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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097242

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: iinvestigar a potencial associação entre a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e a gravidade da COVID-19. Métodos: realizou-se uma pesquisa eletrônica no Medline, Scopus e Web of Science acerca da relação entre HAS e COVID-19. Resultados: as primeiras hipóteses levantadas revelaram que a associação entre as doenças estava no tratamento com inibidores da enzima de conversão da angiotensina e bloqueadores dos receptores da angiotensina. Contudo, em um estudo experimental, observou-se que os pacientes hipertensos tratados com esses medicamentos apresentaram menor taxa de gravidade da doença. Conclusão: até o momento, a relação de HAS e COVID-19 é conflitante.(AU)


Objective: to investigate the potential association between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and the severity of COVID-19. Methods: An electronic research on Medline, Scopus and Web of Science was conducted about the relationship between SAH and COVID-19. Results: The first hypotheses raised revealed that the association between the diseases was in the treatment with angiotensin conversion enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. However, in an experimental study it was observed that hypertensive patients treated with these drugs had a lower rate of disease severity. Conclusion: So far, the relationship between SAH and COVID-19 is conflicting.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology , Prognosis
2.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(2): e002058, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103846

ABSTRACT

Ciertos hallazgos preclínicos generaron preocupación en la comunidad científica y en la población general sobre el uso de inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA) y los antagonistas del receptor de la angiotensina II (ARAII), y los posibles desenlaces adversos asociados con relación a la infección por el nuevo Coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2).Por este motivo, nos planteamos como objetivo proveer de recomendaciones dinámicas (living recommendations) para el tratamiento con fármacos IECA o ARA II en pacientes con riesgo o documentación de infección por SARS-CoV-2 (en todo su espectro de gravedad). Se utilizó como metodología la adaptación/adopción de guías de práctica clínica bajo el enfoque GRADE, actualizando la evidencia al 7 de abril de 2020 mediante búsquedas en múltiples bases de datos y consultando a un panel multidisciplinario libre de conflictos de interés. Como resultado de este proceso se arribó a la siguiente afirmación: se recomienda, en contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19, en personas que se encuentran en tratamiento con IECA/ARAII, mantener el tratamiento sin cambios por sobre suspenderlo o reemplazarlo por otros fármacos (Recomendación fuerte a favor - calidad de evidencia baja). (AU)


Certain preclinical findings raised concerns in the scientific community and in the general population about the use ofangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA) and the possible adverse outcomes associated with the infection with the new Coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2). For this reason, our objective is to provide living recommendations for treatment with ACEI or ARA in patients with risk or documentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection (inall its severity spectrum). The adaptation/adoption of clinical practice guidelines under the GRADE approach was used as a methodology, updating the evidence as of April 7, 2020, by searching multiple databases and consulting a multidisciplinary panel free of conflicts of interest. As a result of this process, the following statement was reached: it is recommended, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, in people who are undergoing treatment with ACEI/ARA, to maintain the treatment unchanged instead of its suspension or replacement with other drugs (Strong recommendation in favor - low quality ofevidence). (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Evidence-Based Medicine , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers/adverse effects , Pandemics , Clinical Decision-Making , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , GRADE Approach , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(1): e20190010000007, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983684

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the impact of Ramipril (RAM) on the expressions of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and renal mesangial matrix (RMM) in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: The Sprague Dawley rats were divided into normal control (NC) group (n = 12), DN group (n = 11), and DN+RAM group (n = 12). The ratio of renal weight to body weight (RBT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, 24-h urine protein (TPU), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), renal pathological changes, the levels of IGF-1, fibronectin (FN), type IV collagen (Col-IV), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 were compared among the groups. Results: Compared with NC group, the RBT, FBG, HbA1c, TPU, BUN, Cr, and RMM in DN group were significantly increased (P < 0.05), the IGF-1, FN, and Col-IV were significantly upregulated (P < 0.05), while MMP was significantly downregulated (P < 0.05). Compared with DN group, the indexes except for the FBG and HbA1c in DN+RAM group were significantly improved (P < 0.05), among which IGF-1 exhibited significant positive correlation with TPU(r=0.937), FN(r=0.896) and Col-IV(r=0.871), while significant negative correlation with MMP-2 (r=-0.826) (P<0.05). Conclusion: RAM may protect the kidneys by suppressing IGF-1 and mitigating the accumulation of RMM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ramipril/pharmacology , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Mesangial Cells/drug effects , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Fibronectins/drug effects , Fibronectins/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Matrix Metalloproteinases/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Collagen Type IV/adverse effects , Collagen Type IV/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Mesangial Cells/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(11): e8772, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039259

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of fluorofenidone (AKF-PD) in treating renal interstitial fibrosis in rats with unilateral urinary obstruction (UUO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, UUO, UUO + enalapril, and UUO + AKF-PD groups. All rats, except sham, underwent left urethral obstruction surgery to establish the animal model. Rats were sacrificed 14 days after surgery, and serum was collected for renal function examination. Kidneys were collected to observe pathological changes. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess collagen I (Col I) protein expression, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling staining to observe the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. The expression of Fas-associated death domain (FADD), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) proteins was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. AKF-PD showed no significant effect on renal function in UUO rats. The pathological changes were alleviated significantly after enalapril or AKF-PD treatment, but with no significant differences between the two groups. Col I protein was overexpressed in the UUO group, which was inhibited by both enalapril and AKF-PD. The number of apoptotic renal tubular epithelial cells was much higher in the UUO group, and AKF-PD significantly inhibited epithelial cells apoptosis. The expression of FADD, Apaf-1, and CHOP proteins was significantly upregulated in the UUO group and downregulated by enalapril and AKF-PD. In conclusion, AKF-PD improved renal interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells in rats with UUO.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pyridones/pharmacology , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Pyridones/metabolism , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Fibrosis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enalapril/metabolism , Enalapril/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatinine/blood , Collagen Type I/drug effects , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Transcription Factor CHOP/drug effects , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1/drug effects , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1/metabolism , Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein/drug effects , Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein/metabolism
5.
In. Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira. Tratado de Cardiologia: SOCESP / Cardiology Treaty: SOCESP. São Paulo, Manole, 4ª; 2019. p.506-517.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009121
6.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(4): 287-297, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124150

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se revisará la evolución del tratamiento farmacológico de la insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) en los últimos 25 an˜os, desde el concepto de tratamiento con vasodilatadores, pasando por el bloqueo o inhibición del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona y la inhibición betaadrenérgica y su importante contribución en la disminución de la morbimortalidad por IC, el papel de los péptidos natriuréticos y, finalmente, se conocerá uno de los estudios más importantes en el área cardiológica y específicamente en el manejo de la IC, en el cual se demuestra un enfoque modulador de los sistemas neuro humorales que se activan en estos pacientes. Objetivos: La IC constituye la etapa final de la mayoría de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, con una alta tasa de hospitalización y de morbimortalidad cardiovascular, siendo, por lo tanto, de interés constante la necesidad de encontrar un agente terapéutico innovador que disminuya significativamente estas complicaciones y también que mejore la calidad de vida de los que la presentan. Metodología: Se realizará una descripción del PARADIGM-HF Clinical Trial, que utilizó un compuesto sacubitrilo/valsartán para el manejo de la IC con un mecanismo modulador diferente del concepto de bloqueador de sistemas deletéreos que se activan cuando un paciente presenta síntomas y signos de IC. Conclusiones: La muerte por causas cardiovasculares u hospitalización por IC (el punto final primario) se produjo en 914 pacientes (21.8%) en el grupo sacubitrilo/valsartán y 1,117 pacientes (26.5%) en el grupo de enalapril (razón de riesgo en el grupo sacubitrilo/valsartán, 0.80; intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95%: 0.73 a 0.87; p < 0.001 (exacta p = 4.0 × 10 - 7)). De los pacientes que recibieron sacubitrilo/valsartán, 537 (12.8%) fueron hospitalizados por IC, en comparación con los 658 pacientes (15.6%) que recibieron enalapril (razón de riesgo, 0.79; IC del 95%, 0.71 a 0.89; p < 0.001). Un total de 711 pacientes (17.0%) en el grupo sacubitrilo/valsartán y 835 pacientes (19.8%) en el grupo de enalapril murió (razón de riesgo de muerte por cualquier causa, 0.84; IC del 95%, 0.76 a la 0.93; p < 0.001).


Abstract Introduction: A review is presented on the evolution of the pharmacological treatment of heart failure (HF) in the last 25 years, from the concept of treatment with vasodilators to the blocking or inhibition of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. Beta-adrenergic inhibition and its important contribution in the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to HF will be discussed along with the role of the natriuretic peptides. One of the most important studies in the cardiology area, and specifically in the management of HF, is presented, in which an approach is demonstrated of the modulator of the neurohumoral systems that are activated in these patients. Objectives: HF is the final stage of most cardiovascular diseases, and has a high rate of hospital admission, as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, there is constant interest in the need to find an innovative therapeutic agent that significantly reduces these complications and that improves the quality of life of those who suffer from it. Methods: A description will be presented of the PARADIGM-HF Clinical Trial using a sacubitril/valsartán compound for the management of HF with a modulating mechanism different from the concept of a deleterious system blocker that is activated when a patient has symptoms and signs of heart failure. Conclusions: Death due to cardiovascular causes, or hospital admission due to heart failure (the primary endpoint) occurred in 914 patients (21.8%) in the Sacubitril / valsartán group, and 1117 patients (26.5%) in the enalapril group (risk ratio in the sacubitril / valsartán group, 0.80, with a 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 0.87, P<0.001 ;exact P= 4.0 × 10 --7;). Of the patients receiving sacubitril / valsartán, 537 (12.8%) were hospitalised due to heart failure, compared with 658 patients (15.6%) receiving enalapril (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.89, P<.001). A total of 711 patients (17.0%) in the sacubitril / valsartán group, and 835 patients (19.8%) in the enalapril group, died (all-cause death rate, 0.84, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.93, P<.001)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Systole , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Biphenyl Compounds , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enalapril/pharmacology , Drug Combinations , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Valsartan , Aminobutyrates/pharmacology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(2): 108-118, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893744

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: It is still unknown how the pharmacological inhibition of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) impacts the levels of inflammation and fibrosis biomarkers. Objective: This study sought to evaluate the effect of enalapril, candesartan and aliskiren on urinary levels of cytokines in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Male Wistar rats were submitted to surgical removal of ¾ of renal parenchyma to induce CKD (¾ nephrectomy), or subjected to sham surgery (control). Animals were then randomized into five groups: Sham surgery receiving vehicle; ¾ Nephrectomy receiving vehicle; ¾ Nephrectomy receiving enalapril (10 mg/kg); ¾ Nephrectomy receiving candesartan (10 mg/kg) and ¾ Nephrectomy receiving aliskiren (10 mg/kg). Urine output, water intake, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urinary concentrations of creatinine, urea, albuminuria, Na+, K+, interleukin (IL) -1β, IL-6, IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) were measured. Results: Nephrectomy significantly impaired renal function, increased MAP and altered the levels of all evaluated cytokines in urine. Enalapril, candesartan and aliskiren improved renal function and decreased MAP and IL-6 when compared to vehicle-treated nephrectomized group. Candesartan and aliskiren decreased IL-1β, while only candesartan reduced TGF-β and only aliskiren increased IL-10. Conclusion: Enalapril, candesartan and aliskiren presented similar effects on improving renal function and reducing MAP and urinary levels of IL-6 in rats with CKD. On the other hand, cytokine profile differed according to the treatment, suggesting that differential mechanisms were triggered in response to the site of RAS blockade.


Resumo Introdução: Ainda não se sabe como a inibição farmacológica do Sistema Renina Angiotensina (SRA) afeta os níveis de biomarcadores de inflamação e fibrose. Objetivo: Este estudo pretendeu avaliar o efeito de enalapril, candesartan e alisquireno sobre os níveis urinários de citocinas em um modelo de doença renal crônica (DRC). Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à remoção cirúrgica de ¾ do parênquima renal para induzir DRC (nefrectomia), ou submetidos à cirurgia fictícia (controle). Animais foram então randomizados em cinco grupos: Cirurgia fictícia recebendo veículo; Nefrectomia recebendo veículo; Nefrectomia recebendo enalapril (10 mg/kg); Nefrectomia recebendo candesartan (10 mg/kg) e Nefrectomia recebendo alisquireno (10 mg/kg). Débito urinário, ingesta hídrica, pressão arterial media (PAM) e concentrações urinárias de creatinina, ureia, albumina, Na+, K+, interleucina (IL) -1β, IL-6, IL-10 e fator de transformação e crescimento beta (TGF-β) foram medidas. Resultados: A nefrectomia comprometeu significativamente a função renal, aumentou a PAM e alterou os níveis de todas as citocinas avaliadas na urina. Enalapril, candesartan e alisquireno melhoraram a função renal e diminuíram a PAM e a IL-6 quando comparado aos grupo de animais nefrectomizados tratados com veículo. Candesartan e alisquireno reduziram IL-1β, enquanto somente candesartan diminuiu o TGF-β e somente alisquireno aumentou a IL-10. Conclusão: Enalapril, candesartan e alisquireno apresentaram efeitos similares em relação à melhora da função renal e redução da PAM e dos níveis urinários de IL-6 em ratos com DRC. Por outro lado, o perfil de citocinas diferiu de acordo com o tratamento, sugerindo que diferentes mecanismos sejam desencadeados em resposta ao local de bloqueio do SRA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enalapril/pharmacology , Cytokines/urine , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Amides/pharmacology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Fumarates/pharmacology , Nephrectomy
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(4): e5520, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839279

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the influence of antihypertensive drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs), voltage-gated L-type calcium channel blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), on the effects of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] on aorta and coronary arteries from pressure-overloaded rats. Pressure overload was induced by abdominal aortic banding (AB). To evaluate the role of antihypertensive drugs on the effect of Ang-(1-7), AB male Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g were treated with vehicle or low doses (5 mg·kg-1·day-1, gavage) of losartan, captopril, amlodipine, or spironolactone. Isolated aortic rings and isolated perfused hearts under constant flow were used to evaluate the effect of Ang-(1-7) in thoracic aorta and coronary arteries, respectively. Ang-(1-7) induced a significant relaxation in the aorta of sham animals, but this effect was reduced in the aortas of AB rats. Chronic treatments with losartan, captopril or amlodipine, but not with spironolactone, restored the Ang-(1-7)-induced aorta relaxation in AB rats. The coronary vasodilatation evoked by Ang-(1-7) in sham rats was blunted in hypertrophic rats. Only the treatment with losartan restored the coronary vasodilatory effect of Ang-(1-7) in AB rat hearts. These data support a beneficial vascular effect of an association of Ang-(1-7) and some antihypertensive drugs. Thus, this association may have potential as a new therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Angiotensin I/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta, Abdominal/drug effects , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Amlodipine/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Captopril/pharmacology , Losartan/pharmacology , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(8): e5215, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787389

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have non-hemodynamic, pleiotropic effects on the immune response. The effects of ACE inhibitors on the production of cytokines and T-cell functions are well established. However, little is known on the effects of these medicines on humoral response to foreign antigens. In this study, we investigated the effect of enalapril treatment on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG1 and IgG2c production in mice determined by ELISA. Two groups of 8-week-old C57BL/6 females mice (3–4/group) were subcutaneously immunized with OVA (10 μg/animal) in presence of Alhydrogel (1 mg/mouse) and boosted at day 21. The mice were treated with enalapril (5 mg/kg daily, po) or were left without treatment for one month. The animals were bled from the orbital plexus on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the first immunization and the sera were stored at –20°C until usage. OVA-specific serum IgG1 and IgG2c were determined by ELISA using serum from each individual animal. The results showed that enalapril significantly increased anti-OVA serum IgG2c in the secondary response without affecting IgG1 synthesis. These data expand our understanding on the properties of enalapril on the immune response, including antibody production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enalapril/pharmacology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Ovalbumin/immunology , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology
10.
Bauru; s.n; 2016. 129 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-867748

ABSTRACT

A doença periodontal (DP) corresponde a um grupo de doenças inflamatórias que acomete as estruturas periodontais de proteção e de suporte e pode levar à perda dentária. A etiologia está relacionada à placa dentobacteriana que leva à produção de grande quantidade de citocinas pró-inflamatórias importantes na destruição tecidual. A angiotensina (Ang) II também pode contribuir para a inflamação e destruição tecidual no periodonto agindo como mediador chave. A utilização de drogas que atuem na cascata do sistema renina-angiotensina (SRA) poderia interferir no estado de saúde ou inflamação do tecido mole, na perda óssea alveolar e na expressão gênica dos componentes do SRA e mediadores inflamatórios. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar se o ramipril, um inibidor da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA), altera a progressão da DP induzida experimentalmente em ratos. Foi utilizado o modelo de indução da DP por colocação de ligadura ao redor do primeiro molar inferior direito de ratos. Os grupos com 10 animais cada, foram divididos em tratados com ramipril (via gavagem 10mg/kg/dia) ou água (veículo) durante 14 e 21 dias e o grupo Sham submetido à indução fictícia da DP. Outros quatro grupos foram submetidos ao pré-tratamento com ramipril durante os períodos de 7 e 14 dias e após a indução da DP e tratados por 14 ou 21 dias. As metodologias de avaliação foram: extração de RNA total, transcrição reversa seguida de reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa (RTqPCR),análises histológica e da perda óssea alveolar. Os dados foram analisados por meio de gráficos e os resultados foram submetidos à análise unidirecional de variância (ANOVA) e representaram médias e respectivos desvios-padrão. Diferenças entre os grupos foram consideradas estatisticamente significativas quando p < 0,05. Com base nos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que o ramipril foi capaz de reduzir a progressão da perda óssea no grupo tratado por 21 dias (DP-21d-Rami)...


Periodontitis (PD) consists of a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the protecting and supporting periodontal structures, and may lead to tooth loss. Theetiology is related to the dentobacterial plaque that produces a large amount of proinflammatory cytokines with an important action on tissue destruction. Angiotensin(Ang) II may also contribute to the inflammation and periodontal tissue destruction byacting as a key mediator. The use of drugs that affect the cascade of the reninangiotensin system (RAS) might interfere with the healthy or inflammatory status ofthe soft tissue, alveolar bone loss and gene expression of RAS components and inflammatory mediators. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate whether ramipril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, alters the progression of experimentally-induced PD in rats. The model of PD induction by placement of a silk ligature around the right lower first molar was used. Groups with 10 animals each were divided into ramipril-treated (10 mg/kg/day, via gavage), water (vehicle) and thesham surgery group (sham) for 7 or 14 days previously to PD induction and after this period the drug was administered for 14 and 21 days. The techniques employed were: total RNA extraction, reverse transcription followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as well as histological and alveolar bone loss analyses. Data were analyzed by means of graphs and the results submitted to unidirectional analysis of variance (ANOVA) and represent the means with respective standard deviations. Differences between groups were considered statistically significant whenp < 0.05. Based on the results obtained in this work, it was concluded that ramipril was able to reduce the progression of alveolar bone loss in the group treated for 21...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Periodontal Diseases/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ramipril/pharmacology , Cytokines/analysis , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Bauru; s.n; 2016. 129 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-871406

ABSTRACT

A doença periodontal (DP) corresponde a um grupo de doenças inflamatórias que acomete as estruturas periodontais de proteção e de suporte e pode levar à perda dentária. A etiologia está relacionada à placa dentobacteriana que leva à produção de grande quantidade de citocinas pró-inflamatórias importantes na destruição tecidual. A angiotensina (Ang) II também pode contribuir para a inflamação e destruição tecidual no periodonto agindo como mediador chave. A utilização de drogas que atuem na cascata do sistema renina-angiotensina (SRA) poderia interferir no estado de saúde ou inflamação do tecido mole, na perda óssea alveolar e na expressão gênica dos componentes do SRA e mediadores inflamatórios. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar se o ramipril, um inibidor da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA), altera a progressão da DP induzida experimentalmente em ratos. Foi utilizado o modelo de indução da DP por colocação de ligadura ao redor do primeiro molar inferior direito de ratos. Os grupos com 10 animais cada, foram divididos em tratados com ramipril (via gavagem 10mg/kg/dia) ou água (veículo) durante 14 e 21 dias e o grupo Sham submetido à indução fictícia da DP. Outros quatro grupos foram submetidos ao pré-tratamento com ramipril durante os períodos de 7 e 14 dias e após a indução da DP e tratados por 14 ou 21 dias. As metodologias de avaliação foram: extração de RNA total, transcrição reversa seguida de reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa (RTqPCR),análises histológica e da perda óssea alveolar. Os dados foram analisados por meio de gráficos e os resultados foram submetidos à análise unidirecional de variância (ANOVA) e representaram médias e respectivos desvios-padrão. Diferenças entre os grupos foram consideradas estatisticamente significativas quando p < 0,05. Com base nos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que o ramipril foi capaz de reduzir a progressão da perda óssea no grupo tratado por 21 dias (DP-21d-Rami)...


Periodontitis (PD) consists of a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the protecting and supporting periodontal structures, and may lead to tooth loss. Theetiology is related to the dentobacterial plaque that produces a large amount of proinflammatory cytokines with an important action on tissue destruction. Angiotensin(Ang) II may also contribute to the inflammation and periodontal tissue destruction byacting as a key mediator. The use of drugs that affect the cascade of the reninangiotensin system (RAS) might interfere with the healthy or inflammatory status ofthe soft tissue, alveolar bone loss and gene expression of RAS components and inflammatory mediators. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate whether ramipril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, alters the progression of experimentally-induced PD in rats. The model of PD induction by placement of a silk ligature around the right lower first molar was used. Groups with 10 animals each were divided into ramipril-treated (10 mg/kg/day, via gavage), water (vehicle) and thesham surgery group (sham) for 7 or 14 days previously to PD induction and after this period the drug was administered for 14 and 21 days. The techniques employed were: total RNA extraction, reverse transcription followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as well as histological and alveolar bone loss analyses. Data were analyzed by means of graphs and the results submitted to unidirectional analysis of variance (ANOVA) and represent the means with respective standard deviations. Differences between groups were considered statistically significant whenp < 0.05. Based on the results obtained in this work, it was concluded that ramipril was able to reduce the progression of alveolar bone loss in the group treated for 21...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Periodontal Diseases/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ramipril/pharmacology , Cytokines/analysis , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(6): 597-605, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-769538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Studies suggest that statins have pleiotropic effects, such as reduction in blood pressure, and improvement in endothelial function and vascular stiffness. Objective: To analyze if prior statin use influences the effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors on blood pressure, endothelial function, and vascular stiffness. Methods: Patients with diabetes and hypertension with office systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80 mmHg had their antihypertensive medications replaced by amlodipine during 6 weeks. They were then randomized to either benazepril or losartan for 12 additional weeks while continuing on amlodipine. Blood pressure (assessed with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring), endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation), and vascular stiffness (pulse wave velocity) were evaluated before and after the combined treatment. In this study, a post hoc analysis was performed to compare patients who were or were not on statins (SU and NSU groups, respectively). Results: The SU group presented a greater reduction in the 24-hour systolic blood pressure (from 134 to 122 mmHg, p = 0.007), and in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (from 6.5 to 10.9%, p = 0.003) when compared with the NSU group (from 137 to 128 mmHg, p = 0.362, and from 7.5 to 8.3%, p = 0.820). There was no statistically significant difference in pulse wave velocity (SU group: from 9.95 to 9.90 m/s, p = 0.650; NSU group: from 10.65 to 11.05 m/s, p = 0.586). Conclusion: Combined use of statins, amlodipine, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors improves the antihypertensive response and endothelial function in patients with hypertension and diabetes.


Resumo Fundamentos: Estudos sugerem que as estatinas possuem efeitos pleotrópicos, como melhora da função endotelial, da rigidez vascular e redução da pressão arterial. Objetivo: Analisar se o uso prévio de estatina influenciou o efeito sobre a pressão arterial, a função endotelial e a rigidez vascular de drogas inibidoras do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona. Métodos: Pacientes hipertensos e diabéticos com pressão arterial de consultório sistólica ≥ 130 mmHg e/ou diastólica ≥ 80 mmHg tiveram suas medicações anti-hipertensivas substituídas por anlodipino durante 6 semanas. Em seguida, foram randomizados para associação de benazepril ou losartana por mais 12 semanas. Pressão arterial (através da monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial), função endotelial (dilatação mediada por fluxo da artéria braquial) e rigidez vascular (velocidade da onda de pulso) foram avaliados antes e após o tratamento combinado. Neste trabalho, uma análise post-hoc foi realizada para comparar pacientes que vinham (grupo CE) ou não (grupo SE) em uso de estatina. Resultados: O grupo CE apresentou maior redução na pressão arterial sistólica nas 24 horas (134 para 122 mmHg, p = 0,007) e na dilatação mediada por fluxo da artéria braquial (6,5 para 10,9%, p = 0,003) quando comparado com o grupo SE (137 para 128 mmHg, p = 0,362, e 7,5 para 8,3%, p = 0,820). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na velocidade de onda de pulso (grupo CE 9,95 para 9,90 m/s, p = 0,650 e grupo SE 10,65 para 11,05 m/s, p = 0,586). Conclusão: O uso combinado de estatinas, anlodipino e inibidores do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona melhora a resposta anti-hipertensiva e a função endotelial em pacientes hipertensos e diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amino Acids/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , /drug therapy , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Amino Acids/therapeutic use , Amlodipine/pharmacology , Amlodipine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Benzazepines/pharmacology , Benzazepines/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Brachial Artery/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Losartan/pharmacology , Losartan/therapeutic use , Pulse Wave Analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Stiffness/drug effects
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(6): 513-520, 12/2014. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-732170

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western world and its treatment should be optimized to decrease severe adverse events. Objective: To determine the effect of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on cardiac troponin I measurement in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and evaluate clinical outcomes at 180 days. Methods: Prospective, observational study, carried out in a tertiary center, in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. Clinical, electrocardiographic and laboratory variables were analyzed, with emphasis on previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and cardiac troponin I. The Pearson chi-square tests (Pereira) or Fisher's exact test (Armitage) were used, as well as the non-parametric Mann-Whitney's test. Variables with significance levels of <10% were submitted to multiple logistic regression model. Results: A total of 457 patients with a mean age of 62.1 years, of whom 63.7% were males, were included. Risk factors such as hypertension (85.3%) and dyslipidemia (75.9%) were the most prevalent, with 35% of diabetics. In the evaluation of events at 180 days, there were 28 deaths (6.2%). The statistical analysis showed that the variables that interfered with troponin elevation (> 0.5 ng / mL) were high blood glucose at admission (p = 0.0034) and ST-segment depression ≥ 0.5 mm in one or more leads (p = 0.0016). The use of angiotensin-converting inhibitors prior to hospitalization was associated with troponin ≤ 0.5 ng / mL (p = 0.0482). The C-statistics for this model was 0.77. Conclusion: This study showed a correlation between prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and reduction in the myocardial necrosis marker troponin I in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. However, there are no data available yet to state that this ...


Fundamento: A doença cardiovascular é a maior causa de mortalidade no mundo ocidental, devendo seu tratamento ser otimizado, para a redução de eventos adversos graves. Objetivo: Determinar o efeito do uso prévio de inibidores da enzima de conversão da angiotensina na mensuração da troponina I cardíaca em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (SCASST), e avaliar os desfechos clínicos em até 180 dias. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, em um centro terciário, em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (SCASST). Foram analisadas variáveis clínicas, eletrocardiográficas e laboratoriais, com ênfase no uso prévio de inibidores da enzima de conversão da angiotensina e dosagem de troponina I cardíaca. Foram usados os testes qui quadrado de Pearson ou exato de Fischer , além do teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. Variáveis com níveis de significância < 10% foram submetidas a modelo de regressão logística múltipla. Resultados: Incluídos 457 pacientes, com idade média de 62,1 anos, dos quais 63,7% eram do sexo masculino. Fatores de risco como hipertensão arterial sistêmica (85,3%) e dislipidemia (75,9%) foram os mais prevalentes, com 35% de diabéticos. Na avaliação de eventos em 180 dias, observaram-se 28 óbitos (6,2%). Na análise estatística, as variáveis que interferiram no aumento de troponina (> 0,5 ng/mL) foram a glicemia de admissão elevada (p = 0,0034) e o infradesnivelamento do segmento ST ≥ 0,5 mm, em uma ou mais derivações (p = 0,0016). Relacionada com troponina ≤ 0,5 ng/mL, esteve o uso de inibidores da enzima de conversão da angiotensina prévio à internação (p = 0,0482). ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Troponin I/analysis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Biomarkers/analysis , Heart/drug effects , Hospitalization , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Reference Values , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 756-763, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227268

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Limited studies have shown antifibrotic effects of pentoxifylline, captopril, simvastatin, and tamoxifen. No comparisons are available of the effects of these drugs on prevention of renal and bladder changes in partial urethral obstruction (PUO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were divided into six groups (n=7). The sham-operated rats (group I) only underwent laparotomy and did not receive any treatments. The PUO groups (group II-VI) received normal saline (PUO+NS), pentoxifylline (100 mg/kg/d; PUO+PEN), captopril (35 mg/kg/d; PUO+CAP), simvastatin (15 mg/kg/d; PUO+SIM), or tamoxifen (10 mg/kg/d; PUO+TAM) by gavage for 28 days. Then, the volume and/or length of the kidney components (tubules, vessels, and fibrous tissue) and the bladder components (epithelial and muscular layers, fibrous tissue, fibroblast and fibrocyte number) were quantitatively evaluated on the microscopic sections by use of stereological techniques. RESULTS: The volume of renal and bladder fibrosis was significantly ameliorated in the PUO+PEN group, followed by the PUO+CAP, PUO+SIM, and PUO+TAM groups. Also, the volume and length of the renal tubules and vessels and bladder layers were more significantly protected in the PUO+PEN group, followed by the PUO+CAP, PUO+SIM, and PUO+TAM groups. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of PUO with PEN was more effective in the prevention of renal and bladder fibrosis and in the preservation of renal and bladder structures.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Captopril/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Male , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Rats , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Tamoxifen/pharmacology , Urethral Obstruction/drug therapy , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/drug therapy
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(2): 171-177, 01/fev. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668779

ABSTRACT

Sex hormones modulate the action of both cytokines and the renin-angiotensin system. However, the effects of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) on the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are unclear. We determined the relationship between ACE activity, cytokine levels and sex differences in SHR. Female (F) and male (M) SHR were divided into 4 experimental groups each (n = 7): sham + vehicle (SV), sham + enalapril (10 mg/kg body weight by gavage), castrated + vehicle, and castrated + enalapril. Treatment began 21 days after castration and continued for 30 days. Serum cytokine levels (ELISA) and ACE activity (fluorimetry) were measured. Male rats exhibited a higher serum ACE activity than female rats. Castration reduced serum ACE in males but did not affect it in females. Enalapril reduced serum ACE in all groups. IL-10 (FSV = 16.4 ± 1.1 pg/mL; MSV = 12.8 ± 1.2 pg/mL), TNF-α (FSV = 16.6 ± 1.2 pg/mL; MSV = 12.8 ± 1 pg/mL) and IL-6 (FSV = 10.3 ± 0.2 pg/mL; MSV = 7.2 ± 0.2 pg/mL) levels were higher in females than in males. Ovariectomy reduced all cytokine levels and orchiectomy reduced IL-6 but increased IL-10 concentrations in males. Castration eliminated the differences in all inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-6 and TNF-α) between males and females. Enalapril increased IL-10 in all groups and reduced IL-6 in SV rats. In conclusion, serum ACE inhibition by enalapril eliminated the sexual dimorphisms of cytokine levels in SV animals, which suggests that enalapril exerts systemic anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enalapril/pharmacology , Hypertension/blood , /blood , /blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Ovariectomy , Rats, Inbred SHR , Sex Factors
16.
Clinics ; 67(8): 877-883, Aug. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-647789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on peritoneal membrane transport, peritoneal protein loss, and proteinuria in peritoneal dialysis patients. METHODS: Fifty-four peritoneal dialysis patients were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 34) was treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Group 2 (n = 20) did not receive any antihypertensive drugs during the entire follow-up. Eleven patients were excluded from the study thereafter. Thus, a total of 30 patients in Group 1 and 13 patients in Group 2 completed the study. We observed the patients for six months. Group 1 patients received maximal doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for six months. Parameters at the beginning of study and at the end of six months were evaluated. RESULTS: At the end of six months, total peritoneal protein loss in 24-hour dialysate effluent was significantly decreased in Group 1, whereas it was increased in Group 2. Compared to the baseline level, peritoneal albumin loss in 24-hour dialysate effluent and 4-hour D/P creatinine were significantly increased in Group 2 but were not significantly changed in Group 1. A covariance analysis between the groups revealed a significant difference only in the decreased amount of total protein loss in 24-hour dialysate. Proteinuria was decreased significantly in Group 1. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce peritoneal protein loss and small-solute transport and effectively protect peritoneal membrane transport in peritoneal dialysis patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Albumins/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Peritoneum/metabolism , Albumins/analysis , Biological Transport , Epidemiologic Methods , Proteins/metabolism , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Clinics ; 67(7): 761-765, July 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-645448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The association between renal hypoxia and the development of renal injury is well established. However, no adequate method currently exists to non-invasively measure functional changes in renal oxygenation in normal and injured patients. METHOD: R2* quantification was performed using renal blood oxygen level-dependent properties. Five healthy normotensive women (50±5.3 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a 1.5T Signa Excite HDx scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). A multiple fast gradient-echo sequence was used to acquire R2*/T2* images (sixteen echoes from 2.1 ms/slice to 49.6 ms/slice in a single breath hold per location). The images were post-processed to generate R2* maps for quantification. Data were recorded before and at 30 minutes after the oral administration of an angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril, 25 mg). The results were compared using an ANOVA for repeated measurements (mean + standard deviation) followed by the Tukey test. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01545479. RESULTS: A significant difference (p<0.001) in renal oxygenation (R2*) was observed in the cortex and medulla before and after captopril administration: right kidney, cortex = 11.08 ± 0.56ms, medulla = 17.21 ± 1.47ms and cortex = 10.30 ± 0.44ms, medulla = 16.06 ± 1.74ms, respectively; and left kidney, cortex= 11.79 ± 1.85ms, medulla = 17.03 ± 0.88ms and cortex = 10.89 ± 0.91ms, medulla = 16.43 ± 1.49ms, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests that the technique efficiently measured alterations in renal blood oxygenation after angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibition and that it may provide a new strategy for identifying the early stages of renal disease and perhaps new therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Captopril/pharmacology , Kidney/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Kidney/blood supply , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Oxygen/blood , Time Factors
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 97(5): 390-396, nov. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-608930

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A ressuscitação de parada cardíaca pode apresentar disfunção miocárdica determinada pelo tempo da isquemia, e a inibição da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA) pode reduzir a disfunção cardíaca durante a reperfusão. OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da angiotensina-I e diferentes períodos de isquemia na recuperação funcional em corações de ratos isolados. MÉTODOS: Os corações isolados de ratos Wistar (n = 45; 250-300 g) foram submetidos a diferentes períodos de isquemia global (20, 25 ou 30 min) e reperfundidos (30 min) com o tampão Krebs-Henseleit, ou com a adição de 400 nmol/L de angiotensina-I, ou com 400 nmol/L de angiotensina-I + 100 µmol/L de captopril durante o período de reperfusão. RESULTADOS: A derivada positiva máxima de pressão (+dP/dt max) e o produto frequência-pressão foram reduzidos nos corações expostos à isquemia de 25 min (~ 73 por cento) e à isquemia de 30 min (~ 80 por cento) vs. isquemia de 20 min. A pressão diastólica final do ventrículo esquerdo (PDFVE) e a pressão de perfusão (PP) foram aumentadas nos corações expostos à isquemia de 25 min (5,5 e 1,08 vezes, respectivamente) e à isquemia de 30 min (6 e 1,10 vezes, respectivamente) vs. isquemia de 20 min. A angiotensina-I ocasionou uma diminuição no +dP/dt max e no produto frequência-pressão (~ 85-94 por cento) em todos os períodos de isquemia e um aumento na PDFVE e na PP (6,9 e 1,25 vezes, respectivamente) apenas na isquemia de 20 min. O captopril foi capaz de reverter parcial ou completamente os efeitos da angiotensina-I na recuperação funcional nas isquemias de 20 e 25 min CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que a angiotensina-II participa direta ou indiretamente no dano pós-isquêmico e que a capacidade de um inibidor da ECA atenuar esse dano depende do tempo de isquemia.


BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest resuscitation can present myocardial dysfunction determined by ischemic time, and inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) can reduce cardiac dysfunction during reperfusion. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of angiotensin-I and different periods of ischemia on functional recovery in isolated rat hearts. METHODS: Isolated hearts from Wistar rats (n=45; 250-300 g) were submitted to different periods of global ischemia (20, 25 or 30 min) and reperfused (30 min) with Krebs-Henseleit buffer alone or with the addition of 400 nmol/L angiotensin-I, or 400 nmol/L angiotensin-I + 100 mmol/L captopril along the reperfusion period. RESULTS: The maximal positive derivative of pressure (+dP/dt max) and rate-pressure product were reduced in hearts exposed to 25 min ischemia (~73 percent) and 30 min ischemia (~80 percent) vs. 20 min ischemia. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and perfusion pressure (PP) were increased in hearts exposed to 25 min ischemia (5.5 and 1.08 fold, respectively) and 30 min ischemia (6 and 1.10 fold, respectively) vs. 20 min ischemia. Angiotensin-I caused a decrease in +dP/dt max and rate-pressure product (~85-94 percent) in all ischemic periods and an increase in LVEDP and PP (6.9 and 1.25 fold, respectively) only at 20 min ischemia. Captopril was able to partially or completely reverse the effects of angiotensin-I on functional recovery in 20 min and 25 min ischemia. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that angiotensin-II directly or indirectly participates in the post-ischemic damage, and the ability of an ACE inhibitor to attenuate this damage depends on ischemic time.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Angiotensin I/pharmacology , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Captopril/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(9): 914-919, Sept. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-599662

ABSTRACT

The classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) consists of enzymes and peptides that regulate blood pressure and electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the most important and extensively studied components of the RAS. The beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, among other diseases, are well known. However, it has been reported that patients chronically treated with effective doses of these inhibitors do not show suppression of Ang II formation, suggesting the involvement of pathways alternative to ACE in the generation of Ang II. Moreover, the finding that the concentration of Ang II is preserved in the kidney, heart and lungs of mice with an ACE deletion indicates the important role of alternative pathways under basal conditions to maintain the levels of Ang II. Our group has characterized the serine protease elastase-2 as an alternative pathway for Ang II generation from Ang I in rats. A role for elastase-2 in the cardiovascular system was suggested by studies performed in heart and conductance and resistance vessels of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. This mini-review will highlight the pharmacological aspects of the RAS, emphasizing the role of elastase-2, an alternative pathway for Ang II generation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Angiotensin II/biosynthesis , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Angiotensin I/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Chymases/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/pharmacology
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 25(5): 396-400, Sept.-Oct. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-558724

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ACE inhibitor, lisinopril and AT1 blocker, losartan, on the obstructive pancreatitis in rat. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis in rats (n=21) was induced for a common hepatic duct were ligated proximal to its entry into the pancreas and the common bile - pancreatic duct were also ligated near its junction with the duodenum, under ether anesthesia, after which the abdomen were closed. The animals was divided in tree groups, being two treated and control group. The animals was treated with Losartan and Lisinopril at the dose of 10µg/Kg body weight per day, i.p., in a proportional volume, for five days, before and after treatement. RESULTS: The inflammation, collagen deposition in the pancreas of treated animals were smaller, suggesting that the use of antihypertensive agents interfered positively in the depletion of the injury of the pancreas. Scythe showed a correlation between activity of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) lower in treated animals when compared to control. CONCLUSION: The pancreatic stellate cells strength are involved in collagen production during acute pancreatitis and why antihypertensive drugs such as lisinopril and losartan may possibly have beneficial effects in reducing pancreatic fibrosis in models of experimental obstructive pancreatitis.


OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito de um inibidor da ECA, lisinopril e bloqueador AT1, losartan, a pancreatite obstrutiva em ratos. MÉTODOS: Pancreatite aguda em ratos (n = 21) foi induzida por um ducto hepático comum foram ligados proximal à sua entrada no pâncreas e da bílis comum - ducto pancreático também foram ligados perto de sua junção com o duodeno, sob anestesia com éter, após o que abdome foram fechadas. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos, sendo dois tratados eo grupo controle. Os animais foram tratados com lisinopril e losartan na dose de 10µg/Kg de peso corporal por dia, IP, em um volume proporcional, por cinco dias, antes e depois do tratamento com. RESULTADOS: A inflamação, deposição de colágeno no pâncreas de animais tratados foram menores, sugerindo que o uso de agentes anti-hipertensivos interferiram positivamente na diminuição da lesão do pâncreas. Este estudo mostrou uma correlação entre a atividade das células pancreáticas estreladas (CSP) menor nos animais tratados quando comparados ao control. CONCLUSÃO: A força das células pancreáticas estreladas está envolvida na produção de colágeno durante a pancreatite aguda e por medicamentos anti-hipertensivos, tais como lisinopril e losartan pode eventualmente ter efeitos benéficos na redução da fibrose do pâncreas em modelos experimentais de pancreatite obstrutiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Lisinopril/pharmacology , Losartan/pharmacology , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Collagen/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Pancreatic Stellate Cells/drug effects , Pancreatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Pancreatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Pancreatitis/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
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