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Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 78(2): 91-94, Mar.-Apr. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249112


Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. China reported the first case of COVID-19 in December 2019, and a few months later, the World Health Organization declared it as a pandemic. Oral ulcers in adult patients have been associated with COVID-19. However, no cases have yet been documented in children. The angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor has been identified in tissues of the oral cavity. Studies have identified the tongue as the site with the highest expression of ACE2, and the oral epithelium, gingival epithelium, and salivary glands as sites of lesser extent expression. ACE2 expression is lower in children and varies with age. SARS-CoV-2 in saliva has been identified in various studies, which suggests that this could be a useful sample for diagnosis. However, its presence in saliva would indicate the high risk of contagion of this fluid.

Resumen La COVID-19 es una nueva enfermedad causada por el SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave). El primer caso de COVID-19 se reportó en China en diciembre de 2019, y unos meses después la Organización Mundial de la Salud la declaró como una pandemia. En pacientes adultos se han asociado úlceras orales a la COVID-19; en niños aún no se han documentado casos. El receptor de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina 2 (ECA2) se ha identificado en tejidos de la cavidad oral. Los estudios han identificado que la lengua es el sitio con mayor expresión del receptor de la ECA2, y el epitelio bucal, el epitelio gingival y las glándulas salivales lo son en menor medida. La expresión de la ECA2 es menor en los niños y va aumentando con la edad. En diversos estudios se ha identificado el SARS-CoV-2 en la saliva, lo que sugiere que podría ser una muestra útil para el diagnóstico de este virus. Sin embargo, su presencia en saliva indicaría un alto riesgo de contagio de este fluido.

Adult , Child , Humans , Oral Health , Oral Ulcer/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , Saliva/virology , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Mouth/virology
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 935-943, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878142


BACKGROUND@#Since 2019, a novel coronavirus named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has emerged worldwide. Apart from fever and respiratory complications, acute kidney injury has been observed in a few patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Furthermore, according to recent findings, the virus has been detected in urine. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) has been proposed to serve as the receptor for the entry of 2019-nCoV, which is the same as that for the severe acute respiratory syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the possible cause of kidney damage and the potential route of 2019-nCoV infection in the urinary system.@*METHODS@#We used both published kidney and bladder cell atlas data and new independent kidney single-cell RNA sequencing data generated in-house to evaluate ACE2 gene expression in all cell types in healthy kidneys and bladders. The Pearson correlation coefficients between ACE2 and all other genes were first generated. Then, genes with r values larger than 0.1 and P values smaller than 0.01 were deemed significant co-expression genes with ACE2.@*RESULTS@#Our results showed the enriched expression of ACE2 in all subtypes of proximal tubule (PT) cells of the kidney. ACE2 expression was found in 5.12%, 5.80%, and 14.38% of the proximal convoluted tubule cells, PT cells, and proximal straight tubule cells, respectively, in three published kidney cell atlas datasets. In addition, ACE2 expression was also confirmed in 12.05%, 6.80%, and 10.20% of cells of the proximal convoluted tubule, PT, and proximal straight tubule, respectively, in our own two healthy kidney samples. For the analysis of public data from three bladder samples, ACE2 expression was low but detectable in bladder epithelial cells. Only 0.25% and 1.28% of intermediate cells and umbrella cells, respectively, had ACE2 expression.@*CONCLUSION@#This study has provided bioinformatics evidence of the potential route of 2019-nCoV infection in the urinary system.

Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Gene Expression , Kidney/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Urinary Bladder/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 941-951, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881040


As a representative drug for the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, Xuebijing (XBJ) injection is also one of the recommended drugs for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its treatment mechanism for COVID-19 is still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore the potential mechanism of XBJ injection in the treatment of COVID-19 employing network pharmacology and molecular docking methods. The corresponding target genes of 45 main active ingredients in XBJ injection and COVID-19 were obtained by using multiple database retrieval and literature mining. 102 overlapping targets of them were screened as the core targets for analysis. Then built the PPI network, TCM-compound-target-disease, and disease-target-pathway networks with the help of Cytoscape 3.6.1 software. After that, utilized DAVID to perform gene ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis to predict the action mechanism of overlapping targets. Finally, by applying molecular docking technology, all compounds were docked with COVID-19 3 CL protease(3CLpro), spike protein (S protein), and angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). The results indicated that quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and other compounds in XBJ injection could affect TNF, MAPK1, IL6 and other overlapping targets. Meanwhile, anhydrosafflor yellow B (AHSYB), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and rutin could combine with COVID-19 crucial proteins, and then played the role of anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune response to treat COVID-19. This study revealed the multiple active components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways of XBJ injection in the treatment of COVID-19, which provided a new perspective for the study of the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of COVID-19.

Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biological Availability , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1344-1348, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879800


With the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) all over the world, there is an increasing number of children with such infection. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), one of the binding sites for SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, can bind to viral spike proteins, allowing transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) to activate S-protein to trigger infection and induce the production of various inflammatory factors such as interleukin-1, interferon-l, and tumor necrosis factor. Compared with adults, children tend to have lower expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, which are presumed to be associated with milder symptoms and fewer cases in children. The article summarizes the research advances in the role of ACE2 during SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to help understand the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and provide a reference for better development of drugs and vaccines to prevent and treat coronavirus disease 2019 in children.

Child , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism