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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 23-32, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362667

ABSTRACT

O descarte inadequado de medicamentos pode levar a impactos ambientais negativos e deve ser considerado um problema de saúde pública. O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar dados quantitativos e qualitativos relacionados ao perfil dos medicamentos descartados no município de Governador Valadares - MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido nas UAPS/ESF que possuíam farmácias, e também na Farmácia Central/Policlínica Municipal. Nesses locais, foi realizada uma análise dos medicamentos descartados no período de julho de 2017 a maio de 2018. Por meio dos dados obtidos nesse período foi possível perceber que as principais classes de medicamentos descartadas foram os inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina, antagonistas da angiotensina II, agentes betabloqueadores, diuréticos, hipoglicemiantes, contraceptivos hormonais e agentes modificadores de lipídeos. Além disso, foi realizada uma ação de educação em saúde e aplicado um questionário semiestruturado aos usuários participantes dos grupos operativos. Dos 34 usuários respondentes do questionário, 23 (69,70%) não tinham acesso a informação sobre o local correto de descarte e armazenamento de medicamentos. Após a ação de educação em saúde verificou-se um aumento no quantitativo de medicamentos descartados pelos usuários nas UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I e II, Altinópolis III e IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I e II e Esperança e Nossa Senhora das Graças. O trabalho desenvolvido permitiu apresentar dados relevantes para a gestão municipal demonstrando a importância do farmacêutico no cuidado em saúde e o caráter epidemiológico local da prevalência das doenças crônico não transmissíveis.


The inadequate disposal of drugs can lead to negative environmental impacts and should be treated as a public health problem. This study aimed at surveying quantitative and qualitative data related to the profile of drugs discarded in the city of Governador Valadares - MG. The work was developed in the UAPS / ESF that had pharmacies, and also in the Central Pharmacy/Municipal Polyclinic. In these locations, an analysis of the drugs discarded between July 2017 and May 2018 was carried out. Through the data obtained in this period, it was possible to notice that the main classes of drugs discarded were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, beta-blocking agents, diuretics, hypoglycemic agents, hormonal contraceptives, and lipid-modifying agents. In addition, a health education action was carried out and a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to users participating in the operating groups. From the 34 users who responded the questionnaire, 23 (69.70%) did not have access to information on the correct place to dispose and store medicines. After the health education action, there was an increase in the amount of drugs discarded by users in the UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I and II, Altinópolis III and IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I and II, and Esperança and Nossa Senhora das Graças. The work carried out made it possible to present relevant data for municipal management, demonstrating the importance of the pharmacist in health care and the local epidemiological character of the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacies/supply & distribution , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Patients , Pharmacists/supply & distribution , Tablets/supply & distribution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/supply & distribution , Health Centers , Public Health/education , Health Education , Municipal Management/legislation & jurisprudence , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Drug Storage , Environment , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/supply & distribution , Lipids/supply & distribution
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 614-622, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364355

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Aparentemente, a pior resposta a algumas classes de anti-hipertensivos, especialmente inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina, pela população negra, explicaria, pelo menos parcialmente, o pior controle da hipertensão entre esses indivíduos. Entretanto, a maioria das evidências vêm de estudos norte-americanos. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de investigar a associação entre raça/cor da pele autorrelatadas e controle de PA em participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) utilizando várias classes de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia. Métodos O estudo envolveu uma análise transversal, realizada com participantes da linha de base do ELSA-Brasil. O controle de pressão arterial foi a variável de resposta, participantes com valores de PA ≥140/90 mmHg foram considerados descontrolados em relação aos níveis de pressão arterial. A raça/cor da pele foi autorrelatada (branco, pardo, negro). Todos os participantes tiveram que responder perguntas sobre uso contínuo de medicamentos. A associação entre o controle de PA e raça/cor da pele foi estimada por regressão logística. O nível de significância adotado nesse estudo foi de 5%. Resultados Do total de 1.795 usuários de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia na linha de base, 55,5% se declararam brancos, 27,9%, pardos e 16,7%, negros. Mesmo depois de padronizar em relação a variáveis de confusão, negros em uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA), bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina (BRA), diuréticos tiazídicos (DIU tiazídicos) e betabloqueadores (BB) in monoterapia tinham controle de pressão arterial pior em comparação a brancos. Conclusões Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que, nesta amostra de brasileiros adultos utilizando anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia, as diferenças de controle de pressão arterial entre os vários grupos raciais não são explicadas pela possível eficácia mais baixa dos IECA e BRA em indivíduos negros.


Abstract Background It seems that the worst response to some classes of antihypertensive drugs, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, on the part of the Black population, would at least partially explain the worse control of hypertension among these individuals. However, most of the evidence comes from American studies. Objectives This study aims to investigate the association between self-reported race/skin color and BP control in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), using different classes of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional analysis, carried out with participants from the baseline of ELSA-Brasil. Blood pressure control was the response variable, participants with BP values ≥140/90 mmHg were considered out of control in relation to blood pressure levels. Race/skin color was self-reported (White, Brown, Black). All participants were asked about the continuous use of medication. Association between BP control and race/skin color was estimated through logistic regression. The level of significance adopted in this study was of 5%. Results Of the total of 1,795 users of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy at baseline, 55.5% declared themselves White, 27.9% Brown, and 16.7% Black. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, Blacks using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), thiazide diuretics (thiazide DIU), and beta-blockers (BB) in monotherapy had worse blood pressure control compared to Whites. Conclusions Our results suggest that in this sample of Brazilian adults using antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy, the differences in blood pressure control between different racial groups are not explained by the possible lower effectiveness of ACEIs and ARBs in Black individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , United States , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Race Factors
4.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.830-834, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353529
5.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.987-990.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354094
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 375-381, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346472

ABSTRACT

Los síndromes coronarios agudos sin lesiones coronarias han cobrado relevancia en los últimos años, pero aún no se dispone de datos locales. Analizamos un registro de pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio, en 45 centros del país con residencias de cardiología. Se analizaron 1182 participantes de los cuales 33 (2.8%) no presentaron lesiones coronarias en angiografía, mientras que 89.5% tenían lesiones graves y 7.7% lesiones intermedias. La edad promedio de los pacientes sin lesiones coronarias fue 64.5 ± 13.0 años, 69.7% eran varones, sin diferencias respecto a aquellos con enfermedad epicárdica. La presentación electrocardiográfica más frecuente fue la desviación del segmento ST (13 supradesnivel y 10 infradesnivel del segmento). Además, este subgrupo presentó biomarcadores más bajos (CPK pico 203.5 UI/l, rango [RIC] 102- 422.5 vs. 895.5 UI/l RIC 350-1891, p < 0.0001). La mediana de días de internación fue 4.0 (RIC 3-5.5), siendo menor que la del grupo con enfermedad coronaria intermedia y grave (5.5 días, RIC 4-7, y 6 RIC 4-7, p = 0.003). Al alta, aquellos sin lesiones coronarias recibieron menor prescripción de IECA/ARA II (54.6% vs. 78.0% y 79.7%, p = 0.002) y estatinas (78.8% vs. 87.9% y 91.9%, p = 0.017). Ninguno de este subgrupo falleció durante la inter nación. Nuestros datos sugieren que los infartos sin lesiones coronarias significativas son frecuentes en nuestro medio, aunque probablemente se encuentren subdiagnosticados. Si bien su pronóstico parece más favorable, resulta importante señalar que recibieron menos fármacos para prevenir su recurrencia. Nuevos estudios son necesarios para profundizar el conocimiento de esta enfermedad.


Abstract Acute coronary syndromes without coronary lesions have gained relevance in recent years. However, local data on this condition is scarce. We aimed to explore this entity in a National registry of acute myocardial infarction that was carried out prospectively in hospitals with cardiology residence programs from Ar gentina. We included 1182 patients from 45 centers, where 33 did not present coronary lesions on angiography. The mean age was 64.5 ±13.0 and 69.7% were male, without differences compared to participants with epicardial disease. The most common electrocardiographic presentation was ST segment deviation. In addition, presented lower biomarkers (peak CPK 203.5 IU / l, range [IQR] 102-422.5 vs. 895.5 IU / l IQR 350-1891, p < 0.0001). The median hospitalization was 4.0 days (IQR 3-5.5), lower than the group with intermediate and severe coronary disease (5.5 days, RIC 4-7, and 6, RIC 4-7, p = 0.003). At discharge, less use of ACE/ARB (54.6% vs.78.0% y 79.7%, p = 0.002) and statins (78.8% vs. 87.9% y 91.9%, p = 0.017). No deaths during hospitalization were reported. Our data suggested that infarcts without significant coronary lesions are frequent, although they are probably underdiagnosed. Their prognosis seems to be more favorable, but they receive fewer drugs to prevent recurrence. New studies are necessary to deepen the knowledge of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Argentina/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Registries , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
7.
Rev. ciênc. méd., (Campinas) ; 30: 215035, 10 mar. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150810

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho é reunir e discutir os principais achados científicos, opiniões de especialistas e considerações de comunidades médicas a respeito da continuação do tratamento de pacientes hipertensos diagnosticados com Covid-19 em uso de anti-hipertensivos. Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa de literatura, restringida a publicações até abril de 2020, utilizando as bases de dados Medline e Embase e consulta a quatro sociedades científicas de Cardiologia. Um total de 93 publicações foram encontradas nas bases de dados consultadas, e, destas, nove publicações foram elegíveis para análise, sendo que seis publicações se mostraram favoráveis à continuação do tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina e antagonistas dos receptores de angiotensina, o que foi ao encontro das recomendações das sociedades de Cardiologia; outras três publicações sugeriram que essas classes de anti-hipertensivos podem aumentar a gravidade da infecção. A continuação do tratamento com anti-hipertensivos durante a pandemia de coronavírus ou após o diagnóstico da infecção apresenta um paradoxo entre o potencial aumento da patogenicidade viral e a proteção pulmonar conferida pelo equilíbrio do sistema renina-angiotensina.


The objective of this work is to gather and discuss the main scientific findings, opinions and specialists in medical communities and respect for the continuation of treatment with antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients diagnosed with Covid-19. This is a narrative review of the literature, restricted to publications until April 2020, using Medline and Embase as a database and consulting four scientific societies of cardiology. A total of 93 publications were found in the databases consulted and of these, 9 publications were eligible for analysis, with six publications being considered favorable for the continuation of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and receptor antagonists angiotensin, which met the decisions of cardiology societies; three other publications suggested that these classes of antihypertensives may increase the severity of the infection. The continuation of treatment with antihypertensive drugs during a coronavirus pandemic or after the diagnosis of infection presents a paradox between the potential increase in viral pathogenicity and the pulmonary protection provided by the balance of the renin-angiotensin system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents
8.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 478-492, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922526

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are antihypertensive medications often used in the treatment of diabetes-related complications. Synthetic ACE inhibitors are known to cause serious side effects like hypotension, renal insufficiency, and hyperkalaemia. Therefore, there has been an intensifying search for natural ACE inhibitors. Many plants or plant-based extracts are known to possess ACE-inhibitory activity. In this review, articles focusing on the natural ACE inhibitors extracted from plants were retrieved from databases like Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. We have found more than 50 plant species with ACE-inhibitory activity. Among them, Angelica keiskei, Momordica charantia, Muntingia calabura, Prunus domestica, and Peperomia pellucida were the most potent, showing comparatively lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration values. Among the bioactive metabolites, peptides (e.g., Tyr-Glu-Pro, Met-Arg-Trp, and Gln-Phe-Tyr-Ala-Val), phenolics (e.g., cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside), flavonoids ([-]-epicatechin, astilbin, and eupatorin), terpenoids (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) and alkaloids (berberine and harmaline) isolated from several plant and fungus species were found to possess significant ACE-inhibitory activity. These were also known to possess promising antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities. Considering the minimal side effects and lower toxicity of herbal compounds, development of antihypertensive drugs from these plant extracts or phytocompounds for the treatment of diabetes-associated complications is an important endeavour. This review, therefore, focuses on the ACE inhibitors extracted from different plant sources, their possible mechanisms of action, present status, and any safety concerns.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Antihypertensive Agents , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Humans , Peptides
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2656-2665, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Cardiovascular diseases are associated with an increased risk of depression, but it remains unclear whether treatment with cardiovascular agents decreases or increases this risk. The effects of drugs on individual usage are also often unknown. This review aimed to examine the correlation between depression and common cardiovascular drugs, develop more potent interventions for depression in cardiovascular patients, and further research on the bio-behavioural mechanisms linking cardiovascular drugs to depression.@*DATA SOURCES@#The data in this review were obtained from articles included in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science.@*STUDY SELECTION@#Clinical trials, observational studies, review literature, and guidelines about depression and cardiovascular drugs were selected for the article.@*RESULTS@#We systematically investigated whether the seven most used cardiovascular drugs were associated with altered risk of incident depression in this literature review. Statins have been proven to have antidepressant effects. Some studies believe angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) can exert an antidepressant influence by acting on the renin-angiotensin system, but further clinical trials are needed to confirm this. Beta-blockers have previously been associated with depression, but the current study found no significant association between beta blockers and the risk of depression. Aspirin may have antidepressant effects by suppressing the immune response, but its role as an antidepressant remains controversial. calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can regulate nerve signal transduction by adjusting calcium channels, but whether this effect is beneficial or harmful to depression remains unclear. Finally, some cases have reported that nitrates and diuretics are associated with depression, but the current clinical evidence is insufficient.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Statins have been proven to have antidepressant effect, and the antidepressant effects of ACEIs/ARB and aspirin are still controversial. CCBs are associated with depression, but it is unclear whether it is beneficial or harmful. No association has been found with β-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Depression/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System
10.
Singapore medical journal ; : 563-567, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920942

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#There are concerns that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may worsen the outcomes of patients with COVID-19. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to study the in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients who were on ACEIs/ARBs as compared to those not on ACEIs/ARBs.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, EMBASE, clinicaltrials.gov and Google Scholar between 1 January 2020 and 30 May 2020 to identify all studies that evaluated the use of ACEIs/ARBs and reported the in-hospital mortality outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Nine non-randomised studies were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The primary outcome studied was the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients who were on ACEIs/ARBs compared with those not on ACEIs/ARBs.@*RESULTS@#Of the 8,313 patients in the nine studies, 7,622 (91.7%) were from studies with all-comers, while 691 (8.3%) were from studies involving only patients with hypertension. 577 (14.6%) in-hospital deaths were observed out of a total of 3,949 patients with an outcome in the nine studies. Overall, no significant difference was observed in the in-hospital mortality between patients on ACEIs/ARBs and those not on ACEIs/ARBs (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.50; p = 0.73). Further sensitivity analysis in the hypertension group and the all-comers group showed similar results (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.58-1.32; p = 0.53 and OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.00-3.43; p = 0.05, respectively).@*CONCLUSION@#We observed that ACEIs/ARBs had no significant impact on the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients and can be used safely in patients with indications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1803-1811, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Acute heart failure (AHF) is the most common disease in emergency departments (EDs). However, clinical data exploring the outcomes of patients presenting AHF in EDs are limited, especially the long-term outcomes. The purposes of this study were to describe the long-term outcomes of patients with AHF in the EDs and further analyze their prognostic factors.@*METHODS@#This prospective, multicenter, cohort study consecutively enrolled 3335 patients with AHF who were admitted to EDs of 14 hospitals from Beijing between January 1, 2011 and September 23, 2012. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis were adopted to evaluate 5-year outcomes and associated predictors.@*RESULTS@#The 5-year mortality and cardiovascular death rates were 55.4% and 49.6%, respectively. The median overall survival was 34 months. Independent predictors of 5-year mortality were patient age (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.027, 95 confidence interval [CI]: 1.023-1.030), body mass index (BMI) (HR: 0.971, 95% CI: 0.958-0.983), fatigue (HR: 1.127, 95% CI: 1.009-1.258), ascites (HR: 1.190, 95% CI: 1.057-1.340), hepatic jugular reflux (HR: 1.339, 95% CI: 1.140-1.572), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III to IV (HR: 1.511, 95% CI: 1.291-1.769), heart rate (HR: 1.003, 95% CI: 1.001-1.005), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (HR: 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (HR: 1.014, 95% CI: 1.008-1.020), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)/N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level in the third (HR: 1.426, 95% CI: 1.220-1.668) or fourth quartile (HR: 1.437, 95% CI: 1.223-1.690), serum sodium (HR: 0.980, 95% CI: 0.972-0.988), serum albumin (HR: 0.981, 95% CI: 0.971-0.992), ischemic heart diseases (HR: 1.195, 95% CI: 1.073-1.331), primary cardiomyopathy (HR: 1.382, 95% CI: 1.183-1.614), diabetes (HR: 1.118, 95% CI: 1.010-1.237), stroke (HR: 1.252, 95% CI: 1.121-1.397), and the use of diuretics (HR: 0.714, 95% CI: 0.626-0.814), β-blockers (HR: 0.673, 95% CI: 0.588-0.769), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) (HR: 0.714, 95% CI: 0.604-0.845), angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) (HR: 0.790, 95% CI: 0.646-0.965), spironolactone (HR: 0.814, 95% CI: 0.663-0.999), calcium antagonists (HR: 0.624, 95% CI: 0.531-0.733), nitrates (HR: 0.715, 95% CI: 0.631-0.811), and digoxin (HR: 0.579, 95% CI: 0.465-0.721).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results of our study demonstrate poor 5-year outcomes of patients presenting to EDs with AHF. Age, BMI, fatigue, ascites, hepatic jugular reflux, NYHA class III to IV, heart rate, DBP, BUN, BNP/NT-proBNP level in the third or fourth quartile, serum sodium, serum albumin, ischemic heart diseases, primary cardiomyopathy, diabetes, stroke, and the use of diuretics, β-blockers, ACEIs, ARBs, spironolactone, calcium antagonists, nitrates, and digoxin were independently associated with 5-year all-cause mortality.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Beijing/epidemiology , Biomarkers , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure/mortality , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Peptide Fragments , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1602-1609, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hypertension is considered an important risk factor for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The commonly anti-hypertensive drugs are the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and beta-blockers. The association between commonly used anti-hypertensive medications and the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients with hypertension has not been well studied.@*METHODS@#We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients admitted with COVID-19 to Huo Shen Shan Hospital and Guanggu District of the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan, China. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Hypertension and anti-hypertensive treatment were confirmed by medical history and clinical records. The primary clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included the rates of patients in common wards transferred to the intensive care unit and hospital stay duration. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors associated with mortality and prognosis. Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounders between different anti-hypertensive treatments. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the cumulative recovery rate. Log-rank tests were performed to test for differences in Kaplan-Meier curves between different groups.@*RESULTS@#Among 4569 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 31.7% (1449/4569) had a history of hypertension. There were significant differences in mortality rates between hypertensive patients with CCBs (7/359) and those without (21/359) (1.95% vs. 5.85%, risk ratio [RR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.76, χ2 = 7.61, P = 0.0058). After matching for confounders, the mortality rates were similar between the RAAS inhibitor (4/236) and non-RAAS inhibitor (9/236) cohorts (1.69% vs. 3.81%, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.13-1.43, χ2 = 1.98, P = 0.1596). Hypertensive patients with beta-blockers (13/340) showed no statistical difference in mortality compared with those without (11/340) (3.82% vs. 3.24%, RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.53-2.69, χ2 = 0.17, P = 0.6777).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In our study, we did not find any positive or negative effects of RAAS inhibitors or beta-blockers in COVID-19 patients with hypertension, while CCBs could improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Child , China , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879057

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tianma Gouteng Granules combined with conventional anti-hypertensive drugs in the treatment of essential hypertension. The clinical randomized controlled trials(RCTs) on the treatment of essential hypertension with Tianma Gouteng Granules combined with conventional anti-hypertensive drugs were searched in PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, VIP, CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed since the establishment of the databases to April 2020 based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and Meta-analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 15 RCTs were included, involving a total of 1 508 patients. Meta-analysis results showed that Tianma Gouteng Granules combined with conventional Western medicine were supe-rior to the control group in reducing systolic blood pressure(MD=-10.24, 95%CI[-13.54,-6.95], P<0.000 01), diastolic blood pressure(MD=-5.33, 95%CI[-7.21,-3.45], P<0.000 01), improving the clinical efficacy of patients(RR=1.22, 95%CI[1.15, 1.28], P<0.000 01) and curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome(RR=1.26, 95%CI[1.02, 1.57], P=0.04), increasing nitric oxide content(MD=9.59, 95%CI[7.23, 11.96], P<0.000 01), reducing endothelin-1(MD=-10.74, 95%CI[-15.74,-5.75], P<0.000 1), tumor necrosis factor(MD=-0.28, 95%CI[-0.36,-0.19], P<0.000 01), and interleukin-6(MD=-39.71, 95%CI[-43.40,-36.03], P<0.000 01). There was no statistically significant difference between the test group and the control group in the incidence of adverse reactions. No liver and kidney dysfunction occurred. The results of the subgroup analysis showed that the effect of Tianma Gouteng Granules combined with ARB drugs was more obvious in reducing the systolic and diastolic pressure. Trial sequential analysis showed that the studies accumulatively included for clinical efficacy crossed the traditional threshold and the TSA threshold, further affirming its clinical efficacy. The clinical application of Tianma Gouteng Granules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension and accompanying symptoms has clear efficacy and certain safety, so it is recommended for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Essential Hypertension/drug therapy , Humans
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878995

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of essential hypertension. PubMed, VIP, CNKI, Wanfang and other databases were retrieved from the establishment of the database to February 2020 for clinical randomized controlled trial(RCT) about Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of essential hypertension. The literatures were screened out according to the inclusion criteria, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis. A total of 3 100 patients in 27 RCTs were enrolled. According to Meta-analysis, Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine could effectively reduce systolic blood pressure(MD=-7.88,95%CI[-9.68,-6.08],P<0.000 01) and diastolic blood pressure(MD=-7.85, 95%CI[-9.07,-6.62], P<0.000 01), triglyceride(MD=-0.46, 95%CI[-0.66,-0.26], P<0.000 01) and total cholesterol(MD=-0.92, 95%CI[-1.49,-0.35], P=0.001), but increase HDL cholesterol(MD=0.51, 95%CI[0.28, 0.73], P<0.000 01), with a better effect than the Western medicine group alone. The results of LDL-C analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups(MD=-0.91, 95%CI[-1.82, 0.01], P=0.05). The subgroup analysis suggested that reduced systolic blood pressure may be related to the use of ARB. There was a close correlation between CCB drugs and the decrease of diastolic blood pressure. In addition, there was no significant difference in the compliance and the incidence of adverse reactions. Clinical application of Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with essential hypertension has clear efficacy and certain safety. More clinical randomized controlled trials are needed for verification in the future.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Essential Hypertension/drug therapy , Humans
15.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31211, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354560

ABSTRACT

Diante do contexto pandêmico da COVID-19, esforços têm sido direcionados ao desenvolvimento de medidas terapêuticas seguras e eficazes no combate à doença. Entretanto, divergências entre as condutas adotadas nesses pacientes tem sido frequentes. Em especial, fármacos inibidores do Sistema Renina-Angiotensina, como os Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina e Bloqueadores do Receptor da Angiotensina, são foco de grande discussão. Diversos autores questionam uma possível relação de risco aumentado entre o uso de tais medicações e o desenvolvimento de formas mais graves da doença, ao correlacionar a regulação positiva da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina 2 induzida por esses fármacos com o fato do SARS-CoV-2 usar essa enzima como receptor celular. Enquanto isso, outros autores defendem que essa modulação atue como fator protetor à gravidade da infecção, levando em consideração a promoção de efeitos vasodepressores, anti-fibróticos e anti-inflamatórios. Dada a alta prevalência do uso desses anti-hipertensivos, a presente revisão analisa o funcionamento do Sistema Renina-Angiotensina; aspectos moleculares do novo coronavírus; e a inibição da Angiotensina 2 no contexto dessa infecção, para discutir qual conduta seria mais adequada no manejo da hipertensão arterial e doenças cardiovasculares, dada a pandemia da COVID-19.


In the face of the pandemic context of the COVID-19, efforts have been directed to the development of safe and effective therapeutic actions in combating the disease. However, divergences between management of these patients have been frequent. Especially, Renin-Angiotensin System inhibitors, as Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, are the focus of great discussion. Several authors question a possible increased risk relation between the use of that medication and the development of the most severe disease form, when correlating AngiotensinConverting Enzyme 2 upregulation induced by those drugs with the fact that SARS-CoV-2 uses this enzyme as its cellular receptor. Meanwhile, other authors defend that the referred modulation acts as a protective factor to infection severity, considering the induction of vasodepressor, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. Given the high prevalence of the use of those antihypertensive drugs, the present review analyses the Renin-Angiotensin System functionning; molecular aspects of the novel coronavirus; and the Angiotensin 2 inhibition in the context of this infection, in order to discuss which conduct would be more appropriate in the management of arterial hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, given the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections , Cardiovascular Agents , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Hypertension
16.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eRW5498, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286289

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Angioedema attacks are common causes of emergency care, and due to the potential for severity, it is important that professionals who work in these services know their causes and management. The mechanisms involved in angioedema without urticaria may be histamine- or bradykinin-mediated. The most common causes of histamine-mediated angioedema are foods, medications, insect sting and idiopathic. When the mediator is bradykinin, the triggers are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and factors related to acquired angioedema with deficiency of C1-inhibitor or hereditary angioedema, which are less common, but very important because of the possibility of fatal outcome. Hereditary angioedema is a rare disease characterized by attacks of edema that affect the subcutaneous tissue and mucous membranes of various organs, manifesting mainly by angioedema and abdominal pain. This type of angioedema does not respond to the usual treatment with epinephrine, antihistamines and corticosteroids. Thus, if not identified and treated appropriately, these patients have an estimated risk of mortality from laryngeal edema of 25% to 40%. Hereditary angioedema treatment has changed dramatically in recent years with the development of new and efficient drugs for attack management: plasma-derived C1 inhibitor, recombinant human C1-inhibitor, bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist (icatibant), and the kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide). In Brazil, plasma-derived C1 inhibitor and icatibant have already been approved for use. Proper management of these patients in the emergency department avoids unnecessary surgery and, especially, fatal outcomes.


RESUMO As crises de angioedema são causas comuns de atendimentos nas emergências, e devido ao potencial de gravidade, é importante que os profissionais que atuam nesses serviços conheçam suas causas e abordagem. Os mecanismos envolvidos no angioedema sem urticas podem ser histaminérgicos ou mediados por bradicinina. As causas mais comuns de angioedema mediado por histamina são alimentos, medicamentos, ferroada de insetos e idiopática. Quando o mediador é a bradicinina, os desencadeantes são os inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina e fatores relacionados ao angioedema adquirido com deficiência do inibidor de C1 ou angioedema hereditário que são menos comuns, mas muito importantes pela possibilidade de desfecho fatal. O angioedema hereditário é uma doença rara, caracterizada por crises de edema que acometem o tecido subcutâneo e mucosas de vários órgãos, manifestando-se principalmente por crises de angioedema e dor abdominal. Esse tipo de angioedema não responde ao tratamento usual com adrenalina, anti-histamínicos e corticosteroides. Assim, se não identificados e tratados adequadamente, esses pacientes têm risco de morte por edema de laringe estimado em 25% a 40%. O tratamento do angioedema hereditário mudou drasticamente nos últimos anos, com o desenvolvimento de novos e eficientes fármacos para as crises: inibidor de C1 derivado de plasma, inibidor de C1 recombinante humano, antagonista do receptor B2 da bradicinina (icatibanto) e o inibidor da calicreína (ecalantide). No Brasil, até o momento, estão liberados para uso o inibidor de C1 derivado de plasma e o icatibanto. O manejo correto desses pacientes na emergência evita cirurgias desnecessárias e, principalmente, desfechos fatais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angioedemas, Hereditary/diagnosis , Angioedemas, Hereditary/drug therapy , Angioedema/diagnosis , Angioedema/drug therapy , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Emergency Service, Hospital
17.
Clinics ; 76: e2553, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Returning to work after an episode of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is challenging for many patients, and has both personal and social impacts. There are limited data regarding the working status in the very long-term after ACS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1,632 patients who were working prior to hospitalization for ACS in a quaternary hospital and were followed-up for up to 17 years. Adjusted models were developed to analyze the variables independently associated with actively working at the last contact, and a prognostic predictive index for not working at follow-up was developed. RESULTS: The following variables were significantly and independently associated with actively working at the last contact: age>median (hazard-ratio [HR], 0.76, p<0.001); male sex (HR, 1.52, p<0.001); government health insurance (HR, 1.36, p<0.001); history of angina (HR, 0.69, p<0.001) or myocardial infarction (MI) (HR, 0.76, p=0.005); smoking (HR, 0.81, p=0.015); ST-elevation MI (HR, 0.81, p=0.021); anterior-wall MI (HR, 0.75, p=0.001); non-primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (HR, 0.77, p=0.002); fibrinolysis (HR, 0.61, p<0.001); cardiogenic shock (HR, 0.60, p=0.023); statin (HR, 3.01, p<0.001), beta-blocker (HR, 1.26, p=0.020), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) (HR, 1.37, p=0.001) at hospital discharge; and MI at follow-up (HR, 0.72, p=0.001). The probability of not working at the last contact ranged from 24.2% for patients with no variables, up to 80% for patients with six or more variables. CONCLUSIONS: In patients discharged after ACS, prior and in-hospital clinical variables, as well as the quality of care at discharge, have a great impact on the long-term probability of actively working.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19177, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350229

ABSTRACT

Probiotic consumption promotes numerous health benefits. The aim of this study is 1) to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of kefir in a hypertension rat model caused by the administration of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME, and 2) to evaluate the acute angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the soluble nonbacterial fraction (SNBF) of kefir. To develop the first aim, male rats were separated into three groups: control group (C) treated with 0.3 mL/100 g of milk; L-NAME group (LN) received 10 mg/kg of said inhibitor; and Kefir group (K) treated with 0.3 mL/100 g of kefir plus L-NAME (10 mg/kg of said inhibitor). The treatments were given by oral gavage twice a day for four weeks. For the second aim"instead additionally, male rats received angiotensin I (in bolus) in three doses (Ang I: 0.03, 3 and 300 µg/kg) and were separated into two groups: a) received captopril (30 mg/kg i.v.) and b)received SNBF of kefir (5 mL/kg i.v.). Blood pressure were evaluated before and after Ang I. After treatment, hemodynamic parameters were evaluated, heart weight was recorded, and body weight gain was calculated. SNBF of kefir did not decrease the blood pressure for L-NAMEtreated animals, and no changes were observed in the cardiac parameters. However, the SNBF of kefir demonstrated acute inhibition of ACE in vivo similar to that of captopril. Thus, our results suggest that kefir may improve human cardiovascular systems by using mechanisms independent of nitric oxide syntheses. Additionally, the renin angiotensin system is probably the most important system involved in kefir effect regarding hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Kefir/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/genetics , Probiotics/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/analysis , Nitric Oxide/adverse effects
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 897-905, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143985

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Frailty is a condition of elderly characterized by increased vulnerability to stressful events. Frail patients are more likely to have adverse events. The purposes of this study were to define frailty in patients aged ≥ 70 years with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) and to evaluate mortality and prognostic significance of frailty in these patients. Methods: We included 99 patients, ≥ 70 years old (mean age 74±5.3 years), with diagnosis of CCS. They were followed-up for up to 12 months. The frailty score was evaluated according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA). All patients were divided as frail or non-frail. The groups were compared for their characteristics and clinical outcomes. Results: Fifty patients were classified as frail, and 49 patients as non-frail. The 12-month Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) rate was 69.4% in frail patients and 20% in non-frail patients. Frailty increases the risk for MACE as much as 3.48 times. Two patients died in the non-frail group and 11 patients died in the frail group. Frailty increases the risk for death as much as 6.05 times. When we compared the aforementioned risk factors by multivariate analysis, higher CSHA frailty score was associated with increased MACE and death (relative risk [RR] = 22.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.33-158.19, P=0.001, for MACE; RR = 7.41, 95% CI 1.44-38.03, P=0.016, for death). Conclusion: Being a frail elderly CCS patient is associated with worse outcomes. Therefore, frailty score should be evaluated for elderly CCS patients as a prognostic marker.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Frailty/complications , Canada , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
20.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 501-507, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134527

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Un nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) ha sido reconocido como el agente etiológico de una misteriosa neumonía originada en Wuhan, China. La OMS ha nombrado a la nueva enfermedad como COVID-19 y, además, la ha declarado pandemia. Taxonómicamente, SARS-CoV-2 pertenece al género de los betacoronavirus junto con SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 utiliza la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina 2 (ACE2) como el receptor objetivo para el ingreso en una célula huésped. La expresión de ACE2 en células de tejidos humanos podría indicar un potencial riesgo de reconocimiento por parte del virus y, por ende, ser susceptibles a la infección. Mediante algunas técnicas de laboratorio y de bioinformática, se ha visto una alta presencia de ACE2 en células epiteliales alveolares tipo II de pulmón y en enterocitos del intestino delgado. En la cavidad oral, se ha podido identificar la presencia de ACE2, principalmente, en células epiteliale s de glándulas salivales y células epiteliales de la lengua. Además, se ha reportado la manifestación de algunos síntomas, como sequedad bucal y ambligeustia, los que podrían estar relacionadas con una infección de SARS-CoV-2 en estos órganos. Sin embargo, son necesarios mayores estudios que evidencien esta situación.


ABSTRACT: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been recognized as a etiologic agent of a mysterious pneumonia originating in Wuhan, China. WHO has named the new disease as COVID-19 and, in addition, has declared it a pandemic. Taxonomically, SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the betacoronavirus genus along with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the target receptor for entry into a host cell. The expression of ACE2 in cells of human tissues could indicate a potential risk of recognition by the virus and, therefore, be susceptible to infection. Through some laboratory and bioinformatics techniques, high presence of ACE2 has been seen in type II alveolar epithelial cells of the lung and enterocytes of the small intestine. In oral cavity, mainly presence of ACE2 has been identified in epithelial cells of salivary glands and epithelial cells of tongue. In addition, manifestation of some symptoms, such as dry mouth and amblygeustia, have been reported, which could be related to a SARS-CoV-2 infection in these organs. However, further studies are needed to prove this situation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Mouth/virology
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