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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 693-702, May-June 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278362

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of purebred Bos taurus taurus bovine breeds raised in Brazil in association with climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables. The breeds Aberdeen Angus, Ayrshire, Braford, Brangus, Charolais, Devon, Flemish, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Shorthorn and Simental were classified according to their aptitude (milk, meat or dual-purpose). They were spatialized according to their aptitude using state and municipal information. The milk breeds were found in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, while the dual-purpose breeds were found in Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states and the beef breeds were concentrated in the southern region. Only the Aberdeen Angus meat breed showed higher dispersion in other regions. Meat and dual-purpose breeds tended to be raised in regions with lower maximum temperature, average temperature, thermal amplitude and temperature-humidity index. Dual-purpose breeds were found in municipalities with high humidity and altitude, but with a low gross domestic product, little technical guidance received from cooperatives and the government, low control of diseases and parasites, as well as low use of pasture rotation systems. The spatial distribution of Brazilian bovine taurine breeds, regardless of aptitude, was related to climatic, physical and socioeconomic factors.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a distribuição espacial de raças bovinas puras Bos taurus taurus criadas no Brasil, associadas a variáveis climáticas, físicas e socioeconômicas. As raças Aberdeen Angus, Ayrshire, Braford, Brangus, Charolês, Devon, Flamenga, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Shorthorn e Simental foram classificadas de acordo com sua aptidão (leite, carne ou duplo-propósito). Elas foram espacializadas de acordo com sua aptidão a partir de informações estaduais e municipais. As raças leiteiras foram encontradas nos estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina, enquanto as raças de duplo-propósito foram encontradas nos estados de Minas Gerais e Rio Grande do Sul, e as raças de carne concentraram-se na região Sul. Apenas a raça de carne Aberdeen Angus apresentou maior dispersão nas demais regiões. As raças de carne e de duplo-propósito tendem a ser criadas em regiões com menores temperatura máxima, temperatura média, amplitude térmica e índice de temperatura e umidade. As raças de duplo-propósito foram encontradas em municípios com alta umidade e altitude, mas com baixo produto interno bruto, pouca orientação técnica recebida de cooperativas e do governo, baixo controle de doenças e de parasitas e baixo uso de sistema de rotação de pastagens. A distribuição espacial das raças taurinas bovinas brasileiras, independentemente da aptidão, foi relacionada a fatores climáticos, físicos e socioeconômicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Adaptation, Biological , Socioeconomic Survey , Climate , Animal Distribution , Animal Husbandry/methods , Brazil
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 703-710, May-June 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278363

ABSTRACT

Aiming to compare integrated crop, livestock (ICL) and forest (ICLF) systems in relation to ingestive behavior of dairy heifers, a 2 × 2 crossover trial was conducted with two periods and two systems. Eight Girolando (3/4holstein × 1/4 Gyr) heifers were evaluated in pasture of Xaraés palisade grass (Urochloa brizantha 'Xaraes' syn Brachiaria brizantha) managed with intermittent stocking. The ICLF systemhad eucalyptus trees planted in tiers with 65% crown cover. Ingestive behavior parameters were obtained using acoustic data collected with mP3 recorders for 48hours. Statistical analysis was performed using the mixed procedure of SAS, and means were compared using the Tukey-Kramer test at 5% significance. The dry mater intake (DMI), number of daily grazing sessions, and the duration of the grazing sessions did not differ (P<0.05) between systems. A higher (P<0.05) bite rate and total daily bites and lower (P<0.05) bite mass was observed in the ICLF system in relation to ICL. Heifers in shaded pasture change their ingestive behavior in comparison with those in full-sun pasture.(AU)


Com o objetivo de comparar sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP) e lavoura-pecuária-floresta (ILPF) em relação ao comportamento ingestivo de novilhas leiteiras, conduziu-se um ensaio em delineamento crossover 2 × 2, com dois períodos e dois sistemas. Oito novilhas Girolando foram mantidas em pastagens de capim-xaraés (Urochloa brizantha 'Xaraes' syn Brachiaria brizantha) manejadas com lotação intermitente. No sistema ILPF, havia renques de eucalipto com 65% de cobertura de copa. O comportamento ingestivo foi avaliado pela análise de áudios coletados com gravadores de Mp3, durante 48 horas. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas utilizando-se Proc mixed SAS. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey-Kramer, ao nível de 5% de significância. A ingestão de matéria seca (IMS), o número de sessões de pastejo por dia e a duração das sessões de pastejo não diferiram (P<0,05) entre os sistemas. As maiores (P<0,05) médias de taxa de bocado e de número de bocados por dia e a menor (P<0,05) média de massa de bocado foram observadas no ILPF quando comparado ao ILP. Novilhas em pastagem sombreada alteram seu comportamento ingestivo quando comparadas àquelas que são mantidas em pastagem a pleno sol.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Animal Husbandry/methods , Agricultural Cultivation , Forests
3.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub, 1834, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363710

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy losses are a major concern in livestock industry due to their economic impact on producers. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) and C. fetus subspecies venerealis (Cfv) are directly related to reproductive failures in ruminants. Cff colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of a wide range of hosts leading to abortion, while Cfv is restricted to genital tract being generally associated to infertility in bovine. Considering the great economic losses related to campylobacteriosis in cattle and ovine herds, this study aims to investigate the occurrence of C. fetus, considering Cff and Cfv subspecies, in bovine and ovine spontaneously aborted fetuses in state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In this study, samples of abomasal fluid collected from 30 spontaneously aborted bovine (n = 18) and ovine (n = 12) fetuses were investigated for the detection of Campylobacter fetus throughout conventional PCR. Positive fetuses for C. fetus presence were further analyzed by molecular assays for Cff and Cfv detection, in order to determine subspecies identification. When available, samples of the main organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities, as well as the brain, skeletal muscle, eyelid, skin, and placenta were collected for further histopathological analyses and bacterial culture, aiming to assess the presence of infection lesions and pathogens in those sites, respectively. Additionally, RT-qPCR assays were also performed for the detection of ruminant pestivirus, in order to detect bovine viral diarrhea cases. Throughout the present methodology, C. fetus was detected in the abomasal fluid samples of 2 bovine fetuses, being both identified as Cfv subspecies by PCR. Histopathological analyses demonstrated that macroscopic and microscopic changes found in the Cfv-positive animals were not either specific or directly related to Campylobacter infections. Moreover, no significant bacterial growth was observed in microbiological culture from the collected tissues, and both fetuses were negative for ruminant pestivirus. Differently, there was no detection of C. fetus in any of the analyzed ovine fetuses. Considering that abortion diagnosis rates reported in cattle and sheep industry are highly variable among the published studies, and that abortion diagnoses are commonly inconclusive due to difficulties in sampling methodology and inadequate identification of the pathogen involved, it is important to investigate the etiological causes of abortion the herds for better understanding the causes of pregnancy issues and monitoring their occurrence. In addition, the absence of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues investigated in the histopathological analyses observed in this study strongly suggests that well-known etiological agents commonly associated to abortion, such as Leptospira spp., Toxoplasma spp., Chlamydia spp. and Neospora caninum, are unlikely to be the cause of infection of the analyzed fetuses. Taking this into account, the presence of C. fetus in the abomasal fluid samples from two bovine fetuses demonstrated in the present study suggests the possible association of Cfv not only with infertility, but also with cases of bovine abortion, highlighting the importance of investigating unusual causal agents of abortions in sheep and cattle. Overall, an adequate diagnosis is essential for establishing better prevention strategies to avoid the circulation of abortion-related infectious agents in the herds.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Campylobacter fetus , Campylobacter Infections/veterinary , Abortion, Veterinary , Infertility/veterinary , Animal Husbandry/economics , Ruminants
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2288-2296, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142283

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to analyze applications of real options theory for increasing the productivity of Mantiqueira ecotype dairy cows kept in guinea grass pastures with different sources of bulky supplementation (black oats, fodder cane, or sorghum silage), because the traditional methodologies do not consider the uncertainties related to this activity. Real options theory, an investment evaluation method, fills this gap as its most significant feature is its flexibility to act on uncertain events. Based on the results obtained for two economic indicators, the net present value and internal rate of return, and considering the production items identified in the sensitivity analysis, this study evaluated the expansion flexibility of each system using the real options theory methodology in discrete time as proposed by Copeland and Antikarov (2001). The analysis of the expansion options showed that the values of the production systems increased by 6.73%, 1.21%, and 19.49% for the systems supplemented with sorghum silage, black oats, and fodder cane, respectively. The expanded net present values were R$ 141,642.39, R$ 64,211.08, and R$ 58,013.07 for the systems that adopted bulky supplementation with black oats, fodder cane, and sorghum silage, respectively.(AU)


Objetivou-se analisar a aplicação da Teoria das Opções Reais para expansão da produtividade de vacas leiteiras do ecótipo Mantiqueira, mantidas em pastagem de capim-Mombaça com fornecimento de diferentes fontes de suplementação volumosa (aveia-preta, cana-forrageira ou silagem de sorgo), uma vez que as metodologias tradicionais não consideram as incertezas presentes na atividade. A Teoria de Opções Reais é um método de avaliação de investimento que possui como maior característica a valoração da flexibilidade de agir a eventos incertos, preenchendo, assim, a lacuna deixada pelo método tradicional. A partir dos resultados obtidos pelos indicadores econômicos valor presente líquido e taxa interna de retorno, em conjunto com os itens de produção identificados na análise de sensibilidade, foi possível avaliar o valor da flexibilidade de expansão que cada sistema apresentou. A flexibilidade de expansão foi avaliada utilizando-se a metodologia Teoria das Opções Reais, proposta por Copeland e Antikarov (2001), em tempo discreto. O resultado da análise da opção de expansão apresentou aumento nos valores dos sistemas de produção, na ordem de 6,73%, 1,21% e 19,49%, para os sistemas suplementados com silagem de sorgo, aveia-preta e cana-forrageira, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos para os valores presentes líquidos expandidos foram de R$ 141.642,39, R$ 64.211,08 e R$ 58.013,07, para os sistemas que adotaram a suplementação volumosa com aveia-preta, cana-forrageira e silagem de sorgo, respectivamente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Economic Indexes , Milk , Animal Husbandry/economics , Animal Husbandry/methods , Costs and Cost Analysis
5.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(3): 37-45, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347064

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Utilizar los sistemas de información geográfica (SIG) como herramienta complementaria para caracterizar la ganadería bovina realizada en la región de la Orinoquia. Materiales y métodos. A través del uso de tecnologías espaciales se recopiló la información concerniente a la orientación ganadera, fisiografía, cobertura vegetal y catastro de la zona de estudio para su posterior análisis a través del software ACCESS de Microsoft. Resultados. En un alto porcentaje de los predios ganaderos ubicados en los cuatro departamentos de la Orinoquía (Casanare:72.7%, Meta:49.5%, Arauca:42% y Vichada:32%) predominan las coberturas de pastos, herbazales y vegetación secundaria, confirmando la expansión en la frontera agropecuaria que es promovida por la actividad ganadera en el país. Conclusiones. El uso de los SIG, permite realizar una mejor planificación y distribución eficiente de los recursos destinados a mejorar el funcionamiento de los sistemas de producción. Por ejemplo, en zonas donde la matriz de coberturas predominante son los pastizales y herbazales, las estrategias en pro de la sostenibilidad pueden enfocarse en la implementación de sistemas silvopastoriles, contrario a lo que pasaría en zonas donde la matriz de coberturas tenga un alto porcentaje de bosques naturales.


ABSTRACT Objective. Use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a complementary tool to characterize cattle farming in the Orinoquia region. Materials and methods. Through the use of space technologys, information concerning the livestock orientation, physiography, vegetation cover and land registry of the study zone was collected for further analysis over Microsoft ACCESS software. Results. In a high percentage of the cattle ranches located in the four departments (Casanare: 72.7%, Meta: 49.5%, Arauca: 42% and Vichada: 32%) the cover of pastures, grasslands and secondary vegetation predominates, confirming the expansion in the agricultural border that has had the cattle activity in the country. Conclusions. The use of complementary tools such as GIS allows for better planning and efficient distribution of resources to improve the functioning of production systems, for example, in zones where the predominant coverage matrix is grasslands, strategies in pro of sustainability can focus on the implementation of silvopastoral systems, contrary to what would happen in areas where the matrix has a high percentage of natural forests.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Geographic Information Systems , Data Analysis , Animal Husbandry
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 739-749, Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143406

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the parasites infesting pigs and their producers on family farms in Tanguá, RJ, Brazil, and to conduct extension activities between 2018 and 2019. Fecal samples were collected from 132 pigs, as well as, skin scrapings from the ears of 125 animals. In addition, 36 stool specimens from farmers and their families were analyzed. The collected material was processed by direct examination, sedimentation and flotation techniques. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 88.6% of the pigs, especially coccidia (71.8%), Balantioides coli (55%), strongyles (40.2%) and Strongyloides ransomi (31.6%) which showed statistically significance (p<0.05). Ectoparasites were identified in 16% of the pigs, mostly Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis (76.2%). Parasites were detected in 19.4% of the humans, including, Entamoeba coli (19.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%) and Trichuris trichiura (5.5%). The frequency of B. coli and S. scabiei var. suis (p<0.05) were statistically significant, when analyzing the age group of the animals, having been more detected in the older years, fatterners phase. The pig farmers participated in these activities extension, which included lecture and "field day", aimed at imparting information about parasites and their prophylaxis. The situation in Tanguá pig farms reinforces the need to carry out programs that provide technical support to these farmers, whose livelihood depends on pig farming.(AU)


Este estudo objetivou analisar os parasitos que infectam suínos e seus produtores em propriedades familiares em Tanguá, RJ, Brasil, realizando atividades extensionistas entre 2018 e 2019. Amostras fecais foram coletadas de 132 suínos, bem como raspados da pele da orelha de 125 animais. Além disso, 36 amostras fecais dos produtores e seus familiares foram analisadas. O material coletado foi processado pelo exame direto e por técnicas de sedimentação e flutuação. Parasitos gastrointestinais foram detectados em 88,6% dos suínos, principalmente coccídios (71,8%), Balantioides coli (55%), estrôngilos (40,2%) e Strongyloides ransomi (31,6%) que apresentaram significância estatística (p<0,05). Ectoparasitos foram identificados em 16% dos suínos, principalmente Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis (76,2%). Parasitos foram detectados em 19,4% das amostras fecais humanas, incluindo Entamoeba coli (19,4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8,3%) e Trichuris trichiura (5,5%). A frequência de B. coli e S. scabiei var. suis foi estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05), quando se analisou os animais por faixa etária, tendo sido principalmente detectado nos animais mais velhos, como na fase de terminação. Os produtores de suínos participaram ativamente das atividades de extensão, incluído a palestra e a atividade "dia de campo", que tinham como objetivo mediar informações sobre parasitos e suas medidas profiláticas. A situação nas granjas familiares de Tanguá demonstra a necessidade de realização de programas que apoiem tecnicamente esses produtores, que utilizam a suinocultura como fonte de subsistência.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Balantidium/isolation & purification , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Sus scrofa/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Animal Husbandry/education
7.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(2): 49-62, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340773

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Determinar un puntaje de bienestar animal (PBA) a nivel de hato para ganaderías lecheras utilizando un protocolo que involucrara variables basadas en los animales y en manejo/recursos, e identificar las variables que más contribuyen a la varianza del PBA. Materiales y métodos. Veinticinco fincas lecheras basadas en pastoreo (Sabana de Bogotá - trópico alto colombiano) fueron visitadas dos veces. Durante cada visita, 15 variables basadas en el animal y 13 basadas en manejo/ recursos fueron evaluadas. Para cada variable se estableció un punto de corte negativo a nivel de hato para determinar el cumplimiento. En función del cumplimiento, se determinó un PBA (de 0 a 100) y las fincas se clasificaron como 'excelente', 'buena', 'aceptable' o 'no-aceptable'. Se usó una regresión lineal para evaluar la asociación entre variables a nivel de hato con PBA. Resultados. La mediana de PBA fue de 82 (mín = 67; máx = 97). Dos fincas fueron clasificadas como "excelentes" (PBA=94.5), 20 como "buenas" (PBA = 82.5) y 3 como "aceptables" (PBA = 68). Entre todas las variables, el incumplimiento con respecto a mastitis subclínica, calificación de suciedad (patas y ubre), heridas en la línea ventral, recuentos de mosca Haematobia ¡rritans y condición/limpieza del área de espera pre-ordeño se asociaron significativamente con 5.6; 3.6; 6.7; 5.1; 6.5 y 6.1 puntos de reducción en el PBA, respectivamente (R2 = 0.84). Conclusiones. El nivel de bienestar encontrado fue bueno y alentador. No obstante, se identificaron seis variables que contribuyeron a un resultado desfavorable. Las estrategias de mejora podrían centrarse en estas variables para alcanzar un buen nivel de bienestar.


ABSTRACT Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine an overall on-farm animal welfare score (WS) for dairy farms using a protocol involving animal- and management/resource-based variables; and to identify the variables that contributed the most to the variance for the WS. Materials and methods. Twenty-five pasture-based dairy farms in Savanna of Bogota - Colombian high tropic, were visited twice. During each visit, a total of 15 animal- and 13 management/resource-based variables were evaluated. For each variable, a herd-level negative cut-off point was established to determine compliance. Based on compliance, a WS was determined (from 0 to 100) and farms were classified as 'excellent', 'enhanced', 'acceptable', or 'non-acceptable'. A linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between variables at the herd-level with the WS. Results. Overall, median WS was 82 (min=67; max=97). Two farms were classified as 'excellent' (WS=94.5), 20 as 'enhanced' (WS=82.5), and 3 as 'acceptable' (WS=68). Among all variables, the noncompliance regarding subclinical mastitis, hind-legs and udder dirtiness score, ventral line wounds, Haematobia ¡rritans fly counts, and condition/cleanliness of pre-milking holding area was significantly associated with a 5.6, 3.6, 6.7, 5.1, 6.5, and 6.1 points reduction in the WS, respectively (R2 = 0.84). Conclusions. Welfare level found across farms was good and encouraging. Nonetheless, six variables were identified as the main contributors to an unfavorable result. Strategies for improvement could focus on these variables to be able to reach a welfare level of 'excellence'.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Animal Welfare , Cattle , Animal Husbandry
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1027-1033, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129731

ABSTRACT

The objective was to evaluate animal performance and nutritional characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha cv. BRS Piatã in two integrated systems, during the summer and winter, five years after the initial establishment of the area. The randomized block experimental design was adopted with treatments consisting of a control (five native trees per hectare) and an integrated crop-livestock-forestry (ICLF) system with 227 eucalyptus trees per hectare. Animal performance, canopy height, soil cover, forage mass (leaf, stem and senescent material), and forage nutritive value were evaluated. Differences between systems were observed in forage mass (total, leaf, stem and senescent material), soil cover and forage nutritive value in both seasons. Shading conditions provided by eucalyptus in the ICLF system lead to a reduction in forage mass and neutral detergent fiber content, and to an increase in crude protein and in vitro organic matter digestibility. However, no effect on animal performance was obtained. The presence of trees improves the forage nutritive value without impacting animal performance in integrated systems.(AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho animal e as características nutricionais de Brachiaria brizantha cv. BRS Piatã em dois sistemas integrados, durante o verão e o inverno, cinco anos após o estabelecimento inicial da área. O delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso foi adotado com tratamentos constituídos por um controle (cinco árvores nativas por hectare) e um sistema integrado lavoura-pecuária-floresta (ILPF) com 227 eucaliptos por hectare. Desempenho animal, altura do dossel, cobertura do solo, massa de forragem (folha, caule e material senescente) e valor nutritivo da forragem foram avaliados. Diferenças entre os sistemas foram observadas na massa de forragem (total, foliar, caule e material senescente), na cobertura do solo e no valor nutritivo da forragem em ambas as estações. As condições de sombreamento proporcionadas pelo eucalipto no sistema ICLF levaram a uma redução na massa de forragem e no teor de fibra em detergente neutro e a um aumento na proteína bruta e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica. No entanto, nenhum efeito no desempenho animal foi obtido. A presença de árvores melhora o valor nutritivo da forragem, sem impactar o desempenho animal em sistemas integrados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Brachiaria , Poaceae , Animal Husbandry
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Conservation agriculture practices can contribute to changes in soil nutrient dynamics over time. This experiment evaluated the changes in total stocks and distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur concentrations in soil, during 60 months, in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) due to anticipated fertilization of sources and doses phosphates applied in soil surface. The experiment was conducted over a period of five years, under Typic Dystrudept, using a randomized block design, in an incomplete factorial scheme (3×3+1), with four replications. Treatments consisted of three sources of P [triple superphosphate (TSP), rock phosphate - Arad (RP) and magnesium thermophosphate (MTP)], along with four doses of P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 total). Samples of soil were collected in 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm layers at 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after beggining of experiment where the following chemical attributes were evaluated: (i) total organic carbon (TOC); (ii) total nitrogen Kjeldahl (TNK); (iii) available P by ion exchange resin method (P-IER); and (iv) available S-SO4 2-. The ICLS conditions provided increased total stocks and concentrations of TOC, TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- over time. The applications of different phosphates had no influence on soil TOC concentrations during the five years of experimentation. The concentrations of TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- showed an increase in different layers of soil, with the application of sources and doses of P. The P fertilization practice that was anticipated can consist of an efficient management of soil fertility, using properly managed conservation systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Phosphates/administration & dosage , Soil/chemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Soil Analysis , Fertilizers , Animal Husbandry , Phosphorus/analysis , Sulfur/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190507, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142510

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study examined the effects of liming on soil acidity and base saturation (V) in Italian ryegrass (ryegrass) and silage maize production systems over the medium-term. A split-plot design with four replications was employed on Humic Hapludox. The plots consisted of four soil management methods: conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), no-tillage (NT) and chiselled NT (CNT). Within the split plots, ryegrass was used as cover crop (CC), silage (S), and integrated crop-livestock (ICL) system. Following ryegrass phytomass the maize was sowed. Once the maize had been cut with a silage machine, soil samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm at 24 and 60 months after liming. The attributes pH, H+Al, exchangeable aluminium (Al3+), and V were evaluated. The highest pH and V values were observed in the 0-5 cm layer in NT. The CNT did not result in improvement of acidity conditions or V. The ryegrass as S and ICL decreased soil acidity from 10 cm layer. NT combined with ICL provided soil acidity improvements 60 months after liming. Therefore, the exploration of winter with Italian ryegrass may elicit greater benefits in deep soil layers than cover crops.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Silage , Soil/chemistry , Lolium , Soil Acidity/prevention & control , Zea mays , Soil Analysis , Crop Production , Animal Husbandry
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e021420, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144229

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the factors that discourages farmers from raising small ruminants in cultivated pastures. To validate a soil treatment strategy to control the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), castor cake (CC) was used as a fertilizer on a pasture where sheep grazed on guinea grass under continuous stocking. On day zero, the pasture was divided into three paddocks, contaminated by GIN and treated, respectively, with CC divided into two applications (2CC1/2), CC in a single application (CC1) and organic compost in a single application (control). On day 21, eight GIN-free sheep were placed in each paddock. On day 58, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed: reduction of up to 66.10% in larvae.g-1 of dry mass in pastures fertilized with CC, decrease of up to 60.72% in infection rates among the animals in the groups treated with CC, higher average daily weight gain (over 185 g.day-1) and packed cell volume (over 26%) in the groups treated with CC, when compared to the control (128 g.day-1; 20.9%). In view of the results, the use of CC, mainly CC1, as a fertilizer for guinea grass pastures, under continuous stocking, proved to be promising, with 63.41% effectiveness in controlling worm infestations.


Resumo O parasitismo gastrintestinal é um dos fatores que fragiliza a exploração de pequenos ruminantes em pastagens cultivadas. Objetivando validar a estratégia de tratamento do solo para o controle dos estágios de vida livre de nematoides gastrintestinais (NGI), a torta de mamona (TM) foi utilizada como adubo, com ovinos pastejando em capim-tanzânia sob lotação contínua. No dia zero, o pasto foi dividido em três piquetes, contaminados por NGI e tratados, respectivamente, com TM parcelada em duas aplicações (2TM1/2), TM em uma única aplicação (TM1) e composto orgânico em única aplicação (testemunha). No dia 21, cada piquete recebeu oito ovinos livres de NGI. No dia 58, observaram-se diferenças significativas (P<0,05): redução de até 66,10% de larvas.g-1 de massa seca nas pastagens adubadas com TM; redução de até 60,72% da infecção dos animais nos grupos tratados com TM; ganho de peso médio diário (acima de 185 g.dia-1) e volume globular (acima de 26%) superior nos grupos tratados com TM, quando comparados com a testemunha (128 g.dia-1; 20,9%). Diante dos resultados, o uso da TM, principalmente TM1, como adubo em pasto de capim-tanzânia, sob lotação contínua, mostrou-se promissor, com eficácia de 63,41% para controlar a verminose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/immunology , Sheep Diseases/prevention & control , Animal Husbandry/methods , Nematode Infections/immunology , Nematode Infections/prevention & control , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Soil/parasitology , Sheep , Weight Gain , Castor Bean/chemistry , Feces , Fertilizers/parasitology , Hematocrit , Nematoda
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2075-2084, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055143

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este estudo desenvolver e validar uma ferramenta semiológica para diagnóstico do nível de adoção e conformidade das boas práticas agropecuárias em fazendas de produção de leite, segundo requisitos preconizados pela Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) e pela International Dairy Federation (IDF). A ferramenta foi testada em 62 fazendas de produção de leite, em seis diferentes regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, como parte das ações do Projeto Protambo - "Transferência de tecnologias para o desenvolvimento da atividade leiteira no RS com base nas boas práticas agropecuárias" - da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Embrapa, entre janeiro de 2014 e março de 2017. A validação da ferramenta não apontou divergências estatisticamente significativas entre avaliadores, satisfazendo o parâmetro de exatidão para métodos de medições exigidos pela ISO/IEC 17025. Foi evidenciado um espaço de variação que mostrou desenvolvimento de métrica, em que se obteve consistência (coerência) de medição. O teste t-Student aproximado para a comparação de médias de não conformidades nas BPA mostrou melhora significativa no grupo tratamento (diagnóstico seguido de plano de ajuste) quando comparado ao controle (diagnóstico sem plano de ajuste subsequente). Essa nova abordagem semiológica contribui para a adoção das BPA em fazendas leiteiras, para a melhoria da qualidade do leite e da segurança na cadeia produtiva de lácteos.(AU)


This study reports the development and validation of a novel diagnostic tool, based on the FAO and IDF ¨Guide to Good Dairy Farming Practice¨. Sixty-two dairy farms over six different regions within the State of Rio Grande do Sul were selected, evaluated and ranked, from January 2014 to March 2017; as part of the PROTAMBO- Dairying Technology Transfer Project (EMBRAPA). Results indicated that the proposed diagnostic tool was significantly consistent among different field evaluators, meeting trueness validation parameter for ISO/IEC 17025 validation requirement. Binomial distribution of probabilities of positive changes showed significant kind of metric evolution for the treatment group when compared to the control, in addition to significant consistency. Approximated t-Student test for comparison of the means of GAP non-compliances demonstrated significant improvements for the treatment group relative to the control. This novel approach could assist in overcoming existing and emerging GAP challenges to maximize dairy quality.(AU)


Subject(s)
Food Quality , Milk/microbiology , Good Manufacturing Practices , Livestock Industry , Animal Husbandry/methods , Legislation, Food
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1695-1702, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038648

ABSTRACT

Utilizaram-se registros de pesos corporais padronizados aos 120, 210, 365 e 450 dias de idade, provenientes de 30.481 animais da raça Nelore, progênies de 211 reprodutores acasalados com 19.229 matrizes, oriundos de rebanhos dos estados de Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul e Goiás, com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de interação genótipo x ambiente entre os estados. As estimativas de herdabilidade entre os estados variaram de 0,09 a 0,14; 0,11 a 0,17; 0,16 a 0,27 e 0,17 a 0,35, respectivamente, para os pesos 120, 210, 365 e 450 dias de idade. As estimativas de correlação genética aditiva entre a mesma característica para os diferentes estados apresentaram valores inferiores a 0,80. As correlações de Spearman entre os valores genéticos para os pesos corporais se reduziram à medida que se aumentou a intensidade de seleção sobre os reprodutores. A presença de interação genótipo x ambiente causa maior impacto sobre a avaliação genética dos reprodutores sob intensidade de seleção elevada, sendo interessante sua consideração no processo de avaliação genética. Estimativas de tendências genéticas para todos os pesos corporais apresentaram-se crescentes ao longo dos anos nos três estados.(AU)


Data of adjusted alive weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age of 30,481 records of animals of the Nellore beef cattle breed from herds of states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás were used to study the influence of environment genotype interaction on genetic evaluation of sires. Estimates of heritability between the states ranged from 0.09 to 0.14; 0.11 to 0.17; 0.16 to 0.27 and 0.17 to 0.35, respectively for live weights 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age. The estimates of additive genetic correlation between the same characteristic for the different states presented values lower than 0.80. Spearman correlations between breeding values obtained from live weights of sires lowered as the intensity of selection on sires increased. The presence of environment genotype interaction has greater impact on the genetic evaluation of breeding under high intensity of selection, being an interesting consideration in the process of genetic evaluation. Estimates of genetic trends for all body weights have been increasing over the years in all three states.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Selection, Genetic , Cattle/growth & development , Cattle/genetics , Environment , Genotype , Animal Husbandry/statistics & numerical data
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1639-1648, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1038651

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se verificar a viabilidade econômica da produção de frangos de corte sob mecanismos de governança híbrida e hierárquica. Estudos de caso foram escolhidos para avaliação da atividade em núcleos de empresas integradoras e de produtores rurais integrados. Realizou-se pesquisa de campo para coleta de dados em 36 unidades de produção em Minas Gerais. Informações provenientes de 216 lotes produzidos entre agosto de 2015 e agosto de 2016 foram utilizadas nas análises econômicas. O cálculo dos custos baseou-se na metodologia proposta pela Embrapa - CNPSA e IEA - SP. As análises econômicas se realizaram conforme proposto pelo DAE - Ufla e pela Conab. Constatou-se que o custo com mão de obra causou maior impacto sobre o desempenho econômico de núcleos com estruturas de governança distintas. No modelo de produção via governança hierárquica, mesmo se considerando receitas secundárias ao processo de produção de aves, verificou-se prejuízo financeiro na atividade. Concluiu-se que a estrutura de governança híbrida representou melhor alternativa econômica que a internalização do processo de criação de frangos pelas empresas integradoras. Assim, sugere-se que empresas integradoras esgotem as possibilidades de produção via contrato de integração antes de investirem recursos em instalações próprias de criação.(AU)


The objective was to verify the economic feasibility in the production of broilers under hybrid and hierarchical governance mechanisms. Case studies were used to evaluate the activity of the integrating company and the integrated rural producers. The primary data about costs, income, and zootechnical indicators were collected in 36 poultry production units belonging to an integrated company and five rural producers, in state of Minas Gerais. Data from 216 batches of broilers produced between August 2015 and August 2016 were used in the economic analysis. Costs calculation was based on the methodology proposed by EMBRAPA - CNPSA and IEA - SP. The economic analyzes were carried out as proposed by DAE UFLA and CONAB. It was verified that the cost of labor caused the greatest impact on the economic performance of cores with different governance structures. In all breeding sites via hierarchical governance, even considering secondary revenues, there was a financial loss in the activity. It was concluded that the hybrid governance represented a better economic alternative than the internalization of the broiler production by integrating companies. Thus, it is suggested that integrating companies deplete the production possibilities through an integration contract before investing resources in their own breeding facilities.(AU)


Subject(s)
Poultry , Chickens , Health Governance/economics , Health Governance/organization & administration , Health Governance/statistics & numerical data , Animal Husbandry/economics , Animal Husbandry/organization & administration , Animal Husbandry/statistics & numerical data
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1686-1694, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038671

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pastagem, o desempenho, o conforto térmico e os parâmetros hematológicos de bovinos Nelore na fase de terminação em sistemas integrados de produção agropecuária com duas densidades de árvores (ILPF-1L= 196 árvores ha-1 e ILPF-3L=448 árvores ha-1) e em pleno sol (ILP). Foram avaliados a massa e a composição morfológica da forragem, o ganho médio diário, o ganho de peso por área e a taxa de lotação no verão e no outono, bem como as variáveis climáticas dos sistemas em três horários e parâmetros hematológicos dos animais (n=60). A massa de forragem foi superior no tratamento ILP e no verão (P<0,05). Porém, a redução da massa de forragem nos sistemas ILPFs não interferiu no desempenho dos animais (P>0,05). A temperatura ambiente, a temperatura do globo e o índice de temperatura e umidade foram melhores nos tratamentos com sombreamento e no período da manhã, proporcionando maior conforto aos animais, sendo ainda confirmado pelo menor volume globular dos bovinos em ILP (P<0,05). Conclui-se que os sistemas com componente arbóreo diminuem a massa de forragem, mas essa redução não altera o desempenho dos animais na fase de terminação. Além disso, os sistemas ILPFs melhoram o conforto térmico, entretanto essa melhora não foi suficiente para favorecer o desempenho.(AU)


The objective of this work was to evaluate pasture, performace, thermal comfort, and haematological parameters of Nellore cattle in the finishing phase in integrated crop-livestock systems with two tree densities (ICLF-1L= 196 ha -1 trees and ICLF-3L= 448 ha -1 trees) and in full sun (ICL). The forage mass morphological composition of the pasture average daily gain, weight gain per area, stocking rate of the animals were evaluated in summer and autumn, and the climatic variables of systems we evaluated at three different times, and haematological parameters of the animals (n= 60). The forage mass was higher in the ICL treatment and summer (P<0.05). However, the reduction of the forage mass in the ILPFs systems did not interfere with the performance of the animals (P>0.05). Ambient temperature, globe temperature and temperature and humidity index were better in shade treatments and in the morning, providing greater comfort to the animals, and was also confirmed by the lower globular volume of the bovines in ICL (P<0.05). It is concluded that the systems with trees reduce the forage mass but this reduction does not alter the animals' performance in the finishing phase. In addition, ICLFs improve the thermal comfort of the animals, however, this improvement was not enough to favor their performance.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Animal Welfare , Weight Gain , Pasture/methods , Heat-Shock Response , Pinus taeda , Poaceae/anatomy & histology , Animal Husbandry/methods
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1616-1622, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038675

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão da torta de algodão (TA) com adição de enzimas na ração de suínos na fase de crescimento e seus efeitos sobre o desempenho, as características de carcaças, bem como sua viabilidade econômica. Para tanto, foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com peso corporal inicial de 56,28±5,78kg e final de 79,79±7,32kg. Os níveis de inclusão da TA foram 0%, 8%, 16% e 24%. Todas as rações tiveram os valores de exigência em energia metabolizável, proteína bruta e fósforo subestimados em 1,5% com a utilização de 300g/t do complexo enzimático. Os parâmetros de desempenho e as características de carcaça não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os níveis de inclusão da TA. A torta de algodão pode ser utilizada em até o nível de 24% de inclusão com adição de complexo enzimático em rações de suínos na fase de crescimento II, sem alterar os parâmetros de desempenho e as características de carcaças, além de apresentar redução do custo/kg de suíno produzido.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of cottonseed cake (CC) with enzyme complex in the diet of pigs in the growth phase and its effects on performance, carcass characteristics and economic viability. Thus, 20 barrows were distributed in a completely randomized block design, with initial body weight of 56.28±5.78kg and final weight of 79.79±7.32kg. The inclusion levels of CC were 0%, 8%, 16% and 24%. All diets had the requirement values of metabolizable energy, crude protein and phosphorus underestimated by 1.5% and were added to 300g/t enzyme complex. The performance parameters and carcass characteristics there was no difference between the levels of inclusion of cottonseed cake. The cottonseed cake can be used up to the 24% inclusion level with addition of enzyme complex in the growth phase II, without affecting performance and carcass characteristics, besides reducing the cost/kg of pig produced.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Swine/growth & development , Gossypium , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Husbandry
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1623-1630, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038682

ABSTRACT

O experimento foi realizado no setor de avicultura/UFRRJ, utilizando 348 galinhas semipesadas (linhagem Dekalb Brown), com 52 semanas de idade, criadas sob dois sistemas de produção: cage-free e em gaiolas. Os dados obtidos pela análise físico-química e microbiológica dos ovos e a resistência óssea à quebra foram submetidos à análise de variância. No caso de ocorrerem efeitos dos diferentes sistemas de produção, foi aplicado o teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade para comparação das médias. A qualidade físico-química foi igualmente favorecida pelos dois sistemas de produção, indicando que as circunstâncias experimentais propiciaram condições adequadas para a formação de ovos de boa qualidade. O sistema de gaiola não desfavoreceu as características ósseas das galinhas, apontando que, em densidades adequadas, a gaiola pode não exercer um fator prejudicial para a qualidade óssea. O sistema de produção cage-free piorou a contaminação da casca, comprovando que ovos postos em ninhos são mais contaminados em comparação aos produzidos em gaiolas.(AU)


The experiment was carried out in the poultry sector / UFRRJ, using 348 semi-heavy hens (Dekalb Brown line), 52 weeks old, raised under two cage-free production systems and cages. The data obtained by the physical-chemical and microbiological analysis of the eggs and the bone resistance to the break were submitted to analysis of variance, in case of effects of the different production systems, the Tukey's test was applied at 5% of probability for comparison of the means. The physical-chemical quality was also favored by the two production systems, indicating that the experimental circumstances provided adequate conditions for the formation of good quality eggs. The cage system did not disfavor the bony characteristics of the hens, indicating that at suitable densities, the cage may not exert a detrimental factor to bone quality. The cage-free production system worsened shell contamination by proving that nesting eggs are more contaminated compared to those produced in cages.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/growth & development , Chickens/growth & development , Egg Shell/growth & development , Eggs/analysis , Eggs/microbiology , Animal Husbandry , Animal Welfare
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 423-431, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001462

ABSTRACT

Abstract The usage of aquatic plants represents an alternative in the treatment of residues originating from swine. In these systems, one of the N removal methods is the ammonium (NH4 +) uptake and volatilization of ammonia (NH3). In this way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the volatilization rates of NH3 in waste treatment systems swine fluids (SSF) with aquatic macrophytes, as well as the concentration of NH 4+ present in the swine fluids. The experiment was carried out at Campus II/UNOESTE. The treatment systems were composed of 16 boxes of PVC and characterized as: T1 = Control sample 50% of SSF/50% of water; T2 = 50% SSF/50% water + Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; T3 = 50% SSF/50% water + Pistia stratiotes L.; T4 = 50% SSF/50% water + Salvinia auriculata Aubl. The design was randomized blocks, with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The hydrogen potential (pH) and the NH4 + content of the effluent were analyzed weekly, and the volatilization of NH 3 by means of collectors installed in each treatment unit. The presence of aquatic macrophytes promoted the reduction of NH4+ concentration and of the pH values ​​of swine fluids, and this resulted in the reduction of NH3 volatilization rates to the environment, with emphasis on the system with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, which presented the lowest rate of volatilization.


Resumo A utilização de plantas aquáticas representa uma alternativa no tratamento de resíduos oriundos da suinocultura. Nestes sistemas, uma das formas de remoção de nitrogênio (N) é a absorção de amônio (NH4+) pelas plantas, entretanto, também ocorre a volatilização de amônia (NH3). Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as taxas de volatilização de NH3 em sistemas de tratamentos de dejetos líquidos de suínos (DLS) com macrófitas aquáticas, bem como a concentração de NH4+ presente nos dejetos. O experimento foi realizado em área de ambiente aberto no Campus II/UNOESTE. Os sistemas de tratamento foram constituídos de 16 caixas de PVC e caracterizados como: T1 = Testemunha 50% de DLS/50% de água; T2 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; T3 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Pistia stratiotes L.; T4 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Salvinia auriculata Aubl. O delineamento adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com 4 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Foram analisados o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH) e o teor de NH4 + do efluente semanalmente, e a volatilização de NH3 por meio de coletores instalados em cada unidade de tratamento. A presença das macrófitas aquáticas proporcionou a redução da concentração de NH4+ e dos valores de pH dos dejetos líquidos de suínos, e isto resultou na redução das taxas de volatilização de NH 3 ao meio ambiente, com destaque ao sistema com Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, que apresentou a menor taxa de volatilização.


Subject(s)
Animals , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Araceae/metabolism , Eichhornia/metabolism , Ammonia , Manure/analysis , Swine , Volatilization , Biodegradation, Environmental , Random Allocation , Water Consumption (Environmental Health) , Industrial Waste/analysis , Animal Husbandry
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1355-1363, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038611

ABSTRACT

The influence of seasonality and the training and implementation of good dairy farming practices on raw milk production and quality was evaluated on dairy farms in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The physico-chemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) were determined in 3,096 milk samples collected from bulk tanks originated from 43 dairy farms over a three-year period and correlated with key climatic factors. The recommended milking management practices were applied through a training program and correlated with the seasonal data in three stages: I) prior to training (dry period); II) 48 days after the training (transition period); III) 96 days after the training (rainy period). In the first stage, a diagnosis of the situation was performed with raw milk samplings for laboratory analysis, and training for implementation of good milking practices. In stages II and II, the checklist and laboratory analysis were also performed. The rainfall and high temperatures were found to represent the main factors affecting the milk composition and production, and TBC. The composition and physical properties of raw milk, and the TBC and SCC parameters can be controlled or minimized by applying proper milking management practices and constant monitoring.(AU)


Avaliou-se a influência das condições climáticas em regiões tropicais, bem como do treinamento e da implementação de boas práticas de manejo na produção e qualidade do leite em distintos períodos em fazendas leiteiras no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. No presente estudo, as características físico-químicas do leite, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e a contagem de células somáticas (CCS) foram determinadas em 3.096 amostras de tanques de leite proveniente de 43 fazendas leiteiras, durante um período de três anos, e correlacionadas com os principais fatores climáticos (temperatura diária do ar mínima, média e máxima; pluviosidade e umidade relativa). Foram avaliados os resultados obtidos nas análises das amostras de leite cru coletadas no ano anterior (2009/2010) e também no posterior (2011/2012) àquele em que foi realizado o treinamento para implementação das boas práticas de manejo de ordenha (2010/2011), compreendendo três etapas: antes do treinamento (período seco - tempo 0, etapa I), 48 dias após o treinamento (período de transição - etapa II) e 96 dias após o treinamento (período chuvoso - etapa III). Na etapa I foi realizado um diagnóstico de situação com coleta de amostras para análises laboratoriais, aplicação da lista de verificação padronizada e treinamento para a implementação das boas práticas de manejo de ordenha; na etapa II foram realizadas novas análises laboratoriais e reaplicação da lista de verificação para avaliar a eficiência do treinamento; e na etapa III foi realizada a repetição da etapa II. Com base no histórico dos três anos, observou-se que condições climáticas de alta temperatura e pluviosidade representam importantes fatores que afetam a composição do leite e o volume produzido, assim como parâmetros higiênico-sanitários do leite. Ademais, as boas condições de manejo são ferramentas úteis, eficazes, práticas e essenciais para a maior produção de leite com qualidade, desde que constantemente monitoradas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Food Quality , Milk/microbiology , Bacterial Load/veterinary , Animal Husbandry/methods , Seasons , Brazil
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 353-356, jan.-fev. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038587

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to characterize the displacement patterns of Nellore cattle in areas of crop livestock and crop livestock forest integration systems with density of 196 and 448 eucalyptus ha-1. Paddock maps were drawn from satellite images of the experimental area. In each evaluated system there was one trained observer, that on the paddock map recorded the place the animals stayed every 10 minutes. The exploration of the area by the animals was observed for 12 hours, starting at 6 a.m. and ending at 6 p.m. The displacement of the animals in the ILP system during the evaluation was bigger than the ILPFs systems, resulting in greater exploration of the area, this fact was due the presence of trees that, for the animals resembled fences, limiting the exploration of the paddock in ILPFs. In the ILPF with higher density of trees, this behavior was more evident. In the period from 10:10 a.m. to 14:00 p.m. the displacement of the animals was decrease by the high temperatures in all systems, although it was more effective in the ILP system. It is concluded that the displacement of cattle is influenced by the presence and density of arboreal component integrated crop livestock system.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Behavior, Animal , Pasture , Forests , Eucalyptus , Animal Husbandry/methods
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