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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 377-386, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153358

ABSTRACT

Poppiana dentata (Randall, 1840) is widely distributed throughout riverine habitats in Trinidad. However, there is a scarcity of information on the biology of this species. This study provides the first baseline examination that describes growth aspects for P. dentata. Juvenile crabs were obtained from berried females collected in northwest Trinidad. Carapace width (CW), length (CL), moult incident, intermoult period and qualitative aspects were recorded for crabs (N = 23) over 9 months. CW, CL and intermoult period were used to derive percentage size increment, specific growth rate (SGR) and size at structural maturity for both sexes. Growth curves and logistic equations were also generated for each sex. Hatched crabs (< 5 mm CW) underwent rapid hardening after their first moult, indicating a fast turnover of moult cycles. SGR and CW percent increment were also the highest for this initial moult (P < 0.05). CW, CL, intermoult period, size increment and SGR did not differ between sexes (P > 0.05), with logistic equations expressed as CW = 32.81 (1+exp (1.481 ̵ 0.031t))-1 for males and CW = 34.07 (1+exp (1.516 ̵ 0.027t))-1 for females. Yet, breakpoint analyses indicated dissimilar sizes for structural maturity (male: 28.40 mm CW; female: 16.84 mm CW). These patterns reflect a shorter life span for this species in comparison to what has been reported for other trichodactylid relatives. This can have implications for P. dentata populations residing in anthropogenically disturbed habitats; thus, highlighting the need for conservation strategies to ensure preservation of native wild stock.


O Poppiana dentata (Randall, 1840) está amplamente distribuído nos habitats fluviais de Trinidad. Existem, porém, poucas informações sobre a biologia dessa espécie. Este estudo fornece a primeira análise de referência que descreve aspectos do crescimento do P. dentata. Caranguejos jovens foram obtidos a partir de fêmeas em desova na região noroeste de Trinidad. A largura da carapaça (LC), o comprimento da carapaça (CC), a incidência de muda, o período de intermuda e aspectos qualitativos foram registrados para caranguejos (N = 23) ao longo de mais de nove meses. A LC, o CC e o período de intermuda foram utilizados para obter o aumento porcentual, a taxa específica de crescimento (TEC), e o tamanho na maturidade estrutural para os dois sexos. Curvas de crescimento e equações logísticas foram também geradas para cada sexo. Os caranguejos que nasceram (com largura de carapaça < 5 mm) apresentaram um endurecimento rápido depois de sua primeira muda, o que indica uma rápida rotação dos ciclos de muda. A TEC e o aumento da porcentual da LC foram também os mais altos para esta muda inicial (P < 0,05). Não houve variação da LC, CC, do período de intermuda, aumento do tamanho e da TEC entre os sexos (P > 0,05), e as equações logísticas foram expressas como: LC = 32,81 (1+exp (1,481 ̵ 0,031t))-1 para machos, e LC = 34,07 (1+exp (1,516 ̵ 0,027t))-1 para fêmeas. Porém, as análises de quebra indicaram tamanhos diferentes para maturidade estrutural (LC para macho: 28,40; para fêmea: 16,84 mm). Esses padrões refletem um período de vida mais curto para esta espécie em comparação com o que tem sido registrado para outras famílias de Trichodactylidae. Isso pode ter implicações para as populações de P. dentata que residem em habitats modificados antropogenicamente; destaca-se, assim, a necessidade de estratégias de conservação para assegurar a preservação das populações selvagens nativas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Brachyura/anatomy & histology , Brachyura/growth & development , Trinidad and Tobago , Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Animal Experimentation , Fresh Water
2.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 28(4): 674-682, out.-dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155748

ABSTRACT

Resumo A utilização de animais não humanos como ferramenta de pesquisa biomédica e em testes da indústria para consumo humano foi incorporada às práticas científicas e assimilada como fundamental. A revisão sistemática dos resultados de protocolos de fases pré-clínicas não é prática corrente, mas metanálises recentes questionam a capacidade de projeção desses dados para a espécie humana. Atualmente, junto com o questionamento científico há abrangente discussão ética sobre os conflitos inerentes à instrumentalização da vida do animal não humano, cujo ápice é alcançado na criação de animais transgênicos. O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a aplicação do conceito de vulnerabilidade ao animal não humano no contexto da experimentação e pensar as relações de poder implícitas nessas práticas. Como aplicação prática da teoria exposta, propõe-se implantar e desenvolver técnicas substitutivas ao modelo animal, que conjuguem ética e inovação.


Abstract The use of non-human animals has been incorporated into scientific practices as an essential biomedical research tool and in industry tests for human consumption. The systematic review of protocol results of preclinical phases is not a common practice, but recent meta-analyses question the projection accuracy of these data for humans. Currently, along with scientific questioning, there is a comprehensive ethical discussion about the conflicts in the instrumentalization of non-human life, which reached its peak with the creation of transgenic animals. This article discusses the application of the concept of vulnerability to non-human animals in experiments and reflects on the implicit power relations of these practices. We propose to implement and develop alternative techniques to the animal model, combining ethics and innovation.


Resumen El uso de animales no humanos como herramienta para la investigación biomédica y en pruebas de la industria para el consumo humano se ha incorporado a las prácticas científicas y se ha asimilado como fundamental. La revisión sistemática de los resultados de protocolos de fases preclínicas no es una práctica corriente, pero metaanálisis recientes cuestionan la capacidad proyección de estos datos a la especie humana. Actualmente, junto con el cuestionamiento científico, hay una discusión ética sobre los conflictos inherentes a la instrumentalización de la vida del animal no humano, que alcanza su ápice en la creación de animales transgénicos. Este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir la aplicación del concepto de vulnerabilidad al animal no humano en el contexto de la experimentación y proponer una reflexión sobre las relaciones de poder implícitas en estas prácticas. Como una aplicación práctica de la teoría expuesta, se propone implantar y desarrollar técnicas alternativas al modelo animal, que conjuguen ética e innovación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vulnerability Study , Models, Animal , Animal Experimentation , Biomedical Research , Ethics, Research
3.
Av. enferm ; 38(3): 325-334, 01 Sep. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1141277

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar o efeito do extrato das folhas da Passiflora edulis na cicatrização da pele em ratos, especificamente na área da lesão e na proliferação de fibroblastos. Materiais e método: estudo experimental realizado com 54 ratos da linhagem Wistar, machos, adultos, divididos igualmente em três grupos. A indução das lesões em formato circular na região dorso-cervical foi realizada com o auxílio de um punch trepano de 8 mm. As lesões do grupo de controle foram higienizadas diariamente com água filtrada e sabonete vegetal glicerinado de pH neutro. Os outros dois grupos, além da higienização diária, receberam tratamento com creme contendo extrato a 20 % das folhas da Passiflora edulis, e creme base sem extrato a 20 % das folhas da Passiflora edulis, respectivamente. No 1o, 4o, 7o e 14o dia de tratamento foram obtidas imagens para cálculo da área de lesão. No 4o, 7o e 14o dia de tratamento foram coletados espécimes para análises histológicas. Resultados: não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos experimentais com relação à comparação de médias da área de lesão e de proliferação de fibroblastos. Conclusões: o uso tópico do extrato a 20 % das folhas da Passiflora edulis não apresentou efeito na área de lesão e na proliferação de fibroblastos na cicatrização da pele em ratos.


Objetivo: evaluar el efecto del extracto de hoja de Passiflora edulis en la curación de la piel en ratas, específicamente el área de la lesión y de la proliferación de fibroblastos. Materiales y método: estudio experimental con 54 ratas Wistar macho adultas, divididas por igual en tres grupos. La inducción de lesiones de forma circular en la región dorsocervical se realizó con la ayuda de un punzón de 8 mm. Las lesiones del grupo de control se limpiaron diariamente con agua filtrada y jabón vegetal glicerinado con pH neutro. Los otros dos grupos, además de la limpieza diaria, recibieron tratamiento con crema que contenía extracto al 20 % de las hojas de Passiflora edulis, y crema base sin extracto al 20 % de las hojas de Passiflora edulis, respectivamente. Los días 1, 4, 7 y 14 de tratamiento, se obtuvieron imágenes para calcular el área de la lesión. Los días 4, 7 y 14 de tratamiento, se recolectaron muestras para análisis histológicos. Resultados: no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos experimentales con respecto a la comparación de las medias del área de la lesión y la proliferación de fibroblastos. Conclusiones: el uso tópico del extracto al 20 % de las hojas de Passiflora edulis no tuvo efecto en el área de la lesión y de la proliferación de fibroblastos en la curación de la piel en ratas.


Objective: To evaluate the effect of Passiflora edulis leaf extract on skin healing in rats, specially the lesion area and on fibroblast proliferation. Materials and method: Experimental study with 54 male adult Wistar rats equally divided into three groups. The induction of circular-shaped lesions in the dorso cervical region was performed with the aid of an 8 mm climbing punch. Control group lesions were daily cleaned with filtered water and neutral pH glycerinated vegetable soap. The other two groups, in addition to daily cleansing, received treatment with cream containing 20 % extract of Passiflora edulis leaves and base cream without this extract, respectively. On day 1, 4, 7 and 14 of treatment, images were obtained to calculate the lesion area. On day 4, 7 and 14 of treatment, specimens were collected for histological analysis. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the experimental groups regarding the comparison of means of lesion area and fibroblast proliferation. Conclusion: Topical use of the 20 % extract of Passiflora edulis leaves had no effect on the affected area and the proliferation of fibroblasts on skin healing in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Wound Healing , Nursing , Passiflora , Animal Experimentation
4.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 71(3): 265-274, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144389

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: se ha recomendado a los profesionales que tengan como proyecto realizar trasplante uterino, hacer previamente trabajos experimentales en animales. Este trabajo describe el procedimiento del trasplante uterino en ovejas y los resultados a corto y mediano plazo. Materiales y métodos: estudio de cirugía experimental en ovejas sometidas a explante y trasplante uterino. A cuatro ovejas de 40-50 kg de peso les fue trasplantado el útero (ortotópico) de cuatro ovejas vivas donantes. Se utilizó técnica de anastomosis vascular término-lateral, la vagina se suturó en un plano y el útero se fijó a la pared pélvica. Se describen las complicaciones y la evolución a 180 días Resultados: se realizó la cirugía de trasplante en las cuatro ovejas. El tiempo quirúrgico fue de 240 minutos (min) en el primer procedimiento y de 185 min en el último, y el tiempo de isquemia caliente se redujo de 42 a 22 min. Una oveja murió al séptimo día posoperatorio por una complicación intraoperatoria ajena a las anastomosis vasculares. Otra oveja que fue trasplantada desarrolló infección-local vaginal manejada con metronidazol, con evolución satisfactoria. Las tres ovejas no habían presentado rechazo al trasplante a los 6 meses. Conclusiones: el modelo ovino permite entrenamiento quirúrgico en cirugía experimental de trasplante uterino. Para los autores constituyó adquisición de conocimiento y avanzar hacia la realización futura del trasplante uterino en mujeres con Infertilidad absoluta por factor uterino en Colombia.


ABSTRACT Objective: It has been recommended that professionals who are planning to perform uterine transplantation should first carry out animal experiments. This paper describes the procedure for uterine transplant in sheep, as well as short and medium-term results. Materials and methods: Experimental surgery study in sheep subjected to uterine explantation and transplant. Four 40-50 kg sheep received uteri transplantation (orthotopic) from four live donors. End-to-side vascular anastomosis was used, the vagina was sutured on one plane and the uterus was fixed to the pelvic wall. Complications and 180-day evolution are described. Results: Transplant surgery was accomplished in the 4 sheep. Surgical time in the first procedure was 240 minutes, while the last procedure lasted 185 minutes. Warm ischemia time was reduced from 42 to 22 minutes. One sheep died on the seventh postoperative day due to an intraoperative complication unrelated to the vascular anastomosis. A second sheep developed local vaginal infection treated with metronidazole and evolved satisfactorily. No transplant rejection had occurred in the remaining 3 sheep after 6 months. Conclusions: The ovine model allowed surgical training in experimental uterine transplant surgery. For the authors, it offered an opportunity to gain knowledge and make progress towards future uterus transplantation in women with uterine factor infertility in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Uterus , Transplants , Sheep , Animal Experimentation , Infertility, Female
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 311-317, set 24, 2020. fig, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358279

ABSTRACT

Introdução: fraturas ósseas extensas representam grande causa de morbidade e geram custos para o serviço de saúde. A vibração de baixa magnitude e alta frequência foi proposta como um tratamento alternativo para aumentar a massa óssea. Objetivo: Avaliar histomorfologicamente o reparo inicial de defeitos ósseos críticos após aplicação de ondas mecânicas vibratórias Metodologia: foram utilizados 10 Rattus norvegicus. Confeccionou-se defeitos críticos de 8,5 mm de diâmetro na calvária dos ratos. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo Controle de Defeito Ósseo (GCDO) e Grupo Experimental de Vibração Imediata (GEVI). Animais do GEVI foram submetidos a ondas vibratórias de 60 Hz e aceleração vertical de 0,3 g; elas foram aplicadas três vezes/ semana, durante vinte minutos. Após quinze dias do ato operatório, os animais foram eutanasiados para a mensuração da extensão do defeito. Considerando que estes defeitos tinham o mesmo diâmetro inicial, admitiu-se como indicador indireto de deposição osteóide, a redução da extensão linear final dos mesmos. Resultados: observou-se neoformação de matriz osteoide, restrita às bordas ósseas, em ambos os grupos. A média de extensão linear, em milímetros, do defeito ósseo do GEVI foi de 5,83 (DP=0,79) e no GCDO, foi de 6,62 (DP= 0,63). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as médias (U=8,00, z=-1,604, p=0,132). Conclusão: evidenciou-se resposta osteogênica a partir da utilização da terapêutica vibratória, contudo de forma estatisticamente não-significante. Deste modo, o presente estudo demonstrou que a utilização das ondas vibratórias não favoreceu um reparo ósseo estatisticamente significante, no período e regime vibratório estudados.


Introduction: extensive bone fractures represent a major cause of morbidity and generate costs for the health service. Vibration of low magnitude and high frequency has been proposed as an alternative treatment to increase bone mass. Objective: to evaluate histomorphologically the initial repair of critical bone defects after application of vibrating mechanical waves. Methodology: 10 Rattus norvegicus were used. Critical defects of 8.5 mm in diameter were made in the calvaria of the rats. The animals were divided into two groups: Bone Defect Control Group (GCDO) and Experimental Immediate Vibration Group (GEVI). GEVI animals were submitted to 60 Hz vibrating waves and 0.3 g vertical acceleration; they were applied three times/week, for twenty minutes. Fifteen days after the surgery, the animals were euthanized to measure the extent of the defect. Considering that these defects had the same initial diameter, a reduction in their final linear extension was admitted as an indirect indicator of osteoid deposition. Results: neoformation of an osteoid matrix, restricted to bone borders, was observed in both groups. The mean linear extension, in millimeters, of the GEVI bone defect was 5.83 (SD = 0.79) and in the GCDO, it was 6.62 (SD = 0.63). There was no statistically significant difference between the means (U = 8.00, z = -1.604, p = 0.132). Conclusion: an osteogenic response was evidenced from the use of vibratory therapy, however in a statistically non-significant way. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the use of vibrating waves did not favor a statistically significant bone repair, during the studied period and vibration regime


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteogenesis , Rats , Vibration , Bone Regeneration , Rats, Wistar , Fractures, Bone , Animal Experimentation
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101293

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze data obtained from animal and human studies using stem cells. Material and Methods: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Information Sciences Institute (ISI), as well as Google Scholar were utilized and searched as available electronic databases to perform a systematic literature review of articles published between 2010 and 2019. The Endnote X9 for Windows was also employed to manage electronic titles and abstracts of the selected studies. Searches were conducted using keywords of "pulpal OR pulpal tissue OR pulpal vitality", "regeneration", "apical healing", "stem cells OR progenitor cells", and "mediated pulpal tissue". Consequently, 189 titles and abstracts endowed with potential relevance were discovered based on searches into manual and electronic sources. Ultimately, a total of six articles met the inclusion criteria in the present systematic review and meta-analysis. Results: Out of the six articles identified and selected, five studies were categorized as animal experiments and one article was nominated as a human clinical trial. The greatest bias risks were accordingly observed in the majority of animal examinations, but articles related to humans revealed decreased risks of bias, while the human clinical trial showed some concerns. Conclusion: Promising parameters testing functional pulp regeneration could be represented through stem cell transplants.


Subject(s)
Stem Cells , Bone Regeneration , Dental Pulp , Endodontics , Systematic Reviews as Topic , China/epidemiology , Animal Experimentation
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5451, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133776

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Specific legislation regulating the use of animals in research in Brazil was introduced in 2008. However, the viewpoint of the Brazilian population regarding the use of animals in research and teaching activities remains largely unknown. Investigation of the public viewpoint on and understanding of the topic is required given the current shifts in the animal ethics scenario in Brazil. The objective of this study was to provide the first insight into the Brazilian population viewpoint on the use of animals in scientific research and teaching activities. Methods: Data collected in a survey involving 2,115 individuals aged 16 years or older and residing in 130 municipalities distributed across the five Brazilian macroregions (North, Northeast, South, Southeast, and Midwest) were analyzed. The margin of error for entire sample was set at 2%, with a 95% confidence interval. Results: This survey revealed that most Brazilian citizens are in favor of the use animals in research, particularly for medical purposes. Different views depending on the nature of research were identified. Approximately 80% of respondents were also in favor of frequent oversight of laboratories and animal facilities. Conclusion: Survey findings indicate that the opinion of the Brazilian population is divided when it comes to the use of animals in scientific research and teaching. Divided opinions expose a limited understanding of the importance of basic sciences and emphasizes the need for improved communication between the scientific community and the general population. Further strategies aimed to promote animal welfare are discussed.


RESUMO Objetivo: A legislação específica que regula o uso de animais em pesquisa no Brasil foi introduzida em 2008. No entanto, a opinião da população brasileira sobre o uso de animais em atividades de pesquisa e ensino ainda é desconhecida. No atual cenário brasileiro em mudança com relação à ética animal, é necessário avaliar as visões e o conhecimento da população sobre o assunto. O objetivo deste destudo foi realizar o primeiro levantamento da opinião da população brasileira sobre o uso de animais em atividades de ensino e pesquisa científica. Métodos: Analisamos os resultados de uma pesquisa com 2.115 indivíduos com 16 anos ou mais de 130 municípios das cinco macrorregiões brasileiras (Norte, Nordeste, Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste). A margem de erro para toda a amostra foi de 2% dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Resultados: A pesquisa revelou que a maioria da população brasileira era favorável ao uso de animais em pesquisas, principalmente para fins médicos. Diferentes pontos de vista, dependendo da natureza da pesquisa, também foram identificados. Além disso, aproximadamente 80% dos entrevistados eram favoráveis ao monitoramento frequente de laboratórios e instalações de animais. Conclusão: A opinião da população brasileira está dividida com relação ao uso de animais em pesquisa e ensino científicos. Essa divisão expõe um entendimento limitado da importância das ciências básicas e destaca a necessidade de uma melhor comunicação entre a comunidade científica e a população em geral. Outras ações para alcançar as melhorias desejadas no bem-estar animal são discutidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Public Opinion , Animal Experimentation , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cities
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(4): 418-427, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056478

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Tooth eruption requires resorption of the alveolar bone interposed between the tooth germ and the oral mucosa (coronal bone). The cells responsible for bone resorption are the osteoclasts and their activity can be reduced or inactivated by estrogen hormone. We aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen on the process of tooth eruption in rats. Thirty-three Wistar rats, aged two-to-17-days, were divided into control, sham and estrogen-treated groups. After daily injections with estrogen, the animals were euthanized and the jaws removed and processed for histological analysis. We performed clinical examination, morphological analysis, quantification of the number of osteoclasts on the surface of the coronal bone and immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen receptor type alpha (ERα). Estrogen therapy was effective, which could be confirmed by the higher estrogen plasma levels on treated animals. However, it had no effect on tooth development or tooth eruption. Progressive bone resorption was observed and the number of osteoclasts on coronal bone was not affected on hormoneinjected animals, allowing tooth to erupt at the same time observed in untreated animals. Immunohistochemistry for ERα confirmed the presence of this type of receptor in osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. Taken together, our results showed that estrogen stimulation was not sufficient to decrease the number of osteoclasts on the coronal bone, supporting the idea that, although estrogen may have a protective activity on bone resorption, this may not apply to the alveolar bone that is meant to be resorbed during eruptive process.


RESUMEN: La erupción dental requiere la resorción del hueso alveolar interpuesto entre el germen dental y la mucosa oral (hueso coronal). Las células responsables de la resorción ósea son los osteoclastos y su actividad puede reducirse o inactivarse por la hormona del estrógeno. Objetivos: apuntamos a investigar los efectos del estrógeno en el proceso de la erupción dental en ratas. Treinta y tres ratas Wistar, de dos a 17 días de edad, se dividieron en grupos de control, Sham y se trataron con estrógenos. Los animales fueron eutanizados después del tratamento con estrógeno y se procesaron las mandíbulas para el análisis histológico. Se realizó el examen clínico, el análisis morfológico, la cuantificación del número de osteoclastos en la superficie del hueso coronal y el análisis inmunohistoquímico del tipo de receptor de estrógeno alfa (ERα). La terapia de estrógeno fue eficaz, lo que podría ser confirmado por los niveles plasmáticos más altos de estrógeno en los animales tratados. Sin embargo, no se observó ningún efecto sobre el desarrollo de los dientes o la erupción dental. Se observó una resorción ósea progresiva y el número de osteoclastos en el hueso coronal no se vio afectado en los animales inyectados con hormonas, permitiendo que el diente erupcionó durante el mismo período de tiempo observado en animales no tratados. La inmunohistoquímica para el ERα confirmó la presencia de este tipo de receptor en los osteoclastos, osteoblastos y osteocitos. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la estimulación del estrógeno no fue suficiente para reducir el número de osteoclastos en el hueso coronal confirmando que, si bien el estrógeno puede tener una actividad protectora en la resorción ósea, esto puede no se aplica al hueso alveolar que está destinado a ser rerecurrido durante el proceso eruptivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Tooth Eruption/physiology , Bone Resorption/physiopathology , Receptors, Estrogen , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Animal Experimentation , Osteoclasts , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Statistical Analysis , Ethics Committees , Rats, Wistar , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estrogens/administration & dosage , Estrogens/adverse effects , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Alveolar Process/physiology
9.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03487, Jan.-Dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1020392

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da Justicia acuminatissima , Sara Tudo do Amazonas, na função renal, na hemodinâmica renal, no perfil oxidativo e na histologia renal em ratos com injúria renal aguda isquêmica. Método Ensaio pré-clínico com ratos Wistar, adultos, machos (250-350 g), distribuídos nos grupos Sham, Isquemia e Isquemia + Sara Tudo. Foram avaliados os parâmetros hemodinâmicos, a função renal, o estresse oxidativo e a histologia renal. Resultados O pré-tratamento com o Sara Tudo atenuou a lesão funcional, o que foi evidenciado pelo aumento no clearance de creatinina, redução dos marcadores oxidativos e elevação de tióis, pela melhora significativa do fluxo sanguíneo renal, diminuição da resistência vascular renal e redução da lesão tubulointersticial no tecido renal. Conclusão A renoproteção da Justicia acuminatissima , Sara Tudo, na injúria renal aguda isquêmica, caracterizou-se por melhora significativa da função renal, reduzindo a lesão oxidativa, com impacto positivo na histologia renal.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de la planta Justicia acuminatissima , "Sana Todo del Amazonas", en la función renal, la hemodinámica renal, el perfil oxidativo y la histología renal en ratones con injuria renal aguda isquémica. Método Ensayo pre clínico con ratones Wistar, adultos, machos (250-350 g), distribuidos en los grupos Sham, Isquemia e Isquemia + Sana Todo. Fueron evaluados los parámetros hemodinámicos, la función renal, el estrés oxidativo y la histología renal. Resultados El pre tratamiento con el Sana Todo atenuó la lesión funcional, lo que fue evidenciado por el aumento en el aclaramiento de creatinina, reducción de los marcadores oxidativos y elevación de tioles, por la mejora significativa del flujo sanguíneo renal, disminución de la resistencia vascular renal y reducción de la lesión tubulointersticial en el tejido renal. Conclusión La renoprotección de la Justicia acuminatissima , "Sana Todo del Amazonas", en la injuria renal aguda isquémica se caracterizó por mejora significativa de la función renal, reduciendo la lesión oxidativa, con impacto positivo en la histología renal.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effects of Justicia acuminatissima , or Amazonian Sara Tudo , on renal hemodynamics, oxidative profile, and renal histology in rats with ischemic acute kidney injury. Method Preclinical assay with adult male Wistar rats, weighing from 250 g to 350 g, distributed into Sham, ischemia, and ischemia + Sara Tudo groups. Hemodynamic parameters, renal function, oxidative stress, and renal histology were evaluated. Results Pretreatment with Sara Tudo reduced the functional injury, which was shown by the increase in creatinine clearance and thiols; reduction of oxidative markers, renal vascular resistance, and tubulointerstitial injury in the renal tissue; and the significant improvement in renal blood flow. Conclusion The renoprotection provided by Justicia acuminatissima , or Sara Tudo , in cases of ischemic acute kidney injury was characterized by a marked improvement in renal function, reducing the oxidative injury, and impacting on renal histology positively.


Subject(s)
Rats , Reperfusion , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Acute Kidney Injury , Complementary Therapies , Rats, Wistar , Animal Experimentation
10.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(8): 469-476, sept 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1023268

ABSTRACT

In rats with experimentally formed arterial hypertension, lipid perxidation in the plasma, amplification of blood chotting mechanisms with a decrease in anticoagulation and fibrinolysis was noted. Regular forced jogging provided the experimental rats with a positive dynamic of all the indicators considered. Thus, with increased muscular activity, the level of acyl hydro-peroxides of plasma decreased in rats with arterial hypertension formed due to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity. In addition, with the increase in muscle activity in experimental rats, normalization of clotting factor activity, indices of general coagulation tests, antithrobin III activity and protein C was achieved. This was accompanied by a normalization of the level of plasminogen, a2-antiplasmin and spontaneous euglobulin lysis time. In rats with formed arterial hipertension with stgandard physical activity, the initial violations of the measured parameters were completely preserved (AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Blood Coagulation , Animal Experimentation , Hemostasis , Homeostasis/physiology , Hypertension , Motor Activity
11.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 549-565, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041978

ABSTRACT

Resumo As diretrizes para usar animais como modelos experimentais transpuseram o campo bioético e chegaram ao âmbito jurídico. Se por um lado isso favoreceu a normatização de parâmetros físicos e biológicos voltados ao bem-estar animal, por outro, acrescentou demandas burocráticas que ocuparam a reflexão anteriormente destinada à resolução de conflitos éticos. Este estudo quantitativo objetivou analisar a opinião de membros, coordenadores e colaboradores brasileiros das comissões de ética no uso de animais sobre o funcionamento desses dispositivos legais. Os 114 participantes demonstraram aderir à legislação; contudo, apontaram aumento de conflitos potencialmente solucionáveis na esfera bioética. Embora importante para o bom funcionamento das comissões, a bioética foi definida como deficitária, precisando retomar seu papel norteador nas deliberações. Essa conclusão indica a necessidade de incorporar membros com formação em bioética, além de investir na capacitação frequente do colegiado e dos pesquisadores envolvidos em experimentação animal. Aprovação CEP-PUCPR 1.800.651


Abstract Guidelines for the use of animals as experimental models transposed bioethics area focusing on the legal area, wich brought the benefit of standardization of physical and biological parameters, focused on animal welfare, but added bureaucratic and legal demands that occupied a reflection and discussion previously aimed at resolving ethical conflicts. This quantitative study aimed to characterize the opinion of members, coordinators and collaborators of ethics committees on how the use of Brazilian animals relates to those committees functioning. The 114 participants demonstrated adherence to the legislation but they pointed to an increase in potentially solving conflicts in the sphere of Bioethics. Although Bioethics has been identified as important for the proper functioning of committees, it has been defined in an unsatisfactory manner, evidencing the need to resume its role of guiding deliberations. This conclusion indicates the need to incorporate members with training in bioethics, invest in the frequent training of the collegiate and researchers involved in animal experimentation. Aprovação CEP-PUCPR 1.800.651


Resumen Las directrices para el uso de animales como modelos experimentales instrumentaron la orientación bioética incidiendo en el área legal, lo que trajo el beneficio de la normalización de parámetros físicos y biológicos, dirigidos al bienestar animal, pero incrementó las demandas burocráticas y legales que ocuparon la reflexión y discusión anteriormente destinadas a la resolución de conflictos éticos. Este estudio cuantitativo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la opinión de miembros, coordinadores y colaboradores de las comisiones de ética en el uso de animales de Brasil sobre su funcionamiento. Los 114 participantes mostraron adhesión a la legislación, no obstante, señalaron un aumento de conflictos potencialmente solucionables en la esfera de la bioética. Aunque la bioética haya sido identificada como importante para el buen funcionamiento de las comisiones, fue definida de manera deficitaria, evidenciando la necesidad de retomar su papel de orientadora de las deliberaciones. Esta conclusión indica la necesidad de incorporar miembros con formación en bioética, invertir en la capacitación frecuente del colegiado y de los investigadores involucrados en la experimentación animal. Aprovação CEP-PUCPR 1.800.651


Subject(s)
Ethics Committees , Deliberations , Animal Experimentation
12.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 542-548, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041991

ABSTRACT

Resumo O uso de animais para fins didáticos e de pesquisa requer cuidados específicos. Atualmente, vigora no Brasil a Lei 11.794/2008, que rege parâmetros legais de manejo e conduta neste caso. Esta lei foi acompanhada da instalação ou adequação de comissões de ética em instituições que utilizam animais para ensino e investigação, bem como da criação do Conselho Nacional de Controle de Experimentação Animal. No entanto, apesar dos avanços, especialmente na legislação, ainda não foi consolidada nenhuma grande mudança de comportamento de pesquisadores e alunos de graduação que manuseiam animais em laboratório. A divulgação de informações deixa a desejar, e a prática acaba por repercutir a carência de reflexão ética. Este artigo busca averiguar o atual conhecimento bioético de alunos de graduação e professores com o objetivo de estimular mudanças de conduta. Aprovado CEP-Unioeste CAAE 8563417.8.0000.0107


Abstract Used for education and research, laboratory animals require special care on their handling. Brazilian Law 11,794/2008 establishes the legal parameters for animal manipulation and welfare. It was accompanied by the obligatory installation of the Institutional Ethics Committees on the Use of Animals and the creation of the National Council for Animal Experimentation Control. There have been advances in the field of animal bioethics legislation. However, considering the behavior of those who handle the animals in laboratory environment, especially undergraduate students, these advances are insufficient: the information does not reach them and their attitudes remain in need of ethical reflection. This article seeks to investigate the current bioethical knowledge of undergraduate students and teachers in order to stimulate changes in conduct. Aprovado CEP-Unioeste CAAE: 78563417.8.0000.0107


Resumen El uso de animales con fines didácticos y de investigación requiere cuidados específicos. Actualmente, rige en Brasil la Ley 11.794/2008 que regula los parámetros legales de manejo y conducta en estos casos. Esta ley estuvo acompañada de la instalación o adecuación de comisiones de ética en instituciones que utilizan animales para enseñanza e investigación, así como de la creación del Consejo Nacional de Control de Experimentación Animal. No obstante, a pesar de los avances, especialmente en la legislación, aún no se ha consolidado ninguna gran transformación en el comportamiento de los investigadores y alumnos que manipulan animales en el laboratorio. La divulgación de informaciones es insuficiente, y la práctica acaba reflejando la falta de reflexión ética. Este artículo procura identificar el conocimiento bioético actual de los alumnos de grado y de los profesores, con el objetivo de estimular cambios en la conducta. Aprovado CEP-Unioeste CAAE: 78563417.8.0000.0107


Subject(s)
Bioethics , Animal Experimentation , Ethics , Animal Use Alternatives , Animal Care Committees , Animals, Laboratory
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(8): 590-593, Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019470

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), considered the father of modern neurology, had a particular interest in pathology and learned to value anatomical findings. Among his main contributions is the use of the anatomo-clinical method in neurology. Although described as cold and impatient in his interpersonal relations, Charcot had a great affection for animals. He had two dogs in his home, which he called Carlo and Sigurd, and a little monkey, Rosalie. Despite his fascination with neuropathology and anatomo-clinical correlations, Charcot disapproved of studies using animal species other than humans, a seemingly paradoxical attitude. As a result, Charcot's human studies resulted in important advances in neurology as, prior to his research, anatomical observations of animals were extrapolated to humans, leading to conceptual errors.


RESUMO Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), considerado o pai da neurologia moderna, teve sua formação direcionada para a patologia, aprendendo a valorizar achados anatômicos. Entre as principais contribuições de Charcot está o uso do método anatomoclínico aplicado à neurologia. Descrito como frio e impaciente em suas relações interpessoais, Charcot mostrava, no entanto, um grande afeto pelos animais. Ele tinha dois cachorros em sua residência, a quem chamou de Carlo e Sigurd, e uma pequena macaca, Rosalie. Apesar de sua fascinação com a neuropatologia e as correlações anatomoclínicas, Charcot foi contra estudos com outras espécies de animais que não humanos, o que pode parecer um paradoxo. Entretanto, seus estudos trouxeram avanços importantes para a Neurologia, uma vez que, antes de suas descobertas, as observações anatômicas dos animais eram extrapoladas para os humanos, levando a erros conceituais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , History, 19th Century , Animal Experimentation/history , Neurology/history , Neuroanatomy/history
14.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(2): 17-32, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010037

ABSTRACT

Os derivados canabinoides podem ser vistos como novos potenciais terapêuticos para o tratamento da doença de Parkinson e Alzheimer. Assim, esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever os efeitos terapêuticos e adversos do uso de canabidiol e de delta-9-tetrahidrocanabinol nas doenças de Parkinson e de Alzheimer. Para tanto, foi realizada uma busca na base de dados Medline no período entre 2007 e 2017. Os descritores utilizados foram (Tetrahydrocannabinol OR Cannabidiol) AND (Parkinson OR Alzheimer) AND (Treatment OR Therapeutics). Os resultados mostraram efeitos terapêuticos promissores do canabidiol e do delta-9-tetrahidrocanabinol nestas doenças, tais como redução de sintomas motores e cognitivos, e ação neuroprotetora. Estes resultados podem ser explicados, em parte, pelos efeitos antioxidante, antiinflamatório, antagonista de receptores CB1, ou pela ativação de receptores PPAR-gama produzido por estas substâncias. Além disso, poucos efeitos adversos foram descritos, como boca seca e sonolência. Nesse contexto, estes resultados evidenciam a necessidade de novas pesquisas a respeito dos efeitos terapêuticos e adversos de canabinoides com maiores doses e períodos de exposição, para quem sabe, em um futuro próximo, ser possível olhar estas substâncias como uma opção terapêutica mais eficaz e segura para estes pacientes.


Cannabinoid derivatives can be viewed as a novel therapeutic potentials for the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, this review aimed to describe the therapeutic and adverse effects of the use of cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. A search of the Medline database was carried out between 2007 and 2017. The descriptors used were (Tetrahydrocannabinol OR Cannabidiol) AND (Parkinson OR Alzheimer) AND (Treatment OR Therapy). The results showed promising therapeutic effects of cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Parkinson and Alzheimer's diseases, such as the reduction of motor and cognitive symptoms and neuroprotective action. These results may be explained, in part, by the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, by CB1 receptor antagonism, or by the activation of PPAR-gamma receptors, produced by these substances. In addition, few adverse effects have been reported, such as dry mouth and drowsiness. In this context, these results highlight the need for further research on the therapeutic and adverse effects of cannabinoids with higher doses and periods of exposure, for whom, in the near future, it is possible to view these substances as a more effective and safe therapeutic option for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aged , Rats , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/administration & dosage , Cannabinoids/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Animal Experimentation
15.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(2): 162-171, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002300

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Evaluar el proceso de reparación alveolar en ratas sometidas a cirugía de simulacro u ovariectomizadas tras el relleno alveolar con coágulo o con biosilicato cristalino. Sesenta ratas Wistar fueron divididas en cuatro grupos (n=15) de acuerdo con el tratamiento: Grupo 1- ratas sometidas a cirugía de simulacro con alveolos rellenados con coágulo; Grupo 2- ratas sometidas a cirugía de simulacro con alveolos rellenados con biosilicato cristalino; Grupo 3- ratas ovariectomizadas con alveolos rellenados con coágulo; Grupo 4- ratas ovariectomizadas con alveolos rellenados con biosilicato cristalino. Después de 7, 14 y 28 días, los animales fueron sacrificados, se tomaron muestras óseas que fueron teñidas con hematoxilina-eosina y analizadas al microscopio para realizar un análisis histomorfométricos. Los mayores porcentajes de formación de hueso se presentaron en los grupos 1 (32 % a los 7 días, 46 % a los 14 días y 83.5 % a los 28 días) y 4 (27,1 % a los 7 días, 41,1 % a los 14 días y 79,7 % a los 28 días). En los alveolos rellenados con coágulo, las ratas sometidas a cirugía de simulacro mostraron los mejores resultados, mientras que, en los alveolos rellenados con biosilicato, las ratas ovariectomizadas tenían porcentajes significativamente mayores. En este estudio, el biosilicato cristalino se comportó como un biomaterial adecuado para la reparación ósea, favoreciendo la osteoconducción.


ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the process of alveolar bone repair in rats subjected to sham surgery or ovariectomized rats, after alveolar filling with clot or with crystalline biosilicate. Sixty Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 15) according to the treatment: Group 1 - rats subjected to sham surgery with sockets filled with clot; Group 2- rats submitted to sham surgery with sockets filled with crystalline biosilicate; Group 3 ovariectomized rats with sockets filled with clot; Group 4 ovariectomized rats with sockets filled with crystalline biosilicate. After 7, 14 and 28 days, the animals were sacrificed, bone samples were taken, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed under a microscope to perform a histomorphometric analysis. The highest percentages of bone formation were presented in groups 1 (32 % at 7 days, 46 % at 14 days and 83.5 % at 28 days) and 4 (27.1 % at 7 days, 41.1 % at 14 days and 79.7 % after 28 days). In the sockets filled with clot, the rats subjected to sham surgery showed the best results, while in the sockets filled with biosilicate, the ovariectomized rats had significantly higher percentages. In this study, the crystalline biosilicate behaved as an adequate biomaterial for bone repair, favoring osteoconduction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bone and Bones/cytology , Ceramics , Bone Substitutes , Alveolar Ridge Augmentation , Bone Regeneration , Brazil , Ovariectomy , Statistical Analysis , Rats, Wistar , Silicates , Animal Experimentation
16.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(2): 137-141, jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002296

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El balance óseo está mediado por una regulación inmunoendócrina, siendo éste un complejo proceso. Entre las acciones llevadas a cabo para mantener la densidad y estructura del esqueleto son variadas las farmacoterapias utilizadas. Diversos estudios han demostrado que tanto Alendronato (AL) y Vitamina E (E) contribuyen a la inhibición de la reabsorción ósea. El objectivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la administración combinada de (AL) por vía subcutánea y (E) se administró tres veces por semana también por vía subcutánea con una dosificación de 20 mg/kg de peso corporal. La fórmula farmacéutica fue de 0,5 mg/kg de peso corporal para AL, y 20 mg/kg de vitamina E. El efecto se evaluó en ratas machos Wistar (n=108), de 90 ± 20 g, divididas en 4 grupos. Se realizó la exodoncia de los primeros molares inferiores. La droga se inyectó en forma subcutánea en tiempos 0, 7, 15 y 30 días post cirugía. Las imágenes de las mandíbulas fueron adquiridas mediante radiovisiógrafo, en cada tiempo experimental y fueron analizadas con el Software Image ProPlus versión 4,1 de Media Cibernetics. Estudios estadísticos: no paramétrico: prueba de Kruskal-Wallis Resultados: El grupo C (que registró la media de intensidad más baja), se diferenció significativamente de los grupos E y A-E (p<0,001), no así del grupo que utilizó únicamente Al (p=0,070; p>0,05). Los grupos Al, E y el combinado Al-E no se diferenciaron significativamente entre sí (p>0,05 en todos los casos). Los datos evaluados sirven para mostrar una tendencia favorable en relación al efecto beneficioso de la combinación de AL y vitamina E.


ABSTRACT: The bone balance is mediated by an immunoendocrine regulation, this being a complex process. A number of pharmacotherapies are used among the actions taken to maintain the density and structure of the skeleton. Several studies have shown that both Alendronate (AL) and Vitamin E (E) contribute to the inhibition of bone resorption. Objective: To study the effect of combined administration of (LA) subcutaneously and (E) was administered three times per week also subcutaneously with a dosage of 20 mg / kg body weight. The pharmaceutical formulation was 0.5 mg / kg body weight for AL and 20 mg / kg vitamin E. The effect was evaluated in male Wistar rats (n = 108), 90 ± 20 g, divided into 4 groups. Extraction of the first lower molars was performed. The drug was injected subcutaneously at time 0, 7, 15 and 30 days post-surgery. The images of the jaws were acquired by radiovisiography, at each experimental time and were analyzed with Image ProPlus Software version 4.1 of Media Cibernetics. Statistical studies: non-parametric: Kruskal-Wallis test Group C (which recorded the lowest mean intensity) was significantly different from the E and AE groups (p <0.001), but not from the group that used only Al (P = 0.070, p> 0.05). The Al, E and combined Al-E groups did not differ significantly from each other (p> 0.05 in all cases). The data evaluated serve to show a favorable trend in relation to the beneficial effect of the combination of AL and vitamin E.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Alendronate/administration & dosage , Radiography, Dental , Analysis of Variance , Animal Experimentation , Diphosphonates/administration & dosage
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 500-508, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011255

ABSTRACT

The application of a humane endpoint (HE) for mice in vaccine trials and further challenging tasks with lethal samples is necessary to reduce or prevent pain and suffering in these animals, and is a refinement of the 3R policy enforced for animal testing in both national and international scenarios. In order to investigate the application of HE in Brazil, researchers from the vaccine sector have answered a questionnaire about their research profile, their usage of HE and their knowledge of its defining criteria, monitoring of animals, staff training, and euthanasia methods employed. The main results revealed that researchers failed to recognise the very concept of HE as well as when to apply it. In addition, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) failed upon giving their approval to the trials. HE is an important refinament of animal testing policy, and these results highlight the need for a clear pre-established definition of when and how it should be implemented in order to ensure more effective application. Furthermore, it is important to clarify the ethics involved and the commitment of both the research teams and IACUCs to animal welfare.(AU)


A aplicação de um ponto final humanitário (PFH) em experimentos com vacinação e posterior desafio com amostras letais em camundongos é necessária para diminuir ou impedir a dor e o sofrimento desses animais, constituindo refinamento de acordo com a política dos 3Rs, vigente em âmbito nacional e internacional, no cenário da experimentação animal. A fim de investigar a aplicação de PFH no Brasil, foi enviado um questionário para pesquisadores da área de vacinas, com perguntas sobre perfil do pesquisador, aplicação de PFH e critérios para sua definição, monitoramento dos animais, treinamento da equipe e métodos de eutanásia empregados. Os principais resultados revelaram que há falhas tanto em reconhecer o conceito quanto em aplicar o PFH, por parte dos pesquisadores, e que as CEUAs também falharam ao aprovar tais experimentos. Chama-se atenção para o fato de que o PFH é um importante refinamento e para a necessidade de definição prévia de PFH e sua aplicação, assim como para a importância do esclarecimento da questão ética envolvida e do necessário compromisso das equipes de pesquisa e das CEUAs com o bem-estar animal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Animal Welfare/ethics , Models, Animal , Animal Experimentation/ethics , Vaccines/standards
18.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4402, 01 Fevereiro 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998038

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate of the microstructure of the salivary glands of experimental animals born from of females rats, who were subjected to different modes of motor activity during the pregnancy: limited and compensated by regular moderate training. Material and Methods: The sample was composed 84 three-month-old descendants of Wistar rats which were divided into three groups: G1 (n = 27): posterity of female rats, who during gestation were in standard conditions; G2 (n = 25): posterity of female rats, who during pregnancy were in hypokinesia conditions; G3 (n = 32): which stayed in conditions of hypokinesia, but had running load in running wheel regularly 5 times a week. Results: In adult descendants of G2, morphological structure of the submandibular salivary glands was characterized by decrease size and number of glandular cells; reduction of their cytoplasm; increase in heterochromatin amount and decrease in the intensity of fuchsinophilia. Microstructure of the submandibular salivary glands of the offspring of G3 indicates positive effect of regular short-term physical activity on the morphofunctional state of the specified glands. An increased number of tissue basophils in their stroma is also in favor of greater functional activity of salivary glands. Conclusion: This study indicates deceleration of the metabolic processes in salivary glands of animals under the influence of hypokinesia of their mothers during pregnancy. It was also confirmed that regular physical activity completely eliminates the negative effect of mothers' hypokinesia on morphology the salivary glands of the descendant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pregnancy , Rats , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland , Morphological and Microscopic Findings , Morphogenesis , Motor Activity , Ukraine , Pregnancy , Rats, Wistar , Hypokinesia , Animal Experimentation
19.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 4(3): 76-82, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1146103

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Verificar el efecto protector del extracto acuoso de hojas y tallos de Desmodium molliculum EAM (manayupa), en la toxicidad hepática inducida por el naproxeno en ratas Ratus novergicus variedad Wistar albino, hembras. Materiales y métodos. Estudio experimental. Se utilizaron 36 ratas hembras de 250 ± 10 g, divididas en seis grupos de seis: A (control -); B (control + naproxeno); patrón C (silimarina 100 mg / kg) y 3 experimental (EAM): D 80 mg/kg; E 160 mg/kg y F 240 mg/kg). Los grupos B, C, D, E, F recibieron por vía oral naproxeno 27,38 mg, los primeros cinco días y durante 14 días. El efecto protector hepático se determinó mediante el análisis bioquímico: GOT, GPT, GGT, proteínas totales, albúmina sérica, fosfatasa alcalina y creatinina. Resultados. Se encontró que el grupo B perdió peso (180,65 ± 6,5 g), bilirrubina total (0,76 ± 0,4) bilirrubina directa (1.7 ± 0,8), TGO (160 ± 10,4) y TGP (412 ± 20,4) alto, comparado con el grupo A, C, D, E y F. Conclusiones. El EAM tiene efecto protector sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por naproxeno en ratas, evidenciado por los parámetros bioquímicos.


Objective. To verify the protective effect of the aqueous extract of leaves and stems of Desmodium molliculum EAM (manayupa), on the hepatic toxicity induced by Naproxen in rats Ratus novergicus albino Wistar variety, females. Materials and methods. 36 female rats of 250 ± 10 g were used, divided into six groups of six: A (Control -), B (Control + Naproxen), Pattern C (Silymarin 100 mg / kg) and 3 Experimental (EAM): D 80 mg / kg, E 160 mg / kg and F 240 mg / kg). Groups B, C, D, E, F orally received Naproxen 27.38 mg, the first five days and for 14 days. The hepatic protective effect was determined by the biochemical analysis: GOT, GPT, GGT, total proteins, serum albumin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine. Results. group B was found to lose weight (180.65 ± 6.5 g), total bilirubin (0.76 ± 0.4) direct bilirubin (1.7 ± 0.8), TGO (160 ± 10.4) and TGP (412 ± 20.4) high, compared to group A, C, D, E and F. Conclusion. EAM has a protective effect on hepatic toxicity induced by naproxen in rats, evidenced by biochemical parameters.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Naproxen , Fabaceae/chemistry , Liver/drug effects , Plant Extracts , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Animal Experimentation , Phytochemicals
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785614

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Head elevation at an angle of 30° during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was hemodynamically beneficial compared to supine position in a previous porcine cardiac arrest experimental study. However, survival benefit of head-up elevation during CPR has not been clarified. This study aimed to assess the effect of head-up tilt position during CPR on 24-hour survival in a porcine cardiac arrest experimental model.METHODS: This was a randomized experimental trial using female farm pigs (n=18, 42±3 kg) sedated, intubated, and paralyzed on a tilting surgical table. After surgical preparation, 15 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation was induced. Then, 6 minutes of basic life support was performed in a position randomly assigned to either head-up tilt at 30° or supine with a mechanical CPR device, LUCAS-2, and an impedance threshold device, followed by 20 minutes of advanced cardiac life support in the same position. Primary outcome was 24-hour survival, analyzed by Fisher exact test.RESULTS: In the 8 pigs from the head-up tilt position group, one showed return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC); all eight pigs expired within 24 hours. In the eight pigs from the supine position group, six had the ROSC; six pigs survived for 24 hours and two expired. The head-up position group showed lower 24-hour survival rate and lower ROSC rate than supine position group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The use of head-up tilt position with 30 degrees during CPR showed lower 24-hour survival than the supine position.


Subject(s)
Advanced Cardiac Life Support , Agriculture , Animal Experimentation , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Electric Impedance , Female , Head , Heart Arrest , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Supine Position , Survival Rate , Swine , Ventricular Fibrillation
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