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1.
Science ; 372(6544): 1-7, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1247888

ABSTRACT

Cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Manaus, Brazil, resurged in late 2020 despite previously high levels of infection. Genome sequencing of viruses sampled in Manaus between November 2020 and January 2021 revealed the emergence and circulation of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern. Lineage P.1 acquired 17 mutations, including a trio in the spike protein (K417T, E484K, and N501Y) associated with increased binding to the human ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor. Molecular clock analysis shows that P.1 emergence occurred around mid-November 2020 and was preceded by a period of faster molecular evolution. Using a two-category dynamical model that integrates genomic and mortality data, we estimate that P.1 may be 1.7- to 2.4-fold more transmissible and that previous (non-P.1) infection provides 54 to 79% of the protection against infection with P.1 that it provides against non-P.1 lineages. Enhanced global genomic surveillance of variants of concern, which may exhibit increased transmissibility and/or immune evasion, is critical to accelerate pandemic responsiveness.


Subject(s)
Angiotensins , Genome , Betacoronavirus
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200181, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351022

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapid-spread infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can culminate in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) and kallikrein-kinin (KKS) systems imbalance, and in serious consequences for infected patients. This scoping review of published research exploring the RAAS and KKS was undertaken in order to trace the history of the discovery of both systems and their multiple interactions, discuss some aspects of the viral-cell interaction, including inflammation and the system imbalance triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their consequent disorders. Furthermore, we correlate the effects of continued use of the RAAS blockers in chronic diseases therapies with the virulence and physiopathology of COVID-19. We also approach the RAAS and KKS-related proposed potential therapies for treatment of COVID-19. In this way, we reinforce the importance of exploring both systems and the application of their components or their blockers in the treatment of coronavirus disease.(AU)


Subject(s)
Virulence , Angiotensins , Kallikreins , Coronavirus , Aldosterone , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation
4.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(4): e604, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156461

ABSTRACT

La insuficiencia cardiaca se define como un síndrome caracterizado por la incapacidad de proveer las necesidades metabólicas del organismo, presentando disnea y fatiga. Hasta ahora, se ha descrito la participación de varias moléculas involucradas en los mecanismos de señalización intracelular que conducen a la insuficiencia cardiaca y estimulan la síntesis de algunas proteínas, como colágeno, la cual induce a una hipertrofia cardiaca(AU)


Heart failure is defined as a syndrome characterized by the inability to meet the metabolic needs of the organism, causing dyspnea and fatigue.Descriptions are available of the involvement of several molecules in cell signaling mechanisms which lead to heart failure and prompt the synthesis of some proteins, such as collagen, inducing cardiac hypertrophy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Failure/genetics , Molecular Biology , Angiotensins/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/genetics , Cardiomegaly/complications
6.
Brasília; s.n; 13 jul. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117641

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Angiotensins/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Cohort Studies , Iloprost/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(3): 129-131, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289201

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, along with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, forms part of the three highly pathogenic coronaviruses identified since the start of the millennium.1,2 While SARS-CoV was identified on 2003 and MERS-CoV on 2012, the initial reports of SARS-CoV-2 (the etiological agent of COVID-19) were first released at the end of December 2019.3,4 Now, after less than four months, the virus has distributed globally and has become the focus of extensive medical research, as the number of cases keeps rising.A significant part of the investigative effort has been directed to the search for an effective therapy or intervention that could stop the spread of the disease or be used to effectively treat infected patients. Likewise, potential predisposing factors to develop a more severe clinical presentation are progressively being identified. Some of the more relevant are older age and the presence of certain comorbidities, such as cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes.5­8 It is important to highlight that the last two are chronic conditions commonly treated with ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers.9­11 However, the evidence suggests that these medications can upregulate the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cellular receptor for both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.11­16 Thus, a group of researchers hypothesized that ACE2-increasing drugs could raise the risk of infection and prompt a more severe clinical course or a fatal outcome in diabetic and hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Lung Injury , Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Infections , Angiotensins , Receptors, Angiotensin , Coronary Disease , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
8.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(2): 96-105, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042602

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Introducción: La vía clásica del sistema renina-angiotensina (SRA) está activado en pacientes con hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HAP). Previamente, hemos encontrado que en la disfunción ventricular post infarto al miocardio experimental la activación del eje clásico del SRA, dado por la enzima convertidora de angiotensina I (ECA) y angiotensina (Ang ) II se correlaciona negativamente con el eje paralelo del SRA dado por la ECA homóloga (ECA2) y el péptido vasoactivo y cardioprotector Ang-(1-9). Resultados preclínicos muestran la eficacia de la administración de Ang-(1-9) en el tratamiento del remodelamiento cardiovascular patológico. Hasta la fecha no existen antecedentes de los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9) en pacientes con hipertensión arterial pulmonar comparados con sujetos sanos. Objetivo: Determinar los niveles circulantes del péptido vasoactivo y cardiprotector Ang-(1-9) en pacientes con HAP y compararlos con sujetos sanos pareados por edad y sexo. Métodos: Estudio comparativo transversal en pacientes con HAP (grupo I, OMS) con presión de arteria pulmonar media (mPAP) ≥25 mmHg bajo tratamiento con furosemida (40%), espironolactona (53%), Acenocumarol/Warfarina (47%), Bosentan/Ambrisentan (27%), Sildenafil (80%), iloprost (7%) y digoxina (13%). Los sujetos controles correspondieron a sujetos asintomáticos sanos sin enfermedad cardiovascular, cardiopatía estructural ni pulmonar (n=14). En todos los pacientes se determinó mPAP, proBNP, resistencia vascular pulmonar (RVP, WU), presión capilar pulmonar (PCP, mmHg), gasto cardíaco (L/min), capacidad funcional por test de caminata 6 minutos (TC6M), cambio del área fraccional del ventrículo derecho VD (FAC, %). Se utilizó prueba t de Student y programa estadístico SPSS10.0. Un valor de p < 0,05 fue considerado como estadísticamente significativo. Resultados: Los pacientes ingresados al estudio mostraron: etiología de la HAP, idiopática (86,7%), VIH (13,3%), capacidad funcional I (6,2%), II (68,3) y III (25%) y promedio mPAP 51,3±1,9. Pacientes con HAP (grupo I, OMS) versus sujetos sanos mostraron disminución significativa de FAC, actividad plasmática de la ECA2 y niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9). En la vía clásica del RAAS pacientes con HAP mostraron mayor actividad plasmática de ECA y niveles circulantes e Ag II. Correlaciones significativas se encontraron entre niveles de Ang-(1-9) y mPAP (r = -0.701, p < 0,001) y Ang-(1-9) vs FAC (r = 0.549, p < 0,01). Conclusiones: En pacientes con HAP (grupo I, OMS), los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9) están significativamente disminuidos y se asocian inversamente con la PAP, severidad del remodelamiento y disfunción del ventrículo derecho. El uso terapéutico de Ang-(1-9) como agente vasodilatador y cardioprotector podría ser relevante y potencialmente útil, desde una perspectiva clínica, en la HAP. Ang-(1-9) podría reducir la PAP y mejorar el remodelamiento vascular y del ventrículo derecho en la HAP. Por lo tanto, este péptido podría ser útil como blanco terapéutico en la HAP.


ABSTRACTS: Classic renin-angiotensis pathway (RAP) is activated in patients with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). We have previously shown that in patients with post myocardial infarction systolic dysfunction the activation of RAP mediated by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (Ang II) is inversely correlated with the parallel RAP axis mediated by homologous ACE (ACE2) and by the vasoactive and cardioprotective peptide Ang-(1-9). Pre clinical studies show that administration of Ang-(1-9) leads to a favorable ventricular remodelling. At present there is no information regarding levels of Ang-(1-9) in PAH patients compared to healthy subjects. Methods: 16 PAH patients (WHO group 1), with mean PA pressure > 25mmHg being treated with furosemide (40%), Bosentan/Ambrisentan (27%), Sildenafil (80%), iloprost (7%) were compared with healthy subjects (n=14). mPAP, pro BNP, pulmonary vascular resistance (Wu), pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP mmHg), cardiac output (L/min), functional capacity (6 min walking test) (6mWT), and changes in right ventricular fractional area (RV FA), were measured in all subjects. Results: In HAP subjects, the eiotology of PAH was unknown in 87%, or HIV (13%). Functional class was I (6.2 %), II (68.3%) or III (25%). Mean PAP was 51.3±1.9. Compared to healthy subjects, PAH patients had significantly lower RV FA, ACE2 and Ang-(19) levels. Also they had greater ACE plasma activity and AngII circulating levels. Significant correlations were found between Ang-(1-9) and mPAP (-0.701, p < 0,001) and between Ang-(1-9) and RV FA (r = 0.549, p < 0,01). Conclusion: group I PAH subjects, circulating levels of Ang-(1-9) are significantly lower than in healthy subjects and are inversely related to PAP, severity of ventricular remodeling and right ventricular dysfunction. The use of Ang-(1-9) as a vasodilator and cardioprotector agent could be clinically useful in PAH subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Angiotensins/blood , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/blood , Peptides , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(1): 55-60, jan.-fev. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-981607

ABSTRACT

Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism has been associated with different clinical and echocardiographic parameters in patients with heart failure (HF). However, no studies have been investigated such association with HF caused by Chagas disease. Objectives: To perform a genetic study to evaluate the frequency of ACE polymorphism in patients with HF caused by Chagas disease attending a university hospital in the central-west region and its association with echocardiographic findings. Methods: Descriptive study of ACE polymorphism (I/D) and echocardiographic data of 103 patients with HF caused by Chagas disease. Echocardiographic parameters were compared between the genotypes using the ANOVA test. Results: Genotypic distribution of the ACE polymorphism was 16.5% DD, 57.3% DI and 26.2% II. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of genotypes between men and women. The echocardiographic findings were: left ventricular ejection fraction: 43.8 ± 14.8 (DD) vs. 42.3 ± 11.6 (ID) vs. 44.9 ± 13.0 (II), p = 0.664; left ventricular diastolic diameter: 59.2 ± 9.7 (DD) vs. 60.3 ± 7.6 (ID) vs. 59.7 ± 78.1 (II), p = 0.879; left ventricular systolic diameter: 48.6 ± 12.8 (DD) vs. 50.6 ± 9.7 (ID) vs. 49.3 ± 11.9 (II), p = 0.753; and left atrial volume: 44.9 ± 10.1 (DD) vs. 40.9 ± 9.6 (ID) vs. 38.2 ± 7.8 (II), p = 0.068. Significant correlation coefficients were found for gender, age, ethnicity, heart rate and dyslipidemia. Conclusion: ACE polymorphism was not associated with echocardiographic findings in patients with HF caused by Chagas disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Failure , Stroke Volume , Angiotensins , Statistical Analysis , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Ventricular Function, Left , Chagas Disease , Dyslipidemias , Observational Study , Genetics
11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 615-626, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been suggested to accelerate vascular senescence, however the molecular mechanism(s) remain unknown. METHODS: We cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCSMCs) and treated Ang II and/or fimasartan. Or we transfected adenoviral vectors expressing CYR61 (Ad-CYR61) or antisense CYR61 (Ad-As-CYR61). Cellular senescence was evaluated senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) assay. The molecular mechanisms were investigated real-time PCR and western blots. RESULTS: SA-β-gal-positive cells significantly increased in Ang II-treated hCSMCs (5.77±1.43-fold compared with the control). The effect of Ang II was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, fimasartan (2.00±0.92-fold). The expression of both p53 and p16 senescence regulators was significantly increased by Ang II (p53: 1.39±0.17, p16: 1.19±0.10-fold vs. the control), and inhibited by fimasartan. Cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (CYR61) was rapidly induced by Ang II. Compared with the control, Ad-CYR61-transfected hCSMCs showed significantly increased SA-β-gal-positive cells (3.47±0.65-fold). Upon transfecting Ad-AS-CYR61, Ang II-induced senescence (3.74±0.23-fold) was significantly decreased (1.77±0.60-fold). p53 expression by Ang II was significantly attenuated by Ad-AS-CYR61, whereas p16 expression was not regulated. Ang II activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, which was significantly blocked by fimasartan. ERK and p38 inhibition both regulated Ang II-induced CYR61 expression. However, p53 expression was only regulated by ERK1/2, whereas p16 expression was only attenuated by p38 MAPK. CONCLUSIONS: Ang II induced vascular senescence by the ERK/p38 MAPK–CYR61 pathway and ARB, fimasartan, protected against Ang II-induced vascular senescence.


Subject(s)
Aging , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Cellular Senescence , Coronary Vessels , Humans , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1
13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 469-484, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759442

ABSTRACT

The Prospective comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) with Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (HF) trial (PARADIGM-HF) showed that adding a neprilysin inhibitor (sacubitril) to a renin-angiotensin system blocker (and other standard therapy) reduced morbidity and mortality in ambulatory patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In PARADIGM-HF, valsartan combined with sacubitril (a so-called ARNI) was superior to the current gold standard of an ACEI, specifically enalapril, reducing the risk of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular (CV) death or first HF hospitalization by 20% and all-cause death by 16%. Following the results of PARADIGM-HF, sacubitril/valsartan was approved by American and European regulatory authorities for the treatment of HFrEF. The burden of HF in Asia is substantial, both due to the huge population of the region and as a result of increasing CV risk factors and disease. Both the prevalence and mortality associated with HF are high in Asia. In the following review, we discuss the development of sacubitril/valsartan, the prototype ARNI, and the available evidence for its efficacy and safety in Asian patients with HFrEF.


Subject(s)
Angiotensins , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Enalapril , Heart Failure , Heart , Hospitalization , Humans , Mortality , Neprilysin , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System , Risk Factors , Valsartan
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761495

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antibodies directly injure endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells by activating transcription factors associated with proinflammatory responses. Previous studies have shown that AT1R antibodies are associated with allograft rejection and decreased graft survival in kidney transplantation. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has facilitated semiquantitative detection of AT1R antibodies. Assessing AT1R antibodies along with donor specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies may have potential to identify patients with possible risk for allograft injury and improve overall outcomes. In this review, we summarize recent clinical studies about AT1R antibodies in kidney transplantation and provide perspectives for future research area.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factors , Allografts , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Antibodies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Graft Survival , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Leukocytes , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Tissue Donors , Transplantation
15.
HU rev ; 45(2): 212-221, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048961

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O sistema renina-angiotensina (SRA) é a maior rede regulatória da pressão arterial, do balanço hidroeletrolítico e da homeostase do organismo. Desde que o papel do SRA na regulação da função cardiovascular foi descrito, os componentes do eixo endócrino do sistema, em especial a angiotensina II - na regulação e fisiologia cardiovascular e renal, têm sido foco de pesquisa. Os achados das últimas décadas, no entanto, mostraram que o sistema é muito mais complexo e intricado do que se imaginava. Objetivo: Apresentar, através de uma revisão da literatura, alguns dos novos elementos que compõem o SRA e suas implicações fisiológicas, atualizando o leitor sobre o estado da arte. Material de Métodos:Revisão bibliográfica abordando as principais publicações, indexadas pelo PubMed, relacionadas aos novos peptídeos do SRA. Resultados: Dentre os novos componentes do SRA, encontram-se a angiotensina­(1-9), um nonapeptídeo que promove vasodilatação, ação anti-hipertrófica em cardiomiócitos e ação anti-hipertensiva. A Angiotensina-(1-7), por sua vez, apesar de se diferenciar da Ang II apenas pela ausência de um único aminoácido, é responsável por efeitos fisiológicos opostos aos observados com a Ang II. A Angiotensina A, outro peptídeo biologicamente ativo, é formado a partir da descarboxilação do aspartato, desempenhando efeitos semelhantes à Ang II. A Alamandina, também derivada de uma descarboxilação, é um heptapeptídeo vasodilatador, anti-hipertensivo e cardioprotetor. Conclusão: Os achados envolvendo as novas angiotensinas permitem o entendimento do sistema como uma extensa rede composta de vias e eixos alternativos, muitos dos quais, ainda sem esclarecimento científico. O enfoque em novas vias de formação de produtos com funções biológicas poderá ser útil para o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias terapêuticas e, descobertas no campo da fisiologia e fisiopatologia de uma série de condições.


Introdution: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is the major regulatory system of arterial blood pressure, hydroelectrolytic balance, and body homeostasis. Since the role of the RAS in the cardiovascular function has been described, much of the research in this area has focused on the role of its endocrine axis components, mainly angiotensin II (Ang II), in the cardiovascular and renal physiology. Over the last decades, the findings have shown that the system is much more intricate than thought. Objective:To present, upon a literature review, some of the new elements about the RAS and its physiological implications, updating the reader about the state of the art. Methods Material: Bibliographic review addressing the main PubMed publications related of the novels angiotensin-peptides. Results: Among the novel RAS components, angiotensin­(1-9) is a nonapeptide that exerts antihypertrophy effects in cardiomyocytes, and vasodilatory and anti-hypertensive actions. Angiotensin-(1-7), which differs from Ang II due to the absence of only one aminoacid, is responsible for physiological effects opposite to those of Ang II. Angiotensin A, another biologically active peptide, is synthesized through aspartate decarboxylation, and exerts effects similar to those of Ang II. Alamandine, also formed through decarboxylation, is a heptapeptide showing vasodilatory, antihypertensive, and cardioprotective effects. Conclusion: The discovery of novel angiotensins sheds more light on the view that the RAS is an extensive regulatory system with pathways and alternative axis, much of which without scientific knowledge. Scientific efforts envisioning novel formation pathways of biologically active products may be useful for development of innovative therapeutic strategies and discoveries in the field of several physiological and pathological conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System , Therapeutics , Angiotensin I , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 679-686, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762092

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Statins, metformin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been suggested for treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD) due to their pleiotropic effects. Therefore, we investigated whether these drugs prevent AMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Using risk-set sampling of age, sex, cohort entry date, and follow-up duration, we identified incident patients with AMD and 10 matching controls in cohorts with diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. Exposure was assessed within one year before the index date using patient prescription records. We conducted conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between cardiovascular medications and AMD. RESULTS: Our study included 2330 cases and 23278 controls from a cohort of 231274 patients. The ORs (95% CI) for AMD occurrence in users prescribed with statins, metformin, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs were 1.12 (0.94–1.32), 1.15 (0.91–1.45), 0.90 (0.61–1.34), and 1.21 (1.05–1.39), respectively. A duration-response was not observed. CONCLUSION: Statins, metformin, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs did not inhibit AMD in elderly patients. The absence of a duration-response supports the lack of a causal relationship.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Angiotensins , Cardiovascular Diseases , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Logistic Models , Macular Degeneration , Metformin , National Health Programs , Odds Ratio , Prescriptions , Receptors, Angiotensin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760188

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Increased apoptosis was recently found in the hypertrophied left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although the available evidence suggests that apoptosis can be induced in cardiac cells by various insults including pressure overload, cardiac apoptosis appears to result from an exaggerated local production of angiotensin in adult SHRs. Altered expressions of Bcl associated X (Bax), Bcl-2, chemokine receptor (CCR)-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (PERK), and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA were investigated to explore the effects of losartan on the SHR model. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male rats were grouped as follows: control (C), SHR (hypertension: H), and losartan (L; SHRs were treated with losartan [10 mg/kg/day] for 5 weeks). Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed. RESULTS: Expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, PERK, and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA was significantly increased in the H group compared to that in the C group at weeks 3 and 5. Expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, and connexin 43 proteins and kallikrein mRNA was significantly decreased after losartan treatment at week 5. PERK protein expression was significantly decreased after losartan treatment at weeks 3 and 5. Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly decreased in the H group compared to that in the C group at weeks 3 and 5. CONCLUSION: Losartan treatment reduced expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, PERK, and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA in SHRs, along with decreased inflammation and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiotensins , Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Connexin 43 , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Gene Expression , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Inflammation , Kallikreins , Losartan , Male , Monocytes , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Transforming Growth Factors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are the first choice for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) should be considered in patients intolerant to ACEIs. Although previous studies support the use of ARBs as an alternative to ACEIs, these studies showed inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the clinical impact of ARBs as an alternative to ACEIs in patients with AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The CardiOvascular Risk and idEntificAtion of potential high-risk population in AMI (COREA-AMI) registry enrolled all consecutive patients with AMI undergoing PCI. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization due to heart failure. RESULTS: Of the 3,328 eligible patients, ARBs replaced ACEIs in 816 patients, while 824 patients continued to use ACEIs and 826 patients continued to use ARBs. The remaining 862 patients did not receive ACEIs/ARBs. After the adjustment with inverse probability weighting, the primary endpoints in the first groups were similar (7.5% vs. 8.0%, hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75–1.05; P = 0.164). Composite events were less frequent in the ACEI to ARB group than no ACEI/ARB group (7.5% vs. 11.8%, HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64–0.90; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The alternative use of ARBs following initial treatment with ACEIs demonstrates comparable clinical outcomes to those with continued use of ACEIs and is associated with an improved rate of composite events compared to no ACEI/ARB use in patients with AMI undergoing PCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02385682


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Angiotensins , Heart Failure , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Stroke
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been few studies to evaluate the prognostic implications of guideline-directed therapy according to the temporal course of heart failure. This study assessed the relationship between adherence to guideline-directed therapy at discharge and 60-day clinical outcomes in de novo acute heart failure (AHF) and acute decompensated chronic heart failure (ADCHF) separately. METHODS: Among 5,625 AHF patients who were recruited from a multicenter cohort registry of Korean Acute Heart Failure, 2,769 patients with reduced ejection fraction were analyzed. Guideline-directed therapies were defined as the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor II blocker (ARB), β-blocker, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. RESULTS: In de novo AHF, ACEI or ARB reduced re-hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34–0.95), mortality (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24–0.69) and composite endpoint (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36–0.77) rates. Beta-blockers reduced re-hospitalization (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41–0.95) and composite endpoint (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.47–0.90) rates. In ADCHF, adherence to ACEI or ARB was associated with only mortality and β-blockers with composite endpoint. CONCLUSION: The prognostic implications of adherence to guideline-directed therapy at discharge were more pronounced in de novo heart failure. We recommend that guideline-directed therapy be started as early as possible in the course of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.


Subject(s)
Angiotensins , Cohort Studies , Heart Failure , Heart , Humans , Mortality , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid
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