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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06717, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250488

ABSTRACT

The brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) is a primate species widely distributed in South America. Infections by protozoa are common in primates. However, studies on protozoa in primates in Brazil are scarce, so the goal of this study was to investigate DNA from the apicomplexan protozoa Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of A. guariba clamitans. DNA extraction was performed on tissue samples from the heart, brain, liver, spleen, lung and intestine of six A. guariba clamitans from Santa Maria, Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Conventional PCR was performed using 18S rRNA gene general primers for Apicomplexa and also specific primers to amplify Neosporaspp. and Toxoplasma gondii DNA. All animals were positive in the 18S PCR and the genetic sequencing confirmed the presence of Sarcocystis spp. DNA in the tissues of four animals belonging to at least two species (S. neurona and S. gigantea) and T. gondii DNA in the other two animals. One positive sample for T. gondii was genotypically characterized as atypical by the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. N. caninum DNA was not detected in the tested samples. The presence of Apicomplexa protozoan DNA in the tissues of the six animals tested in this study highlights the importance of howler monkeys as maintainers of these pathogens in nature.(AU)


O bugio ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans) é uma espécie de primata amplamente distribuída na América do Sul. As infecções por protozoários são comuns em primatas. Entretanto, estudos sobre protozoários em primatas no Brasil são escassos, portanto o objetivo deste estudo foi pesquisar DNA dos protozoários Apicomplexa Neospora caninum, Sarcocystisspp. e Toxoplasma gondii em tecidos de A. guariba clamitans. A extração de DNA foi realizada em amostras de tecido do coração, cérebro, fígado, baço, pulmão e intestino de seis A. guariba clamitans oriundos de Santa Maria, Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foi realizada PCR convencional utilizando primers geral do gene 18S rRNA para Apicomplexa e também primers específicos para amplificação de DNA de Neospora spp.e Toxoplasma gondii. Todos os animais foram positivos no PCR geral para Apicomplexa e no sequenciamento genético confirmou-se a presença de DNA de Sarcocystis nos tecidos de quatro animais pertencentes a pelo menos duas espécies (S. neurona e S. gigantea), e DNA de T. gondii foi detectado nos outros dois animais. Uma amostra positiva para T. gondii foi caracterizada genotipicamente como atípico pela técnica de polimorfismo do comprimento do fragmento de restrição. Não foi detectado DNA de N. caninum nas amostras testadas. A presença de DNA de protozoários apicomplexa nos tecidos dos seis animais testados neste estudo destaca a importância dos bugios ruivos como mantenedores desses patógenos na natureza.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Toxoplasma/pathogenicity , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Apicomplexa/pathogenicity , Alouatta/microbiology , Genotyping Techniques/veterinary , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Protozoan Infections/diagnosis , DNA, Protozoan , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Infections
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06837, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340349

ABSTRACT

The Psittaciformes are among the most popular pets due to their intelligence, ability, and ease of maintenance in small environments. However, the absence of adequate environmental stimuli generated by confinement can predispose these animals to characteristic stress conditions, leaving them susceptible to the triggering of various diseases, among which those of bacterial origin stand out. The objective of this study was to carry out a survey of enterobacteria and evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity profile of bacteria isolated from parrots from a pet shop in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará. Ninety-six samples were collected from four pet shops (which were classified as A, B, C and D), eight samples of local swabs from budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), were collected from each establishment eight from cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and eight from lovebirds (Agapornis sp.). Isolation of enterobacteria is under the methodology used by Lopes et al. (2015) with modifications. The method used to study bacterial resistance was the Kirby-Bauer method, following the standards stipulated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Sixty-eight enterobacteria strains from ten different species, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter diversus, Pantoea agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Providencia stuartii, Hafnia alvei, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia liquefaciens, Enterobacter sakasakii and Citrobacter amalonaticus, were isolated. P. agglomerans was the bacterium with the highest frequency of isolates from pet shop parrots, making up 23.5% of the isolates; the second-most isolated strain was P. mirabilis with 17.7%. In this study, 79% of the isolated strains were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials tested. Tetracycline proved to be the most resistant antimicrobial (44%), followed by polymyxin B (38%) and nalidixic acid (25%). Among the 68 strains, 19% did not show resistance to any of the classes of antimicrobials tested. The condition of multidrug resistance - resistance to ≥3 classes of antimicrobials - was observed in 18% of the isolated strains.(AU)


Os psittaciformes estão entre os animais de estimação mais populares devido sua inteligência, habilidade, além da facilidade de manutenção da espécie em pequenos ambientes. Contudo, a ausência de estímulos ambientais adequados gerados pelo confinamento, podem predispor esses animais a quadros característicos de estresse, deixando-os susceptíveis ao desencadeamento de várias doenças dentre elas se destacam as de origem bacteriana. O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar uma pesquisa de enterobactérias e avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de psitacídeos de pet shop da cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Foram coletadas 96 amostras de quatro pet shops (os quais foram classificados em A, B, C e D), sendo coletados de cada estabelecimento oito amostras de suabes clocais oriundos de periquitos australianos (Melopsittacus undulatus), oito de calopsitas (Nymphicus hollandicus) e oito de agapornis (Agapornis sp.). O isolamento de enterobactérias está de acordo com a metodologia utilizada por Lopes et al. (2015) com modificações. O método utilizado para o estudo de resistência bacteriana foi o de Kirby-Bauer, seguindo os padrões estipulados pela Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Foi isolado um total de 68 cepas de enterobactérias, de dez espécies diferentes, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter diversus, Pantoea agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Providencia stuartii, Hafnia alvei, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia liquefaciens, Enterobacter sakasakii e Citrobacter amalonaticus. Pantoea agglomerans foi a bactéria com maior percentagem de frequência dos isolados de psitacídeos de pet shop, perfazendo um total de 23,5% dos isolados, a segunda cepa mais isolada foi Proteus mirabilis com 17,7%. Neste estudo 79% das cepas isoladas foram resistentes a pelo menos uma classe de antimicrobianos testados, tetraciclina demonstrou ser o antimicrobiano com maior resistência (44%), seguido da polimixina B (38%) e do ácido nalidíxico (25%). Dentre as 68 cepas isoladas, 19% não apresentaram resistência a qualquer uma das classes de antimicrobianos testadas. A condição de multirresistência, ou seja, resistência a ≥3 classes de antimicrobianos foi observado em 18% das cepas isoladas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parrots/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacterial Zoonoses
3.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348005

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis is a protozoonosis caused by an obligate intracellular parasite named Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect humans and a large number of homeothermic animal species with worldwide distribution. The present study aimed to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies from serological samples of free-living wild animals from the northwest region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Thirty-two samples (eight from birds and 24 from mammals) were analyzed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using 5 cut-off points for birds and 25 for mammals. Seropositivity was observed in 25% (2/8) of birds, including the species Rupornis magnirostris (roadside hawk) and Caracara plancus (southern caracara), and 29.2% (7/24) animals were seropositive among mammals, including one hoary fox (Lycalopex vetulus), two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), one black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), two crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) and one gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). The results obtained with the present study indicate the exposure to T. gondiiof free-living wild animals from the northwest region of São Paulo state and, therefore, that they probably play a role in the transmission and maintenance of T. gondii in the environment they inhabit. Thus, identification of the infection in several animal species in the region indicates the environmental contamination of the area. Studies of this nature may help to understand the importance of the prevention and control of this disease in Brazil.(AU)


A toxoplasmose é uma protozoonose causada por um parasita intracelular obrigatório denominado Toxoplasma gondii, que pode infectar os humanos e um vasto número de espécies animais homeotérmicas, apresentando distribuição mundial. O presente estudo objetivou a detecção de anticorpos anti-T. gondii a partir de amostras sorológicas de animais silvestres de vida livre da região noroeste do estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas 32 amostras (oito de aves e 24 de mamíferos) por meio do teste de aglutinação modificado (MAT), utilizando ponto de corte 5 para as aves e 25 para os mamíferos. Soropositividade foi observada em 25% (2/8) das aves, incluindo as espécies Rupornis magnirostris (gavião-carijó) e Caracara plancus (carcará); entre os mamíferos, 29,2% (7/24) foram soropositivos incluindo uma raposa-do-campo (Lycalopex vetulus), dois lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus), um bugio-preto (Alouatta caraya), dois cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous) e um veado-catingueiro (Mazama gouazoubira). Os resultados obtidos com o presente estudo indicam a exposição dos animais selvagens de vida livre a T. gondii na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo e, portanto, que provavelmente apresentam papel na transmissão e manutenção de T. gondii no meio ambiente em que vivem. Assim, a identificação da infecção em várias espécies de animais na região indica a contaminação ambiental da área. Estudos dessa natureza podem ajudar no entendimento sobre a prevenção e o controle dessa importante doença no Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Toxoplasma/immunology , Birds/immunology , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Antibodies , Serology , Agglutination Tests , Zoonoses
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 293-299, Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135613

ABSTRACT

Hemoplasmas are bacteria able to adhere themselves loosely to the plasma membrane of erythrocytes and may parasitize several species of mammals. There are three known species of hemoplasmas that parasitize domestic and wild cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Dogs are infected by at least two species of hemoplasmas: 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' and Mycoplasma haemocanis. The hemoplasmoses are very important in veterinary clinics, either because of its worldwide distribution and severity of clinical signs, depending on parasite species and host immune competence, or due to its zoonotic potential and capability of infecting endangered species. This study set out to investigate which hemoplasmas species parasitize different captive wild carnivores in order to clarify the epidemiology of hemoplasmoses in wild animals. Furthermore, the research intended to characterize the hematological changes caused by different species of hemotropic mycoplasmas infection in order to establish their clinical importance to wild species and the capacity of these species to become a reservoir of studied agents. Samples of 33 wild felids and 18 wild canids were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect hemoplasmas DNA and it was observed that the occurrence of infection in these species is 45.5% and 83.3%, respectively. Factors such as age, gender or anaemia are not more frequent in animals positive for the infection. Therefore, it is concluded that infection caused by hemoplasmas in wild carnivores has high prevalence, and either agent pathogenicity is low, or chronic stage is more frequent, resulting in a low rate of diagnosis.(AU)


Hemoplasmas são bactérias capazes de aderir frouxamente à membrana plasmática de eritrócitos e que podem parasitar diversas espécies de mamíferos. São conhecidas três espécies de hemoplasmas que parasitam felídeos domésticos e selvagens: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Cães são infectados por ao menos duas espécies de hemoplasmas: Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' and Mycoplasma haemocanis. As hemoplasmoses são de grande importância na clínica veterinária, tanto pela sua distribuição ubíqua e severidade dos sinais clínicos, a depender da espécie do parasita e imunocompetência do hospedeiro, quanto pelo seu potencial zoonótico e capacidade de infectar espécies ameaçadas. Este estudo visa investigar quais espécies de hemoplasmas parasitam diferentes carnívoros selvagens de cativeiro, a fim de esclarecer a epidemiologia das hemoplasmoses em animais selvagens. Além disso, o trabalho objetivou caracterizar as alterações hematológicas causadas pela infecção por diferentes espécies de micoplasmas hemotrópicos visando estabelecer sua importância clínica para espécies selvagens e a capacidade destas espécies de se tornar reservatórios dos agentes estudados. Amostras de 33 felídeos selvagens e de 18 canídeos selvagens foram investigadas por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (RCP) para detectar o DNA dos agentes e foi observado que a ocorrência da infecção por hemoplasmas nestas espécies é de 45,5% e 83,3%, respectivamente. Fatores como idade, sexo ou anemia não são mais frequentes em animais positivos para a infecção. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a infecção causada por hemoplasmas em carnívoros selvagens possui alta prevalência, no entanto ou a patogenicidade dos agentes é baixa ou o estágio crônico da infecção é mais frequente, resultando em uma baixa frequência diagnóstica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Canidae/microbiology , Canidae/parasitology , Felidae/microbiology , Felidae/parasitology , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Anemia/veterinary
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 121-128, Feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098444

ABSTRACT

Necropsy protocols of the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of "Faculdade de Veterinária" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" were reviewed, ranging the period from 2000 to 2018. Three hundred eighty one necropsies, 25 refrigerated and/or formaline fixed organs, and seven biopsies were received, representing 413 samples. Most of these materials were sent by the "Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre" of "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) and were from municipalities within the range area of LRD-UFPel influence. Of the 413 cases 55 (13.31%) corresponded to metabolic/nutritional diseases; 50 (12.10%) to trauma; 35 (8.47%) to bacterial diseases/toxi-infections; 30 (7.26%) to parasitic diseases; 28 (6.77%) to fungal diseases; four (0.97%) to viral diseases and 17 (4.11%) to other diseases. Cases where it was not possible to determine the etiology, were in severe autolysis or were inconclusive totaled 194 (46.97%). Metabolic/nutritional diseases and traumatic injuries were the main cause of death in wild birds', being Passeriformes the most affected order.(AU)


Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos diagnósticos de causas de morte e de lesões em aves silvestres na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul de 2000 a 2018. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsia e materiais de aves silvestres encaminhados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas no período. Foram recebidos 381 cadáveres para necropsia, 25 órgãos refrigerados e/ou em formol e 7 biopsias, totalizando 413 materiais. A maioria desses materiais foi remetida pelo Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) e provenientes de municípios da área de influência do LRD-UFPel. Dos 413 casos 55 (13,31%) corresponderam a doenças metabólicas/nutricionais; 50 (12,10%) a traumas; 35 (8,47%) a doenças bacterianas/toxi-infecções; 30 (7,26%) a doenças parasitárias; 28 (6,77%) doenças fúngicas; 4 (0,97%) doenças virais e 17(4,12%) outras doenças que não se encaixavam nas categorias. Ainda em nos casos em que não foi possível determinar a etiologia, apresentaram autólise acentuada ou foram inconclusivos somaram 194 (46,97%). As doenças metabólicas/nutricionais e lesões traumáticas foram as principais causas de morte de aves silvestres, sendo a ordem mais afetada a Passeriformes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/injuries , Birds/microbiology , Birds/virology , Animals, Wild/injuries , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/virology , Autopsy/veterinary , Biopsy/veterinary , Zoonoses
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(2): 195-218, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003667

ABSTRACT

This study organizes all available information about viral and bacterial pathogens of wild mammals in Chile. This was done in order to identify pathogens that have been well-documented and recognize those that have not been properly studied, determine the number of articles that have been published annually about this topic and identify regions in Chile that concentrate the highest and lowest number of studies concerning viral and bacterial pathogens. A total of 67 scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 1951 to 2018 were selected for revision. Results indicate that the number of publications has increased per decade but there are years in which no articles were published. Most studies addressed Leptospira, rabies, hantavirus, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) and distemper. Rodentia, Carnivora, Chiroptera and Cetartiodactyla were the most studied mammal orders. Information about presence/absence of pathogens was found for 44 wild mammal species. Research was mainly carried out in central and southern Chile and the most commonly employed methods for pathogen diagnosis were serology and molecular techniques. Overall, research in wild mammals has been directed towards the evaluation of zoonotic diseases, while vector-borne and non-zoonotic diseases have been mostly neglected by the scientific community over the years.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zoonoses/microbiology , Zoonoses/virology , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/virology , Mammals/microbiology , Mammals/virology , Time Factors , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Zoonoses/transmission , Bibliometrics , Chile
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 584-593, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011254

ABSTRACT

Klebsiella pneumoniae é um patógeno oportunista, responsável por diversos tipos de infecções nosocomiais, e é considerado um microrganismo multirresistente. Dados na literatura que forneçam informações a respeito da resistência desse microrganismo a antimicrobianos em amostras de animais são escassos. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o perfil e o seu aumento das resistências a antimicrobianos dentro da medicina veterinária. Um total de 67 isolados de K. pneumoniae, provenientes de diferentes sítios de isolamento de animais domésticos (39/67) e silvestres (28/67), foi confirmado por sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. O maior percentual de isolamento de K. pneumoniae foi de amostras de urina, com 16% (11/67), fezes, com 15% (10/67), e pulmão, com 13,5% (09/67). No perfil de resistência, foram testadas 11 categorias de antibióticos, sendo a maior taxa de resistência ao metronidazol 97% (65/67), à ampicilina 94% (63/67), à amoxicilina 93% (62/67), às sulfonamidas 93% (62/67), à colistina 93% (62/67) e à nitrofurantoína 88% (59/67). Aqueles que apresentaram menor taxa de resistência foram: meropenem 3% (2/67), imipenem 6% (4/67) e amicacina 16% (11/67). Todos os isolados foram considerados bactérias multirresistentes (MRD), com o índice de resistência múltipla aos antibióticos (IRMA) variando de 0,15 a 0,85 e com 60 tipos de padrões de resistência. O resultado deste estudo reforça que os animais são reservatórios de K. pneumoniae multirresistentes.(AU)


Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for several types of nosocomial infections and is considered a multiresistant microorganism. Data in the literature that provide information regarding the resistance of this microorganism to antimicrobials in animal samples are scarce. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the profile and its increase of antimicrobial resistance within Veterinary Medicine. A total of 67 K. pneumoniae isolates from different domestic (39/67) and wild (28/67) isolation sites were confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The highest percentage of K. pneumoniae isolation was from urine samples with 16% (11/67), faeces 15% (10/67) and lung 13.5% (09/67). In the resistance profile, 11 categories of antibiotics were tested, with the highest resistance to metronidazole being 97% (65/67), ampicillin 94% (63/67), amoxicillin 93% (62/67), sulfonamides 93% (62 / 67), 93% colistin (62/67), and 88% nitrofurantoin (59/67). The ones with the lowest resistance were: meropenem 3% (2/67), imipenem 6% (4/67) and amikacin 16% (11/67). All isolates were considered multiresistant bacteria (MDR), with the Multiple Resistance to Antibiotics Index (IRMA) ranging from 0.15 to 0.85 and with 60 types of resistance patterns. The result of this study reinforces that the animals are reservoirs of multiresistant K. pneumoniae.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Animals, Domestic/microbiology , Animals, Wild/microbiology
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 43-67, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003655

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este estudio organiza toda la información disponible acerca de los patógenos virales y bacterianos de mamíferos silvestres en Chile. Esto fue realizado con el objetivo de identificar patógenos que han sido bien documentados y reconocer aquellos que no han sido apropiadamente estudiados, determinar el número de artículos que han sido publicados anualmente acerca de este tópico e identificar las regiones en Chile que han concentrado el mayor y menor número de estudios relacionados con patógenos virales y bacterianos. Para lograr esto, se seleccionó para revisión un total de 67 artículos científicos publicados en revistas evaluadas por pares desde 1951 al 2018. Los resultados indican que el número de publicaciones ha incrementado por década y hay años en los cuales no se publicaron artículos. La mayoría de los estudios se relacionan con Leptospira, rabia, hantavirus, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) y distémper. Rodentia, Carnivora, Chiroptera y Cetartiodactyla fueron los órdenes de mamíferos más estudiados. Información acerca de la presencia/ausencia de patógenos fue encontrada en 44 especies de mamíferos silvestres. La mayor parte de las investigaciones buscaron patógenos en Chile sur y central y los métodos de diagnóstico más empleados para el diagnóstico de patógenos fueron serología y técnicas moleculares. En general, la investigación en mamíferos silvestres ha sido dirigida a la evaluación de enfermedades zoonóticas, mientras que aquellas enfermedades transmitidas por vectores y enfermedades no zoonóticas han sido mayormente ignoradas por la comunidad científica.


This study organizes all available information about viral and bacterial pathogens of wild mammals in Chile. This was done in order to identify pathogens that have been well-documented and recognize those that have not been properly studied, determine the number of articles that have been published annually about this topic and identify regions in Chile that concentrate the highest and lowest number of studies concerning viral and bacterial pathogens. A total of 67 scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 1951 to 2018 were selected for revision. Results indicate that the number of publications has increased per decade but there are years in which no articles were published. Most studies addressed Leptospira, rabies, hantavirus, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) and distemper. Rodentia, Carnivora, Chiroptera and Cetartiodactyla were the most studied mammal orders. Information about presence/absence of pathogens was found for 44 wild mammal species. Research was mainly carried out in central and southern Chile and the most commonly employed methods for pathogen diagnosis were serology and molecular techniques. Overall, research in Chilean wild mammals has been directed towards the evaluation of zoonotic diseases, while vector-borne and non-zoonotic diseases have been mostly neglected by the scientific community.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Viruses/pathogenicity , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/virology , Mammals/microbiology , Mammals/virology , Time Factors , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Zoonoses/microbiology , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Bibliometrics , Chile
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(12): 2262-2265, dez. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976425

ABSTRACT

A case of blackleg in a brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) associated with trauma from being hit by a car in southern Rio Grande do Sul is reported. The clinical signs included fever, dehydration and lethargy that worsened progressively until 36 hours after the accident, when the animal died. In the fore right limb, there was a comminuted closed fracture of the radius and ulna but no skin wounds were observed. Grossly, the musculature of the pelvic limbs presented hemorrhage, edema and emphysema. Microscopically, the muscles of both rear legs had necrosis, edema, hemorrhage and mild inflammatory infiltration of neutrophils. Clostridium chauvoei was cultured from affected skeletal muscles, and it was also detected by immunohistochemistry, confirming a diagnosis of blackleg. The overlapping habitat of cattle and brown brocket deer is proposed as a predisposing factor in this case and alerts to spillover cases maybe happening in this region. In addition, blackleg should be included as differential diagnoses of deer with post-traumatic myositis.(AU)


Descreve-se um caso de carbúnculo sintomático em um veado-virá (Mazama gouazoubira), macho, jovem, resgatado após atropelamento em uma rodovia na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. O cervídeo apresentou febre, desidratação e letargia, progredindo para a morte em 36 horas. No membro torácico direito foi observado fratura cominutiva fechada de rádio e ulna sem a presença de feridas perfurantes. Na necropsia foi observada hemorragia, edema e enfisema na musculatura dos membros pélvicos. Microscopicamente, os músculos dos membros pélvicos apresentaram necrose, edema, hemorragia e discreto infiltrado inflamatório neutrofílico. Houve o isolamento de Clostridium chauvoei e marcação positiva na técnica de IHQ com anticorpo monoclonal anti-C. chauvoei, confirmando o diagnóstico de carbúnculo sintomático. A sobreposição de habitat entre bovinos domésticos e cervídeos pode ser um fator de risco para esta doença e chama a atenção para casos de "spillover" que podem estar ocorrendo na região. Adicionalmente, sugere-se que o carbúnculo sintomático seja incluído nos diagnósticos diferenciais de cervídeos que apresentam miosite pós-traumática.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/injuries , Carbuncle/veterinary , Clostridium Infections/veterinary , Clostridium chauvoei , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Myositis/veterinary
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(9): 1838-1843, set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976515

ABSTRACT

Muitas espécies de animais silvestres de vida livre servem como reservatório de bactérias patogênicas que ameaçam a saúde humana e dos animais domésticos. Algumas bactérias, como Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Yersinia enterocolitica e Salmonella enterica, causam enfermidades em humanos e podem contaminar os animais domésticos e silvestres. O Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (NURFS-UFPel) soluciona uma demanda regional específica de atenção à fauna silvestre brasileira. O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar a presença de Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp. e Yersinia enterocolitica em animais silvestres que se encontravam em processo de reabilitação. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, com uso de zaragatoas estéreis, de 34 aves, 16 mamíferos e 23 répteis. Dos 73 animais amostrados, quatro (5,48%) albergavam Y. enterocolitica, sendo duas aves, um mamífero e um réptil. Salmonella e Campylobacter não foram isolados. Os perfis de bandas dos isolados de Y. enterocolitica analisados pela rep-PCR foram diferentes entre si. Esses resultados indicam que as cepas isoladas não estão relacionadas entre si, não possuindo uma origem comum recente. Vanellus chilensis, Turdus rufiventris, Didelphis albiventris e Pantherophis guttatus podem albergar Y. enterocolitica e eliminá-la nas fezes, oferecendo risco de disseminação desse micro-organismo no ambiente, além de constituírem possíveis fontes de contaminação para humanos e outros animais.(AU)


Wild animals can transmit pathogenic bacteria to human and domestic animal's health. Some bacteria, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica, cause diseases in humans and can contaminate domestic and wild animais. The Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre of Universidade Federal de Pelotas (Nurfs-UFPel) attend a specific regional demand of wildlife in Brazil. The aim of this paper was to identify the presence of these pathogenic bacteria in wild animals in rehabilitation. Stool samples were collected using sterile swabs from 34 birds, 16 mammals and 23 reptilian that were housed at Nurfs. Of the 73 collections, Y. enterocolitica was isolated from four (5.48%) of two birds, one mammal and one reptile. Salmonella and Campylobacter were not isolated. The molecular profile of bands of Y. enterocolitica identified in rep-PCR had differences. These results indicated that the isolates did not have a recent common origin. Pantherophis guttatus, Didelphis albiventris, Turdus rufiventris and Vanellus chilensis could shelt Y. enterocolitica and eliminate the bacteria in stool, offering risk of dissemination of these microorganisms in the environment with possible contamination of humans and other animals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Yersinia enterocolitica/pathogenicity , Campylobacter jejuni/pathogenicity , Campylobacter coli/pathogenicity , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Rehabilitation Centers
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 368-371, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041464

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Serological surveys are important to assess the health status of wild animals. In this study, antibodies against Leptospira spp, causal agents of leptospirosis, were detected in free-living marsupials in the State of Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Nineteen blood samples collected from marsupials in the municipalities of Peixe-Boi, Viseu, and Castanhal were subjected to microscopic agglutination tests. RESULTS: In total, 36.8% (7/19) of samples were positive, and two exhibited co-agglutination. The most frequent serovars were Icterohaemorrhagiae (60%; 3/5), Panama (20%; 1/5), and Nupezo (20%; 1/5). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-Leptospira spp antibodies currently circulate in free-living marsupials in Northeastern Pará.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Marsupialia/microbiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brazil , Agglutination Tests/veterinary , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Animals, Wild/classification , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Marsupialia/classification
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 505-510, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042452

ABSTRACT

Abstract Wild animals play an important role in carrying vectors that may potentially transmit pathogens. Several reports highlighted the participation of wild animals on the Anaplasma phagocytophilum cycle, including as hosts of the agent. The aim of this study was to report the molecular detection of an agent phylogenetically related to A. phagocytophilum isolated from a wild bird in the Midwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Fifteen blood samples were collected from eleven different bird species in the Guarapuava region. One sample collected from a Penelope obscura bird was positive in nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. The phylogenetic tree based on the Maximum Likelihood analysis showed that the sequence obtained was placed in the same clade with A. phagocytophilum isolated from domestic cats in Brazil. The present study reports the first molecular detection of a phylogenetically related A. phagocytophilum bacterium in a bird from Paraná State.


Resumo Animais selvagens possuem participação importante como carreadores dos vetores responsáveis por transmitir doenças e vários relatos destacam a participação de animais silvestres no ciclo do Anaplasma phagocytophilum, inclusive como hospedeiros do agente. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo relatar pela primeira vez a detecção molecular da infecção por um agente filogeneticamente associado a A. phagocytophilum em uma ave silvestre no interior do Paraná, Brasil. Foram colhidas 15 amostras de sangue originadas de onze espécies diferentes de aves, todas provenientes da região de Guarapuava. Apenas uma amostra pertencente a uma ave da espécie Penelope obscura foi positiva para o ensaio de nested PCR baseado no gene 16S rRNA. A árvore filogenética baseada na análise por máxima verossimilhança demonstrou que a sequência obtida no presente estudo se posicionou no mesmo clado com cepas de A. phagocytophilum isoladas de gatos domésticos no Brasil. O presente trabalho relata pela primeira vez a detecção molecular de Anaplasma sp. filogeneticamente relacionado à A. phagocytophilum, em um animal da espécie P. obscura, assim como a presença do parasita em uma ave silvestre do Estado do Paraná, Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/microbiology , Anaplasma/isolation & purification , Anaplasma/genetics , Anaplasmosis/microbiology , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Phylogeny , Brazil , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genetics , Galliformes/microbiology
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 760-763, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889158

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Psittacine birds have been identified as reservoirs of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, a subset of pathogens associated with mortality of children in tropical countries. The role of other orders of birds as source of infection is unclear. The aim of this study was to perform the molecular diagnosis of infection with diarrheagenic E. coli in 10 different orders of captive wild birds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples were analyzed from 516 birds belonging to 10 orders: Accipitriformes, Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Falconiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, Pelecaniformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes and Strigiformes. After isolation, 401 E. coli strains were subjected to multiplex PCR system with amplification of genes eae and bfp (EPEC), stx1 and stx2 for STEC. The results of these tests revealed 23/401 (5.74%) positive strains for eae gene, 16/401 positive strains for the bfp gene (3.99%) and 3/401 positive for stx2 gene (0.75%) distributed among the orders of Psittaciformes, Strigiformes and Columbiformes. None of strains were positive for stx1 gene. These data reveal the infection by STEC, typical and atypical EPEC in captive birds. The frequency of these pathotypes is low and restricted to few orders, but the data suggest the potential public health risk that these birds represent as reservoirs of diarrheagenic E. coli.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/microbiology , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Birds/classification , Brazil , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/classification , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/metabolism , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/classification , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/metabolism , Animals, Wild/classification
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 747-753, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889165

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis. Swab samples were collected from 58 parrots for C. psittaci detection by PCR and from 50 nestlings for Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and West Nile viruses' detection analysis by real-time RT-PCR. Ten bacterial genera and 17 species were identified, and the most prevalent were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. There was no influence of the type of nest in the nestlings' microbiota. All samples tested by ELISA and PCR were negative. There is currently insufficient information available about the health of A. brasiliensis and data of this study provide a reference point for future evaluations and aid in conservation plans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Viruses/isolation & purification , Bird Diseases/microbiology , Bird Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Amazona/microbiology , Amazona/virology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Brazil , Virus Diseases/virology , Endangered Species , Islands , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/virology
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 290-296, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839228

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study verified the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in dogs, cats, wild mammals and their ectoparasites in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande Counties, Pernambuco, located in a semi-arid region in Northeastern Brazil. Anti-Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in 24.8% of dogs (27/109) and in 15% of cats (6/40). Bartonella sp. DNA was identified by PCR performed on DNA extracted from blood and ectoparasites using primers targeting Bartonella sp. gltA and ribC genes in 100% (9/9) of Pulex irritans from Cerdocyon thous, 57.4% (35/61) of P. irritans from dogs, 2.3% (1/43) of Ctenocephalides felis felis from dogs, 53.3% (24/45) of C. felis felis from cats, and 10% (1/10) of Polyplax spp. from Thrichomys apereoides. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae in C. felis felis from cats, Bartonella rochalimae in P. irritans from dog and C. thous, and Bartonella vinsoni berkhofii in P. irritans from dog.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Lice Infestations/veterinary , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Bartonella/isolation & purification , Bartonella Infections/veterinary , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Rodentia/microbiology , Rodentia/parasitology , Bartonella/genetics , Bartonella Infections/epidemiology , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Canidae/microbiology , Canidae/parasitology , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Marsupialia/microbiology , Marsupialia/parasitology
18.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 53(1): 107-111, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-784035

ABSTRACT

Illegal wildlife trade removes millions of birds from nature every year. Among the most trafficked species of birds are redcrested cardinals (Paroaria coronata) and red-cowled cardinals (Paroaria dominicana). The cloacal microbiota of free-living passerines consists mainly of gram-positive bacilli and cocci, and gram-negative bacilli predominate in captive birds. Under stress and low immunity, gram-negative species may cause opportunistic infections. This study identified bacteria from cloacal microbiota of 49 specimens of P. coronata and P. dominicana seized from illegal wildlife trade in São Paulo (SP). In this study, 13 species of gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. An increased occurrence of Escherichia coli was identified in 42/49 (85.7 %) of fecal samples. Among the E. coli strains, 21/42 belonging to the phylogenetic groups B2 and D, were related to extraintestinal pathogenic strains causing disease in humans. Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated in 28/49 (57.1 %) samples. These results reinforce the fact that stressful conditions of illegal trade can favor the colonization of cloacal microbiota of these birds by pathogens, which represents a risk for their reintroductioninto the wild, including the transmission of diseases to humans and other animals...


Anualmente o tráfico de animais silvestres retira milhões de aves da natureza. Os cardeais (Paroaria coronata) e cardeais-donordeste (Paroaria dominicana) estão incluídos entre as espécies de aves mais traficadas. A microbiota cloacal de passeriformes de vida livre é composta principalmente por bacilos e cocos gram-positivos, já os bacilos gram-negativos predominam em aves de cativeiro. Em situações de estresse e baixa de imunidade as bactérias gram-negativas podem causar infecções oportunistas. O presente trabalho identificou bactérias da microbiota da cloaca de 49 espécimes de P. coronata e P. dominicana apreendidas do tráfico de animais silvestres em São Paulo (SP). Foram isoladas treze espécies de bactérias gram-negativas, incluindo Salmonella spp. e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A maior frequência de ocorrência foi de Escherichia coli, identificada em 42/49 (85,7%) das amostras fecais. Dentre os isolados de E. coli, 21/42 pertenciam aos grupos filogenéticos B2 e D, relacionados a estirpes patogênicas que causam doença extraintestinal em humanos. Klebsiella pneumoniae foi isolada em 28/49 (57,1%) das amostras. Esses resultados reforçam que as condições estressantes a que esses animais são submetidos em situações de tráfico, incluindo o contato com humanos, podem favorecer a colonização da microbiota cloacal das aves por patógenos, o que representa um risco para a sua reintrodução na natureza considerando-se o possível contato com humanos e outros animais...


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Birds/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Microbiota , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
19.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 53(2): 169-176, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789918

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the occurrence of feline upper respiratory tract disease agents, namely Feline Herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) and Chlamydophila felis, and co-infection of these agents with Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in non-domestic felids in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2010, 72 conjunctival swab and serum samples were collected from eight non-domestic felid species (Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Panthera leo, Panthera tigris, Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Oncifelis colocolo, and Panthera onca) maintained in captivity in Brazilian zoos. DNA extracted from conjunctival swabs were used in PCR assays for the detection of Chlamydophila sp, FHV-1, and retrovirus DNA, respectively. Antibodies to FIV and FeLV antigen were detected in non-domestic felid serum samples using a commercial ELISA kit. Antibodies to FIV were found only in five (6.9%) felids. No sampled non-domestic felid was positive for FeLV antigen detection. One (1.3%) out of 72 non-domestic felid conjunctival swab samples was positive for Chlamydophilasp. and Feline Herpesvirus-1 in PCR. This felid was an ocelot and was negative for FIV and FeLV. The results of this survey showed the occurrence of co-infection with C. felis and FHV-1 in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Brazil...


Poucos trabalhos descrevem a ocorrência dos agentes do complexo respiratório felino, Herpesvírus Felino tipo 1 (FHV-1) e Chlamydophila felis, e a coinfecção com o vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV) e leucemia viral felina (FeLV) em felinos não domésticos no Brasil. Entre 2009 e 2010, 72 amostras de swab de conjuntiva e de soro foram coletados de oito espécies de felinos não domésticos (Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Panthera leo, Panthera tigris, Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Oncifelis colocolo, and Panthera onca) mantidos em cativeiro em zoológicos brasileiros. O DNA foi extraído das amostras de swab de conjuntiva para detecção de Chlamydophila sp e FHV-1 pela PCR. Anticorpos para FIV e antígeno para FeLV foram determinados pelo kit comercial de ELISA. Anticorpos para FIV foram detectados em cinco felídeos (6,9%). Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para a presença de antígeno de FeLV. Um (1,3%) dos 72 felinos não domésticos apresentou fragmentos de DNA de Chlamydophila sp e FHV-1 pela PCR. Este felino era uma jaguatirica que não apresentou anticorpos para FIV e nem antígeno para FelV. Estes resultados demonstram a ocorrência de coinfecção de C. felis e FHV-1 em uma jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis) no Brasil...


Subject(s)
Animals , Chlamydophila/isolation & purification , Felidae/microbiology , Herpesviridae/isolation & purification , Panthera/microbiology , Puma/microbiology , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline/isolation & purification , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
20.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(3): 174-182, set. 2015. tab, graf, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843123

ABSTRACT

El control y la erradicación de la tuberculosis bovina basados en la detección de los animales infectados y su inmediata faena permitió lograr progresos satisfactorios en varios países y regiones, pero no todos pudieron lograrlo debido principalmente a la presencia de fauna silvestre infectada con Mycobacterium bovis. La Argentina aplica desde 1999 estas mismas premisas y ha logrado avances en los rodeos lecheros, aunque no se ha evaluado el factor ambiental como la fauna silvestre. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si la fauna silvestre de la cuenca lechera de Santa Fe está infectada con M. bovis. Se realizó la captura/sacrificio de fauna silvestre presente en 5 rodeos lecheros con altos niveles de reaccionantes positivos a la prueba de tuberculina. Sobre 95 mamíferos silvestres examinados, se aisló M. bovis de 7 individuos de comadreja overa (Didelphis albiventris), de uno de zorro gris (Lycolapex gimnocercus) y de uno de rata (Rattus norvegicus). Los sitios anatómicos que produjeron estos aislamientos variaron de acuerdo con las especies; en ninguno de los ejemplares evaluados se observaron lesiones macroscópicas de tuberculosis. Los espoligotipos de M. bovis aislados con mayor frecuencia de los animales silvestres correspondieron a los tipos 34 (4 aislamientos) y 12 (3 aislamientos); el primero es el más corrientemente aislado del ganado en Argentina. Se discute en este estudio el papel de la comadreja overa (D. albiventris) como hospedador circunstancial de M. bovis


Control eradication campaigns of bovine tuberculosis based on the «test and slaughter¼ approach were successful in many countries and regions; however, in some areas the infection persists and one of the main reasons is Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild life species. Argentina has applied the same approach since 1999, achieving progress in dairy cattle herds. Nonetheless, the wildlife role has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if wildlife from the Santa Fe dairy area is infected with M. bovis. Wildlife species having a positive tuberculin skin test were captured in five dairy farms. Ninety five wildlife mammals were captured; M. bovis was recovered from 7 possums (Didelphys albiventris), from one fox (Lycolapex gimnocercus) and from one rat (Rattus norvegicus). None of the animals exhibited macroscopic lesions. The most frequently isolated M. bovis spoligotypes were types 34 (4 isolates) and 12 (3 isolates). Spoligotype 34 is the most frequently isolated type in Argentine cattle. The role of D. albiventris as spillover host of M. bovis is discussed in this study


Subject(s)
Tuberculin/analysis , Didelphis/microbiology , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Mycobacterium bovis/isolation & purification , Tuberculosis, Bovine/prevention & control , Bacteriological Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Diagnosis/analysis , Mycobacterium bovis/growth & development
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