Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 24
Filter
1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 614-622, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364355

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Aparentemente, a pior resposta a algumas classes de anti-hipertensivos, especialmente inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina, pela população negra, explicaria, pelo menos parcialmente, o pior controle da hipertensão entre esses indivíduos. Entretanto, a maioria das evidências vêm de estudos norte-americanos. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de investigar a associação entre raça/cor da pele autorrelatadas e controle de PA em participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) utilizando várias classes de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia. Métodos O estudo envolveu uma análise transversal, realizada com participantes da linha de base do ELSA-Brasil. O controle de pressão arterial foi a variável de resposta, participantes com valores de PA ≥140/90 mmHg foram considerados descontrolados em relação aos níveis de pressão arterial. A raça/cor da pele foi autorrelatada (branco, pardo, negro). Todos os participantes tiveram que responder perguntas sobre uso contínuo de medicamentos. A associação entre o controle de PA e raça/cor da pele foi estimada por regressão logística. O nível de significância adotado nesse estudo foi de 5%. Resultados Do total de 1.795 usuários de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia na linha de base, 55,5% se declararam brancos, 27,9%, pardos e 16,7%, negros. Mesmo depois de padronizar em relação a variáveis de confusão, negros em uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA), bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina (BRA), diuréticos tiazídicos (DIU tiazídicos) e betabloqueadores (BB) in monoterapia tinham controle de pressão arterial pior em comparação a brancos. Conclusões Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que, nesta amostra de brasileiros adultos utilizando anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia, as diferenças de controle de pressão arterial entre os vários grupos raciais não são explicadas pela possível eficácia mais baixa dos IECA e BRA em indivíduos negros.


Abstract Background It seems that the worst response to some classes of antihypertensive drugs, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, on the part of the Black population, would at least partially explain the worse control of hypertension among these individuals. However, most of the evidence comes from American studies. Objectives This study aims to investigate the association between self-reported race/skin color and BP control in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), using different classes of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional analysis, carried out with participants from the baseline of ELSA-Brasil. Blood pressure control was the response variable, participants with BP values ≥140/90 mmHg were considered out of control in relation to blood pressure levels. Race/skin color was self-reported (White, Brown, Black). All participants were asked about the continuous use of medication. Association between BP control and race/skin color was estimated through logistic regression. The level of significance adopted in this study was of 5%. Results Of the total of 1,795 users of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy at baseline, 55.5% declared themselves White, 27.9% Brown, and 16.7% Black. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, Blacks using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), thiazide diuretics (thiazide DIU), and beta-blockers (BB) in monotherapy had worse blood pressure control compared to Whites. Conclusions Our results suggest that in this sample of Brazilian adults using antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy, the differences in blood pressure control between different racial groups are not explained by the possible lower effectiveness of ACEIs and ARBs in Black individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , United States , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Race Factors
2.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 102-110, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929186

ABSTRACT

Consecutively hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China were retrospectively enrolled from January 2020 to March 2020 to investigate the association between the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RAS-I) and the outcome of this disease. Associations between the use of RAS-I (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)), ACEI, and ARB and in-hospital mortality were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models in overall and subgroup of hypertension status. A total of 2771 patients with COVID-19 were included, with moderate and severe cases accounting for 45.0% and 36.5%, respectively. A total of 195 (7.0%) patients died. RAS-I (hazard ratio (HR)= 0.499, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.325-0.767) and ARB (HR = 0.410, 95% CI 0.240-0.700) use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19. For patients with hypertension, RAS-I and ARB applications were also associated with a reduced risk of mortality with HR of 0.352 (95% CI 0.162-0.764) and 0.279 (95% CI 0.115-0.677), respectively. RAS-I exhibited protective effects on the survival outcome of COVID-19. ARB use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2656-2665, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Cardiovascular diseases are associated with an increased risk of depression, but it remains unclear whether treatment with cardiovascular agents decreases or increases this risk. The effects of drugs on individual usage are also often unknown. This review aimed to examine the correlation between depression and common cardiovascular drugs, develop more potent interventions for depression in cardiovascular patients, and further research on the bio-behavioural mechanisms linking cardiovascular drugs to depression.@*DATA SOURCES@#The data in this review were obtained from articles included in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science.@*STUDY SELECTION@#Clinical trials, observational studies, review literature, and guidelines about depression and cardiovascular drugs were selected for the article.@*RESULTS@#We systematically investigated whether the seven most used cardiovascular drugs were associated with altered risk of incident depression in this literature review. Statins have been proven to have antidepressant effects. Some studies believe angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) can exert an antidepressant influence by acting on the renin-angiotensin system, but further clinical trials are needed to confirm this. Beta-blockers have previously been associated with depression, but the current study found no significant association between beta blockers and the risk of depression. Aspirin may have antidepressant effects by suppressing the immune response, but its role as an antidepressant remains controversial. calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can regulate nerve signal transduction by adjusting calcium channels, but whether this effect is beneficial or harmful to depression remains unclear. Finally, some cases have reported that nitrates and diuretics are associated with depression, but the current clinical evidence is insufficient.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Statins have been proven to have antidepressant effect, and the antidepressant effects of ACEIs/ARB and aspirin are still controversial. CCBs are associated with depression, but it is unclear whether it is beneficial or harmful. No association has been found with β-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Depression/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System
4.
Singapore medical journal ; : 563-567, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920942

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#There are concerns that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may worsen the outcomes of patients with COVID-19. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to study the in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients who were on ACEIs/ARBs as compared to those not on ACEIs/ARBs.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, EMBASE, clinicaltrials.gov and Google Scholar between 1 January 2020 and 30 May 2020 to identify all studies that evaluated the use of ACEIs/ARBs and reported the in-hospital mortality outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Nine non-randomised studies were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The primary outcome studied was the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients who were on ACEIs/ARBs compared with those not on ACEIs/ARBs.@*RESULTS@#Of the 8,313 patients in the nine studies, 7,622 (91.7%) were from studies with all-comers, while 691 (8.3%) were from studies involving only patients with hypertension. 577 (14.6%) in-hospital deaths were observed out of a total of 3,949 patients with an outcome in the nine studies. Overall, no significant difference was observed in the in-hospital mortality between patients on ACEIs/ARBs and those not on ACEIs/ARBs (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.50; p = 0.73). Further sensitivity analysis in the hypertension group and the all-comers group showed similar results (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.58-1.32; p = 0.53 and OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.00-3.43; p = 0.05, respectively).@*CONCLUSION@#We observed that ACEIs/ARBs had no significant impact on the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients and can be used safely in patients with indications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1602-1609, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hypertension is considered an important risk factor for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The commonly anti-hypertensive drugs are the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and beta-blockers. The association between commonly used anti-hypertensive medications and the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients with hypertension has not been well studied.@*METHODS@#We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients admitted with COVID-19 to Huo Shen Shan Hospital and Guanggu District of the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan, China. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Hypertension and anti-hypertensive treatment were confirmed by medical history and clinical records. The primary clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included the rates of patients in common wards transferred to the intensive care unit and hospital stay duration. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors associated with mortality and prognosis. Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounders between different anti-hypertensive treatments. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the cumulative recovery rate. Log-rank tests were performed to test for differences in Kaplan-Meier curves between different groups.@*RESULTS@#Among 4569 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 31.7% (1449/4569) had a history of hypertension. There were significant differences in mortality rates between hypertensive patients with CCBs (7/359) and those without (21/359) (1.95% vs. 5.85%, risk ratio [RR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.76, χ2 = 7.61, P = 0.0058). After matching for confounders, the mortality rates were similar between the RAAS inhibitor (4/236) and non-RAAS inhibitor (9/236) cohorts (1.69% vs. 3.81%, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.13-1.43, χ2 = 1.98, P = 0.1596). Hypertensive patients with beta-blockers (13/340) showed no statistical difference in mortality compared with those without (11/340) (3.82% vs. 3.24%, RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.53-2.69, χ2 = 0.17, P = 0.6777).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In our study, we did not find any positive or negative effects of RAAS inhibitors or beta-blockers in COVID-19 patients with hypertension, while CCBs could improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Child , China , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880733

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with hypertension infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are at increased risk of acute lung injury. However, it is still not clear whether this increased risk is related to the usage of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers. We collected medical records of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou, China), and evaluated the potential impact of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. A total of 30 hypertensive COVID-19 patients were enrolled, of which 17 were classified as non-ARB group and the remaining 13 as ARB group based on the antihypertensive therapies they received. Compared with the non-ARB group, patients in the ARB group had a lower proportion of severe cases and intensive care unit (ICU) admission as well as shortened length of hospital stay, and manifested favorable results in most of the laboratory testing. Viral loads in the ARB group were lower than those in the non-ARB group throughout the disease course. No significant difference in the time of seroconversion or antibody levels was observed between the two groups. The median levels of soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (sACE2) in serum and urine samples were similar in both groups, and there were no significant correlations between serum sACE2 and biomarkers of disease severity. Transcriptional analysis showed 125 differentially expressed genes which mainly were enriched in oxygen transport, bicarbonate transport, and blood coagulation. Our results suggest that ARB usage is not associated with aggravation of COVID-19. These findings support the maintenance of ARB treatment in hypertensive patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , China , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transcriptome , Viral Load
7.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(4): 287-297, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124150

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se revisará la evolución del tratamiento farmacológico de la insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) en los últimos 25 an˜os, desde el concepto de tratamiento con vasodilatadores, pasando por el bloqueo o inhibición del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona y la inhibición betaadrenérgica y su importante contribución en la disminución de la morbimortalidad por IC, el papel de los péptidos natriuréticos y, finalmente, se conocerá uno de los estudios más importantes en el área cardiológica y específicamente en el manejo de la IC, en el cual se demuestra un enfoque modulador de los sistemas neuro humorales que se activan en estos pacientes. Objetivos: La IC constituye la etapa final de la mayoría de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, con una alta tasa de hospitalización y de morbimortalidad cardiovascular, siendo, por lo tanto, de interés constante la necesidad de encontrar un agente terapéutico innovador que disminuya significativamente estas complicaciones y también que mejore la calidad de vida de los que la presentan. Metodología: Se realizará una descripción del PARADIGM-HF Clinical Trial, que utilizó un compuesto sacubitrilo/valsartán para el manejo de la IC con un mecanismo modulador diferente del concepto de bloqueador de sistemas deletéreos que se activan cuando un paciente presenta síntomas y signos de IC. Conclusiones: La muerte por causas cardiovasculares u hospitalización por IC (el punto final primario) se produjo en 914 pacientes (21.8%) en el grupo sacubitrilo/valsartán y 1,117 pacientes (26.5%) en el grupo de enalapril (razón de riesgo en el grupo sacubitrilo/valsartán, 0.80; intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95%: 0.73 a 0.87; p < 0.001 (exacta p = 4.0 × 10 - 7)). De los pacientes que recibieron sacubitrilo/valsartán, 537 (12.8%) fueron hospitalizados por IC, en comparación con los 658 pacientes (15.6%) que recibieron enalapril (razón de riesgo, 0.79; IC del 95%, 0.71 a 0.89; p < 0.001). Un total de 711 pacientes (17.0%) en el grupo sacubitrilo/valsartán y 835 pacientes (19.8%) en el grupo de enalapril murió (razón de riesgo de muerte por cualquier causa, 0.84; IC del 95%, 0.76 a la 0.93; p < 0.001).


Abstract Introduction: A review is presented on the evolution of the pharmacological treatment of heart failure (HF) in the last 25 years, from the concept of treatment with vasodilators to the blocking or inhibition of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. Beta-adrenergic inhibition and its important contribution in the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to HF will be discussed along with the role of the natriuretic peptides. One of the most important studies in the cardiology area, and specifically in the management of HF, is presented, in which an approach is demonstrated of the modulator of the neurohumoral systems that are activated in these patients. Objectives: HF is the final stage of most cardiovascular diseases, and has a high rate of hospital admission, as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, there is constant interest in the need to find an innovative therapeutic agent that significantly reduces these complications and that improves the quality of life of those who suffer from it. Methods: A description will be presented of the PARADIGM-HF Clinical Trial using a sacubitril/valsartán compound for the management of HF with a modulating mechanism different from the concept of a deleterious system blocker that is activated when a patient has symptoms and signs of heart failure. Conclusions: Death due to cardiovascular causes, or hospital admission due to heart failure (the primary endpoint) occurred in 914 patients (21.8%) in the Sacubitril / valsartán group, and 1117 patients (26.5%) in the enalapril group (risk ratio in the sacubitril / valsartán group, 0.80, with a 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 0.87, P<0.001 ;exact P= 4.0 × 10 --7;). Of the patients receiving sacubitril / valsartán, 537 (12.8%) were hospitalised due to heart failure, compared with 658 patients (15.6%) receiving enalapril (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.89, P<.001). A total of 711 patients (17.0%) in the sacubitril / valsartán group, and 835 patients (19.8%) in the enalapril group, died (all-cause death rate, 0.84, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.93, P<.001)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Systole , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Biphenyl Compounds , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enalapril/pharmacology , Drug Combinations , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Valsartan , Aminobutyrates/pharmacology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(2): 135-142, Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838686

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hypertension is the most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and its proper control can prevent the high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Objective: To assess the degree of compliance of antihypertensive prescriptions with the VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension and the blood pressure control rate in primary care. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted between August 2011 and November 2012, including 332 adults ≥ 45 years registered in the Family Doctor Program in Niteroi and selected randomly. The analysis included the prescribed antihypertensive classes, doses, and frequencies, as well as the blood pressure (BP) of the individuals. Results: The rate of prescription compliance was 80%. Diuretics were the most prescribed medications, and dual therapy was the most used treatment. The most common non-compliances were underdosing and underfrequencies. The BP goal in all cases was < 140/90 mmHg, except for diabetic patients, in whom the goal was set at < 130/80 mmHg. Control rates according to these goals were 44.9% and 38.6%, respectively. There was no correlation between prescription compliance and BP control. Conclusions: The degree of compliance was considered satisfactory. The achievement of the targets was consistent with national and international studies, suggesting that the family health model is effective in BP management, although it still needs improvement.


Resumo Fundamento: A hipertensão arterial é o fator de risco mais prevalente para a doença cardiovascular e seu controle adequado pode prevenir a elevada morbi-mortalidade associada a esta doença. Objetivo: Avaliar o grau de conformidade das prescrições de anti-hipertensivos com as VI Diretrizes Brasileiras de Hipertensão e a taxa de controle pressórico na atenção básica. Métodos: Estudo transversal conduzido entre agosto de 2011 e novembro de 2012, incluindo 332 adultos ≥ 45 anos cadastrados no Programa Médico de Família de Niterói e selecionados aleatoriamente. Foram analisadas as classes de anti-hipertensivos prescritos, suas doses e frequências, bem como a pressão arterial (PA) dos indivíduos. Resultados: A taxa de conformidade das prescrições foi de 80%. Diuréticos foram as medicações mais prescritas e a terapia dupla foi o tratamento mais utilizado. As não conformidades mais comuns foram subdoses e subfrequências. A meta de PA para todos os casos foi < 140/90 mmHg, exceto para diabéticos, que foi < 130/80 mmHg. As taxas de controle de acordo com essas metas foram de 44,9% e 38,6%, respectivamente. Não houve correlação entre conformidade da prescrição e controle pressórico. Conclusões: O grau de conformidade foi considerado satisfatório. O alcance das metas foi compatível com estudos nacionais e internacionais, sugerindo que o modelo de saúde da família é efetivo no manejo da PA, embora ainda necessite aprimoramento. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Guidelines as Topic , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(1): 53-59, Jan. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838672

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: As the world population ages, patients older than 80 years, known as very elderly, are more frequently found. There are no studies in this age group aimed at analyzing the multidisciplinary intervention in the treatment of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and some comorbidities. Objectives: To assess the effect of a multidisciplinary approach in very elderly hypertensives cared for at a specialized service. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective cohort study in a multidisciplinary service specialized in the SAH treatment in the Brazilian West-Central region. Patients aged 80 years and older by June 2015 were included. Data from the first (V1) and last visit (Vf) were assessed. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (BP), renal function, pharmacological treatment, lifestyle, comorbidities and cardiovascular events were studied, comparing data from V1 and Vf. Controlled BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) lower than 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lower than 90 mm Hg. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSSR software, version 21.0. Values of p<0,05 were considered significant. Results: Data of 71 patients were assessed with a mean follow-up time of 15,22 years. Their mean age at V1 was 69.2 years, and, at Vf, 84.53 years, and 26.8% of them were males. There was a significant reduction in mean SBP (157.3 x 142.1 mm Hg; p<0.001) and DBP (95.1 x 77.8 mm Hg; p<0.001), with an increase in BP control rates from V1 to Vf (36.6 x 83.1%; p<0.001). The number of antihypertensive drugs used increased (1.49 x 2.85; p<0.001), with an increase in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (22.5 x 46.5%; p=0.004), angiotensin II receptor blockers (4.2 x 35.2%; p<0.001) and calcium-channel blockers (18.3 x 67.6%; p<0.001). There was a reduction in total cholesterol (217.9 x 191 mg/dL; p<0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (139.6 x 119.0 mg/dL; p<0.001), but worsening of the glomerular filtration rate (62.5 x 45.4 mL/min; p<0.001). Conclusion: The multidisciplinary intervention in very elderly hypertensives increased BP control rate, with optimization of the pharmacological treatment.


Resumo Fundamento: Indivíduos com mais de 80 anos, denominados muito idosos, são encontrados com uma frequência crescente com o envelhecimento da população mundial. Não há estudos com essa população avaliando a intervenção multidisciplinar no tratamento da hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e algumas comorbidades associadas. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do tratamento multiprofissional em hipertensos muito idosos acompanhados em serviço especializado. Métodos: Estudo de coorte longitudinal retrospectivo em serviço multidisciplinar para o tratamento de HAS do centro-oeste brasileiro. Incluídos pacientes com 80 anos ou mais em junho de 2015. Coletados dados da primeira (V1) e última consulta (Vf). Avaliadas variáveis antropométricas, pressão arterial (PA), função renal, medicamentos em uso, hábitos de vida, comorbidades e eventos cardiovasculares, comparando V1 com Vf. Foram considerados controlados os valores de PA inferiores a 140 mmHg para pressão sistólica e inferiores a 90 mmHg para a pressão diastólica. Análise estatística realizada com software SPSSR versão 21.0. Considerados significativos valores de p<0,05. Resultados: Analisados 71 pacientes, com tempo médio de seguimento de 15,22 anos, 26,8% sexo masculino e idade média em V1 de 69,2 anos e, em Vf, de 84,53 anos. Houve uma redução significativa nos valores médios de PA sistólica (157,3 x 142,1 mmHg; p<0,001) e diastólica (95,1 x 77,8 mmHg; p<0,001), com aumento nas taxas de controle da PA entre V1 e Vf (36,6 x 83,1%; p<0,001). O número de drogas anti-hipertensivas se elevou (1,49 x 2,85; p<0,001), com incremento no uso de inibidores de ECA (22,5 x 46,5%; p=0,004), bloqueadores do receptor de angiotensina (4,2 x 35,2%; p<0,001) e bloqueadores dos canais de cálcio (18,3 x 67,6%; p<0,001). Houve uma redução nos valores de colesterol total (217,9 x 191 mg/dl; p<0,001) e LDL colesterol (139,6 x 119,0 mg/dl; p<0,001) e piora da taxa de filtração glomerular (62,5 x 45,4 ml/min; p<0,001). Conclusão: A intervenção multiprofissional em pacientes hipertensos muito idosos reduziu os valores de PA e aumentou a taxa de controle da mesma, com uma otimização do tratamento medicamentoso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patient Care Team , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(3): 210-217, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777105

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the availability of guidelines for treatment of heart failure (HF), only a few studies have assessed how hospitals adhere to the recommended therapies. Objectives: Compare the rates of adherence to the prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) at hospital discharge, which is considered a quality indicator by the Joint Commission International, and to the prescription of beta-blockers at hospital discharge, which is recommended by national and international guidelines, in a hospital with a case management program to supervise the implementation of a clinical practice protocol (HCP) and another hospital that follows treatment guidelines (HCG). Methods: Prospective observational study that evaluated patients consecutively admitted to both hospitals due to decompensated HF between August 1st, 2006, and December 31st, 2008. We used as comparing parameters the prescription rates of beta-blockers and ACEI/ARB at hospital discharge and in-hospital mortality. Results: We analyzed 1,052 patients (30% female, mean age 70.6 ± 14.1 years), 381 (36%) of whom were seen at HCG and 781 (64%) at HCP. The prescription rates of beta-blockers at discharge at HCG and HCP were both 69% (p = 0.458), whereas those of ACEI/ARB were 83% and 86%, respectively (p = 0.162). In-hospital mortality rates were 16.5% at HCP and 27.8% at HCG (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There was no difference in prescription rates of beta-blocker and ACEI/ARB at hospital discharge between the institutions, but HCP had lower in-hospital mortality. This difference in mortality may be attributed to different clinical characteristics of the patients in both hospitals.


Fundamento: Apesar da disponibilidade de diretrizes de tratamento para insuficiência cardíaca (IC), há poucos estudos avaliando a adesão dos hospitais ao tratamento preconizado. Objetivos: Comparar as taxas de adesão à prescrição de inibidor da enzima conversora da angiotensina ou antagonista do receptor de angiotensina II (IECA/BRA) na alta hospitalar, considerada indicadora de qualidade pela Joint Commission International, e à prescrição de betabloqueador na alta hospitalar, preconizada por diretrizes nacionais e internacionais, em um hospital que utiliza gerenciamento de casos para supervisionar a implementação de um protocolo assistencial (HPA) e outro que utiliza diretrizes de tratamento (HDT). Métodos: Estudo observacional prospectivo que avaliou pacientes consecutivamente admitidos em ambos os hospitais por IC descompensada entre 1º de agosto de 2006 a 31 de dezembro de 2008. Os parâmetros comparados entre os hospitais foram as taxas de prescrição de betabloqueador e IECA/BRA na alta hospitalar e a mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Resultados: Analisamos 1.052 pacientes (30% do sexo feminino, média de idade 70,6 ± 14,1 anos) dos quais 381 (36%) eram do HDT e 781 (64%) do HPA. No HDT e no HPA, as taxas de prescrição de betabloqueador na alta foram ambas de 69% (p = 0,458), e de prescrição de IECA/BRA foi de 83% e 86%, respectivamente (p = 0,162). A mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 16,5% no HPA e de 27,8% no HDT (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Não houve diferença entre as instituições em relação à prescrição de betabloqueador e IECA/BRA na alta hospitalar, mas a mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi menor no HPA. Esta diferença na mortalidade pode ser atribuída às características clínicas distintas dos pacientes em ambos os hospitais.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Clinical Protocols/standards , Hospital Mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospitals/standards , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Quality Indicators, Health Care
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(1): 62-69, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cardiac remodeling is defined as a group of molecular, cellular and interstitial changes that manifest clinically as changes in size, mass, geometry and function of the heart after injury. The process results in poor prognosis because of its association with ventricular dysfunction and malignant arrhythmias. Here, we discuss the concepts and clinical implications of cardiac remodeling, and the pathophysiological role of different factors, including cell death, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, collagen, contractile proteins, calcium transport, geometry and neurohormonal activation. Finally, the article describes the pharmacological treatment of cardiac remodeling, which can be divided into three different stages of strategies: consolidated, promising and potential strategies.


Resumo A remodelação cardíaca é definida como um conjunto de mudanças moleculares, celulares e intersticiais cardíacas, que se manifestam clinicamente por alterações no tamanho, massa, geometria e função do coração, em resposta à determinada agressão. Esse processo resulta em mal prognóstico, pois está associado com a progressão da disfunção ventricular e arritmias malignas. Nessa revisão, são discutidos os conceitos e as implicações clínicas da remodelação, além do papel fisiopatológico de diferentes fatores, incluindo morte celular, metabolismo energético, estresse oxidativo, inflamação, colágeno, proteínas contráteis, transporte de cálcio, geometria e ativação neurohormonal. Finalmente, o artigo apresenta o tratamento farmacológico, que pode ser dividido em três estágios: estratégias consolidadas, promissoras e potenciais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction/physiopathology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Calcium/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress , Ventricular Dysfunction/metabolism
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 180-186, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186106

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) are associated with a decreased incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM). The aim of this study was to compare the protective effect of ACEI versus ARBs on NODM in an Asian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated a total of 2817 patients who did not have diabetes mellitus from January 2004 to September 2009. To adjust for potential confounders, a propensity score matched (PSM) analysis was performed using a logistic regression model. The primary end-point was the cumulative incidence of NODM, which was defined as having a fasting blood glucose > or =126 mg/dL or HbA1c > or =6.5%. Multivariable cox-regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of ACEI versus ARB on the incidence of NODM. RESULTS: Mean follow-up duration was 1839+/-1019 days in all groups before baseline adjustment and 1864+/-1034 days in the PSM group. After PSM (C-statistics=0.731), a total 1024 patients (ACEI group, n=512 and ARB group, n=512) were enrolled for analysis and baseline characteristics were well balanced. After PSM, the cumulative incidence of NODM at 3 years was lower in the ACEI group than the ARB group (2.1% vs. 5.0%, p=0.012). In multivariate analysis, ACEI vs. ARB was an independent predictor of the lower incidence for NODM (odd ratio 0.37, confidence interval 0.17-0.79, p=0.010). CONCLUSION: In the present study, compared with ARB, chronic ACEI administration appeared to be associated with a lower incidence of NODM in a series of Asian cardiovascular patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Asians/statistics & numerical data , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Propensity Score , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166135

ABSTRACT

Cardioprotective effect of fimasartan, a new angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), was evaluated in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty swine were randomized to group 1 (sham, n=10), group 2 (no angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor [ACEI] or ARB, n=10), group 3 (perindopril 2 mg daily, n=10), group 4 (valsartan 40 mg daily, n=10), or group 5 (fimasartan 30 mg daily, n=10). Acute MI was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 50 min. Echocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) were performed at baseline, 1 week, and 4 weeks. Iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan was done at 6 weeks for visualization of cardiac sympathetic activity. Left ventricular function and volumes at 4 weeks were similar between the 5 groups. No difference was observed in groups 2 to 5 in SPECT perfusion defect, matched and mismatched segments between SPECT and PET at 1 week and 4 weeks. MIBG scan showed similar uptake between the 5 groups. Pathologic analysis showed similar infarct size in groups 2 to 5. Infarct size reduction was not observed with use of fimasartan as well as other ACEI and ARB in a porcine model of acute MI.


Subject(s)
3-Iodobenzylguanidine , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Perindopril/therapeutic use , Positron-Emission Tomography , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Swine , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99852

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have organ-protective effects in heart failure and may be also effective in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy (DOX-CMP); however, the efficacy of ARBs on the prevention of DOX-CMP have not been investigated. We performed a preclinical experiment to evaluate the preventive effect of a novel ARB, fimasartan, in DOX-CMP. All animals underwent echocardiography and were randomly assigned into three groups: treated daily with vehicle (DOX-only group, n=22), 5 mg/kg of fimasartan (Low-fima group, n=22), and 10 mg/kg of fimasartan (High-fima group, n=19). DOX was injected once a week for six weeks. Echocardiography and hemodynamic assessment was performed at the 8th week using a miniaturized conductance catheter. Survival rate of the High-fima group was greater (100%) than that of the Low-fima (75%) and DOX-only groups (50%). Echocardiography showed preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction in the High-fima group, but not in the DOX-only group (P=0.002). LV dimensions increased in the DOX-only group; however, remodeling was attenuated in the Low-fima and High-fima groups. Hemodynamic assessment showed higher dP/dt in the High-fima group compared with the DOX-only group. A novel ARB, fimasartan, may prevent DOX-CMP and improve survival rate in a dose-dependent manner in a rat model of DOX-CMP and could be a treatment option for the prevention of DOX-CMP.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Animals , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Cardiomyopathies/chemically induced , Doxorubicin/toxicity , Echocardiography , Hemodynamics , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/chemistry , Survival Rate , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164155

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess one-year persistence with antihypertensive therapy (AHT) among newly treated uncomplicated hypertensive patients in Korea and to evaluate the effect of initial therapeutic classes on persistence. We retrospectively analyzed a random sample of 20% of newly treated uncomplicated hypertensive patients (n = 45,787) in 2012 from the National Health Insurance claims database. This group was classified into six cohorts based on initial AHT class. We then measured treatment persistence, allowing a prescription gap of 60 days. Adherence to AHT was assessed with the medication possession ratio. Calcium channel blockers (CCB, 43.7%) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB, 40.3%) were most commonly prescribed as initial monotherapy. Overall, 62.1% and 42.0% were persistent with any AHT and initial class at one year, respectively, and 64.2% were adherent to antihypertensive treatment. Compared with ARBs, the risk of AHT discontinuation was significantly increased with initial use of thiazide diuretics (hazard ratio [HR], 3.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.96-3.74) and beta blockers (HR, 1.86; CI, 1.77-1.95) and was minimally increased with CCBs (HR, 1.12; CI, 1.08-1.15). In conclusion, persistence and adherence to AHT are suboptimal, but the differences are meaningful in persistence and adherence between initial AHT classes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/classification , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Young Adult
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(1): 42-48, ene.-feb. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708553

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo es una miocardiopatía adquirida que se caracteriza por la aparición transitoria de acinesia o discinesia antero-apical del ventrículo izquierdo, síntomas y cambios electrocardiográficos que simulan un síndrome coronario agudo, leve elevación de enzimas cardíacas y coronarias sin lesiones ateroscleróticas significativas. Afecta predominantemente a mujeres post menopáusicas y frecuentemente es precedido por situaciones de estrés físico o psicológico. La fisiopatología no ha sido completamente dilucidada pero existe consenso sobre el papel central de la descarga masiva de catecolaminas, secundaria a dichas situaciones de estrés, como mecanismo desencadenante. Se presentan 32 casos diagnosticados en tres instituciones de Córdoba. La edad promedio fue 61 años, el 28 (88%) fueron mujeres, y todos se presentaron simulando síndromes coronarios agudos. Doce pacientes (37.5%) evolucionaron con insuficiencia cardíaca y dos (6%) desarrollaron shock cardiogénico. La función ventricular se normalizó más rápidamente que los cambios electrocardiográficos. La tasa de recurrencia fue del 25%. El pronóstico fue benigno, ya que solo se produjo una muerte como consecuencia de una recidiva. Estos hallazgos son, en general, similares a los publicados en la literatura. También se analizaron recientes progresos sobre la fisiopatología de esta miocardiopatía que permitieron desarrollar un planteo racional de tratamiento.


Takotsubo Syndrome is an acquired cardiomyopathy characterized by a transient left ventricular antero-apical asynergy or disynergy (apical ballooning), symptoms and electrocardiographic changes are suggestive of an acute coronary syndrome, moderate cardiac enzymatic release and absence of significant atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries. It predominantly affects postmenopausal women and it is frequently preceded by situations of physical or psychological stress. The physiopathology is not completely understood but there is consensus that it is triggered by a surge of catecholamines consequent to the aforementioned stress conditions. The study of 32 cases diagnosed at three medical institutions in Córdoba, Argentina, is reported. The mean age was 61 years, and 28 were female. All cases simulated acute coronary syndromes. Congestive heart failure developed in twelve cases (37.5%) and two patients (6.3%) developed cardiogenic shock. The left ventricular function normalized more rapidly than the electrocardiographic changes. The recurrence rate was 25%, the prognosis was benign considering that only one death occurred following a relapse. In general the findings are similar to previously published studies. Recent advances in the comprehension of the physiopathology of this cardiomyopathy gave way to the development of a rational therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Argentina , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology
19.
Clinics ; 69(5): 308-313, 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709611

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate angiotensin receptor blocker add-on therapy in patients with low cardiac output during decompensated heart failure. METHODS: We selected patients with decompensated heart failure, low cardiac output, dobutamine dependence, and an ejection fraction <0.45 who were receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The patients were randomized to losartan or placebo and underwent invasive hemodynamic and B-type natriuretic peptide measurements at baseline and on the seventh day after intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01857999. RESULTS: We studied 10 patients in the losartan group and 11 patients in the placebo group. The patient characteristics were as follows: age 52.7 years, ejection fraction 21.3%, dobutamine infusion 8.5 mcg/kg.min, indexed systemic vascular resistance 1918.0 dynes.sec/cm5.m2, cardiac index 2.8 L/min.m2, and B-type natriuretic peptide 1,403 pg/mL. After 7 days of intervention, there was a 37.4% reduction in the B-type natriuretic peptide levels in the losartan group compared with an 11.9% increase in the placebo group (mean difference, -49.1%; 95% confidence interval: -88.1 to -9.8%, p = 0.018). No significant difference was observed in the hemodynamic measurements. CONCLUSION: Short-term add-on therapy with losartan reduced B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients hospitalized for decompensated severe heart failure and low cardiac output with inotrope dependence. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Losartan/therapeutic use , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/drug effects , Cardiac Output, Low/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Dobutamine/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80579

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the role of angiotensin II receptor blocker in atrial remodeling in rats with atrial fibrillation (AF) induced by a myocardial infarction (MI). MIs were induced by a ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Two days after, the rats in the losartan group were given losartan (10 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks). Ten weeks later, echocardiography and AF induction studies were conducted. Ejection fraction was significantly lower in the MI rats. Fibrosis analysis revealed much increased left atrial fibrosis in the MI group than sham (2.22 +/- 0.66% vs 0.25 +/- 0.08%, P = 0.001) and suppression in the losartan group (0.90 +/- 0.27%, P 0.001) compared with the MI group. AF inducibility was higher in the MI group than sham (39.4 +/- 43.0% vs 2.0 +/- 6.3%, P = 0.005) and significantly lower in losartan group (12.0 +/- 31.6%, P = 0.029) compared with the MI. The left atrial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase levels were lower in the MI group and higher in the losartan group significantly. The atrial inducible NOS and sodium-calcium exchanger levels were higher in the MI and lower in the losartan group significantly. Losartan disrupts collagen fiber formation and prevents the alteration of the tissue eNOS and iNOS levels, which prevent subsequent AF induction.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Animals , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Atrial Remodeling , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Immunohistochemistry , Losartan/therapeutic use , Male , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Angiotensin/chemistry , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL