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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190211, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057287

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Recently, plant-sourced larvicides are attracting great interests. METHODS: The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of Cinnamomum camphora (L.), and a bioassay was conducted to determine the larvicidal efficacy. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: The oil showed strong, dose-dependent larvicidal activities. The onset of larvicidal efficiency was rapid. The LC50 and LC95 were determined as 0.146% and 1.057% at 1 h, 0.031% and 0.237% at 12 h, 0.026% and 0.128% at 24 h, respectively. The oil contains 32 compounds. CONCLUSIONS The essential oil of C. camphora leaf has an excellent larvicidal potential for the control of A. stephensi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cinnamomum camphora/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Anopheles/classification
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190018, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092184

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The larvicidal potential of Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. was studied against the early 4th instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston., Aedes aegypti Linn.,and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. because of the emergence of mosquito resistance to conventional synthetic insecticides. METHODS: At concentrations of 12.5-200 ppm, larvicidal activities were studied under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: After 24 h of exposure, the methanol extract of the roots recorded the highest larvicidal activity against An. stephensi, with LC50 and LC90values of 7.96 and 34.39 ppm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We are developing potent larvicidal compound(s) from S. costus for controlling the mosquito larval population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Culex/drug effects , Saussurea/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Insecticides/isolation & purification
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190431, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) may be effective for vector control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Their efficacy, however, has not been sufficiently evaluated. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the large-scale efficacy of LLINs on Lutzomyia longiflocosa entomological parameters up to two years post-intervention in the sub-Andean region of Colombia. METHODS A matched-triplet cluster-randomised study of 21 rural settlements, matched by pre-intervention L. longiflocosa indoor density was used to compare three interventions: dip it yourself (DIY) lambda-cyhalothrin LLIN, deltamethrin LLIN, and untreated nets (control). Sand fly indoor density, feeding success, and parity were recorded using CDC light trap collections at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. FINDINGS Both LLINs reduced significantly (74-76%) the indoor density and the proportion of fully engorged sand flies up to two years post-intervention without differences between them. Residual lethal effects of both LLINs and the use of all nets remained high throughout the two-year evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS Both LLINs demonstrated high efficacy against L. longiflocosa indoors. Therefore, the deployment of these LLINs could have a significant impact on the reduction of CL transmission in the sub-Andean region. The DIY lambda-cyhalothrin kit may be used to convert untreated nets to LLINs increasing coverage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Anopheles/drug effects , Rural Population , Insecticide Resistance , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Colombia , Mosquito Vectors
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(12): e180380, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Nyssorhynchus dunhami, a member of the Nuneztovari Complex, has been collected in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru and described as zoophilic. Although to date Ny. dunhami has not been documented to be naturally infected by Plasmodium, it is frequently misidentified as other Oswaldoi subgroup species that are local or regional malaria vectors. OBJECTIVES The current study seeks to verify the morphological identification of Nuneztovari Complex species collected in the peri-Iquitos region of Amazonian Peru, to determine their Plasmodium infection status, and to describe ecological characteristics of their larval habitats. METHODS We collected Ny. nuneztovari s.l. adults in 2011-2012, and Ny. nuneztovari s.l. larvae and adults in 2016-2017. When possible, samples were identified molecularly using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode sequencing. Adult Ny. nuneztovari s.l. from 2011-2012 were tested for Plasmodium using real-time PCR. Environmental characteristics associated with Ny. nuneztovari s.l. larvae-positive water bodies were evaluated. FINDINGS We collected 590 Ny. nuneztovari s.l. adults and 116 larvae from eight villages in peri-Iquitos. Of these, 191 adults and 111 larvae were identified by COI sequencing; all were Ny. dunhami. Three Ny. dunhami were infected with P. falciparum, and one with P. vivax, all collected from one village on one night. Ny. dunhami larvae were collected from natural and artificial water bodies, and their presence was positively associated with other Anophelinae larvae and amphibians, and negatively associated with people living within 250m. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Of Nuneztovari Complex species, we identified only Ny. dunhami across multiple years in eight peri-Iquitos localities. This study is, to our knowledge, the first report of natural infection of molecularly identified Ny. dunhami with Plasmodium. We advocate the use of molecular identification methods in this region to monitor Ny. dunhami and other putative secondary malaria vectors to more precisely evaluate their importance in malaria transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium/pathogenicity , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles , Anopheles/drug effects , Leishmania braziliensis
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(2): 108-115, Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND New brands of potential long lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and LLIN treatment kits require field evaluation before they are used in a vector control programme. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-efficacy, usage, washing practice and physical integrity of nets treated with LLIN treatment kit, ICON MAXX in a phase III field trial in Odisha state, India. METHODS A total of 300 polyester nets treated with ICON MAXX and 140 polyester nets treated conventionally with lambda-cyhalothrin CS 2.5% ITNs were distributed. The bio-efficacy was evaluated with WHO cone bioassay. The chemical analysis of netting pieces was done at the beginning, after 12 and 36 months of the trial. FINDINGS After one year of distribution of nets, the bioassay showed 100% mortality on both ITNs and ICON MAXX treated nets. At 36 months, the overall pass rate was 58.8% and the mean lambda-cyhalothrin content of LLINs was 34.5 mg ai/m2, showing a loss of 44.4% of the original concentration. CONCLUSION ICON MAXX treated LLIN was found to retain bio-efficacy causing 97% knockdown of Anopheles stephensi up to 30 months and met the WHOPES criteria. However, the desired bio-efficacy was not sustained up to 36 months.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Insecticide-Treated Bednets/statistics & numerical data , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Time Factors , Biological Assay , India , Laundering/methods , Malaria/prevention & control
6.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(7): 2179-2188, Jul. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785920

ABSTRACT

Abstract The resistance of some species of Anopheles to chemical insecticides is spreading quickly throughout the world and has hindered the actions of prevention and control of malaria. The main mechanism responsible for resistance in these insects appears to be the target site known as knock-down resistance (kdr), which causes mutations in the sodium channel. Even so, many countries have made significant progress in the prevention of malaria, focusing largely on vector control through long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying and (IRS) of insecticides. The objective of this review is to contribute with information on the more applied insecticides for the control of the main vectors of malaria, its effects, and the different mechanisms of resistance. Currently it is necessary to look for others alternatives, e.g. biological control and products derived from plants and fungi, by using other organisms as a possible regulator of the populations of malaria vectors in critical outbreaks.


Resumo A resistência de algumas espécies de Anopheles a inseticidas químicos está se espalhando rapidamente por todo o mundo e tem dificultado as ações de prevenção e controle da malária. O principal mecanismo responsável pela resistência nestes insetos parece ser o sítio-alvo conhecido como resistência knock-down resistance (kdr), que causa mutações no canal de sódio. Mesmo assim, muitos países fizeram progressos significativos na prevenção da malária, concentrando-se em grande parte no controle do vetor através redes inseticidas de longa duração (RILD), e de pulverização residual interna (PRI) de inseticidas. O objetivo desta revisão é contribuir com informações sobre os inseticidas mais aplicados para o controle dos principais vetores da malária, seus efeitos, e os diferentes mecanismos de resistências. Atualmente é necessário olhar para outras alternativas, como por exemplo, controle biológico e produtos derivados de plantas e fungos, pela utilização de outros organismos como um possível regulador de populações de vetores da malária em surtos críticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Anopheles/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Agriculture
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 668-671, 19/08/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720428

ABSTRACT

Eicosanoids affect the immunity of several pathogen/insect models, but their role on the Anopheles gambiae response to Plasmodium is still unknown. Plasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes were injected with an eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor, indomethacin (IN), or a substrate, arachidonic acid (AA), at day 7 or day 12 post-infection (p.i.). Salivary gland invasion was evaluated by sporozoite counts at day 21 p.i. IN promoted infection upon sporozoite release from oocysts, but inhibited infection when sporozoites were still maturing within the oocysts, as observed by a reduction in the number of sporozoites reaching the salivary glands. AA treatment had the opposite effect. We show for the first time that An. gambiae can modulate parasite survival through eicosanoids by exerting an antagonistic or agonistic effect on the parasite, depending on its stage of development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Eicosanoids/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Oocysts/drug effects , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Salivary Glands/parasitology , Anopheles/drug effects , Arachidonic Acid/pharmacology , Indomethacin/antagonists & inhibitors , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Oocysts/growth & development , Plasmodium berghei/physiology
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(4): 411-419, Jul-Aug/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683327

ABSTRACT

Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae) and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae) against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM) extracts and liquid culture media (LCM) from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Basidiomycota/chemistry , Endophytes/chemistry , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Biological Assay , Larva/drug effects
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(3): 377-380, May-Jun/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679517

ABSTRACT

Introduction In this study, we used dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the Zingiber zerumbet rhizome to evaluate brine shrimp lethality and larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari mosquitoes. Methods Bioassays were performed by exposing third-instar larvae of each mosquito species to the DCM or MeOH extracts. Results Probit analysis with DCM and MeOH extracts demonstrated efficient larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and A. nuneztovari larvae. Conclusions The DCM and MeOH extracts showed higher activity against A. nuneztovari larvae than against A. aegypti larvae, suggesting that the extracts have species-specific activity. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Artemia/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rhizome/chemistry , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Biological Assay , Larva/drug effects , Methanol/isolation & purification , Methanol/pharmacology , Methylene Chloride/isolation & purification , Methylene Chloride/pharmacology , Survival Analysis
10.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 561-566
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142617

ABSTRACT

Senna alata is locally used in South Eastern Nigeria in the treatment of several infections which include ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases.The larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf and stem extracts of S. alata were evaluated in static bioassays, on fourth instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti, at extract concentrations of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% w/v, for 72 hours. Mortality of larvae exposed to the different extracts increased with increase in extract concentration and time of exposure. This study revealed a differential potency of the extracts used and a difference in susceptibility of larvae to the extracts as evident by the 72hLC[50] values obtained. The leaf extract proved to be more lethal to the larvae than the stem extract as judged by the 72hLC[50] values obtained both for the aqueous as well as the ethanolic extracts assayed. Phytochemical screening of the plant parts investigated revealed the presence of some plant metabolites, which have been reported in separate studies to be lethal to mosquito larvae. Results obtained from this study suggest that the leaf and stem extracts of S. alata possess a promising larvicidal potential which can be exploited in mosquito vector control


Subject(s)
Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Culex/drug effects , Mosquito Control/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Plants, Medicinal
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 32(supl.1): 22-28, ene.-mar. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639824

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La sensibilidad fisiológica a los insecticidas usados en salud pública es el principal factor que se debe tener en cuenta en la selección de las estrategias de control en los vectores de malaria. Objetivo. Determinar el estado de sensibilidad fisiológica de Anopheles darlingi a insecticidas, en dos localidades de los departamentos de Santander y Caquetá. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron hembras silvestres de An. darlingi y se hicieron bioensayos según la metodología de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, 1981) y de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 1998), usando moléculas insecticidas grado técnico. Resultados Las poblaciones naturales de An. darlingi de las veredas Gerumano en Solano (Caquetá) y la vereda Las Margaritas en San Vicente de Chucurí (Santander) mostraron sensibilidad a los insecticidas piretroides lambdacialotrina y deltametrina, al organoclorado DDT y al organosofosforado fenitrotión, con mortalidades del 100 % en todas la pruebas del CDC y entre 95 y 100 % para las de la OMS. Para el carbamato propoxur, la mortalidad de 88 % en la población de Gerumano, evaluada por las pruebas de la OMS, coincide con valores de vigilancia para esta molécula. Conclusión. Los productos químicos que tienen como ingrediente activo las moléculas evaluadas, son eficaces para el control de An. darlingi en los sitios de estudio.


Introduction. Physiological resistance to insecticides used in public health is the main factor to define strategies for malaria vector control. Objective. To determine the physiological status of insecticide susceptibility of natural populations of An. darlingi from two localities in the Santander and Caquetá departments. Materials and methods. Wild adult Anopheles darlingi females were collected and bioassays using technical grade insecticides were performed following the methods recommended both by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1981) and the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC, 1998). Results. The natural populations of An. darlingi from the villages of Gerumano, Solano, Caqueta and Las Margaritas, San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, showed susceptibility to the pyrethroids lambdacyhalothrin and deltamethrin, to the organochlorate DDT and to the organophosphate fenitrothion with 100% mortality rates in all of the CDC tests and between 95 and 100% in the tests performed following the WHO methods. For the carbamate propoxur the 88% mortality rate obtained in the village of Gerumano following the methods recommended by WHO coincides with the surveillance methods established for surveillance of this molecule. Conclusions. Chemical products whose active ingredients are the molecules tested are effective for control of An. darlingi in the study sites.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anopheles/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Colombia
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135771

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with the different extracts tested. Interpretation & conclusions: The acetone extract of A. paniculata, methanol extract of E. prostrata and T. erecta showed good oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities respectively. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta may have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Acetone , Analysis of Variance , Andrographis/chemistry , Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Eclipta/chemistry , India , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Methanol , Mosquito Control/methods , Oviposition/drug effects , Ovum/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Tagetes/chemistry
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135735

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus.


Subject(s)
Acetates/chemistry , Animals , Annona/chemistry , Anopheles/drug effects , Asteraceae/chemistry , Chrysanthemum/chemistry , Culex/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Insecticides/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Malaria/prevention & control , Methanol/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135578

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Under the national antimalaria programme DDT was introduced in early 1950s for vector control and later hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) followed by malathion and recently synthetic pyrethroids in 1990s to manage the insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies. Subsequent replacement led to development of multiple resistances in An. culicifacies in Surat district in Gujarat State. Indoor residual spray (IRS) was completely withdrawn in southern villages in Surat in 2002. This study was undertaken in these areas to study the persistence of resistance to DDT, malathion and deltamethrin after sequential withdrawal of IRS with these insecticides at different times. Methods: Susceptibility tests on An. culicifacies were conducted using standard WHO methods and kits. Mortality, knockdown time and lethal times were calculated for An. culicifacies exposed to WHO prescribed diagnostic concentrations of different insecticide impregnated papers. Results: Persistence of DDT-resistance was observed even after 30 yr of its withdrawal from IRS. Similarly, persistence of malathion resistance was also observed after 9 yr of its withdrawal from IRS, while reversal of deltamethrin-resistance was observed very fast within 2-3 yr after its withdrawal from IRS in 2002. Interpretation & conclusion: Present data indicate that the quantum of reversion of insecticide resistance in a population is relative and depends on the genetic stability of the respective resistance genes in the mosquitoes. In the present study withdrawal of pyrethroid-IRS resulted in increased susceptibility against pyrethroids alone and was independent of existence of resistance to insecticides of other groups. This study emphasizes that appropriate rotation of different insecticides; including carbamates may prevent or delay the onset of resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Anopheles/genetics , Anopheles/physiology , DDT/toxicity , Genetics, Population , India , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/toxicity , Malathion/toxicity , Mortality , Mosquito Control/methods , Nitriles/toxicity , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Regression Analysis , Time Factors
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135921

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting is a new technology to control mosquitoes in emergency shelter places and also temporary habitations in different locations. Therefore, field studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of ZeroFly® plastic sheeting treated with deltamethrin on prevailing disease vectors Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis and its impact on malaria transmission in one of the highly endemic areas of Orissa. Methods: The study was conducted in Birkera block of Sundargarh district, Orissa state. The study area comprised 3 villages, which were randomized as ZeroFly plastic sheet, untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area. ZeroFly plastic sheets and untreated plastic sheets were fixed in study and control villages respectively covering all the rooms in each household. Longitudinal studies were conducted on the bioefficacy with the help of cone bioassays, monitoring of the mosquito density through hand catch, floor sheet and exit trap collections and fortnightly domiciliary active surveillance in all the study villages. Results: In ZeroFly plastic sheeting area, there was a significant reduction of 84.7 per cent in the entry rate of total mosquitoes in comparison to pre-intervention phase. There was 56.2 per cent immediate mortality in total mosquitoes in houses with ZeroFly sheeting. The overall feeding success rate of mosquitoes in the trial village was only 12.5 per cent in comparison to 49.7 and 51.1 per cent in villages with untreated plastic sheet and no sheet respectively. There was a significant reduction of 65.0 and 70.5 per cent in malaria incidence in ZeroFly plastic sheeting area as compared to untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed that introduction of ZeroFly plastic sheets in a community-based intervention programme is operationally feasible to contain malaria especially in the high transmission difficult areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Bedding and Linens , Humans , India , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Mosquito Control/methods , Nitriles/chemistry , Nitriles/pharmacology , Plastics/chemistry , Protective Devices , Pyrethrins/chemistry , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135876

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Vector control, using agents of chemical origin, continues to be practiced in the control of vector borne diseases. However, due to some drawbacks including lack of selectivity, environmental contamination, and emergence and spread of vector resistance, development of natural products for vector control has been a priority in this area. In the present study we evaluated the larvicidal and emergence inhibitory activities of a neem based formulation Neem Azal T/S 1.2 per cent EC against the vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue. Method: Larvicidal and emergence inhibition (EI) activity of a neem formulation, NeemAzal T/S 1.2 per cent EC, was studied in the laboratory respectively against early 4th and early 3rd instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti following standard procedures. Results: Among the three vector species studied, An. stephensi was highly susceptible to NeemAzal T/S as revealed by the LC50 and LC90 values (1.92 and 2.76 ppm). The formulation produced an overall mortality or inhibition of emergence of 90 per cent (EI90, when 3rd instar larvae were treated) at 0.046, 0.208 and 0.866 ppm in An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. The corresponding EI50 values were 0.006, 0.048 and 0.249 ppm. On treatment, NeemAzal T/S induced certain morphogenetic abnormalities, broadly characterized in five types, in larvae, pupae and adults of all the three vector species. The percentage of dead specimens of any stage showing morphogenetic abnormalities was the maximum in Cx. quinquefasciatus (14.4%; n=2113) followed by Ae. aegypti. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results indicated that because of its emergence inhibition activity, NeemAzal T/S 1.2 per cent EC could be a promising candidate for the use in integrated vector management programme and replace chemical insecticides.


Subject(s)
Aedes/drug effects , Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Azadirachta/chemistry , Culex/drug effects , Dengue/parasitology , Filariasis/parasitology , Humans , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/anatomy & histology , Larva/drug effects , Malaria/parasitology , Morphogenesis/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135831

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: A longitudinal study was carried out to assess the impact of indoor residual spray with Vectron® 20 WP (etofenprox) against Anopheles culicifacies and on malaria transmission in a selected village of Dadri primary health centre (PHC), District Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods: Two villages, namely Patadi and Anandpur in District Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, with similar malaria incidence and vector prevalence were selected for the present evaluation. In one village two rounds of indoor spraying of etofenprox (0.1 g/m2) were done at an interval of 12 wk and the other village was kept as control where no intervention except intensive active surveillance for early detection and prompt treatment (EDPT) was undertaken during the study period. Entomological and epidemiological data were collected using standard procedures. Results: Persistence of the effectiveness of etofenprox against An. culicifacies was observed up to 12 wk. Spraying of etofenprox signifi cantly reduced the density signififi (P<0.001) and proportion of parous An. culicifacies mosquitoes (P<0.05) in the experimental village. There was a signififi cant reduction in malaria cases in the experimental village during the post-spray period when compared to the control village (P<0.05). No adverse effect was reported by the spraymen and inhabitants during and after the spray. Interpretation & conclusion: Indoor residual spray of etofenprox (0.1 g/m2) with an interval of three months in between two rounds of spray produced the desired impact in reducing the indoor resting density of vector mosquitoes and also in curtailing malaria transmission in the sprayed village when compared with the control village without spray.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Anopheles/pathogenicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , India , Insecticides/toxicity , Longitudinal Studies , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Pyrethrins/toxicity
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(1): 18-26, Feb. 2009. graf, tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507201

ABSTRACT

In order to establish the insecticide susceptibility status for Anopheles darlingi in Colombia, and as part of the National Network on Insecticide Resistance Surveillance, five populations of insects from three Colombian states were evaluated. Standardised WHO and CDC bottle bioassays, in addition to microplate biochemical assays, were conducted. Populations with mortality rates below 80 percent in the bioassays were considered resistant. All field populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, permethrin, malathion and fenitrothion. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT was detected in the Amé-Beté population using both bioassay methods with mortality rates of 65-75 percent. Enzyme levels related to insecticide resistance, including mixed function oxidases (MFO), non-specific esterases (NSE), glutathione S-transferases and modified acetylcholinesterase were evaluated in all populations and compared with a susceptible natural strain. Only mosquitoes from Amé-Beté presented significantly increased levels of both MFO and NSE, consistent with the low mortalities found in this population. The continued use of lambda-cyhalothrin for An. darlingi control in this locality has resulted in a natural resistance to this insecticide. In addition, DDT resistance is still present in this population, although this insecticide has not been used in Colombia since 1992. Increased metabolism through MFO and NSE may be involved in cross-resistance between lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT, although kdr-type nerve insensitivity cannot be discarded as a possible hypothesis. Additional research, including development of a kdr specific assay for An. darlingi should be conducted in future studies. Our data demonstrates the urgent need to develop local insecticide resistance management and surveillance programs throughout Colombia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anopheles/enzymology , Esterases/metabolism , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Colombia , DDT , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
19.
Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 2009; 3 (1): 19-28
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-93748

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate different fibres of bednets impregnated with various pyrethroids. The stability of insecticide on the bednet was measured using different methods of washings as well as local made detergents. The entire test was carried out according to the WHO-recommended methods. In addition, the impact of the numbers of washes on the stability of the insecticides was determined. Permethrin 10% [EC], deltamethrin 10% [SC], lambdacyhalothrin 2.5% [CS] and cyfluthrin 5% [EW] were used at the recommended dosages. Three different local detergents were used. Two kinds of washing methods [shaking, no shaking] were used and in each method four kinds of washings, i.e. no wash, one wash, two washes and three washes was done. The main malaria vectors, Anopheles stephensi, which is susceptible to all insecticides [BEECH strain], was tested with impregnated bednets in 3 minutes exposure time and the mortality was measured after 24 hours recovery period. Knock-down was measured as well using appropriate statistical methods. Lambdacyhalothrin has saved its insecticidal impact after being washed, whereas, deltamethrin has lost its activity faster than other insecticides. Tow other insecticides had moderate effect. Golnar soap detergent has least effect on the durability of insecticides, but the Shoma had the most. Whit increasing the times of washing, insecticidal effects was decreased, but shaking had no influence on the decreasing of the quality of insecticidal impact. Results will be useful for local people who wish to use pyrethroid-impregnated bednets with their own local made detergent and bednets


Subject(s)
Insecta , Insecticide Resistance , Mosquito Control/methods , Anopheles/drug effects , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Disease Vectors , Malaria/prevention & control
20.
Salud pública Méx ; 50(5): 367-374, sept.-oct. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-494721

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar el efecto de los compuestos volátiles en las casas sobre la respuesta conductual del vector del paludismo Anopheles albimanus. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en enero de 2006 en el ejido Nueva Independencia, municipio de Suchiate, Chiapas. Se colectaron compuestos volátiles dentro de casas y los extractos se probaron sobre hembras sin alimentar en un olfatómetro en "Y". Los extractos se analizaron mediante cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (CG-EM). RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 28 extractos, 12 presentaron respuesta de atracción y dos de repelencia. Los análisis por CG-EM indicaron variación en la presencia de compuestos volátiles y no se vincularon con compuestos específicos indicativos de algún efecto. CONCLUSIONES: Los volátiles en casas presentaron efecto de atracción y repelencia para An. albimanus. No se reconoció un patrón definido en cuanto a la presencia de compuestos químicos característicos y la respuesta obtenida.


OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of volatile compounds in homes on the behavioral response of Anopheles albimanus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in January 2006, in the village of Nueva Independencia village, Suchiate, Chiapas. Volatile compounds were collected inside homes and the extracts were tested on unfed females in a Y-olfactometer. Extracts were analyzed in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system (GC-MS). RESULTS: Twenty eight extracts were obtained, twelve presented attraction and two repellency responses. GC-MS analyses of the extracts indicated variation in the volatile compound present in the extracts, but could not associated specific compounds with any particular effect. CONCLUSIONS: Within homes, volatiles presented attraction and repellency responses to An. albimanus. A definate pattern concerning the presence of a characteristic chemical compound and the observed response was not found.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Air/analysis , Anopheles/drug effects , Appetitive Behavior/drug effects , Housing , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Volatile Organic Compounds/pharmacology , Anopheles/physiology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hydrocarbons/isolation & purification , Hydrocarbons/pharmacology , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Mexico , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/isolation & purification
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