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An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 56(1): 46-57, 20230401.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426691


La enfermedad renal diabética (ERD) es una comorbilidad con alta prevalencia a nivel mundial, siendo una de las complicaciones más frecuentes de la diabetes mellitus (DM). La ERD se relaciona con complicaciones cardiovasculares y progresión de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC), por ello la identificación de factores modificables, como el control de la presión arterial, es uno de los pilares más importantes en el manejo integral. En esta revisión hacemos un recorrido sobre el papel de la hipertensión y el bloqueo del eje renina angiotensina aldosterona (RAAS) en el curso de la ERD y las estrategias terapéuticas orientadas a la reducción de la presión arterial (PA), el bloqueo RAAS y el impacto en resultados renales y cardiovasculares. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una revisión de las intervenciones más importantes que actúan bloqueando el eje renina angiotensina aldosterona (RAAS) y determinar si estas medidas en los pacientes con ERD, solo tienen impacto en el control de la presión arterial o si también son estrategias de nefro y cardio-protección. Conclusión: La ERD es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes de la diabetes mellitus (DM). El control de la PA sigue siendo un pilar fundamental para lograr estos objetivos. Los bloqueadores del RAAS (iECAS y BRAs) son los antihipertensivos de elección con efecto terapéutico por el bloqueo RAAS y esto les permite tener además del control de la PA, efectos nefroprotectores y cardioprotectores importantes en pacientes con ERD, sobre todo cuando hay la presencia de albuminuria. Evaluamos que además de los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (iECAs) y los bloqueadores del receptor de angiotensina (BRAs), vienen tomando importancia los antagonistas selectivos del receptor mineralocorticoide (ARM) como Finerenona.

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a comorbidity with a high worldwide prevalence, and one of the most frequent complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). CKD is related to cardiovascular complications and the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), therefore the identification of modifiable factors, such as blood pressure control, is one of the most important pillars in comprehensive management. In this review, we will analyze the role of hypertension and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and its suppression in the course of CKD, and therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing blood pressure (BP), RAAS blockade, and the impact on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of this article is to review the most important interventions that act by blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and to determine if these measures in patients with CKD only have an impact on blood pressure control or if they are also nephron and cardio-protective strategies. Conclusion: DKD is one of the most frequent complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). BP control continues to be a fundamental pillar to achieve these objectives. RAAS blockers (iECAS and ARBs) are the first-line antihypertensive with a therapeutic effect due to RAAS blockade and this allows them to have, in addition to BP control, important nephroprotective and cardioprotective effects in patients with CKD, especially when there is albuminuria. We evaluated that in addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) such as Finerenone are gaining importance.

Diabetes Mellitus , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Hypertension , Angiotensins , Receptors, Angiotensin , Renin , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Kidney Diseases
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20012, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394034


Abstract Perindopril erbumine (Perindopril tert-butylamine salt) is a potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. It is used to treat the patients with hypertension and heart failure problems. A sensitive, inexpensive and precise analytical technique has been developed for the estimation of perindopril in bulk and formulations. The procedure involves the development of colour by forming an oxidative coupling reaction between drug (PPE) and reagent such as 2, 6-dichloroquinone-4-chlorimide (DCQC). The formed colored species were measured at (max=520 nm. The developed method showed linearity within the concentration limits of 25-75 µg mL-1. The linear correlation coefficient (r) and molar absorptivity were found to be 0.9999 and 3.285 x 103 mol-1cm-1. % Recovery ± SD values were in the range of 99.69 - 100.51 (+ 0.42 - ( 0.41) (n=3) which indicates the accuracy of the developed method. The interference of other excipients that are commonly present in formulations is found to be negligible. Precision and accuracy of the proposed method were confirmed by student t-test and F-tests at 95% confidence limits with (n-1) degrees of freedom. The validity parameters of proposed method were calculated by ICH guidelines

Perindopril , Oxidative Coupling , Spectrophotometry/methods , Angiotensins/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/classification , Heart Failure
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 139-146, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928531


The renin angiotensin system (RAS) appears to influence male fertility at multiple levels. In this work, we analyzed the relationship between the RAS and DNA integrity. Fifty male volunteers were divided into two groups (25 each): control (DNA fragmentation ≤20%) and pathological (DNA fragmentation >20%) cases. Activities of five peptidases controlling RAS were measured fluorometrically: prolyl endopeptidase (which converts angiotensin [A] I and A II to A 1-7), neutral endopeptidase (NEP/CD10: A I to A 1-7), aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13: A III to A IV), aminopeptidase A (A II to A III) and aminopeptidase B (A III to A IV). Angiotensin-converting enzyme (A I to A II), APN/CD13 and NEP/CD10 were also assessed by semiquantitative cytometry and quantitative flow cytometry assays, as were the receptors of all RAS components: A II receptor type 1 (AT1R), A II receptor type 2 (AT2R), A IV receptor (AT4R or insulin-regulated aminopeptidase [IRAP]), (pro)renin receptor (PRR) and A 1-7 receptor or Mas receptor (MasR) None of the enzymes that regulate levels of RAS components, except for APN/CD13 (decrease in fragmented cells), showed significant differences between both groups. Micrographs of RAS receptors revealed no significant differences in immunolabeling patterns between normozoospermic and fragmented cells. Labeling of AT1R (94.3% normozoospermic vs 84.1% fragmented), AT4R (96.2% vs 95.3%) and MasR (97.4% vs 87.2%) was similar between the groups. AT2R (87.4% normozoospermic vs 63.1% fragmented) and PRR (96.4% vs 48.2%) were higher in non-fragmented spermatozoa. These findings suggest that fragmented DNA spermatozoa have a lower capacity to respond to bioactive RAS peptides.

Humans , Male , Angiotensins , DNA Fragmentation , Insulin , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Spermatozoa
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(3): 303-310, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340129


Abstract Introduction: Sickle cell nephropathy begins in childhood and presents early increases in glomerular filtration, which, over the long term, can lead to chronic renal failure. Several diseases have increased circulating and urinary angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, but there is little information about changes in ACEs activity in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Objective: We examined circulating and urinary ACE 1 activity in children with SCD. Methods: This cross-sectional study compared children who were carriers of SCD with children who comprised a control group (CG). Serum and urinary activities of ACE were evaluated, as were biochemical factors, urinary album/creatinine rates, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results: Urinary ACE activity was significantly higher in patients with SCD than in healthy children (median 0.01; range 0.00-0.07 vs median 0.00; range 0.00-0.01 mU/mL·creatinine, p < 0.001. No significant difference in serum ACE activities between the SCD and CG groups was observed (median 32.25; range 16.2-59.3 vs median 40.9; range 18.0-53.4) mU/m`L·creatinine, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our data revealed a high urinary ACE 1 activity, different than plasmatic level, in SCD patients suggesting a dissociation between the intrarenal and systemic RAAS. The increase of urinary ACE 1 activity in SCD patients suggests higher levels of Ang II with a predominance of classical RAAS axis, that can induce kidney damage.

Resumo Introdução: A nefropatia falciforme começa na infância e apresenta aumentos precoces na filtração glomerular, que, em longo prazo, podem levar à insuficiência renal crônica. Várias doenças têm aumentado a atividade da enzima conversora da angiotensina (ECA) urinária e circulante, mas há pouca informação sobre alterações na atividade das ECAs em crianças com doença falciforme (DF). Objetivo: Examinamos a atividade da ECA-1 circulante e urinária em crianças com DF. Métodos: Este estudo transversal comparou crianças que eram portadoras de DF com crianças que compunham um Grupo Controle (GC). As atividades séricas e urinárias da ECA foram avaliadas, assim como os fatores bioquímicos, a relação albumina/creatinina urinária e a taxa de filtração glomerular estimada. Resultados: A atividade urinária da ECA foi significativamente maior em pacientes com DF do que em crianças saudáveis (mediana 0,01; intervalo 0,00-0,07 vs mediana 0,00; intervalo 0,00-0,01 mU/mL·creatinina, p < 0,001. Não foi observada diferença significativa nas atividades séricas da ECA entre os grupos DF e GC (mediana 32,25; intervalo 16,2-59,3 vs mediana 40,9; intervalo 18,0-53,4) mU/mL·creatinina, p < 0,05. Conclusão: Nossos dados revelaram uma alta atividade urinária da ECA-1, diferente do nível plasmático, em pacientes com DF, sugerindo uma dissociação entre o Sistema Renina Angiotensina Aldosterona (SRAA) intra-renal e sistêmico. O aumento da atividade urinária da ECA-1 em pacientes com DF sugere níveis mais elevados de Ang II com predominância do eixo clássico do SRAA, que pode induzir lesão renal.

Humans , Child , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Angiotensins , Cross-Sectional Studies , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200181, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351022


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapid-spread infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can culminate in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) and kallikrein-kinin (KKS) systems imbalance, and in serious consequences for infected patients. This scoping review of published research exploring the RAAS and KKS was undertaken in order to trace the history of the discovery of both systems and their multiple interactions, discuss some aspects of the viral-cell interaction, including inflammation and the system imbalance triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their consequent disorders. Furthermore, we correlate the effects of continued use of the RAAS blockers in chronic diseases therapies with the virulence and physiopathology of COVID-19. We also approach the RAAS and KKS-related proposed potential therapies for treatment of COVID-19. In this way, we reinforce the importance of exploring both systems and the application of their components or their blockers in the treatment of coronavirus disease.(AU)

Virulence , Angiotensins , Kallikreins , Coronavirus , Aldosterone , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation
Science ; 372(6544): 1-7, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1247888


Cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Manaus, Brazil, resurged in late 2020 despite previously high levels of infection. Genome sequencing of viruses sampled in Manaus between November 2020 and January 2021 revealed the emergence and circulation of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern. Lineage P.1 acquired 17 mutations, including a trio in the spike protein (K417T, E484K, and N501Y) associated with increased binding to the human ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor. Molecular clock analysis shows that P.1 emergence occurred around mid-November 2020 and was preceded by a period of faster molecular evolution. Using a two-category dynamical model that integrates genomic and mortality data, we estimate that P.1 may be 1.7- to 2.4-fold more transmissible and that previous (non-P.1) infection provides 54 to 79% of the protection against infection with P.1 that it provides against non-P.1 lineages. Enhanced global genomic surveillance of variants of concern, which may exhibit increased transmissibility and/or immune evasion, is critical to accelerate pandemic responsiveness.

Angiotensins , Genome , Betacoronavirus
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(4): e604, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156461


La insuficiencia cardiaca se define como un síndrome caracterizado por la incapacidad de proveer las necesidades metabólicas del organismo, presentando disnea y fatiga. Hasta ahora, se ha descrito la participación de varias moléculas involucradas en los mecanismos de señalización intracelular que conducen a la insuficiencia cardiaca y estimulan la síntesis de algunas proteínas, como colágeno, la cual induce a una hipertrofia cardiaca(AU)

Heart failure is defined as a syndrome characterized by the inability to meet the metabolic needs of the organism, causing dyspnea and fatigue.Descriptions are available of the involvement of several molecules in cell signaling mechanisms which lead to heart failure and prompt the synthesis of some proteins, such as collagen, inducing cardiac hypertrophy(AU)

Humans , Heart Failure/genetics , Molecular Biology , Angiotensins/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/genetics , Cardiomegaly/complications
Brasília; s.n; 13 jul. 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117641


O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Angiotensins/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Cohort Studies , Iloprost/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(3): 129-131, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289201


SARS-CoV-2, along with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, forms part of the three highly pathogenic coronaviruses identified since the start of the millennium.1,2 While SARS-CoV was identified on 2003 and MERS-CoV on 2012, the initial reports of SARS-CoV-2 (the etiological agent of COVID-19) were first released at the end of December 2019.3,4 Now, after less than four months, the virus has distributed globally and has become the focus of extensive medical research, as the number of cases keeps rising.A significant part of the investigative effort has been directed to the search for an effective therapy or intervention that could stop the spread of the disease or be used to effectively treat infected patients. Likewise, potential predisposing factors to develop a more severe clinical presentation are progressively being identified. Some of the more relevant are older age and the presence of certain comorbidities, such as cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes.5­8 It is important to highlight that the last two are chronic conditions commonly treated with ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers.9­11 However, the evidence suggests that these medications can upregulate the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cellular receptor for both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.11­16 Thus, a group of researchers hypothesized that ACE2-increasing drugs could raise the risk of infection and prompt a more severe clinical course or a fatal outcome in diabetic and hypertensive patients.

Humans , Acute Lung Injury , Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Infections , Angiotensins , Receptors, Angiotensin , Coronary Disease , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(2): 96-105, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042602


RESUMEN: Introducción: La vía clásica del sistema renina-angiotensina (SRA) está activado en pacientes con hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HAP). Previamente, hemos encontrado que en la disfunción ventricular post infarto al miocardio experimental la activación del eje clásico del SRA, dado por la enzima convertidora de angiotensina I (ECA) y angiotensina (Ang ) II se correlaciona negativamente con el eje paralelo del SRA dado por la ECA homóloga (ECA2) y el péptido vasoactivo y cardioprotector Ang-(1-9). Resultados preclínicos muestran la eficacia de la administración de Ang-(1-9) en el tratamiento del remodelamiento cardiovascular patológico. Hasta la fecha no existen antecedentes de los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9) en pacientes con hipertensión arterial pulmonar comparados con sujetos sanos. Objetivo: Determinar los niveles circulantes del péptido vasoactivo y cardiprotector Ang-(1-9) en pacientes con HAP y compararlos con sujetos sanos pareados por edad y sexo. Métodos: Estudio comparativo transversal en pacientes con HAP (grupo I, OMS) con presión de arteria pulmonar media (mPAP) ≥25 mmHg bajo tratamiento con furosemida (40%), espironolactona (53%), Acenocumarol/Warfarina (47%), Bosentan/Ambrisentan (27%), Sildenafil (80%), iloprost (7%) y digoxina (13%). Los sujetos controles correspondieron a sujetos asintomáticos sanos sin enfermedad cardiovascular, cardiopatía estructural ni pulmonar (n=14). En todos los pacientes se determinó mPAP, proBNP, resistencia vascular pulmonar (RVP, WU), presión capilar pulmonar (PCP, mmHg), gasto cardíaco (L/min), capacidad funcional por test de caminata 6 minutos (TC6M), cambio del área fraccional del ventrículo derecho VD (FAC, %). Se utilizó prueba t de Student y programa estadístico SPSS10.0. Un valor de p < 0,05 fue considerado como estadísticamente significativo. Resultados: Los pacientes ingresados al estudio mostraron: etiología de la HAP, idiopática (86,7%), VIH (13,3%), capacidad funcional I (6,2%), II (68,3) y III (25%) y promedio mPAP 51,3±1,9. Pacientes con HAP (grupo I, OMS) versus sujetos sanos mostraron disminución significativa de FAC, actividad plasmática de la ECA2 y niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9). En la vía clásica del RAAS pacientes con HAP mostraron mayor actividad plasmática de ECA y niveles circulantes e Ag II. Correlaciones significativas se encontraron entre niveles de Ang-(1-9) y mPAP (r = -0.701, p < 0,001) y Ang-(1-9) vs FAC (r = 0.549, p < 0,01). Conclusiones: En pacientes con HAP (grupo I, OMS), los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9) están significativamente disminuidos y se asocian inversamente con la PAP, severidad del remodelamiento y disfunción del ventrículo derecho. El uso terapéutico de Ang-(1-9) como agente vasodilatador y cardioprotector podría ser relevante y potencialmente útil, desde una perspectiva clínica, en la HAP. Ang-(1-9) podría reducir la PAP y mejorar el remodelamiento vascular y del ventrículo derecho en la HAP. Por lo tanto, este péptido podría ser útil como blanco terapéutico en la HAP.

ABSTRACTS: Classic renin-angiotensis pathway (RAP) is activated in patients with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). We have previously shown that in patients with post myocardial infarction systolic dysfunction the activation of RAP mediated by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (Ang II) is inversely correlated with the parallel RAP axis mediated by homologous ACE (ACE2) and by the vasoactive and cardioprotective peptide Ang-(1-9). Pre clinical studies show that administration of Ang-(1-9) leads to a favorable ventricular remodelling. At present there is no information regarding levels of Ang-(1-9) in PAH patients compared to healthy subjects. Methods: 16 PAH patients (WHO group 1), with mean PA pressure > 25mmHg being treated with furosemide (40%), Bosentan/Ambrisentan (27%), Sildenafil (80%), iloprost (7%) were compared with healthy subjects (n=14). mPAP, pro BNP, pulmonary vascular resistance (Wu), pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP mmHg), cardiac output (L/min), functional capacity (6 min walking test) (6mWT), and changes in right ventricular fractional area (RV FA), were measured in all subjects. Results: In HAP subjects, the eiotology of PAH was unknown in 87%, or HIV (13%). Functional class was I (6.2 %), II (68.3%) or III (25%). Mean PAP was 51.3±1.9. Compared to healthy subjects, PAH patients had significantly lower RV FA, ACE2 and Ang-(19) levels. Also they had greater ACE plasma activity and AngII circulating levels. Significant correlations were found between Ang-(1-9) and mPAP (-0.701, p < 0,001) and between Ang-(1-9) and RV FA (r = 0.549, p < 0,01). Conclusion: group I PAH subjects, circulating levels of Ang-(1-9) are significantly lower than in healthy subjects and are inversely related to PAP, severity of ventricular remodeling and right ventricular dysfunction. The use of Ang-(1-9) as a vasodilator and cardioprotector agent could be clinically useful in PAH subjects.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Angiotensins/blood , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/blood , Peptides , Cross-Sectional Studies
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(1): 55-60, jan.-fev. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-981607


Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism has been associated with different clinical and echocardiographic parameters in patients with heart failure (HF). However, no studies have been investigated such association with HF caused by Chagas disease. Objectives: To perform a genetic study to evaluate the frequency of ACE polymorphism in patients with HF caused by Chagas disease attending a university hospital in the central-west region and its association with echocardiographic findings. Methods: Descriptive study of ACE polymorphism (I/D) and echocardiographic data of 103 patients with HF caused by Chagas disease. Echocardiographic parameters were compared between the genotypes using the ANOVA test. Results: Genotypic distribution of the ACE polymorphism was 16.5% DD, 57.3% DI and 26.2% II. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of genotypes between men and women. The echocardiographic findings were: left ventricular ejection fraction: 43.8 ± 14.8 (DD) vs. 42.3 ± 11.6 (ID) vs. 44.9 ± 13.0 (II), p = 0.664; left ventricular diastolic diameter: 59.2 ± 9.7 (DD) vs. 60.3 ± 7.6 (ID) vs. 59.7 ± 78.1 (II), p = 0.879; left ventricular systolic diameter: 48.6 ± 12.8 (DD) vs. 50.6 ± 9.7 (ID) vs. 49.3 ± 11.9 (II), p = 0.753; and left atrial volume: 44.9 ± 10.1 (DD) vs. 40.9 ± 9.6 (ID) vs. 38.2 ± 7.8 (II), p = 0.068. Significant correlation coefficients were found for gender, age, ethnicity, heart rate and dyslipidemia. Conclusion: ACE polymorphism was not associated with echocardiographic findings in patients with HF caused by Chagas disease

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Failure , Stroke Volume , Angiotensins , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Ventricular Function, Left , Chagas Disease , Dyslipidemias , Observational Study , Genetics
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 679-686, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762092


PURPOSE: Statins, metformin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been suggested for treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD) due to their pleiotropic effects. Therefore, we investigated whether these drugs prevent AMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Using risk-set sampling of age, sex, cohort entry date, and follow-up duration, we identified incident patients with AMD and 10 matching controls in cohorts with diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. Exposure was assessed within one year before the index date using patient prescription records. We conducted conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between cardiovascular medications and AMD. RESULTS: Our study included 2330 cases and 23278 controls from a cohort of 231274 patients. The ORs (95% CI) for AMD occurrence in users prescribed with statins, metformin, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs were 1.12 (0.94–1.32), 1.15 (0.91–1.45), 0.90 (0.61–1.34), and 1.21 (1.05–1.39), respectively. A duration-response was not observed. CONCLUSION: Statins, metformin, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs did not inhibit AMD in elderly patients. The absence of a duration-response supports the lack of a causal relationship.

Aged , Humans , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Angiotensins , Cardiovascular Diseases , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Follow-Up Studies , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Logistic Models , Macular Degeneration , Metformin , National Health Programs , Odds Ratio , Prescriptions , Receptors, Angiotensin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761495


Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antibodies directly injure endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells by activating transcription factors associated with proinflammatory responses. Previous studies have shown that AT1R antibodies are associated with allograft rejection and decreased graft survival in kidney transplantation. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has facilitated semiquantitative detection of AT1R antibodies. Assessing AT1R antibodies along with donor specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies may have potential to identify patients with possible risk for allograft injury and improve overall outcomes. In this review, we summarize recent clinical studies about AT1R antibodies in kidney transplantation and provide perspectives for future research area.

Humans , Activating Transcription Factors , Allografts , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Antibodies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Graft Survival , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Leukocytes , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Tissue Donors , Transplantation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760188


PURPOSE: Increased apoptosis was recently found in the hypertrophied left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although the available evidence suggests that apoptosis can be induced in cardiac cells by various insults including pressure overload, cardiac apoptosis appears to result from an exaggerated local production of angiotensin in adult SHRs. Altered expressions of Bcl associated X (Bax), Bcl-2, chemokine receptor (CCR)-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (PERK), and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA were investigated to explore the effects of losartan on the SHR model. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male rats were grouped as follows: control (C), SHR (hypertension: H), and losartan (L; SHRs were treated with losartan [10 mg/kg/day] for 5 weeks). Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed. RESULTS: Expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, PERK, and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA was significantly increased in the H group compared to that in the C group at weeks 3 and 5. Expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, and connexin 43 proteins and kallikrein mRNA was significantly decreased after losartan treatment at week 5. PERK protein expression was significantly decreased after losartan treatment at weeks 3 and 5. Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly decreased in the H group compared to that in the C group at weeks 3 and 5. CONCLUSION: Losartan treatment reduced expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, PERK, and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA in SHRs, along with decreased inflammation and apoptosis.

Adult , Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Angiotensins , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Connexin 43 , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Gene Expression , Heart Ventricles , Inflammation , Kallikreins , Losartan , Monocytes , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats, Inbred SHR , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Transforming Growth Factors
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 615-626, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759447


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been suggested to accelerate vascular senescence, however the molecular mechanism(s) remain unknown. METHODS: We cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCSMCs) and treated Ang II and/or fimasartan. Or we transfected adenoviral vectors expressing CYR61 (Ad-CYR61) or antisense CYR61 (Ad-As-CYR61). Cellular senescence was evaluated senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) assay. The molecular mechanisms were investigated real-time PCR and western blots. RESULTS: SA-β-gal-positive cells significantly increased in Ang II-treated hCSMCs (5.77±1.43-fold compared with the control). The effect of Ang II was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, fimasartan (2.00±0.92-fold). The expression of both p53 and p16 senescence regulators was significantly increased by Ang II (p53: 1.39±0.17, p16: 1.19±0.10-fold vs. the control), and inhibited by fimasartan. Cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (CYR61) was rapidly induced by Ang II. Compared with the control, Ad-CYR61-transfected hCSMCs showed significantly increased SA-β-gal-positive cells (3.47±0.65-fold). Upon transfecting Ad-AS-CYR61, Ang II-induced senescence (3.74±0.23-fold) was significantly decreased (1.77±0.60-fold). p53 expression by Ang II was significantly attenuated by Ad-AS-CYR61, whereas p16 expression was not regulated. Ang II activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, which was significantly blocked by fimasartan. ERK and p38 inhibition both regulated Ang II-induced CYR61 expression. However, p53 expression was only regulated by ERK1/2, whereas p16 expression was only attenuated by p38 MAPK. CONCLUSIONS: Ang II induced vascular senescence by the ERK/p38 MAPK–CYR61 pathway and ARB, fimasartan, protected against Ang II-induced vascular senescence.

Humans , Aging , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Cellular Senescence , Coronary Vessels , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1