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1.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.830-834, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353529
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(2): 173-180, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004330

ABSTRACT

Background: To reduce the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular risk, the guidelines recommend the blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in patients with proteinuria. Aim: To assess the frequency of enalapril or losartan use in diabetics or hypertensive patients with stage 3 CKD. Material and Methods: Review of clinical records of patients with CKD in an urban primary care clinic. Results: We identified 408 subjects aged 40 to 98 years (66% women) with stage 3 CKD. Sixty six percent had only hypertension and 34% were diabetic with or without hypertension. Seventy four percent received RAAS blockers (52% used enalapril, 45% losartan and 2% both medications). RAAS blockers were used in 70% of hypertensive and 78% of diabetic patients. The prescription in hypertensive diabetics with microalbuminuria was lower than in those without microalbuminuria (72% vs 87%, p < 0.05), but the opposite occurred in pure hypertensive patients with and without microalbuminuria (88% vs 69%, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in blood pressure levels, microalbuminuria or serum potassium levels between RAAS blocker users and non-users. No differences were observed either between enalapril and losartan users. Conclusions: The adherence to clinical guidelines is insufficient and users of the recommended drugs did not achieve the expected goals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Losartan/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Proteinuria/urine , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/standards , Enalapril/administration & dosage , Enalapril/standards , Disease Progression , Losartan/administration & dosage , Losartan/standards , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Albuminuria/urine , Drug Therapy, Combination , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/psychology , Hypertension/drug therapy
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(2): f:136-l:144, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833915

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Depósitos valvares de cálcio quantificados por ecocardiografia transtorácica estão associados à presença de doença aterosclerótica sistêmica, embora seu valor prognóstico e a influência de fatores de risco cardiovascular associados ainda não estejam definidos. Objetivos: Correlacionar o índice de calcificação cardíaca valvar pela ecocardiografia transtorácica com fatores de risco cardiovascular e presença de doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Métodos: Foram selecionados 203 pacientes (61,2 ± 14,3 anos; 57,6% do sexo feminino) que realizaram ecocardiografia transtorácica com quantificação do índice de cálcio cardíaco. A presença ou não de DAC, hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), diabetes mellitus (DM), dislipidemia e tabagismo foi avaliada. Resultados: Idade acima de 65 anos (p < 0,001) e presença de HAS (p < 0,001) mostraram correlação significativa com a presença de calcificação cardíaca, enquanto que o DM (p = 0,056) e a DAC (p = 0,08) apresentaram apenas uma tendência a se correlacionar com a mesma. A calcificação isolada da valva mitral mostrou correlação significativa com idade acima de 65 anos (p < 0,001), presença de DAC (p = 0,004), HAS (p = 0,054) e DM (p = 0,07), sendo que na análise multivariada a DAC (odds ratio [OR] 3,39, intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 1,58-7,29, p = 0,002) e idade > 65 anos (OR 1,05, IC95% 1,02-1,08, p = 0,003) mostraram correlação significativa e independente com calcificação mitral. A calcificação isolada da valva aórtica não mostrou correlação com a presença de DAC (p = 0,435), mas apresentou uma correlação significativa com idade acima de 65 anos (p < 0,001) e HAS (p < 0,001). Na análise multivariada, apenas a idade (OR 1,1 IC95% 1,06-1,14, p < 0,001) manteve uma correlação independente e significativa com calcificação aórtica. Conclusão: Idade acima de 65 anos e hipertensão arterial sistêmica foram fatores de risco independentes para a presença de calcificação cardíaca valvar, sendo que a calcificação isolada da valva mitral esteve associada de forma significativa e independente com a presença de DAC


Introduction: Valvular deposits of calcium quantified by transthoracic echocardiography are associated with the occurrence of systemic atherosclerotic disease, but its prognostic value and influence of associated cardiovascular risk factors have not been defined yet. Objectives: To correlate the valvular cardiac calcium index by transthoracic echocardiography with cardiovascular risk factors and presence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: We selected 203 patients (61.2 ± 14.3 years; 57.6% females) who underwent transthoracic echocardiography with cardiac calcium index quantification. The presence or absence of CAD, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and smoking was assessed. Results: Age above 65 years (p < 0.001) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.001) showed a significant correlation with the presence of cardiac calcification, whereas DM (p = 0.056) and CAD (p = 0.08) showed only a trend toward a correlation with calcification. Mitral valve calcification alone correlated significantly with age above 65 years (p < 0.001), presence of CAD (p = 0.004), hypertension (p = 0.054), and DM (p = 0.07). On multivariate analysis, CAD (odds ratio [OR] 3.39, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.58-7.29, p = 0.002) and age > 65 years (OR 1.05, 95%CI 1.02-1.08, p = 0.003) correlated significantly and independently with mitral valve calcification. Aortic valve calcification alone showed no correlation with the presence of CAD (p = 0.435), but correlated significantly with age above 65 years (p < 0.001) and hypertension (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only age (OR 1.1, 95%CI 1.06-1.14, p < 0.001) remained independently and significantly correlated with aortic calcification. Conclusion: Age above 65 years and hypertension were independent risk factors for the presence of valvular cardiac calcification, with mitral valve calcification alone emerging as significantly and independently associated with the presence of CAD


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Calcium Channels , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Risk Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aortic Valve/anatomy & histology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Mitral Valve/anatomy & histology , Multivariate Analysis , Observational Study , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Unified Health System , Vascular Calcification/complications
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(1): 34-40, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The importance of minimizing the exaggerated sympatho-adrenergic responses and QT interval and QT interval dispersion changes that may develop due to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during anesthesia induction in the hypertensive patients is clear. Esmolol decreases the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. However, the effect of esmolol in decreasing the prolonged QT interval and QT interval dispersion as induced by laryngoscopy and intubation is controversial. We investigated the effect of esmolol on the hemodynamic, and corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. METHODS: 60 ASA I-II patients, with essential hypertension using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were included in the study. The esmolol group received esmolol at a bolus dose of 500 mcg/kg followed by a 100 mcg/kg/min infusion which continued until the 4th min after intubation. The control group received 0.9% saline similar to the esmolol group. The mean blood pressure, heart rate values and the electrocardiogram records were obtained as baseline values before the anesthesia, 5 min after esmolol and saline administration, 3 min after the induction and 30 s, 2 min and 4 min after intubation. RESULTS: The corrected-QT interval was shorter in the esmolol group (p = 0.012), the corrected-QT interval dispersion interval was longer in the control group (p = 0.034) and the mean heart rate was higher in the control group (p = 0.022) 30 s after intubation. The risk of arrhythmia frequency was higher in the control group in the 4-min period following intubation (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Endotracheal intubation was found to prolong corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion, and increase the heart rate during anesthesia induction with propofol in hypertensive patients using angiotensin ...


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: É óbvia a importância de minimizar as respostas simpatoadrenérgicas exageradas e o intervalo QT e a dispersão do intervalo QT que podem ocorrer por causa de laringoscopia e intubação traqueal durante a indução da anestesia em pacientes hipertensos. Esmolol diminui a resposta hemodinâmica à laringoscopia e à intubação. Porém, o efeito de esmolol sobre a redução do intervalo QT prolongado e a dispersão do intervalo QT induzida pela laringoscopia e intubação é controverso. Pesquisamos o efeito de esmolol sobre a hemodinâmica e o intervalo QT corrigido e as alterações da dispersão do intervalo QT observadas durante a indução da anestesia em pacientes hipertensos que receberam inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA). MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 60 pacientes, estado físico ASA I-II, com hipertensão arterial essencial e que receberam IECA. O grupo esmolol recebeu uma dose em bolus de 500 mcg kg-1, seguida por infusão contínua de 100 mcg kg-1 min-1 até o quarto minuto após a intubação. O grupo controle recebeu solução salina a 0,9%, semelhantemente ao grupo esmolol. Os valores da pressão arterial média e da frequência cardíaca e os registros do eletrocardiograma foram obtidos durante a fase inicial pré-anestesia, cinco minutos após a administração de esmolol e solução salina, três minutos após a indução e 30 segundos, dois minutos e quatro minutos após a intubação. RESULTADOS: O intervalo QT corrigido foi menor no grupo esmolol (p = 0,012), o intervalo de dispersão do intervalo QT corrigido foi maior no grupo controle (p = 0,034) e a frequência cardíaca média foi maior no grupo controle (p = 0,022) 30 segundos após a intubação. O risco da frequência de arritmia foi maior no grupo controle no quarto minuto após a intubação (p = 0,038). CONCLUSÃO: Descobrimos que a intubação traqueal prolonga o intervalo e a dispersão do intervalo QT corrigido e aumenta a frequência cardíaca durante a indução da ...


JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVO: Es evidente la importancia que tiene minimizar las respuestas simpatoadrenérgicas exageradas y el intervalo QT y la dispersión del intervalo QT que pueden ocurrir a causa de la laringoscopia e intubación traqueal durante la inducción de la anestesia en pacientes hipertensos. El esmolol disminuye la respuesta hemodinámica a la laringoscopia y a la intubación. Sin embargo, su efecto sobre la reducción del intervalo QT prolongado y la dispersión del intervalo QT inducida por la laringoscopia e intubación es controvertido. Investigamos el efecto del esmolol sobre la hemodinámica y el intervalo QT corregido, y las alteraciones de la dispersión del intervalo QT observadas durante la inducción de la anestesia en pacientes hipertensos que recibieron inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina. MÉTODOS: Fueron incluidos en el estudio 60 pacientes, estado físico ASA I-II, con hipertensión arterial esencial y que recibieron inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina. El grupo esmolol recibió una dosis en bolos de 500 mcg/kg, seguida de infusión continua de 100 mcg/kg/min hasta el cuarto minuto después de la intubación. El grupo control recibió una solución salina al 0,9%, de forma similar al grupo esmolol. Los valores de la presión arterial media y de la frecuencia cardíaca y los registros del electrocardiograma fueron obtenidos durante la fase inicial preanestésica, 5 min después de la administración del esmolol y la solución salina, 3 min después de la inducción, y 30 s, 2 min y 4 min después de la intubación. RESULTADOS: El intervalo QT corregido fue menor en el grupo esmolol (p = 0,012), el intervalo de dispersión del intervalo QT corregido fue mayor en el grupo control (p = 0,034) y la frecuencia cardíaca media fue mayor en el grupo control (p = 0,022) 30 s después de la intubación. El riesgo de la frecuencia de arritmia fue mayor en el grupo control en el cuarto minuto después de la intubación ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Long QT Syndrome/surgery , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Hypertension/physiopathology , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation
5.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 25(1): 14-18, jan.-mar.- 2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-767979

ABSTRACT

O Sistema Renina Angiotensina é reconhecidamente um poderoso determinante da homeostase e da hemodinâmica renal e cardiovascular. Nos últimos anos, os estudos têm focado o eixo angiotensina II (Ang II)/receptor AT1 e o eixo angiotensina 1-7 (Ang 1-7)/receptor Mas, evidenciando que a atividade dos peptídeos é modulada com a Ang1-7antagonizando as ações da Ang II. As ações da Ang II, via receptor AT1, relacionadas à vasoconstrição, estresse oxidativo, inflamação, proliferação e fibrose são equilibradas pelas ações da Ang 1-7, mediadas pelo receptor Mas, que levam à vasodilatação, inibem o estresse oxidativo, a proliferação e a fibrose tecidual. O balanço obtido entre os eixos parece conduzir as ações do sistema para condições fisiológicas ou para o desenvolvimento de patologias, e sobretudo, tem dissociado o sistema circulante do tecidual. O conhecimento de marcadores biológicos que possam ser utilizados no diagnóstico e prognóstico de doenças cardiovasculares é de extrema importância para o desenvolvimento aprimoramento de métodos terapêuticos e profiláticos incluindo novas drogas.


The Renin Angiotensin System has a critical role in renal and cardiovascular homeostasis and hemodynamics. In recent years, studies have focused in the two main axes of RAS: angiotensin II (Ang II)/AT1 receptor and angiotensin 1-7 axis (Ang 1-7)/Mas receptor, evidencing that the peptide activity is modulated with Ang1-7 antagonizing the actions of Ang II. The actions of Ang II, via the AT1 receptor, related to vasoconstriction, oxidative stress,inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis, are balanced by the actions of Ang 1-7. These, in turn, are mediated by the Mas receptor, but lead to vasodilation and inhibit oxidative stress, proliferation and tissue fibrosis. The balance obtained between the axes of the system appearsto lead to physiological conditions or pathologies, and above all, has disassociated the circulatory system from the tissue system. The discovery of biomarkers that may be useful inthe diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases is critical for the development and improvement of therapeutic and prophylactic approaches, including new drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Evidence-Based Practice , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Biomarkers, Pharmacological , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(2): 99-103, abr. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708588

ABSTRACT

Se comparó la adherencia a la prevención secundaria de enfermedad coronaria mediante el uso indicado de fármacos de probada eficacia, al momento del egreso hospitalario y a 3 años de seguimiento, en una cohorte de pacientes afiliados al Plan de Salud del Hospital Italiano. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo que incluyo 125 pacientes menores de 80 años de edad, afiliados a una red integrada de salud, con internación por síndrome coronario agudo. En el análisis se utilizó el test de McNemar. La edad media de los participantes fue 63.7 años (DS 10.08) y el 65.6% (IC95% 56.6-73.9) fue de sexo masculino. El 76.8% (IC95% 68.4-83.9) presentó como evento calificante un síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del segmento ST. El tiempo de seguimiento promedio fue 2.94 años (DS 0.25). Se observó que el uso de drogas de probada eficacia en la prevención secundaria de enfermedad coronaria descendió entre el momento del egreso hospitalario y los 3 años de seguimiento: antiagregantes de 97.6 a 88.0% (p = 0.012); beta-bloqueantes de 94.4 a 84.8% (p = 0.021); estatinas 91.2 a 83.7% (p = 0.035). Uso combinado de antiagregantes, betabloqueantes y estatinas de 86.4 a 66.3% (p < 0.0001). Es necesario estudiar las causas de la disminución de la adherencia a drogas cardioprotectoras a largo plazo.


We compared the use of evidence-based secondary prevention drugs for coronary artery disease at hospital discharge and 3 years of follow-up in a group of patients associated to an integrated network of health services. We conducted a retrospective group study that included 125 patients under 80 years of age who were hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome. McNemar´s test was used to compare values at baseline and 3 years. The mean age of of participants was 63.7 years (SD ± 10.08) and 65.6% (95% CI 56.6-73.9) of male sex. The average follow-up time was 2.94 years (SD ± 0.25). The use of secondary prevention drugs for coronary heart disease decreased at 3 years of follow-up: anti-platelet 97.6 to 88.0% (p = 0.012), beta-blockers 94.4 to 84.8% (p = 0.021) and statins 83.7 to 91.2% (p = 0.035). Patients medicated with a combination of anti-platelet, beta blockers and statins showed a decrease from 86.4 to 66.3% (p < 0.0001). It is necessary to study the causes for the decreased adherence to long-term cardio-protective drugs.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/prevention & control , Medication Adherence , Secondary Prevention , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies
7.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 29(1): 100-109, abr. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-754293

ABSTRACT

Los betabloqueantes y los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina / antagonistas de los receptores de angiotensina II (I-ECA/ARA II) son medicamentos esenciales en el manejo del síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) con un efecto beneficioso en la sobrevida, aditivo al obtenido con otros fármacos, como aspirina y estatinas, reduciendo la morbi-mortalidad temprana y tardía en pacientes revascularizados o no. Los pacientes pos IAM con fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) < 40% e insuficiencia cardíaca o diabetes, se pueden beneficiar del tratamiento con antagonistas de los receptores mineralocorticoides si se aplican en forma temprana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(5): 442-448, nov. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-696887

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A Insuficiência Cardíaca (IC) é uma síndrome que cursa com má evolução nas formas avançadas. O bloqueio neuro-hormonal modifica essa história natural; no entanto, ele com frequência é subotimizado. OBJETIVO: Neste estudo procuramos verificar em qual percentual médicos cardiologistas habituados no tratamento da IC conseguem prescrever as doses-alvo dos medicamentos de comprovada eficácia. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados consecutivamente 104 pacientes ambulatoriais com disfunção sistólica, todos sob tratamento estabilizado. Avaliaram-se dados demográficos e o tratamento verificando-se as doses atingidas. Os achados são apresentados em percentual e fizeram-se correlações entre as diferentes variáveis. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pac. foi de 64,1 ± 14,2 anos, com PAS 115,4 ± 15,3 mmHg, FC de 67,8 ± 9,4 bpm, peso 76,0 ± 17,0 kg e em ritmo sinusal (90,4%). Quanto ao tratamento, 93,3% estavam recebendo um bloqueador do SRA (52,9% IECA), todos recebiam betabloqueador (BB), sendo o carvedilol o mais prescrito (92,3%). Quanto às doses: 97,1% dos que recebiam um BRA estavam com dose abaixo da ideal; os que recebiam IECA 52,7% receberam dose otimizada. Quanto ao BB, em 76,0% foi possível prescrever as doses alvos. Nesse grupo de pac. a maioria com dose alvo do BB, pode-se observar que 36,5% apresentavam frequência cardíaca igual ou maior que 70 bpm em ritmo sinusal. CONCLUSÕES: Médicos cardiologistas habituados no tratamento da IC conseguem prescrever as doses-alvo de inibidores da ECA e BB para a maioria dos pac. Mesmo recebendo as doses preconizadas, cerca de um terço dos pac. persiste com FC acima de 70 bpm e deveria ter seu tratamento otimizado.


BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome that leads to poor outcome in advanced forms. The neurohormonal blockade modifies this natural history; however, it is often suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess at what percentage cardiologists used to treating HF can prescribe target doses of drugs of proven efficacy. METHODS: A total of 104 outpatients with systolic dysfunction were consecutively enrolled, all under stabilized treatment. Demographic and treatment data were evaluated and the doses achieved were verified. The findings are shown as percentages and correlations are made between different variables. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 64.1 ± 14.2 years, with SBP =115.4 ± 15.3, HR = 67.8 ± 9.4 bpm, weight = 76.0 ± 17.0 kg and sinus rhythm (90.4%). As for treatment, 93.3% received a RAS blocker (ACEI 52.9%), all received beta-blockers (BB), the most often prescribed being carvedilol (92.3%). As for the doses: 97.1% of those receiving an ARB were below the optimal dose and of those who received ACEI, 52.7% received an optimized dose. As for the BB, target doses were prescribed to 76.0% of them. In this group of patients, most with BB target dose, it can be seen that 36.5% had HR > 70 bpm in sinus rhythm. CONCLUSION: Cardiologists used to treating HF can prescribe target doses of ACEI and BB to most patients. Even though they receive the recommended doses, about one third of patients persists with HR > 70 bpm and should have their treatment optimized.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Heart Failure, Systolic/drug therapy , Heart Rate/drug effects , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Outpatients , Statistics, Nonparametric
9.
Rev. chil. cir ; 65(3): 267-270, jun. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-684039

ABSTRACT

The proportion of older hypertensive patients that require a surgical procedure has increased in the last years. These patients require a through preoperative assessment, considering the medications in use, laboratory and images. An adequate pharmacological management of patients with hypertension in the perioperative period will prevent cardiovascular complications. Therefore the health care team must assure that patients with hypertension will be operated in optimal conditions.


La hipertensión arterial es una enfermedad con alta prevalencia en la población chilena, llegando a casi el 75 por ciento en el grupo de mayores de 65 años. En el ámbito quirúrgico, el número de pacientes de edad mayor y que padecen hipertensión arterial ha aumentado significativamente, lo que nos obliga a realizar una adecuada y detallada evaluación preoperatoria del paciente hipertenso con el fin de conocer su condición al momento de la cirugía, los medicamentos antihipertensivos que utiliza y solicitar los exámenes de laboratorio y/o de imágenes necesarios. Una adecuada asesoría al paciente respecto al manejo de su medicación antihipertensiva preoperatoria pretende disminuir las complicaciones en todo el período perioperatorio, tanto por su suspensión como por su mantención. De esta forma se busca establecer las medidas que permitan al paciente enfrentar el procedimiento quirúrgico en las mejores condiciones posibles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Calcium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Hypertension/prevention & control , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Diuretics/administration & dosage , Hypertension/drug therapy , Preoperative Period
10.
In. Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda Marciano; Giorgi, Dante Marcelo Artigas; Lima, José Jayme Galvão; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia da Costa; Drager, Luciano Ferreira. Hipertensão arterial: bases fisiopatológicas e prática clínica. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2013. p.523-544.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-737464
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(8): 1073-1077, ago. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-660061

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: Rebound acid hypersecretion (RAHS) has been demonstrated after 8 weeks of treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI). IfRAHS induces acid-related symptoms, this might lead to PPI dependency and thus have important implications. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 120 healthy volunteers was conducted. Participants were randomized to 12 weeks of placebo or 8 weeks of esomeprazole 40 mg/d followed by 4 weeks with placebo. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) was filled out weekly. A score of >2 on 1 of the questions regarding heartburn, acid regurgitation, or dyspepsia was defined as a clinically relevant acid-related symptom. Results: There were no significant differences between groups in GSRS scores at baseline. GSRS scores for acid-related symptoms were significantly higher in the PPIgroup at week 10 (1.4 ± 1.4 vs 1.2 ± 0.9; P = .023), week 11 (1.4 ± 1.4 vs 1.2 ± 0.9; P = .009), and week 12 (1.3 ± 1.2 vs 1.0 ± 0.3; P = .001). Forty-four percent (26/59) of those randomized to PPI reported >1 relevant, acid-related symptom in weeks 9-12 compared with 15% (9/59; P < .001) in the placebo group. The proportion reporting dyspepsia, heartburn, or acid regurgitation in the PPIgroup was 13 of 59 (22%) at week 10,13 of59 (22%) at week 11, and 12 of 58 (21%) at week 12. Corresponding figures in the placebo group were 7% at week 10 (P = .034), 5% at week 11 (P = .013), and 2% at week 12 (P = .001). Conclusions: PPI therapy for 8 weeks induces acid-related symptoms in healthy volunteers after withdrawal. This study indicates unrecognized aspects of PPI withdrawal and supports the hypothesis that RAHS has clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Benzimidazoles/adverse effects , Benzoates/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Proteinuria/chemically induced , Ramipril/adverse effects , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Benzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Benzoates/administration & dosage , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glomerular Filtration Rate/drug effects , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Ramipril/administration & dosage
12.
J. bras. nefrol ; 34(1): 78-81, jan.-fev.-mar. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-623359

ABSTRACT

A doença de Dent é uma tubulopatia ligada ao X causada por mutações no gene que codifica o canal de cloro CLCN-5 e é caracterizada por proteinúria de baixo peso molecular, hipercalciúria, nefrocalcinose e insuficiência renal. Vários casos têm sido descritos, nos quais o único sintoma na apresentação foi proteinúria assintomática e glomerulosclerose global ou segmentar. A insuficiência renal nesses pacientes pode ser causada pela hipercalciúria e proteinúria persistente. Portanto, o inibidor da enzima de conversão da angiotensina e os tiazídicos poderiam ser úteis. O objetivo desta pesquisa é relatar os efeitos destas drogas em dois pacientes com doença de Dent tipo 1 com mutações novas. Neste relato não foram observadas correlações significativas entre dose de hidroclorotiazida e calciúria e entre enalapril e proteinúria. Este achado é importante, pois, sendo pacientes poliúricos, o uso destas drogas poderia prejudicar a função renal.


Dent's disease type 1 is an X-linked tubular disease caused by mutations in the renal chloride channel CLCN-5, and it is characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal failure. Several cases have been described in which the only presenting symptoms were asymptomatic proteinuria, and focal segmental or global glomerulosclerosis. The renal failure in these patients may be caused by hypercalciuria and persistent proteinuria. Therefore, angiotensin converse enzyme inhibitor and thiazides could be useful. Our aim is to report the effects of these drugs in two novel mutations patients with Dent's disease type 1. In this report, no significant correlations between dosage of hydrochlorothiazide and calciuria and no significant correlations between proteinuria and dosage of enalapril were detected. This is important since these are polyuric patients and these drugs could be dangerous to their renal function.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Enalapril/administration & dosage , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/drug therapy , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Hydrochlorothiazide/administration & dosage , Nephrolithiasis/drug therapy , Nephrolithiasis/genetics , Mutation , Time Factors
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 97(6): 507-516, dez. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-610390

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: O efeito renoprotetor dos inibidores da ECA vem sendo questionado no caso de diminuição do volume circulante efetivo, como na insuficiência cardíaca crônica direita ou biventricular. Objetivo: Detectar os preditores clínicos de agravamento renal na população de pacientes com ICC, caracterizado por dois tipos de regime de dosagem de inibidores da ECA. MÉTODOS: De acordo com um desenho de coorte retrospectiva, seguimos dois grupos de pacientes com ICC - tanto direita quanto biventricular -, todos na classe III da NYHA, tratados com inibidores da ECA (enalapril ou lisinopril), e com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) < 50 por cento, por meio de distinção em sua dosagem de inibidor da ECA: média-baixa (< 10 mg por dia) ou dosagem "alta" (> 10 mg por dia) de enalapril ou lisinopril. A disfunção renal agravada (ARD) foi definida pelo aumento de Cr > 30 por cento com relação ao segmento basal. O modelo de risco proporcional de Cox foi utilizado para identificar os preditores da ARD entre as seguintes variáveis: os inibidores da ECA com "alta" dosagem, idade, FEVE basal, histórico de repetidas terapias intensivas com diuréticos de alça por via intravenosa (diurético intravenoso), diabete, Cr basal, histórico de hipertensão, pressão arterial sistólica < 100 mmHg. RESULTADOS: Cinquenta e sete pacientes foram recrutados, dos quais 15 foram tratados com inibidor da ECA com dosagem "alta". Durante um seguimento médio de 718 dias, a ARD ocorreu em 17 pacientes (29,8 por cento). Apenas o inibidor da ECA com "alta" dosagem (RR: 12,4681 IC: 2,1614 - 71,9239 p = 0,0050) e Cr basal (RR:1,2344 IC: 1,0414 - 1,4632 p = 0,0157) foi demonstrado ser preditor da ARD. Além disso, demonstrou-se que o inibidor da ECA com dosagens "altas" não previu ARD em ICC sem diurético intravenoso e ICC com diabete. CONCLUSÃO: Na ICC de classe III da NYHA, o inibidor da ECA com "altas" dosagens e um maior Cr basal foi preditor da ARD. A nefrotoxicidade relacionada com inibidores da ECA em "altas" dosagens foi aumentada com o diurético intravenoso, ao passo que, em pacientes com ICC com diabete, aquela não foi detectada.


BACKGROUND: Renoprotective effect of ACE-inhibitors has been questioned in case of decreased effective circulating volume, like in right or biventricular chronic heart failure. OBJECTIVE: To detect clinical predictors of renal worsening in CHF patient population characterized by two types of ACE-inhibitor dosing regimens. METHODS: According to a retrospective cohort design, we followed 2 groups of patients with CHF - whether right or biventricular -, all in III NYHA class treated with ACE-inhibitors (enalapril or lisinopril), and with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50 percent, by distinguishing them by ACE-inhibitor dosing: average-low (<10 mg per day) or "high" dose (>10 mg per day) of enalapril or lisinopril. Worsened renal failure (ARD) was defined by Cr increase >30 percent from baseline. Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the predictors of ARD among the following variables: ACE-inhibitors "high" dose, age, basal LVEF, history of repeated intensive intravenous loop diuretic therapies (IV diur), diabetes, basal Cr, history of hypertension, systolic blood pressure < 100 mm Hg. RESULTS: 57 patients were recruited, of whom 15 were treated with ACE-inhibitor "high" dose. During a mean follow-up of 718 days, ARD occurred in 17 (29.8 percent) patients. Only ACE-inhibitor "high" dose (HR: 12.4681 C.I.: 2.1614-71.9239 p=0.0050) and basal Cr (HR: 1.2344 C.I.: 1.0414-1.4632 p=0.0157) were shown to predict ARD. Moreover, ACE-inhibitor "high" doses were shown to fail to predict ARD in both CHF without IV diur and CHF with diabetes. CONCLUSION: In III NYHA class CHF, ACE-inhibitor "high" doses and a higher basal Cr predicted ARD. Nephrotoxicity related to ACE-inhibitor "high" doses was increased by IV diur, whereas it was not detected in CHF patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/blood , Chronic Disease , Drug Therapy, Combination , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Epidemiologic Methods , Enalapril/administration & dosage , Enalapril/adverse effects , Enalapril/blood , Lisinopril/administration & dosage , Lisinopril/adverse effects , Lisinopril/blood , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Renal Insufficiency/blood , Renal Insufficiency/prevention & control
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77806

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effects of cyclosporin A (CyA) on clinical outcome and pathologic changes in children with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), we retrospectively evaluated 14 children (mean age 8.9+/-2.9 yr; eight males, six females) who were treated with CyA and steroids. The starting dose of CyA was 5 mg/kg per day, and the drug level was maintained at 100-200 ng/mL. The mean CyA level was 183.8+/-48.3 ng/mL (range 120.7-276.0 ng/mL) and the mean duration of CyA therapy was 10.9+/-1.9 months (range 8-12 months). After CyA therapy the mean 24 hr urinary protein excretion declined from 107.1+/-35.1 mg/m2/hr to 7.4+/-2.4 mg/m2/hr (P<0.001) and serum albumin increased from 3.3+/-0.6 g/dL to 4.3+/-0.3 g/dL (P<0.001). At a follow-up biopsy the histological grade of IgAN was improved in seven (50%) of the 14 patients, remained the same in three (21%), and was aggravated in four (29%). Serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and blood pressure did not differ before and after CyA therapy. Two patients (14%) showed CyA-induced nephrotoxicity at the second biopsy. Our findings indicate that CyA therapy may be effective in reducing proteinuria and regressing renal pathology in a subset of children with IgAN.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Child , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Female , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Steroids/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 92(5): 349-356, maio 2009. graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-519922

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: Ensaios clínicos demonstraram os benefícios dos inibidores da ECA (IECA) na atividade neuro-hormonal e na capacidade funcional de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC), com a magnitude desses efeitos sendo proporcional à dose desses agentes. Entretanto, a sistemática exclusão dos idosos, observada na maioria desses estudos, tem questionado a validação e incorporação de tais resultados na população geriátrica. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de quinapril, um IECA com meia vida biológica >24 horas, nas concentrações plasmáticas do PNB, nas distâncias percorridas no teste da caminhada de 6 minutos (TC-6 min) e na incidência de reações adversas, em idosos com IC sistólica. Métodos: Foram avaliados 30 pacientes (76,1 ± 5,3 anos; 15 mulheres), IC II-III (NYHA), FE ventricular esquerda < 40% (33,5 ± 4,5%), em uso de diuréticos (30), digoxina (24) e nitratos (13). As avaliações foram realizadas no momento da inclusão (basal) e a cada dois meses, com a adição de 10, 20, 30 e 40 mg de quinapril. Resultados: Completados oito meses, as concentrações do PNB foram 67,4% menores e as distâncias percorridas no TC-6 min 64,9% maiores em relação à condição basal. Hipotensão arterial com sintomas de baixo débito cerebral e/ou disfunção renal não foram observadas, possibilitando o emprego da dose máxima de quinapril em todos os pacientes. Conclusão: Os resultados demonstraram os benefícios dos IECA no perfil neuro-hormonal e na capacidade funcional de idosos com IC sistólica, bem como a relação positiva entre a dose e o efeito desses fármacos.


Background: Clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of ACE inhibitors (ACEI) in the neurohormonal activity and in the functional capacity of patients with heart failure (HF), and also that these effects are dose dependent. However, since elderly individuals have been systematically excluded from the majority of these studies, the validation and incorporation of these results in the geriatric population has been questioned. Objective: To evaluate the effects of different doses of quinapril, an ACEI with a > 24-hour biological half-life, on plasma BNP levels, on the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and on the incidence of adverse reactions in elderly individuals with systolic HF. Methods: A total of 30 patients (76.1 ± 5.3 years; 15 women), in NYHA functional class II-III HF, with left ventricular EF < 40% (33.5 ± 4.5%), on diuretics (30), digoxin (24) and nitrates (13) were included. The patients were assessed at baseline and every two months, with escalating doses of quinapril of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg.Results: After eight months, BNP levels were 67.4% lower and the distance walked in the 6MWT was 64.9% longer in relation to baseline. Arterial hypotension with symptoms of low cerebral blood flow and/or renal dysfunction was not observed, so that the maximum quinapril dose could be used in all patients. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the benefits of ACEI on the neurohormonal profile and functional capacity of elderly individuals with systolic HF, as well as the positive relationship between dose and effect of these drugs.


Fundamento: Ensayos clínicos revelaron los beneficios de los inhibidores de la enzima conversora de la angiotensina (IECA) en la actividad neurohormonal y en la capacidad funcional de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca (IC). La magnitud de esos efectos fue proporcional a la dosificación de esos agentes. Sin embargo, la sistemática exclusión de las personas adultas mayores, observada en la mayoría de esos estudios, ha conllevado al cuestionamiento de la validación e incorporación de dichos resultados en la población geriátrica. Objetivo: Evaluar los efectos de diferentes dosis de quinapril, un IECA con vida media biológica >24 horas, en las concentraciones plasmáticas del péptido natriurético de tipo B (PNB), en las distancias recorridas en el test de marcha de 6 minutos (TM6m) y en la incidencia de reacciones adversas, en personas adultas mayores con IC sistólica. Métodos: Se evaluaron a 30 pacientes (76,1 ± 5,3 años; 15 mujeres), IC II-III (NYHA), fracción de eyección (FE) ventricular izquierda < 40% (33,5 ± 4,5%), en uso de diuréticos (30), digoxina (24) y nitratos (13). Las evaluaciones se realizaron a la inclusión (basal) y a cada dos meses, con la adición de 10, 20, 30 y 40 mg de quinapril. Resultados: Completados ocho meses, las concentraciones del PNB fueron de un 67,4% menor y las distancias recorridas en el TM6m de un 64,9% mayor con relación a la condición basal. No se observaron hipotensión arterial con síntomas de bajo débito cerebral y/o disfunción renal, posibilitando así el empleo de la dosificación máxima de quinapril en todos los pacientes. Conclusión: Los resultados revelaron los beneficios de los IECA en el perfil neurohormonal y en la capacidad funcional de personas adultas mayores con IC sistólica, así como la relación positiva entre la dosificación y el efecto de esos fármacos.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Tetrahydroisoquinolines/administration & dosage , Walking/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Creatine/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Exercise Test , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/drug effects , Prospective Studies , Tetrahydroisoquinolines/adverse effects , Urea/blood
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(5): 445-452, May 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-511334

ABSTRACT

Experimental data and few clinical non-randomized studies have shown that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) associated or not with the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) could delay or even halt the progression of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). In this retrospective historical study, we investigated whether ACE inhibition (ACEI) associated or not with the use of MMF has the same effect in humans as in experimental studies and what factors are associated with a clinical response. A total of 160 transplant patients with biopsy-proven CAN were enrolled. Eighty-one of them were on ACE therapy (G1) and 80 on ACEI_free therapy (G2). Patients were further stratified for the use of MMF. G1 patients showed a marked decrease in proteinuria and stabilized serum creatinine with time. Five-year graft survival after CAN diagnosis was more frequent in G1 (86.9 vs 67.7 percent; P < 0.05). In patients on ACEI-free therapy, the use of MMF was associated with better graft survival. The use of ACEI therapy protected 79 percent of the patients against graft loss (OR = 0.079, 95 percentCI = 0.015-0.426; P = 0.003). ACEI and MMF or the use of MMF alone after CAN diagnosis conferred protection against graft loss. This finding is well correlated with experimental studies in which ACEI and MMF interrupt the progression of chronic allograft dysfunction and injury. The use of ACEI alone or in combination with MMF significantly reduced proteinuria and stabilized serum creatinine, consequently improving renal allograft survival.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Transplantation , Mycophenolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Proteinuria/drug therapy , Biopsy , Chronic Disease , Creatinine/blood , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Graft Rejection/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Proteinuria/urine , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 19(1): 25-31, jan.-mar. 2009. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-518881

ABSTRACT

O tratamento de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca crônica secundária a cardiomiopatia da doença de Chagas é feito com o uso de diuréticos, digoxina, inibidores da enzima de conversão do angiotensinogênio em angiotensina e agentes betabloqueadores. Como os agentes betabloqueadores, mas não os inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina, diminuem a incidência de morte súbita em pacientes com insuficiência cardíca de etiologia não-chagásica, e como a morte súbita acomete preferencialmente pacientes chagásicos com insuficiênia cardíaca leve intensidade, agentes betabloqueadores podem ser administrados para pacientes chagásicos com insuficiência cardíaca nas classes I e II da New York Heart Association. Inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e diuréticos podem ser administrados primeiramente para pacientes nas classes III e IV. Após a compensação clínica, os agentes betabloqueadores devem ser administrados nas doses-alvo, se necessário à custa da diminuição da dose dos inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/therapy , Heart Failure/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 36(1): 3-8, jan.-fev. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-514099

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Testar o lumiracoxibe, utilizado preemptivamente contra um placebo, e analisar o consumo de analgésicos (dipirona e tramadol) nas primeiras 24h do pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Sessenta pacientes submetidas à mamoplastia de aumento, sob anestesia peridural, foram selecionadas e divididas de forma randomizada em dois grupos - GI e GII. Sessenta minutos antes da operação, por via oral, as 30 pacientes do GI receberam um comprimido de lumiracoxibe 400mg, e as 30 do GII um comprimido de placebo. A dor pós-operatória foi avaliada através da escala analógica visual, graduada de 0 (sem dor) a 10 (dor de maior intensidade), sendo aplicada sempre que houvesse referência de dor. Para escores obtidos iguais ou menores que 4, a paciente recebia 15mg/kg de dipirona, até máximo de um grama, via venosa. Para escores de 5, 6 ou 7, recebia 50mg de tramadol por via venosa. Escores de 8 ou mais eram tratados com 0,5mg/kg de meperidina endovenosa. RESULTADOS: Os escores obtidos no GI foram significativamente menores que os do GII dentro das primeiras 24 horas, resultando em consumo 20 por cento menor de dipirona e 56 por cento menor de tramadol. Da mesma forma, observou-se que o tempo para solicitação de analgésicos pela primeira vez no pós-operatório foi de 191 minutos maior no GI. CONCLUSÃO: O emprego do lumiracoxibe preemptivamente mostrou-se efetivo no combate à dor pós-operatória, reduzindo consideravelmente o consumo global de analgésicos nesse período e aumentando o tempo de solicitação de analgésico pela primeira vez.


OBJECTIVES: To test lumiracoxib used preemptively against a placebo,and to analyse the analgesic administration (dipirona and tramadol) in the 24 first postoperative hours. METHODS: Sixty patients undergone to a breast aumentation, under epidural anesthesia, were selected and put randomly in two groups - GI and GII. Sixty minutes before the surgery, it was administered orally, one pill of lumiracoxib 400mg to the 30 GI patients and one pill of placebo to the 30 GII patients. The postoperative pain was evaluated through the visual analogic scale, ranged from 0 (painless) to 10 (most intensive pain), being applied to the patient whenever having pain. For the same scores or under 4, it was administered intravenously 15mg/kg of dipirona up to a maximum of 1g. For scores of 5, 6 or 7, the patient had intravenously 50mg of tramadol.Scores 8 or more were treated intravenously with 0,5 mg/kg of meperidine. RESULTS: The scores in GI were significantly lower than the ones obtained in GII within the first 24 hours, with the need of 20 percent less dipirona and 56 percent of tramadol in this period of time. In the same way, it was observed that analgesic solicitation for the first time had a delay of 191 minutes in GI in comparison to GII. CONCLUSION: The use of lumiracoxib preemptively, was effective in the treatment of postoperative pain, reducing considerably the consume of analgesics, and enlarging the time for the first medication.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Analgesia , Diclofenac/analogs & derivatives , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Tramadol/administration & dosage
19.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 52(7): 1131-1138, out. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-499723

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar se o ramipril, isoladamente ou em combinação com a sinvastatina, seria capaz de reduzir o estresse oxidativo de ratos diabéticos pela estreptozotocina (STZ). MÉTODOS: As drogas foram administradas a ratos diabéticos por duas semanas; o estresse oxidativo foi medido por dosagem de capacidade antioxidante total plasmática (TRAP) e malonaldeído (MDA). RESULTADOS: O ramipril usado isoladamente foi capaz de aumentar significativamente as defesas antioxidantes do rato diabético; a sinvastatina isoladamente ou combinada ao ramipril em tomadas separadas não produziu efeito significativo sobre o estresse oxidativo; a administração simultânea de ramipril e sinvastatina reduziu as defesas antioxidantes plasmáticas de ratos com diabetes melito químico. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados do presente estudo corroboram o efeito positivo do ramipril sobre a defesa antioxidante do plasma, mas não confirmam um possível efeito benéfico da sinvastatina no modelo. Pesquisas adicionais são necessárias para clarificar a paradoxal redução da TRAP verificada pela administração simultânea das drogas.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if ramipril, with or without simultaneous use of simvastatin, would be capable of reducing oxidative stress of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. METHODS: The drugs were given to the diabetic rats for 2 weeks; oxidative stress was measured by dosage of total plasma antioxidant capacity (TRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS: Ramipril, used alone, was capable of significantly increasing the antioxidative defenses of the diabetic rat; simvastatin, given alone or combined with ramipril in separate administrations, did not produce any significant effect on the oxidative stress; concomitant administration of ramipril and simvastatin significantly reduced the antioxidative plasmatic defenses of rats with chemically induced diabetes mellitus CONCLUSIONS: Our data corroborate the positive effect of ramipril upon plasma antioxidative defenses but did not confirm a possible beneficial effect of simvastatin in the model. More research is needed to clarify the paradoxal TRAP reduction verified with simultaneous administration of the drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ramipril/administration & dosage , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Analysis of Variance , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Random Allocation , Statistics, Nonparametric
20.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2008 Mar; 106(3): 191-4, 196
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-103812

ABSTRACT

Micro-albuminuria is a marker for declining kidney function and predicts increasing cardiovascular risk especially in diabetic hypertensives. Angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may slow the progression of proteinuric kidney disease and thus would be valuable in these high risk patients. The present study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed dose combination (FDC) of telmisartan and ramipril in adult Indian patients with sustained stage 2 hypertension, comorbidities and micro-albuminuria. A total 382 patients were enrolled in this multicentric, prospective open, non-comparative phase IV postmarketing surveillance study by 40 physicians in India and treated with FDC of telmisartan 40 mg+ ramipril 5 mg once daily for 12 weeks. A total 370 patients completed the study but 12 patients were lost to follow-up and considered as drop-outs. There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 170.89 at baseline to 132. 77 mm Hg at week 12 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from 104.47 to 83.30 mm Hg at the end of 12 weeks therapy as well as urine albumin levels from 186.25 mg/24-hour to 62.42 mg/24-hour (66.49%) at the end of 12 weeks. Overall assessment of treatment was rated as good to excellent in 87.3% and fair in 11.4% patients. The most common adverse event reported was cough (5.2%). Results of the present study indicate that the FDC of telmisartan+ramipril brings about significant reductions in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as urine albumin excretion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Albuminuria , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Benzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Benzoates/administration & dosage , Biomarkers , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Prospective Studies , Ramipril/administration & dosage
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