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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Silence of SET domain containing lysine methyltransferase 7 (SET7) alleviates myocardial tissue injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion. But the effects of SET7 on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced myocardial fibroblast proliferation and the collagen synthesis are not clear. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of SET7 on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of myocardial fibroblasts and its mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Myocardial fibroblasts were isolated and identified by immunofluorescence. Myocardial fibroblasts were randomly divided into 4 groups: a control group (cells were normally cultured), an Ang II group (cells were treated with 100 nmol/L Ang II for 24 h), a siCtrl group (cells were transfected with siRNA control and were then treated with 100 nmol/L Ang II for 24 h), and a siSET7 group (cells were transfected with siRNA SET7 and were then treated with 100 nmol/L Ang II for 24 h). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay were used to evaluate cell proliferation. Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of SET7, collagen I, collagen III, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of SET7, collagen I, collagen III, α-SMA, sonic hedgehog (Shh), ptched1 (Ptch1), and glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1).@*RESULTS@#Fluorescence microscopy showed positive vimentin staining, and myocardial fibroblasts were in good condition. As compared to the control group, the mRNA and protein levels of SET7 in the Ang II group were significantly upregulated; cell proliferation rate and EdU fluorescence intensity in the Ang II group were significantly increased; the mRNA and protein levels of collagen I, collagen III, and α-SMA were significantly upregulated (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Silence of SET7 gene inhibits Ang II-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis of myocardial fibroblasts. Shh signaling pathway may be involved in this process.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Collagen/genetics , Fibroblasts , Hedgehog Proteins
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(4): 318-322, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131605

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathogenesis of retinal ischemic conditions and glaucoma. Our objective was to evaluate the renin, angiotensinconverting enzyme 1, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activities in aqueous humor and blood samples of patients with and without primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: We analyzed samples from 56 participants who underwent ocular surgeries. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with cataract alone (n=28) and patients with cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma (n=28). Venous blood (2 ml) and aqueous humor (150 µl, via paracentesis) samples were collected during phacoemulsification (cataract only) or glaucoma surgery (cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma). The serum and aqueous humor renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme 1, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activities of all patients were evaluated by fluorimetric assays, and results were analyzed by using multivariate regression analysis. Results: Both the aqueous humor renin activity and renin activity aqueous humor/serum ratio were significantly lower in patients with cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma than in patients with cataract only [(mean ± SE): 0.018 ± 0.006 ng/ml/h vs 0.045 ± 0.009 ng/ml/h, p<0.001; 0.05 ± 0.02 vs 0.13 ± 0.05, p=0.025]. Multivariate analyses showed a significant relationship between lower aqueous humor renin activity and primary open-angle glaucoma [coefficient (±SE): -0.029 ± 0.013, p=0.026]. Conclusions: Our results showed that patients with primary open-angle glaucoma had lower aqueous humor renin activity. As timolol eye drops were used by most of the primary open-angle glaucoma patients, we propose that a large sample of washed-out patients should be studied in the future to discriminate the involvement of b-blocker treatment in the aqueous humor renin activity.


RESUMO Objetivo: O sistema renina-angiotensina está envolvido na patogênese das condições isquêmicas retinianas e no glaucoma. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a atividade da renina, enzima conversora de angiotensina 1 e 2 no humor aquoso, e amostras de sangue de pacientes com e sem glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. Métodos: Foram analisadas amostras de 56 participantes submetidos à cirurgia ocular. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: pacientes com catarata apenas (n=28), e pacientes com catarata e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto (n=28). Amostras de sangue venoso (2ml) e humor aquoso (150 µl, via paracentese) foram coletadas durante a facoemulsificação (apenas catarata) ou cirurgia de glaucoma (catarata e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto). As atividades sérica do humor aquoso de renina, enzima conversora de angiotensina 1 e enzima conversora de angiotensina 2 de todos os pacientes foram avaliadas por ensaios fluorimétricos, e os resultados foram analisados por regressão multivariada. Resultados: Tanto a atividade da renina no humor aquoso quanto à razão humor aquoso/soro da atividade da renina foram significativamente menores nos pacientes com catarata e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto do que em pacientes com catarata apenas [(média ± DP): 0,018 ± 0,006 ng/ml/h vs 0,045 ± 0,009 ng/ml/h; p<0,001 e 0,05 ± 0,02 vs 0,13 ± 0,05; p=0,025]. Análises multivariadas mostraram uma releção significativa entre menor atividade de renina no humor aquoso e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto [coeficiente (±erro padrão): -0,029 ± 0,013; p=0,026]. Conclusões: Como a maioria dos pacientes com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto usavam o colírio de timolol, estudos futuros envolvendo um maior número de pacientes e retirada prévia do tratamento são necessários para se discriminar o envolvimento do uso de betabloqueadores na atividade da renina no humor aquoso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aqueous Humor , Cataract , Angiotensin I , Angiotensin II , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Renin
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e8793, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055493

ABSTRACT

Aliskiren (ALS) is well known for its antihypertensive properties. However, the potential underlying the molecular mechanism and the anti-hypertrophic effect of ALS have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ALS in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and apoptosis signaling using in vivo and in vitro models of cardiac hypertrophy. A rat model of cardiac hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol treatment (5 mg·kg-1·day-1) for 4 weeks, with or without ALS treatment at 20 mg·kg-1·day-1. The expression of hypertrophic, fibrotic, and apoptotic markers was determined by RT-qPCR. The protein expression of apoptotic markers mTOR and p-mTOR was assessed by western blot analysis. The proliferation of H9C2 cells was monitored using the MTS assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry. In vivo, isoproterenol-treated rats exhibited worse cardiac function, whereas ALS treatment reversed these dysfunctions, which were associated with changes in p-mTOR, Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 expression, as well as the number of apoptotic cells. In vitro, H9C2 cardiomyocyte viability was significantly inhibited and cardiac hypertrophy was induced by Ang II administration, but ALS reversed Ang II-induced H9C2 cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and death. Furthermore, Ang II triggered the activation of the mTOR and apoptosis pathways in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes that were inhibited by ALS treatment. These results indicated that ALS alleviated cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of the mTOR and apoptosis pathways in cardiomyocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cardiomegaly/prevention & control , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Fumarates/administration & dosage , Amides/administration & dosage , Fibrosis/chemically induced , Fibrosis/prevention & control , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cardiomegaly/chemically induced , Cardiomegaly/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Models, Animal , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Isoproterenol/pharmacology
4.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 20(2): 43-46, diciembre 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116487

ABSTRACT

Los Inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina II (IECAs) y antagonistas de los receptores de angiotensina II (ARA II) son drogas usadas comúnmente en el manejo de hipertensión arterial, sin embargo, su uso en el embarazo está asociado con toxicidad fetal.1, 2 La acción de la angiotensina II requiere su unión a dos receptores; AT1, involucrado en el control de la tensión arterial y AT2, probablemente encargado del crecimiento fetal. 2 La angiotensina II es esencial en la hemodinamia sistémica y la filtración glomerular fetal y neonatal. La disminución de la perfusión placentaria por efecto hipotensor en el bloqueo del sistema renina angiotensina aldosterona materno puede determinar hipotensión fetal sistémica, disminución de la filtración glomerular, oligoamnios e insuficiencia renal, anormalidades tubulares, hipoplasia craneal y alto riesgo de muerte perinatal. 2 Reportamos el caso de prematuro de 30 semanas con oligohidramnios severo y exposición materna a olmesartan. Al nacimiento presentó dificultad respiratoria; imposibilidad de mantener una adecuada tensión arterial a pesar de los esfuerzos para conseguir mejorar su tono vascular; anuria sin respuesta a diuréticos; alteraciones craneales; alteraciones metabólicas severas con consecuencias fatales. El tratamiento de hipertensión materna con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina II y los antagonistas de los receptores de angiotensina II está asociada con toxicidad fetal por lo que su uso debe ser evitado durante el embarazo.


Angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) are drugs for general use in the management of arterial hypertension, however their use in gestational hypertension is related to the Fetal toxicity. 1, 2 The action of angiotensin II requires its binding to two receptors; AT1, involved in the control of blood pressure and AT2, probably responsible for fetal growth.2 Angiotensin II is essential in systemic hemodynamics and fetal and neonatal glomerular filtration. The decrease in placental perfusion due to hypotensive effect in the blockade of the maternal rennin angiotensin aldosterone system can determine systemic fetal hypotension, decreased glomerular filtration, oligohydramnios and renal insufficiency, tubular abnormalities, cranial hypoplasia and high risk of perinatal death. 2 We report the case of prematurity of 30 weeks with a history of severe oligohydramnios and maternal exposure to olmesartan. At birth the patient presented in particular respiratory distress; inability to maintain adequate blood pressure despite efforts to improve your vascular tone; anuria without response to diuretics; cranial alterations; metabolic alterations with fatal consequences. The treatment of maternal hypertension with inhibitors of the angiotensin II convective enzyme and angiotensin II receptor antagonists is associated with fetal toxicity and should therefore be avoided during pregnancy


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Oligohydramnios , Premature Birth , Renal Insufficiency , Angiotensin II , Maternal Exposure , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Fetal Development , Toxicity , Hypotension
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 328-333, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012600

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Posterior urethral valve is the most common lower urinary tract obstruction in male children. A high percentage of patients with posterior urethral valve evolve to end‐stage renal disease. Previous studies showed that cytokines, chemokines, and components of the renin-angiotensin system contribute to the renal damage in obstructive uropathies. The authors recently found that urine samples from fetuses with posterior urethral valve have increased levels of inflammatory molecules. The aim of this study was to measure renin-angiotensin system molecules and to investigate their correlation with previously detected inflammatory markers in the same urine samples of fetuses with posterior urethral valve. Methods: Urine samples from 24 fetuses with posterior urethral valve were collected and compared to those from 22 healthy male newborns at the same gestational age (controls). Renin-angiotensin system components levels were measured by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Fetuses with posterior urethral valve presented increased urinary levels of angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang‐(1‐7) and angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 in comparison with controls. ACE levels were significantly reduced and Ang II levels were similar in fetuses with posterior urethral valve in comparison with controls. Conclusions: Increased urinary levels of angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 and of Ang‐(1‐7) in fetuses with posterior urethral valve could represent a regulatory response to the intense inflammatory process triggered by posterior urethral valve.


Resumo Objetivo: A válvula de uretra posterior é a obstrução do trato urinário inferior mais comum em crianças do sexo masculino. Uma alta porcentagem de pacientes com válvula de uretra posterior evolui para doença renal em estágio final. Estudos anteriores mostraram que citocinas, quimiocinas e componentes do sistema renina-angiotensina contribuem para o dano renal em uropatias obstrutivas. Recentemente, descobrimos que amostras de urina de fetos com válvula de uretra posterior tinham níveis aumentados de moléculas inflamatórias. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir as moléculas de renina-angiotensina e investigar sua correlação com marcadores inflamatórios previamente detectados nas mesmas amostras de urina de fetos com válvula de uretra posterior. Métodos: Amostras de urina de 24 fetos com válvula de uretra posterior foram coletadas e comparadas com amostras de urina de 22 recém-nascidos saudáveis de mesma idade gestacional (controles). Os níveis dos componentes de SRA foram medidos por ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática. Resultados: Os fetos com válvula de uretra posterior apresentaram níveis urinários aumentados de angiotensina (Ang) I, Ang-(1-7) e enzima conversora de angiotensina 2 em comparação com os controles. Os níveis de enzima conversora de angiotensina eram significativamente menores e os níveis de Ang II eram semelhantes nos fetos com válvula de uretra posterior em comparação com os controles. Conclusões: O aumento dos níveis urinários de enzima conversora de angiotensina 2 e de Ang-(1-7) em fetos com válvula de uretra posterior poderia representar uma resposta regulatória ao intenso processo inflamatório desencadeado pela válvula de uretra posterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Peptide Fragments/urine , Urethra/abnormalities , Urethral Diseases/urine , Angiotensin I/urine , Angiotensin II/urine , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/urine , Fetus/abnormalities , Urethra/embryology , Urethral Diseases/diagnosis , Urethral Diseases/embryology , Biomarkers/urine , Case-Control Studies , Immunosorbent Techniques
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of Cyr61 in angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ)-induced functional changes in HEK293 cells and explore the mechanism.@*METHODS@#Cyr61 knockdown in cultured HEK293T cells was achieved by transfection of the cells with CRISPR/Cas9 KO plasmid. The changes in apoptosis and expression levels of Cyr61 and Bcl-2 in the cells with or without Cyr61 knockdown in response to treatment with 10 mol/L AngⅡ for 48 h were analyzed using flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The cells with Cyr61 knockdown showed significantly decreased expression of Cyr61 protein as compared with the control cells ( < 0.05). AngⅡ treatment for 48 h significantly increased the expression of Cyr61 and lowers the expression of Bcl-2 at both the protein and mRNA levels in HEK293T cells. In HEK293T cells with Cyr61 knockdown, AngⅡ treatment resulted in significantly increased expression of Bcl-2 in HEK293T cells as compared with that of the control group ( < 0.05). AngⅡ treatment caused significantly increased apoptotic rate in HEK293T cells as compared with the cells with Cyr61 knockdown [(26.94 ± 3.73)% (3.87 ± 0.83)%, < 0.05), and the apoptosis rate was significantly lowered to (15.76 ± 1.31)% in HEK293T cells with Cyr61 knockdown following AngⅡ treatment ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The up-regulation of Cyr61 expression is related with AngⅡ-induced injury in HEK293T cells, and down-regulating Cyr61 expression can effectively protect HEK293T cells against AngⅡ-induced injury.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Apoptosis , Cysteine-Rich Protein 61 , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Up-Regulation
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Silicosis, caused by inhalation of silica dust, is the most serious occupational disease in China and the aim of present study was to explore the protective effect of Ang (1-7) on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang II.@*METHODS@#HOPE-MED 8050 exposure control apparatus was used to establish the rat silicosis model. Pathological changes and collagen deposition of the lung tissue were examined by H.E. and VG staining, respectively. The localizations of ACE2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the lung were detected by immunohistochemistry. Expression levels of collagen type I, α-SMA, ACE2, and Mas in the lung tissue and fibroblasts were examined by western blot. Levels of ACE2, Ang (1-7), and Ang II in serum were determined by ELISA. Co-localization of ACE2 and α-SMA in fibroblasts was detected by immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#Ang (1-7) induced pathological changes and enhanced collagen deposition in vivo. Ang (1-7) decreased the expressions of collagen type I and α-SMA and increased the expressions of ACE2 and Mas in the silicotic rat lung tissue and fibroblasts stimulated by Ang II. Ang (1-7) increased the levels of ACE2 and Ang (1-7) and decreased the level of Ang II in silicotic rat serum. A779 enhanced the protective effect of Ang (1-7) in fibroblasts stimulated by Ang II.@*CONCLUSION@#Ang (1-7) exerted protective effect on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang II by regulating ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis.


Subject(s)
Actins , Metabolism , Angiotensin I , Blood , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Angiotensin II , Blood , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type I , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Lung , Metabolism , Pathology , Myofibroblasts , Peptide Fragments , Blood , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Silicosis , Metabolism , Pathology
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 187-195, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777197

ABSTRACT

Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) tension. Angiotensin II (Ang II) as the main effector molecule of RAS can increase the intracellular Ca concentration and cause VSMCs contraction by activating angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). The large-conductance Ca- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channel is an essential potassium channel in VSMCs, playing an important role in maintaining membrane potential and intracellular potassium-calcium balance. The BK channel in VSMCs mainly consists of α and β1 subunits. Functional BKα subunits contain voltage-sensors and Ca binding sites. Hence, increase in the membrane potential or intracellular Ca concentration can trigger the opening of the BK channel by mediating transient K outward current in a negative regulatory manner. However, increasing evidence has shown that although Ang II can raise the intracellular Ca concentration, it also inhibits the expression and function of the BK channel by activating the PKC pathway, internalizing AT1R-BKα heterodimer, or dissociating α and β1 subunits. Under some specific conditions, Ang II can also activate the BK channel, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms underlying the inhibitory or activating effect of Ang II on the BK channel, hoping that it could provide a theoretical basis for improving intracellular ion imbalance.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Physiology , Calcium , Physiology , Humans , Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels , Physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Biology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Physiology , Renin-Angiotensin System
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) may be a valuable source for cardiovascular tissue engineering and cell therapy. The aim of this study is to verify angiotensin II and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) as potential cardiomyogenic differentiation inducers of AF-MSCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: AF-MSCs were obtained from amniocentesis samples from second-trimester pregnant women, isolated and characterized by the expression of cell surface markers (CD44, CD90, CD105 positive; CD34 negative) and pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX1). Cardiomyogenic differentiation was induced using different concentrations of angiotensin II and TGF-β1. Successful initiation of differentiation was confirmed by alterations in cell morphology, upregulation of cardiac genes-markers NKX2-5, TBX5, GATA4, MYH6, TNNT2, DES and main cardiac ion channels genes (sodium, calcium, potassium) as determined by RT-qPCR. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed the increased expression of Connexin43, the main component of gap junctions, and Nkx2.5, the early cardiac transcription factor. Induced AF-MSCs switched their phenotype towards more energetic and started utilizing oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis for energy production as assessed using Agilent Seahorse XF analyzer. The immune analysis of chromatin-modifying enzymes DNMT1, HDAC1/2 and Polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2 (PRC1/2) proteins BMI1, EZH2 and SUZ12 as well as of modified histones H3 and H4 indicated global chromatin remodeling during the induced differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin II and TGF-β1 are efficient cardiomyogenic inducers of human AF-MSCs; they initiate alterations at the gene and protein expression, metabolic and epigenetic levels in stem cells leading towards cardiomyocyte-like phenotype formation.


Subject(s)
Amniocentesis , Amniotic Fluid , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Chromatin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Connexin 43 , Epigenomics , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gap Junctions , Glycolysis , Histones , Humans , Ion Channels , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Muscle Cells , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Phenotype , Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 , Pregnant Women , Smegmamorpha , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 679-686, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762092

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Statins, metformin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been suggested for treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD) due to their pleiotropic effects. Therefore, we investigated whether these drugs prevent AMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Using risk-set sampling of age, sex, cohort entry date, and follow-up duration, we identified incident patients with AMD and 10 matching controls in cohorts with diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. Exposure was assessed within one year before the index date using patient prescription records. We conducted conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between cardiovascular medications and AMD. RESULTS: Our study included 2330 cases and 23278 controls from a cohort of 231274 patients. The ORs (95% CI) for AMD occurrence in users prescribed with statins, metformin, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs were 1.12 (0.94–1.32), 1.15 (0.91–1.45), 0.90 (0.61–1.34), and 1.21 (1.05–1.39), respectively. A duration-response was not observed. CONCLUSION: Statins, metformin, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs did not inhibit AMD in elderly patients. The absence of a duration-response supports the lack of a causal relationship.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Angiotensins , Cardiovascular Diseases , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Logistic Models , Macular Degeneration , Metformin , National Health Programs , Odds Ratio , Prescriptions , Receptors, Angiotensin
11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 615-626, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been suggested to accelerate vascular senescence, however the molecular mechanism(s) remain unknown. METHODS: We cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCSMCs) and treated Ang II and/or fimasartan. Or we transfected adenoviral vectors expressing CYR61 (Ad-CYR61) or antisense CYR61 (Ad-As-CYR61). Cellular senescence was evaluated senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) assay. The molecular mechanisms were investigated real-time PCR and western blots. RESULTS: SA-β-gal-positive cells significantly increased in Ang II-treated hCSMCs (5.77±1.43-fold compared with the control). The effect of Ang II was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, fimasartan (2.00±0.92-fold). The expression of both p53 and p16 senescence regulators was significantly increased by Ang II (p53: 1.39±0.17, p16: 1.19±0.10-fold vs. the control), and inhibited by fimasartan. Cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (CYR61) was rapidly induced by Ang II. Compared with the control, Ad-CYR61-transfected hCSMCs showed significantly increased SA-β-gal-positive cells (3.47±0.65-fold). Upon transfecting Ad-AS-CYR61, Ang II-induced senescence (3.74±0.23-fold) was significantly decreased (1.77±0.60-fold). p53 expression by Ang II was significantly attenuated by Ad-AS-CYR61, whereas p16 expression was not regulated. Ang II activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, which was significantly blocked by fimasartan. ERK and p38 inhibition both regulated Ang II-induced CYR61 expression. However, p53 expression was only regulated by ERK1/2, whereas p16 expression was only attenuated by p38 MAPK. CONCLUSIONS: Ang II induced vascular senescence by the ERK/p38 MAPK–CYR61 pathway and ARB, fimasartan, protected against Ang II-induced vascular senescence.


Subject(s)
Aging , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Cellular Senescence , Coronary Vessels , Humans , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761495

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antibodies directly injure endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells by activating transcription factors associated with proinflammatory responses. Previous studies have shown that AT1R antibodies are associated with allograft rejection and decreased graft survival in kidney transplantation. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has facilitated semiquantitative detection of AT1R antibodies. Assessing AT1R antibodies along with donor specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies may have potential to identify patients with possible risk for allograft injury and improve overall outcomes. In this review, we summarize recent clinical studies about AT1R antibodies in kidney transplantation and provide perspectives for future research area.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factors , Allografts , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Antibodies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Graft Survival , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Leukocytes , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Tissue Donors , Transplantation
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774511

ABSTRACT

This paper was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of aconitine(AC) on angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ)-induced H9 c2 cell hypertrophy and explore its mechanism of action. The model of hypertrophy was induced by Ang Ⅱ(1×10-6 mol·L-1),and cardiomyocytes were incubated with different concentrations of AC. Western blot was used to quantify the protein expression levels of atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP),brain natriuretic peptide(BNP),β-myosin heavy chain(β-MHC),and α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA). Real-time quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR) was used to quantify the mRNA expression levels of cardiac hypertrophic markers ANP,BNP and β-MHC. In addition,the fluorescence intensity of the F-actin marker,an important component of myofibrils,was detected by using laser confocal microscope. AC could significantly reverse the increase of total protein content in H9 c2 cells induced by Ang Ⅱ; qRT-PCR results showed that AC could significantly inhibit the ANP,BNP and β-MHC mRNA up-regulation induced by AngⅡ. Western blot results showed that AC could significantly inhibit the ANP,BNP and β-MHC protein up-regulation induced by AngⅡ. In addition,F-actin expression induced by Ang Ⅱ could be inhibited by AC,and multiple indicators of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by Ang Ⅱ could be down-regulated,indicating that AC may inhibit cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting the expression of hypertrophic factors,providing new clues for exploring the cardiovascular protection of AC.


Subject(s)
Aconitine , Pharmacology , Actins , Metabolism , Angiotensin II , Atrial Natriuretic Factor , Metabolism , Cardiac Myosins , Metabolism , Cardiomegaly , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Hypertrophy , Myocytes, Cardiac , Myosin Heavy Chains , Metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Metabolism
14.
HU rev ; 45(2): 212-221, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048961

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O sistema renina-angiotensina (SRA) é a maior rede regulatória da pressão arterial, do balanço hidroeletrolítico e da homeostase do organismo. Desde que o papel do SRA na regulação da função cardiovascular foi descrito, os componentes do eixo endócrino do sistema, em especial a angiotensina II - na regulação e fisiologia cardiovascular e renal, têm sido foco de pesquisa. Os achados das últimas décadas, no entanto, mostraram que o sistema é muito mais complexo e intricado do que se imaginava. Objetivo: Apresentar, através de uma revisão da literatura, alguns dos novos elementos que compõem o SRA e suas implicações fisiológicas, atualizando o leitor sobre o estado da arte. Material de Métodos:Revisão bibliográfica abordando as principais publicações, indexadas pelo PubMed, relacionadas aos novos peptídeos do SRA. Resultados: Dentre os novos componentes do SRA, encontram-se a angiotensina­(1-9), um nonapeptídeo que promove vasodilatação, ação anti-hipertrófica em cardiomiócitos e ação anti-hipertensiva. A Angiotensina-(1-7), por sua vez, apesar de se diferenciar da Ang II apenas pela ausência de um único aminoácido, é responsável por efeitos fisiológicos opostos aos observados com a Ang II. A Angiotensina A, outro peptídeo biologicamente ativo, é formado a partir da descarboxilação do aspartato, desempenhando efeitos semelhantes à Ang II. A Alamandina, também derivada de uma descarboxilação, é um heptapeptídeo vasodilatador, anti-hipertensivo e cardioprotetor. Conclusão: Os achados envolvendo as novas angiotensinas permitem o entendimento do sistema como uma extensa rede composta de vias e eixos alternativos, muitos dos quais, ainda sem esclarecimento científico. O enfoque em novas vias de formação de produtos com funções biológicas poderá ser útil para o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias terapêuticas e, descobertas no campo da fisiologia e fisiopatologia de uma série de condições.


Introdution: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is the major regulatory system of arterial blood pressure, hydroelectrolytic balance, and body homeostasis. Since the role of the RAS in the cardiovascular function has been described, much of the research in this area has focused on the role of its endocrine axis components, mainly angiotensin II (Ang II), in the cardiovascular and renal physiology. Over the last decades, the findings have shown that the system is much more intricate than thought. Objective:To present, upon a literature review, some of the new elements about the RAS and its physiological implications, updating the reader about the state of the art. Methods Material: Bibliographic review addressing the main PubMed publications related of the novels angiotensin-peptides. Results: Among the novel RAS components, angiotensin­(1-9) is a nonapeptide that exerts antihypertrophy effects in cardiomyocytes, and vasodilatory and anti-hypertensive actions. Angiotensin-(1-7), which differs from Ang II due to the absence of only one aminoacid, is responsible for physiological effects opposite to those of Ang II. Angiotensin A, another biologically active peptide, is synthesized through aspartate decarboxylation, and exerts effects similar to those of Ang II. Alamandine, also formed through decarboxylation, is a heptapeptide showing vasodilatory, antihypertensive, and cardioprotective effects. Conclusion: The discovery of novel angiotensins sheds more light on the view that the RAS is an extensive regulatory system with pathways and alternative axis, much of which without scientific knowledge. Scientific efforts envisioning novel formation pathways of biologically active products may be useful for development of innovative therapeutic strategies and discoveries in the field of several physiological and pathological conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System , Therapeutics , Angiotensin I , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7914, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974273

ABSTRACT

Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an important regulator of cellular proliferation and transdifferentiation. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying myofibroblast transdifferentiation in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We investigated the role of YAP in the pathological process of cardiac matrix remodeling. A classic model of DCM was established in BALB/c mice by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin. Cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by density gradient centrifugation. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen volume fraction (CVF) were significantly increased in DCM mice. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated YAP activation promoted the proliferation and transdifferentiation of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts, and this effect was significantly suppressed in the shRNA YAP + Ang II group compared with the shRNA Control + Ang II group in vitro (2.98±0.34 ×105 vs 5.52±0.82 ×105, P<0.01). Inhibition of endogenous Ang II-stimulated YAP improved the cardiac function by targeting myofibroblast transdifferentiation to attenuate matrix remodeling in vivo. In the valsartan group, left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening were significantly increased compared with the DCM group (52.72±5.51% vs 44.46±3.01%, P<0.05; 34.84±3.85% vs 26.65±3.12%, P<0.01). Our study demonstrated that YAP was a regulator of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation, and regulation of YAP signaling pathway contributed to improve cardiac function of DCM mice, possibly in part by decreasing myofibroblast transdifferentiation to inhibit matrix remodeling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/drug effects , Cell Transdifferentiation/drug effects , Myofibroblasts/drug effects , Phosphoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphoproteins/physiology , Swine , Echocardiography , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cell Cycle Proteins , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/antagonists & inhibitors , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Myofibroblasts/physiology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microscopy, Fluorescence
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(6): 494-499, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973847

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome has been linked to impaired function of the heart and blood vessels. We conducted a study to investigate the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the etiopathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Methods: The subjects were 14 patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and 14 healthy controls who underwent cataract extraction. Preoperative 5-ml samples of peripheral venous blood and perioperative aqueous humor were collected from the patients in both groups. Plasma and aqueous humor renin levels were analyzed by an immunoradiometric method, and angiotensin II levels were analyzed by radioimmunassay. SPSS version 16.0 was used for statistical analyses. A p-value <0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results: The mean ages of the patients in pseudoexfoliation and control groups were 71.7 ± 7.1 and 67.4 ± 9.3 years, respectively (p=0.140). The median aqueous humor renin level was 7.73 pg/ml (4.15-21) in the control group and 11.95 pg/ml (3.75-18.54) in pseudoexfoliation group (p=0.022). There were no differences between the two groups in the plasma renin, plasma angiotensin II, or aqueous humor angiotensin II levels. The correlations between plasma and aqueous humor renin levels and between plasma and aqueous humor angiotensin II levels were examined separately for each group; no significant correlations were observed in pseudoexfoliation group (r=-0.440, p=0.115; r=-0.414, p=0.142) or the control group (r=-0.232, p=0.425; r=0.482, p=0.081). Conclusion: Aqueous humor renin levels are higher in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. The results indicate a probable role of renin-angiotensin system in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Further studies with larger numbers of cases are needed to clarify the precise association of renin-angiotensin system with the etiopathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation syndrome.


RESUMO Objetivo: A síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação tem sido associada ao comprometimento da função do coração e dos vasos sanguíneos. Foi realizado um estudo para investigar o papel do sistema renina-angiotensina na etiopatogenia da síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação. Métodos: Os sujeitos foram 14 pacientes com síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação e 14 controles saudáveis submetidos à extração de catarata. Amostras pré-operatórias de 5 ml de sangue venoso periférico e humor aquoso perioperatório foram coletadas dos pacientes em ambos os grupos. Os níveis de renina no plasma e humor aquoso foram analisados pelo método imunorradiométrico e os níveis de angiotensina II foram analisados por radioimunoensaio. O SPSS versão 16.0 foi utilizado para análises estatísticas. Considerou-se o valor de p<0,05 para indicar uma diferença estatisticamente significativa. Resultados: A média de idade dos pacientes nos grupos pseudo-exfoliação e controle foi de 71,7 ± 7,1 e 67,4 ± 9,3 anos, respectivamente (p=0,140). O nível médio de renina no humor aquoso foi de 7,73 pg / ml (4,15-21) no grupo controle e 11,95 pg/ml (3,75-18,54) no grupo pseudo-exfoliação (p=0,022). Não houve diferenças entre os dois grupos de renina plasmática, angiotensina II plasmática ou nos níveis de angiotensina II em humor aquoso. As correlações entre os níveis de renina no plasma e no humor aquoso e entre os níveis de angiotensina II no plasma e humor foram examinadas separadamente para cada grupo; n]ao foram observadas correlações significativas no grupo pseudo-exfoliação (r=-0,440, p=0,115; r=-0,414, p=0,142) ou no grupo controle (r=-0,232, p=0,425; r=0,482, p=0,081). Conclusão: Os níveis de renina no humor aquoso são mais elevados na síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação. Os resultados indicam um provável papel do sistema renina-angiotensina na síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação. Novos estudos com maior número de casos são necessários para esclarecer a associação precisa do sistema renina-angiotensina com a etiopatogenia da síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin II/analysis , Renin/analysis , Exfoliation Syndrome/etiology , Aqueous Humor/metabolism , Cataract/blood , Cataract Extraction , Prospective Studies , Exfoliation Syndrome/metabolism , Exfoliation Syndrome/blood , Preoperative Period
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691363

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of evodiamine (Evo), a component of Evodiaminedia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth, on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and further explore the potential mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cardiomyocytes from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and characterized, and then the cadiomyocyte cultures were randomly divided into control, model (Ang II 0.1 μmol/L), and Evo (0.03, 0.3, 3 μmol/L) groups. The cardiomyocyte surface area, protein level, intracellular free calcium ([Ca]) concentration, activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and content of nitric oxide (NO) were measured, respectively. The mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), calcineurin (CaN), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) of cardiomyocytes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of calcineurin catalytic subunit (CnA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) were detected by Western blot analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, Ang II induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, as evidenced by increased cardiomyocyte surface area, protein content, and ANF mRNA expression; increased intracellular free calcium ([Ca]) concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but decreased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with Ang II, Evo (0.3, 3 μmol/L) significantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased the [Ca] concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but increased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Most interestingly, Evo increased the NOS activity and NO production, and upregulated the eNOS mRNA expression (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Evo signifificantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and this effect was partly due to promotion of NO production, reduction of [Ca]i concentration, and inhibition of CaN and ERK-2 signal transduction pathways.</p>


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Animals , Atrial Natriuretic Factor , Metabolism , Calcineurin , Genetics , Metabolism , Calcium , Metabolism , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Hypertrophy , Myocytes, Cardiac , Metabolism , Pathology , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Quinazolines , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2287-2296, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690223

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Shensong Yangxin Capsule (SSYX), traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat arrhythmias, angina, cardiac remodeling, cardiac fibrosis, and so on, but its effect on cardiac energy metabolism is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of SSYX on myocardium energy metabolism in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.</p><p><b>Methods</b>We used 2 μl (10 mol/L) AngII to treat neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) for 48 h. Myocardial α-actinin staining showed that the myocardial cell volume increased. Expression of the cardiac hypertrophic marker-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) messenger RNA (mRNA) also increased by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, it can be assumed that the model of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes was successfully constructed. Then, NRCMs were treated with 1 μl of different concentrations of SSYX (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/ml) for another 24 h. To explore the time-depend effect of SSYX on energy metabolism, 0.5 μg/ml SSYX was added into cells for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Mitochondria was assessed by MitoTracker staining and confocal microscopy. mRNA and protein expression of mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes - Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), energy balance key factor - adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), fatty acids oxidation factor - carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), and glucose oxidation factor - glucose transporter- 4 (GLUT-4) were measured by PCR and Western blotting analysis.</p><p><b>Results</b>With the increase in the concentration of SSYX (from 0.25 to 1.0 μg/ml), an increased mitochondrial density in AngII-induced cardiomyocytes was found compared to that of those treated with AngII only (0.25 μg/ml, 18.3300 ± 0.8895 vs. 24.4900 ± 0.9041, t = 10.240, P < 0.0001; 0.5 μg/ml, 18.3300 ± 0.8895 vs. 25.9800 ± 0.8187, t = 12.710, P < 0.0001; and 1.0 μg/ml, 18.3300 ± 0.8895 vs. 24.2900 ± 1.3120, t = 9.902, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group). SSYX also increased the mRNA and protein expression of PGC-1α (0.25 μg/ml, 0.8892 ± 0.0848 vs. 1.0970 ± 0.0994, t = 4.319, P = 0.0013; 0.5 μg/ml, 0.8892 ± 0.0848 vs. 1.2330 ± 0.0564, t = 7.150, P < 0.0001; and 1.0 μg/ml, 0.8892 ± 0.0848 vs. 1.1640 ± 0.0755, t = 5.720, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group), AMPK (0.25 μg/ml, 0.8872 ± 0.0779 vs. 1.1500 ± 0.0507, t = 7.239, P < 0.0001; 0.5 μg/ml, 0.8872 ± 0.0779 vs. 1.2280 ± 0.0623, t = 9.379, P < 0.0001; and 1.0 μg/ml, 0.8872 ± 0.0779 vs. 1.3020 ± 0.0450, t = 11.400, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group), CPT-1 (1.0 μg/ml, 0.7348 ± 0.0594 vs. 0.9880 ± 0.0851, t = 4.994, P = 0.0007, n = 5), and GLUT-4 (0.5 μg/ml, 1.5640 ± 0.0599 vs. 1.7720 ± 0.0660, t = 3.783, P = 0.0117; 1.0 μg/ml, 1.5640 ± 0.0599 vs. 2.0490 ± 0.1280, t = 8.808, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group). The effect became more obvious with the increasing concentration of SSYX. When 0.5 μg/ml SSYX was added into cells for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, the expression of AMPK (6 h, 14.6100 ± 0.6205 vs. 16.5200 ± 0.7450, t = 3.456, P = 0.0250; 12 h, 14.6100 ± 0.6205 vs. 18.3200 ± 0.9965, t = 6.720, P < 0.0001; 24 h, 14.6100 ± 0.6205 vs. 21.8800 ± 0.8208, t = 13.160, P < 0.0001; and 48 h, 14.6100 ± 0.6205 vs. 23.7400 ± 1.0970, t = 16.530, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group), PGC-1α (12 h, 11.4700 ± 0.7252 vs. 16.9000 ± 1.0150, t = 7.910, P < 0.0001; 24 h, 11.4700 ± 0.7252 vs. 20.8800 ± 1.2340, t = 13.710, P < 0.0001; and 48 h, 11.4700 ± 0.7252 vs. 22.0300 ± 1.4180, t = 15.390; n = 5 per dosage group), CPT-1 (24 h, 15.1600 ± 1.0960 vs. 18.5800 ± 0.9049, t = 6.048, P < 0.0001, n = 5), and GLUT-4 (6 h, 10.2100 ± 0.9485 vs. 12.9700 ± 0.8221, t = 4.763, P = 0.0012; 12 h, 10.2100 ± 0.9485 vs. 16.9100 ± 0.8481, t = 11.590, P < 0.0001; 24 h, 10.2100 ± 0.9485 vs. 19.0900 ± 0.9797, t = 15.360, P < 0.0001; and 48 h, 10.2100 ± 0.9485 vs. 14.1900 ± 0.9611, t = 6.877, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group) mRNA and protein increased gradually with the prolongation of drug action time.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>SSYX could increase myocardial energy metabolism in AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, SSYX might be considered to be an alternative therapeutic remedy for myocardial hypertrophy.</p>


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Metabolism , Animals , Cardiomegaly , Drug Therapy , Energy Metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac , Rats
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Weight reduction is a lifestyle intervention that has been introduced for prevention and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigate the additive anti-proteinuric effect of weight reduction on the usage of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and its potential mechanisms in hypertensive CKD patients. METHODS: This study is a subanalysis of data from an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Among the 235 participants, 227 were assigned to subgroups according to changes in body weight. RESULTS: Fifty-eight participants (25.6%) were assigned to group 1 (≥1.5% decrease in body weight after 16 weeks), 32 participants (14.1%) were assigned to group 2 (1.5–0.1% decrease in body weight), and 136 participants (59.9%) were assigned to group 3 (≥ 0.0% increase in body weight). Characteristics at enrollment were not different among the three groups, but mean differences in weight and percent changes in urinary sodium excretion over the period were statistically different (P < 0.001 and P = 0.017). Over the study period, unintentional weight loss independently increased the probability of reduced albuminuria (group 1, relative risk 6.234, 95% confidence interval 1.913–20.315, P = 0.002). Among urinary cytokines, only podocalyxin level decreased significantly in participants who lost weight (P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: We observed that weight loss had an additive effect on the anti-proteinuric effects of ARBs in nondiabetic hypertensive CKD patients, although it was minimal. An additive effect was shown in both obese and non-obese participants, and its possible mechanism is related to reduction of podocyte damage.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensins , Body Weight , Cytokines , Humans , Hypertension , Life Style , Podocytes , Proteinuria , Receptors, Angiotensin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sodium , Weight Loss
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1130-1134, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Trichotillomania is a relatively common illness whose neurobiology is poorly understood. One treatment for adult trichotillomania, n-acetyl cysteine (NAC), has antioxidative properties, as well as effects on central glutamatergic transmission. Preclinical models suggest that excessive oxidative stress may be involved in its pathophysiology. METHODS: Adults with trichotillomania provided a blood sample for analysis of compounds that may be influenced by oxidative stress [glutathione, angiotensin II, ferritin, iron, glucose, insulin and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1), and hepcidin]. Participants were examined on symptom severity, disability, and impulsivity. The number of participants with out-of-reference range oxidative stress measures were compared against the null distribution. Correlations between oxidative stress markers and clinical measures were examined. RESULTS: Of 14 participants (mean age 31.2 years; 92.9% female), 35.7% (n=5) had total glutathione levels below the reference range (p= 0.041). Other oxidative stress measures did not have significant proportions outside the reference ranges. Lower levels of glutathione correlated significantly with higher motor impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale sub-score) (r=0.97, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: A third of patients with trichotillomania had low levels of glutathione, and lower levels of glutathione correlated significantly with higher motor impulsiveness. Because NAC is a precursor for cysteine, and cysteine is a rate limiting step for glutathione production, these results may shed light on the mechanisms through which NAC can have beneficial effects for impulsive symptoms. Confirmation of these results requires a suitable larger follow-up study, including an internal normative control group.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiotensin II , Cysteine , Ferritins , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose , Glutathione , Humans , Impulsive Behavior , Insulin , Iron , Neurobiology , Oxidative Stress , Reference Values , Trichotillomania
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