficio estimado de sacubitril/valsartan en el ensayo PARADIGM-HF, eficacia de sacubitril/valsartan con dosis metas bajas, tolerabilidad y seguridad en el inicio de sacubitril/valsartan en insuficiencia cardiaca, efectos de sacubitril/ valsartan asociado a antagonistas de receptores de mineralocorticoides en la reducción de hiperkalemia, implicaciones en el pronóstico de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca con fracción de eyección reducida con los cambios de pépti dos natriuréticos, eficacia y seguridad de sacubitril/valsartan en distintos rangos de edades, efecto del fármaco sobre la terapia de fondo utilizada en insuficiencia cardiaca y eficacia e influencia de sacubitril/valsartan en la fracción de eyección y desenlace primario.


Abstract Descriptores: sacubitril/valsartan, enalapril, insuficiencia cardiaca, péptidos natriureticos Heart failure is one of the main diseases at the cardiac level due to its higher risk of mortality and hospitalizations due to acute decompensation or de novo heart failure, which is why in recent years they were developed from randomized clinical trials. medicines that will improve these events, from there and from the PARADIGM-HF study. From the emergence of sacubitril / valsartan its effect was evaluated in different scenarios, hence the focus of this article was based on the review of articles and with the aim of analyzing the importance of the beneficial effects of sacubitril / valsartan compared to enalapril in different analyzes and substudies from the PARADIGM-HF study, which will evaluate the impact of sacubitril / valsartan in type 2 diabetes mellitus, in renal function, arterial hypertension, in terms of mortality and safety, in terms of age, hyperkalemia and severe hyperkalemia, in the factors associated with non-compliance during the execution period before randomization and the influence on the estimated benefit of sacubitril / valsartan in the PARADIGM-HF trial, efficacy of sacubitril / valsartan with low target doses , tolerability and safety at the onset of sacubitril / valsartan in heart failure, effects of sacubitril / valsartan associated with antag of mineralocorticoid receptors in the reduction of hyperkalemia, implications in the prognosis of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction with changes in natriuretic peptides, efficacy and safety of sacubitril / valsartan in different age ranges, effect of the drug on the background therapy used in heart failure and the efficacy and influence of sacubitril / valsartan on the ejection fraction and primary outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents , Neprilysin , Costa Rica , Natriuretic Peptides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(8): 2501-2512, Ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890425

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper aims to analyse changes in the retail pharmaceutical market following policy changes in the Farmácia Popular Program (FP), a medicines subsidy program in Brazil. The retrospective longitudinal analyses focus on therapeutic class of agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system. Data obtained from QuintilesIMS (formerly IMS Health) included private retail pharmacy sales volume (pharmaceutical units) and sales values from 2002 to 2013. Analyses evaluated changes in market share following key FP policy changes. The therapeutic class was selected due to its relevance to hypertension treatment. Market share was analysed by therapeutic sub-classes and by individual company. Losartan as a single product accounted for the highest market share among angiotensin II antagonists. National companies had higher sales volume during the study period, while multinational companies had higher sales value. Changes in pharmaceutical market share coincided with the inclusion of specific products in the list of medicines covered by FP and with increases in or exemption from patient copayment.


Resumo Este artigo visa analisar as mudanças no mercado de varejo farmacêutico, seguindo as alterações de diretiva no Programa Farmácia Popular (FP), que realiza subvenção de medicamentos no Brasil, em parceria pública privada. Foi realizada análise longitudinal retrospectiva dos medicamentos da classe terapêutica dos agentes que atuam sobre o sistema renina-angiotensina. Os dados obtidos do QuintilesIMS incluíram o varejo farmacêutico em termos do volume e valores de vendas de 2002 a 2013. Análises realizadas consideraram intervenções e reformas ocorridas no FP e seu impacto no mercado farmacêutico da classe terapêutica selecionada, devido a sua relevância para o tratamento da hipertensão. Também se examinou o comportamento do mercado tomando por base as empresas farmacêuticas produtoras. Losartan monodroga representou a maior fatia de mercado entre os antagonistas de angiotensina II. Empresas nacionais obtiveram maior volume de vendas durante o período de estudo, enquanto as empresas multinacionais exibiram maior valor de vendas. Mudanças no mercado farmacêutico coincidiram com a inclusão de produtos específicos na lista de medicamentos abrangidos pelo FP e com aumentos ou isenção de copagamento pelos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Drug Industry/economics , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Cost Sharing/economics , Losartan/economics , Losartan/therapeutic use , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/economics , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Health Policy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/economics , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(11): e6665, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888944

ABSTRACT

Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is more common than the acute syndrome. Losartan, the first angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB), and candesartan, another widely-used ARB, have protected against developing fibrogenesis, but there is no clear data about their curative antifibrotic effects. The current study was designed to examine their effects in an already-established model of hepatic fibrosis and also their effects on the associated motor dysfunction. Low-grade chronic liver failure (CLF) was induced in 3-month old Sprague-Dawley male rats using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg·kg−1·day−1) intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. The TAA-CLF rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8) treated orally for 14 days (mg·kg−1·day−1) as follows: TAA (distilled water), losartan (5 and 10 mg/kg), and candesartan (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg). Rats were tested for rotarod and open-field tests. Serum and hepatic biochemical markers, and hepatic histopathological changes were evaluated by H&E and Masson's staining. The TAA-CLF rats showed significant increases of hepatic malondialdehyde, hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and serum ammonia, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, TNF-α, and malondialdehyde levels as well as significant decreases of hepatic and serum glutathione levels. All treatments significantly reversed these changes. The histopathological changes were moderate in losartan-5 and candesartan-0.1 groups and mild in losartan-10 and candesartan-0.3 groups. Only candesartan significantly improved TAA-induced motor dysfunction. In conclusion, therapeutic antifibrotic effects of losartan and candesartan in thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats are possibly through angiotensin-II receptor blocking, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Improved motor dysfunction by candesartan could be attributed to better brain penetration and slower "off-rate" from angiotensin-II receptors. Clinical trials are recommended.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Losartan/therapeutic use , Motor Disorders/drug therapy , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Ammonia/blood , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , End Stage Liver Disease/pathology , End Stage Liver Disease/physiopathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood , Glutathione/analysis , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Locomotion/physiology , Losartan/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Motor Disorders/etiology , Motor Disorders/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Thioacetamide , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [225] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870781

ABSTRACT

Os efeitos benéficos associados à injeção intramiocárdica de células-tronco adultas, obtidos em roedores, não tem sido reproduzidos de modo consistente em modelos animais de grande porte e seres humanos. Neste trabalho testamos a hipótese que o transplante de células-tronco mesenquimais derivadas do tecido adiposo de porcos (pASC) aumenta a perfusão tecidual cardíaca em animais infartados e humanizados pelo tratamento com um inibidor da enzima conversora de angiotensina (iECA) e um ?-bloqueador. Os animais foram submetidos a oclusão da artéria coronária circunflexa esquerda (ACX) e 4 semanas após o IM, 4 grupos foram randomizados para receber injeção intramiocárdica de pASC nas doses de 1, 2 ou 4x10 ...


The beneficial effects associated with intramyocardial injection of adult stem cells in rodents have not been consistently reproduced in larger animals and humans. We evaluated the dose of porcine adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (pASC) to increase cardiac tissue perfusion in pigs treated with ace-inhibitors and ?-blockers to mimic human management post-MI. Animals were subjected to LCx occlusion and 4 weeks after MI blinded randomized in 4 groups to receive intramyocardial injection of pASC (1, 2 and 4x10 ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Adult Stem Cells/transplantation , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adipose Tissue , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Metoprolol/therapeutic use , Swine
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166135

ABSTRACT

Cardioprotective effect of fimasartan, a new angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), was evaluated in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty swine were randomized to group 1 (sham, n=10), group 2 (no angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor [ACEI] or ARB, n=10), group 3 (perindopril 2 mg daily, n=10), group 4 (valsartan 40 mg daily, n=10), or group 5 (fimasartan 30 mg daily, n=10). Acute MI was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 50 min. Echocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) were performed at baseline, 1 week, and 4 weeks. Iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan was done at 6 weeks for visualization of cardiac sympathetic activity. Left ventricular function and volumes at 4 weeks were similar between the 5 groups. No difference was observed in groups 2 to 5 in SPECT perfusion defect, matched and mismatched segments between SPECT and PET at 1 week and 4 weeks. MIBG scan showed similar uptake between the 5 groups. Pathologic analysis showed similar infarct size in groups 2 to 5. Infarct size reduction was not observed with use of fimasartan as well as other ACEI and ARB in a porcine model of acute MI.


Subject(s)
3-Iodobenzylguanidine , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Perindopril/therapeutic use , Positron-Emission Tomography , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Swine , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
9.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(3): 410-413, Jul-Sep/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725489

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The potential risks related to drug exposure during pregnancy represent a vast chapter in modern obstetrics and data regarding the safety of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy are relatively scarce. Case report: A 37-year-old patient discovered her fifth pregnancy at our hospital after 26 weeks and 4 days of gestation. She reported a history of hypertension and was currently being treated with Losartan. Hospitalization was recommended for the patient and further evaluation of fetal vitality was performed. On the fourth day an ultrasound was performed, resulting in a severe oligohydramnios, fetal centralization and abnormal ductus venosus. After 36 hours, the newborn died. Pathologic evaluation: At autopsy, the skullcap had large fontanels and deficient ossification. The kidneys were slightly enlarged. A microscopic examination detected underdevelopment of the tubules and the presence of some dilated lumens. Immunohistochemical detection of epithelial membrane antigen was positive. Immunoreactivity of CD 15 was also assayed to characterize the proximal tubules, and lumen collapse was observed in some regions. Discussion: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARAs) are among the most widely prescribed drugs for hypertension. They are often used by hypertensive women who are considering become pregnant. While their fetal toxicity in the second or third trimesters has been documented, their teratogenic effect during the first trimester has only recently been demonstrated. Conclusion: Constant awareness by physicians and patients should be encouraged, particularly in regard to the prescription of antihypertensive drugs in women of childbearing age who are or intend to become pregnant. .


Introdução: Os riscos relacionados à exposição de drogas durante a gestação representam um vasto capítulo na obstetrícia moderna e dados sobre a segurança de drogas anti-hipertensivas são relativamente escassos. Relato do caso: Paciente de 37 anos, hipertensa crônica, descobriu a gravidez com 26 semanas e 4 dias de gestação. Estava em uso regular de Losartana. Durante avaliação fetal ultrassonográfica, foi relatada a presença de grave oligoâmnio associado ao quadro de centralização fetal com alteração de ducto venoso, e, após 36 horas, verificou-se óbito neonatal. Necrópsia: Observou-se calota craniana com fontanelas amplas e ossificação deficiente. Rins levemente aumentados de volume e, à microscopia, hipodesenvolvimento de túbulos com presença de lúmen dilatado. Imunohistoquímica com expressão em túbulos distais de antígeno epitelial de membrana. Imunoperoxidade com expressão em túbulos proximais de CD 15 em células epiteliais e colapso de alguns lúmens fora observado. Discussão: Inibidores da conversão de angiotensina e antagonistas de receptor de angiotensina estão entre as drogas mais prescritas para hipertensão. Estas drogas são frequentemente prescritas para mulheres em idade fértil e que pretendem engravidar. Enquanto a toxicidade fetal destas, nos segundo e terceiro trimestres, já é conhecida, seus efeitos durante o primeiro trimestre foi apenas recentemente demostrado. Conclusão: A conscientização por parte de médicos e pacientes deve ser realizada de rotina, principalmente no que diz respeito à prescrição e utilização de drogas potencialmente teratogênicas ou fetotóxicas. Este cuidado deve ser redobrado para pacientes que estão ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/etiology , Abnormalities, Drug-Induced , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/adverse effects , Losartan/adverse effects , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Losartan/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/drug therapy
10.
Clinics ; 69(5): 308-313, 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709611

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate angiotensin receptor blocker add-on therapy in patients with low cardiac output during decompensated heart failure. METHODS: We selected patients with decompensated heart failure, low cardiac output, dobutamine dependence, and an ejection fraction <0.45 who were receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The patients were randomized to losartan or placebo and underwent invasive hemodynamic and B-type natriuretic peptide measurements at baseline and on the seventh day after intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01857999. RESULTS: We studied 10 patients in the losartan group and 11 patients in the placebo group. The patient characteristics were as follows: age 52.7 years, ejection fraction 21.3%, dobutamine infusion 8.5 mcg/kg.min, indexed systemic vascular resistance 1918.0 dynes.sec/cm5.m2, cardiac index 2.8 L/min.m2, and B-type natriuretic peptide 1,403 pg/mL. After 7 days of intervention, there was a 37.4% reduction in the B-type natriuretic peptide levels in the losartan group compared with an 11.9% increase in the placebo group (mean difference, -49.1%; 95% confidence interval: -88.1 to -9.8%, p = 0.018). No significant difference was observed in the hemodynamic measurements. CONCLUSION: Short-term add-on therapy with losartan reduced B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients hospitalized for decompensated severe heart failure and low cardiac output with inotrope dependence. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Losartan/therapeutic use , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/drug effects , Cardiac Output, Low/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Dobutamine/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Clin. biomed. res ; 34(3): 234-244, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-834471

ABSTRACT

The new international guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hypertension proposed higher thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension in patients with higher cardiovascular risk, such as patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and the elderly. The premise for the new recommendations was the results of randomized clinical trials, such as the ACCORD trial. Nonetheless, the results of the ACCORD trial were within the predicted by the meta-analysis of risk and confirmed by metaanalysis of clinical trials, particularly for stroke. The decision to use 140 mmHg as the therapy goal would be to deny diabetic patients the benefit of preventing a large proportion of strokes. In addition, the meta-analysis conducted in the United States did not address prehypertension, ignoring many trials performed with patients presenting prehypertension and cardiovascular disease, showing the benefit of further lowering blood pressure. The guidelines recommended angiotensin receptor blockers as one of the first options for all patients and particularly patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Three recently published meta-analyses and review showed that these agents are practically inert in the prevention of allcause death and cardiovascular events. In conclusion, there is evidence showing that hypertension should be more aggressively prevented and treated, and that angiotensin receptor blockers should not be the first option to start the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Stroke/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 6(3): 99-107, jul. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726612

ABSTRACT

The beneficial effect angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA) for diabetic nephropathy can be hampered by the phenomenon of aldosterone escape. Aldosterone antagonists such as espironolactone or epleronone could potentiate the effects of ACEI and ARA and avoid the later problem. We performed a systematic search of the literature on the effects of aldosterone antagonists on diabetic nephropathy. We searched for clinical trials and follow up studies measuring the effects of aldosterone antagonists on urinary albumin excretion among patients with diabetic nephropathy. We retrieved 1345 papers on the subject and 10 were selected for analysis. Among these, spironolactone was more effective than comparing drugs to achieve a reduction in urinary albumin excretion of approximately 30 to 40 percent. On the other hand epleronone was not superior to comparing drugs. All studies reported a modest reduction in glomerular filtration rate and an increase in serum potassium levels. In conclusion, spironolactone in doses of 25 to 100 mg/day reduces urinary albumin excretion but reduces also glomerular filtration rate and increases serum potassium levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Spironolactone/therapeutic use , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Albuminuria/drug therapy , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Creatinine , Diabetes Mellitus , Spironolactone/analogs & derivatives , Spironolactone/adverse effects , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Potassium
13.
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-724211

ABSTRACT

Introdução: as doenças cardiovasculares são a principal causa de morte em muitos países. A influência dos medicamentos utilizados pelos cardiopatas poderem alterar o fluxo salivar tem sido foco de amplas discussões no meio científico. Objetivo: identificar a influência dos medicamentos usados por cardiopatas antes da cirurgia cardíaca, sobre o fluxo e o pH da saliva. Metodologia: o estudo incluiu 70 pacientes adultos com doença cardíaca, no tocante à investigação do perfil socioeconômico, as doenças cardíacas de base, os medicamentos utilizados e a avaliação do pH e do fluxo salivar dos mesmos. Resultados: a média de idade da amostra foi de 50 anos, sendo que 52,9% dos pacientes avaliados foram do sexo masculino. Entre as doenças cardíacas, 52,9% foram doenças valvulares. O fluxo salivar muito reduzido foi encontrado em 14,3% dos pacientes, sendo que os beta-bloqueadores eram utilizados por 32,5% da amostra, enquanto que a capacidade de tamponamento salivar foi considerada normal. Conclusão: houve uma relação positiva entre a diminuição do fluxo salivar e uso de medicamentos, especialmente os beta-bloqueadores, ao tempo em que a capacidade de tamponamento da saliva foi normal...


Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in many countries. The capacity of heart disease medications to alter the salivary flow of the patients has been extensively discussed in the scientific community.Objective: To identify the influence of medications used by patients with cardiovascular diseases before heart surgery on the salivary flow and pH.Method: The study included 70 adult patients with cardiovascular diseases, assessing their socioeconomic profile, base cardiovascular diseases and medications under use, and evaluating their salivary flow and pH.Results: The mean age in the group was 50 years and 52.9% of the evaluated patients were male. Among the cardiovascular diseases, 52.9% were valve diseases. A strongly reduced salivary flow was found in 14.3% of the patients and 32.5% used betablocker drugs. The salivary buffering capacity was considered normal.Conclusion: There was a positive association between reduced salivary flow and use of medications, especially the beta blocker drugs, while the salivary buffering capacity was normal...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Heart Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Saliva/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Chi-Square Distribution
14.
Caracas; s.n; oct. 2012. ^c30 cmilus. (Ift4872012615853).
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1150993

ABSTRACT

La Enfermedad Periodontal (EP) es una condición inflamatoria progresiva que afecta los tejidos que soportan y rodean a los dientes. Las endotoxinas bacterianas como los lipopolisacáridos (LPS), inducen una cascada inflamatoria causando resorción ósea mediante la producción y modulación de la red de citoquinas del tejido periodontal, del sistema RANK-RANKL-OPG y de la producción de especies reactivas del oxígeno (ERO). Siendo la vía final la activación del factor de transcripción NFκB para el control de la infección. Se sabe que el Sistema Renina Angiotensina (SRA) esta involucrado en la inflamación. Estas acciones pro-inflamatorias de la Ang II son producidas por la activación de NFkB mediante los receptores AT1, y por la generación de ERO. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si la inhibición del receptor AT1 con el uso del valsartán reduciría la respuesta inmunitaria innata inflamatoria en un modelo de EP inducida por las inyecciones de LPS en la encía de las ratas. Nuestros resultados demuestran que el Valsartán disminuyó la leucocitosis sistémica, la movilidad dentaria, atenuó la pérdida de peso corporal de las ratas, disminuyó la formación de enzimas antioxidantes y NOS, redujo la producción y liberación de citocinas pro inflamatorias y aumentó las citocinas antinflamatorias, disminuyó la activación de p-p38, p-NFkB y la expresión de los receptores TLR4. El Valsartán también revirtió los efectos del LPS sobre la resorción ósea ya que disminuyó el número de osteoclastos, la expresión de los receptores RANK/RANKL/OPG y la relación RANKL/OPG y aumentó los depósitos de calcio y colágeno. Los mecanismos por los cuales el Valsartán reduce los efectos inflamatorios producidos por el LPS no están claras, pero la interferencia del ensamblaje de la NAD(P)H oxidasa con apocinina y el Tempol, indica que el Valsartán puede interferir con los pasos para el reconocimiento de LPS y su asociación con TLR4. Concluyéndose que las ERO participan en la señalización intracelular de la ANG II, vía el AT1R. Este estudio ayuda a dilucidar el papel del SRA en procesos inflamatorios. Además contribuye con sus resultados a ofrecer una alternativa terapéutica en el tratamiento de la EP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Periodontal Diseases/chemically induced , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Valsartan/pharmacology , Gingiva/drug effects , Periodontal Diseases/metabolism , Periodontal Diseases/drug therapy , Periodontitis/chemically induced , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Time Factors , Angiotensin II/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Models, Animal , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Injections
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(2): 163-171, Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614574

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to observe possible interactions between the renin-angiotensin and nitrergic systems in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. Thirteen chronically instrumented newborn piglets (6.3 ± 0.9 days; 2369 ± 491 g) were randomly assigned to receive saline (placebo, P) or the AT1 receptor (AT1-R) blocker L-158,809 (L) during 6 days of hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.12). During hypoxia, pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa; P < 0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; P < 0.02) and the pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance ratio (PVR/SVR; P < 0.05) were significantly attenuated in the L (N = 7) group compared to the P group (N = 6). Western blot analysis of lung proteins showed a significant decrease of endothelial NOS (eNOS) in both P and L animals, and of AT1-R in P animals during hypoxia compared to normoxic animals (C group, N = 5; P < 0.01 for all groups). AT1-R tended to decrease in L animals. Inducible NOS (iNOS) did not differ among P, L, and C animals and iNOS immunohistochemical staining in macrophages was significantly more intense in L than in P animals (P < 0.01). The vascular endothelium showed moderate or strong eNOS and AT1-R staining. Macrophages and pneumocytes showed moderate or strong iNOS and AT1-R staining, but C animals showed weak iNOS and AT1-R staining. Macrophages of L and P animals showed moderate and weak AT2-R staining, respectively, but the endothelium of all groups only showed weak staining. In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia in newborn piglets is partially attenuated by AT1-R blockade. We suggest that AT1-R blockade might act through AT2-R and/or Mas receptors and the nitrergic system in the lungs of hypoxemic newborn piglets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/complications , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Nitric Oxide Synthase/drug effects , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Animals, Newborn , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery/drug effects , Swine , Vascular Resistance/drug effects
16.
Bauru; s.n; 2011. 113 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-865852

ABSTRACT

A doença periodontal (DP) compreende um grupo de lesões que afetam os tecidos periodontais de proteção (gengivite) e suporte (periodontite), envolvendo a participação de células residentes, células estruturais e mediadores inflamatórios. Pesquisa recente do nosso laboratório mostrou a existência de um Sistema Renina-Angiotensina (SRA) local no tecido gengival de ratos e sugeriu que o SRA possa ter participação na DP. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a se o SRA está envolvido na iniciação e na progressão da DP induzida experimentalmente em ratos. Para tanto, foi utilizado modelo de indução da DP por colocação de ligadura, por 7 e 14 dias, ao redor do primeiro molar inferior de ratos e tratamento destes animais com drogas que afetam o SRA [losartan (50 mg/Kg/dia), alisquireno (30 mg/Kg/dia) ou enalapril (10 mg/Kg/dia)]. Foram realizadas técnicas de análise da perda óssea alveolar, reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) quantitativa e imunoistoquímica. Após a coleta, os dados foram devidamente analisados por meio de gráficos e tabelas, sendo utilizada ANOVA a 2 e 3 critérios e adotado nível de significância de 5%. Em nível protéico, houve aumento significativo da maioria dos componentes do SRA (p<0,05) na DP. A renina apresentou aumento nos tratamentos com losartan, alisquireno e enalapril tanto nos animais sham (cirurgia fictícia de indução da DP) quanto nos animais com DP, aos 7 e 14 dias, e não apresentou marcação no grupo controle (água), demonstrando efeito dependente dos tratamentos farmacológicos. Na DP houve aumento dos componentes AT1 (aos 7 e 14 dias), AT2 (aos 7 dias) e enzima conversora da angiotensina (ECA; aos 7 e 14 dias) nos grupos tratados com losartan, alisquireno e enalapril. Também houve aumento de imunomarcação nos animais com DP para AT2 (aos 14 dias) e ECA (aos 14 dias) em animais do grupo controle. Em relação à expressão gênica, houve aumento da expressão de RNAm nos animais com DP para o...


Periodontal disease (PD) comprises a group of lesions that affect protection (gingivitis) and support periodontal tissues (periodontitis) involving the participation of resident and structural cells as well as inflammatory mediators. Recent research in our laboratory showed the existence of a local gingival renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and suggested that it might participate in PD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the RAS is involved in the initiation and progression of the experimentally-induced PD in rats. For this purpose, a model of ligature placement, for 7 and 14 days, around the lower first molar in rats, and the treatment of such animals with drugs that affect the RAS [losartan (50 mg/Kg/day), aliskiren (30 mg/Kg/day) or enalapril (10 mg/Kg/day)] were employed. The following techniques were performed: alveolar bone loss analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Data were collected, organized in tables and graphs, and submitted to 2 and 3 way ANOVA with significance level established at 5%. In the protein level, there was a significant increase in the majority of the RAS components in PD. Immunolocalization for renin increased when animals were treated with losartan, aliskiren or enalapril, for 7 and 14 days, in both sham (fictitious surgery for PD induction) and PD animals, whereas the control group (water) had no staining, demonstrating a drug-related effect. In animals with PD treated with losartan, aliskiren or enalapril there was an increase in staining for AT1 (at 7 and 14 days), AT2 (at 7 days) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; at 7 and 14 days). There was also increased staining in PD animals for AT2 (at 14 days) and ACE (at 14 days) in the control group. As far as genic expression, there was an increase in mRNA expression for AT2 in control animals with PD (at 7 and 14 days), and in the animals treated with losartan or enalapril (at 7 days)...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Periodontal Diseases/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Amides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Disease Progression , Periodontal Diseases/drug therapy , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Fumarates/therapeutic use , Gene Expression , Losartan/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Alveolar Bone Loss/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137391

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), which is frequently prescribed in patients with glomerulonephritis (GN), is suggested to increase the risk of cancer. We registered 3,288 patients with renal biopsy and analyzed the relationship between the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade and the incidence of cancer or cancer mortality. After renal biopsy, cancer developed in 33 patients with an incidence rate of 1.0% (95% of CI for incidence: 0.7%-1.3%). There was no difference in the cancer incidence among the groups according to the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or ARB: 1.2% in the None (23/1960), 0.7% in the ARB-only (5/748), 0.4% in the ACEI-only (1/247), and 1.2% in the ACEI-ARB (4/333) (P = 0.487) groups. The cancer mortality was 2.1%, 0.4%, 0.0%, and 0.3% in None, ACEI-only, ARB-only, and ACEI-ARB group, respectively (P < 0.001). The risk of cancer mortality in patients with ARB was only 0.124 (0.034-0.445) compared to that of non-users of ARB by Cox's hazard proportional analysis. In conclusion, prescription of ACEI or ARB in patients with GN does not increase cancer incidence and recipients of ARB show rather lower rates of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Humans , Incidence , Kidney/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137390

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), which is frequently prescribed in patients with glomerulonephritis (GN), is suggested to increase the risk of cancer. We registered 3,288 patients with renal biopsy and analyzed the relationship between the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade and the incidence of cancer or cancer mortality. After renal biopsy, cancer developed in 33 patients with an incidence rate of 1.0% (95% of CI for incidence: 0.7%-1.3%). There was no difference in the cancer incidence among the groups according to the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or ARB: 1.2% in the None (23/1960), 0.7% in the ARB-only (5/748), 0.4% in the ACEI-only (1/247), and 1.2% in the ACEI-ARB (4/333) (P = 0.487) groups. The cancer mortality was 2.1%, 0.4%, 0.0%, and 0.3% in None, ACEI-only, ARB-only, and ACEI-ARB group, respectively (P < 0.001). The risk of cancer mortality in patients with ARB was only 0.124 (0.034-0.445) compared to that of non-users of ARB by Cox's hazard proportional analysis. In conclusion, prescription of ACEI or ARB in patients with GN does not increase cancer incidence and recipients of ARB show rather lower rates of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Humans , Incidence , Kidney/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135537

ABSTRACT

Background & objective: The efficacy of the combination of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) with nephropathy is debatable. The antialbuminuric efficacy of dual blockade in patients of type 1 DM with micro- or macroabuminuria were evaluated. Methods: In this open label observational study 30 patients (20 male 10 female) with type 1 DM were included who were initially treated with telmisartan 80 mg for eight weeks followed by addition of ramipril 10 mg for a further eight weeks. Albuminuria reduction was studied at the end of each phase. Results: Therapy with telmisartan for 8 wk resulted in a 39 per cent (P<0.01) reduction in albumin excretion rate (AER). Combination therapy with telmisartan and ramipril produced a further reduction in AER of 33.4 per cent (P<0.01), amounting to a total AER reduction of 59 per cent (P<0.001). Dual blockade was more effective in the group of macroalbuminuric as compared to microalbuminuric subjects (P<0.05). Telmisartan produced a significant reduction in SBP (P<0.05). The addition of ramipril produced a further reduction in BP, the total reduction being 10.3 in SBP and 7.2 mmHg in DBP (P<0.001 for both). There was an increase in mean serum potassium of 0.39 mmol/l (P<0.01) from baseline at the end of the study period and two patients had hyperkalemia > 5.5 mmol/l with dual blockade. Interpretation & conclusion: Dual blockade with ramipril enhanced the antialbuminuric efficacy of telmisartan and further reduced blood pressure. The effect of dual blockade was more pronounced in the macroalbuminuric subjects and it was well tolerated. However, careful monitoring of serum potassium is required.


Subject(s)
Albumins/metabolism , Albuminuria/drug therapy , Albuminuria/etiology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , Benzoates/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Potassium/blood , Ramipril/therapeutic use , Statistics, Nonparametric
20.
Clinics ; 65(9): 857-863, 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-562828

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the importance of providing guidelines to patients via active telephone calls for blood pressure control and for preventing the discontinuation of treatment among hypertensive patients. INTRODUCTION: Many reasons exist for non-adherence to medical regimens, and one of the strategies employed to improve treatment compliance is the use of active telephone calls. METHODS: Hypertensive patients (n=354) who could receive telephone calls to remind them of their medical appointments and receive instruction about hypertension were distributed into two groups: a) "uncomplicated" - hypertensive patients with no other concurrent diseases and b) "complicated" - severe hypertensive patients (mean diastolic >110 mmHg with or without medication) or patients with comorbidities. All patients, except those excluded (n=44), were open-block randomized to follow two treatment regimens ("traditional" or "current") and to receive or not receive telephone calls ("phone calls" and "no phone calls" groups, respectively). RESULTS: Significantly fewer patients in the "phone calls" group discontinued treatment compared to those in the "no phone calls" group (4 vs. 30; p<0.0094). There was no difference in the percentage of patients with controlled blood pressure in the "phone calls" group and "no phone calls" group or in the "traditional" and "current" groups. The percentage of patients with controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was increased at the end of the treatment (74 percent), reaching 80 percent in the "uncomplicated" group and 67 percent in the "complicated" group (p<0.000001). CONCLUSION: Guidance to patients via active telephone calls is an efficient strategy for preventing the discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Hydrochlorothiazide/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Atenolol/therapeutic use , Clinical Protocols , Losartan/therapeutic use , Telephone
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