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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 997-1002, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012387

ABSTRACT

La arteria estriada medial distal hace parte de la circulación encefálica, nace de la arteria cerebral anterior generalmente a nivel de la arteria comunicante anterior, aunque según distintos estudios su origen varía, siendo así difícil de determinar con exactitud. Su importancia clínica radica en la prevalencia de aneurismas encontrados en esta arteria, que posteriormente podrían causar complicaciones debido a la región que irrigan, siendo estas las secuelas somático-vitales y neuropsicológicas, además de su inadecuado abordaje quirúrgico sin prever las alteraciones que puedan ser ocasionados; a causa de lo anterior es de vital importancia que los profesionales de la salud tengan previo conocimiento de la anatomía y la prevalencia de esta arteria en la población. Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo en donde se analizó la arteria estriada medial distal en 70 encéfalos, piezas de los anfiteatros de Medicina de la Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales U.D.C.A. (Bogotá), la Universidad Científica del Sur UCSUR (Lima); fijados en formol al 10 %, se realizaron mediciones morfométricas mediante calibrador digital y se tomó el registro fotográfico con una cámara Canon. Posteriormente se ejecutó el análisis estadístico mediante el programa IBM SPSS Stadistics 24. Se encontró una prevalencia del 88,6 % de al menos una arteria estriada medial distal en población colombiana y un 97,1 % de la población peruana. Se identificó un diámetro externo promedio de 0,64 mm en población colombiana y de 0,68 mm en población peruana. Se observó una longitud promedio de 2,5 cm en ambas poblaciones. Se evidenció el mayor lugar de origen en la porción A2 de la ACA con un 37,1 % de población colombiana y un 51,4 % de población peruana. Se debe conocer adecuadamente la anatomía y las correspondientes variaciones anatómicas de esta arteria para así poder realizar un adecuado abordaje neurológico y neuroquirúrgico.


The distal medial striate artery is part of the brain circulation, born from the anterior cerebral artery generally at the level of the anterior communicating artery, although according to different studies its origin varies, being thus difficult to determine with accuracy. Its clinical importance lies in the prevalence of aneurysms found in this artery, which could later cause complications due to the region they irrigate, these being the somatic-vital and neuropsychological sequelae, in addition to its inadequate surgical approach without foreseeing the alterations that may be caused; Because of the above it is of vital importance that health professionals have prior knowledge of the anatomy and prevalence of this artery in the population. An observational descriptive study was carried out in which the distal medial striated artery in 70 brain cells, pieces from the Medicine amphitheatres of the Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales U.D.C.A. (Bogotá), the Universidad Científica del Sur UCSUR (Lima); fixed in 10 % formalin, morphometric measurements were made by automatic calibrator and the photographic record was taken with a Canon camera. Subsequently, the statistical analysis was executed through the IBM SPSS Statistics program 24. A prevalence of 88.6 % of at least one distal medial striate artery was found in the Colombian population and 97.1 % of the Peruvian population. An average external diameter of 0.64 mm was identified in the Colombian population and 0.68 mm in the Peruvian population. An average length of 2.5 cm was observed in both populations. The largest place of origin was evidenced in the A2 portion of the ACA with 37.1 % of the Colombian population and 51.4 % of the Peruvian population. The anatomy and the corresponding anatomical variations of this artery must be adequately known to be able to perform an adequate neurological and neurosurgical approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/blood supply , Anterior Cerebral Artery/anatomy & histology , Peru , Cerebral Arteries/anatomy & histology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
2.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 5(1): 56-63, jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1088672

ABSTRACT

La vasculitis Primaria del Sistema Nervioso Central (VPSNC) se refiere a un grupo de enfermedades que resultan de la inflamación y destrucción de los vasos sanguíneos de la medula espinal, encéfalo y meninges, tanto en el sector venoso como arterial. La presentación es heterogénea y poco sistematizable. El diagnóstico se establece con un cuadro clínico compatible, una angiografía que evidencie vasculitis y/o biopsia del parénquima encefálico o meninges. Las alteraciones en los estudios de imagen son constantes pero inespecíficas para el diagnóstico y se acompañan habitualmente de alteraciones en el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) y electroencefalograma (EEG) Presentamos un paciente con probable VPSNC basados en un cuadro clínico compatible, hallazgos imagenológicos sugestivos, junto con alteraciones en LCR y EEG. Se realizó tratamiento en base a corticoides e inmunosupresores con mala respuesta y evolución.


The primary central nervous system vasculitis (VPSNC) refers to a group of diseases that result from inflammation and destruction of the blood vessels of the spinal cord, brain and meninges, both in the venous and arterial sector. The presentation is heterogeneous and unsystematized. The diagnosis is made based on compatible symptoms, supported by an angiography showing evidence of vasculitis and/or biopsy of the brain parenchyma or meninges. Alterations in imaging studies are consistent but nonspecific for diagnostic and are usually accompanied by alterations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We present a clinical case of probable VPSNC based on clinical presentation and findings on imagenological studies suggestive vasculitis, along with alterations in CSF and EEG. Treatment was based on Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents with poor response and evolution.


Vasculite Primária do Sistema Nervoso Central (VPSNC) refere-se a um grupo de doenças que resultam de inflamação e destruição dos vasos sanguíneos na medula espinal, o sector venosa arterial cerebral e meninges, ambos. A apresentação é heterogênea e não muito sistematizável. O diagnóstico é estabelecido com um quadro clínico compatível, uma angiografia que evidencia vasculite e / oubiópsia do parênquima cerebral ou meninges. Alterações nos estudos de imagemsão constantes, mas não específica para o diagnóstico e são normalmente acompanhadas por alterações no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) e eletroencefalograma (EEG) descrevem um paciente com VPSNC provável com base em um quadro clínico, achados de imagem sugestivos compatíveis, em conjunto com alterações no CSF e EEG. O tratamento foi realizado com base em corticosteróides e imunos supressores compouca resposta e evolução.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/drug therapy , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Constriction, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Anterior Cerebral Artery/pathology , Middle Cerebral Artery/pathology , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/diagnosis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813162

ABSTRACT

To investigate hemodynamic parameters in 2 anatomical segments (S1 and S2) of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) in normal pregnancy during the second and third trimester of gestation.
 Methods: The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), time-average maximum velocity (TAMAXV), peak systolic velocity/end diastolic velocity (S/D), resistance index (RI), and pulsation index (PI) in S1 and S2 of fetal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) in 288 normal pregnant women were detected by power Doppler and pulsed Doppler. Multiple regression models were fitted to estimate the relation between Doppler variables and gestational age. The differences of hemodynamic parameters between ACAS1 and ACAS2 were compared.
 Results: The PSV, EDV, and TAMAXV of ACAS1 and ACAS2 were positively correlated with the weeks of pregnancy (P0.05). The PSV, TAMAXV, S/D, PI, and RI of ACAS1 were significantly higher than those of ACAS2, while EDV in ACAS1 was lower than that in ACAS2 (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: The velocity parameters (PSV, EDV, TAMAXV) of the 2 anatomical segments (ACAS1 and ACAS2) are increased with the increase of gestational age in normal pregnant fetus during the second and third trimester of gestation, and the resistance parameters (S/D, PI, RI) are not significantly correlated with gestational age. Distribution of blood flow is different in the blood supply territory between ACAS1 and ACAS2.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Physiology , Blood Flow Velocity , Female , Fetus , Hemodynamics , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766641

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is not known but coexisting vascular lesion, such as carotid artery and vertebral artery dissection, has been reported. However, RCVS concurrent with anterior cerebral artery dissection has never been reported. We describe a 28-year old patient presenting with anterior cerebral artery dissection with RCVS associated with coughing. This case could support the causality between RCVS and arterial dissection.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Carotid Arteries , Cough , Headache Disorders, Primary , Humans , Vasoconstriction , Vertebral Artery Dissection
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Surgical clipping of the cerebral aenurysm is considered as a standard therapy with endovascular coil embolization. The surgical clipping is known to be superior to the endovascular coil embolization in terms of recurrent rate. However, a recurrent aneurysm which is initially treated by surgical clipping is difficult to handle. The purpose of this study was to research the management of the recurrent cerebral aneurysm after a surgical clipping and how to overcome them. METHODS: From January 1996 to December 2015, medical records and radiologic findings of 14 patients with recurrent aneurysm after surgical clipping were reviewed retrospectively. Detailed case-by-case analysis was performed based on preoperative, postoperative and follow-up radiologic examinations and operative findings. All clinical variables including age, sex, aneurysm size and location, type and number of applied clips, prognosis, and time to recurrence are evaluated. All patients are classified by causes of the recurrence. Possible risk factors that could contribute to those causes and overcoming ways are comprehensively discussed. RESULTS: All recurrent aneurysms after surgical clipping were 14 of 2364 (0.5%). Three cases were males and 11 cases were females. Mean age was 52.3. At first treatment, nine cases were ruptured aneurysms, four cases were unruptured aneurysms, and one case was unknown. Locations of recurrent aneurysm were determined; anterior communicating artery (A-com) (n=7), posterior communicating artery (P-com) (n=3), middle cerebral artery (n=2), anterior cerebral artery (n=1) and basilar artery (n=1). As treatment of the recurrence, 11 cases were treated by surgical clipping and three cases were treated by endovascular coil embolization. Three cases of all 14 cases occurred in a month after the initial treatment. Eleven cases occurred after a longer interval, and three of them occurred after 15 years. By analyzing radiographs and operative findings, several main causes of the recurrent cerebral aneurysm were found. One case was incomplete clipping, five cases were clip slippage, and eight cases were fragility of vessel wall near the clip edge. CONCLUSION: This study revealed main causes of the recurrent aneurysm and contributing risk factors to be controlled. To manage those risk factors and ultimately prevent the recurrent aneurysm, neurosurgeons have to be careful in the technical aspect during surgery for a complete clipping without a slippage. Even in a perfect surgery, an aneurysm may recur at the clip site due to a hemodynamic change over years. Therefore, all patients must be followed up by imaging for a long period of time.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Basilar Artery , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemodynamics , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Male , Medical Records , Middle Cerebral Artery , Neurosurgeons , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Instruments
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765216

ABSTRACT

Intraparenchymal meningiomas without dural attachment are extremely rare, especially when they occur in basal ganglia region in child. An 8-year-old boy was admitted at our hospital, complaining of recurrent headache and vomiting for 3 months. Neurological examination showed impaired vision and mild paresis of the left extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a lesion located in the right basal ganglia region extending to superasellar cistern with solid, multiple cystic and necrotic components. Computed tomography revealed calcification within the mass. Due to the anterior cerebral artery involvement, a subtotal resection was achieved and postoperative radiotherapy was recommended. Histopathological examination indicated that the lesion was an atypical meningioma. The postoperative rehabilitation was uneventful. Mildly impaired vision and motor weakness of left extremities improved significantly and the patient returned to normal life after surgery. To our knowledge, intraparenchymal atypical meningioma in basal ganglia extending to superasellar cistern was never reported. The significance in differential diagnosis of lesions in basal ganglia should be emphasized.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Basal Ganglia , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Extremities , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Meningioma , Neurologic Examination , Paresis , Radiotherapy , Rehabilitation , Vomiting
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Surgical clipping of the cerebral aenurysm is considered as a standard therapy with endovascular coil embolization. The surgical clipping is known to be superior to the endovascular coil embolization in terms of recurrent rate. However, a recurrent aneurysm which is initially treated by surgical clipping is difficult to handle. The purpose of this study was to research the management of the recurrent cerebral aneurysm after a surgical clipping and how to overcome them.METHODS: From January 1996 to December 2015, medical records and radiologic findings of 14 patients with recurrent aneurysm after surgical clipping were reviewed retrospectively. Detailed case-by-case analysis was performed based on preoperative, postoperative and follow-up radiologic examinations and operative findings. All clinical variables including age, sex, aneurysm size and location, type and number of applied clips, prognosis, and time to recurrence are evaluated. All patients are classified by causes of the recurrence. Possible risk factors that could contribute to those causes and overcoming ways are comprehensively discussed.RESULTS: All recurrent aneurysms after surgical clipping were 14 of 2364 (0.5%). Three cases were males and 11 cases were females. Mean age was 52.3. At first treatment, nine cases were ruptured aneurysms, four cases were unruptured aneurysms, and one case was unknown. Locations of recurrent aneurysm were determined; anterior communicating artery (A-com) (n=7), posterior communicating artery (P-com) (n=3), middle cerebral artery (n=2), anterior cerebral artery (n=1) and basilar artery (n=1). As treatment of the recurrence, 11 cases were treated by surgical clipping and three cases were treated by endovascular coil embolization. Three cases of all 14 cases occurred in a month after the initial treatment. Eleven cases occurred after a longer interval, and three of them occurred after 15 years. By analyzing radiographs and operative findings, several main causes of the recurrent cerebral aneurysm were found. One case was incomplete clipping, five cases were clip slippage, and eight cases were fragility of vessel wall near the clip edge.CONCLUSION: This study revealed main causes of the recurrent aneurysm and contributing risk factors to be controlled. To manage those risk factors and ultimately prevent the recurrent aneurysm, neurosurgeons have to be careful in the technical aspect during surgery for a complete clipping without a slippage. Even in a perfect surgery, an aneurysm may recur at the clip site due to a hemodynamic change over years. Therefore, all patients must be followed up by imaging for a long period of time.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Basilar Artery , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemodynamics , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Male , Medical Records , Middle Cerebral Artery , Neurosurgeons , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Instruments
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788646

ABSTRACT

Intraparenchymal meningiomas without dural attachment are extremely rare, especially when they occur in basal ganglia region in child. An 8-year-old boy was admitted at our hospital, complaining of recurrent headache and vomiting for 3 months. Neurological examination showed impaired vision and mild paresis of the left extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a lesion located in the right basal ganglia region extending to superasellar cistern with solid, multiple cystic and necrotic components. Computed tomography revealed calcification within the mass. Due to the anterior cerebral artery involvement, a subtotal resection was achieved and postoperative radiotherapy was recommended. Histopathological examination indicated that the lesion was an atypical meningioma. The postoperative rehabilitation was uneventful. Mildly impaired vision and motor weakness of left extremities improved significantly and the patient returned to normal life after surgery. To our knowledge, intraparenchymal atypical meningioma in basal ganglia extending to superasellar cistern was never reported. The significance in differential diagnosis of lesions in basal ganglia should be emphasized.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Basal Ganglia , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Extremities , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Meningioma , Neurologic Examination , Paresis , Radiotherapy , Rehabilitation , Vomiting
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717040

ABSTRACT

Intracranial arterial stenosis usually occurs due to atherosclerosis and is considered the most common cause of stroke worldwide. Although the effectiveness of bypass surgery for ischemic stroke is controversial, the superficial temporal artery to the middle cerebral artery bypass for ischemic stroke is a common procedure. In our report, a 50-year-old man presented with sudden-onset left side weakness and dysarthria. An angiogram showed significant stenosis in the junction of the right cavernous-supraclinoid internal carotid artery and right pericallosal artery. Symptoms altered between improvement and deterioration. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a repeated progression of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) infarction despite maximal medical therapy. We performed a STA-ACA bypass with contralateral STA interposition. Postoperative course was uneventful with no further progression of symptoms. Thus, bypass surgery may be considered in patients with symptomatic stenosis or occlusion of the ACA, especially when patients present progressive symptoms despite maximal medical therapy.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Revascularization , Constriction, Pathologic , Dysarthria , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Middle Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Temporal Arteries , Transplants
10.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 36(1): 07-13, 06/03/2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911112

ABSTRACT

Objective Clarify the safety and efficacy of the endovascular treatment of distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms, reporting outcomes of the aneurysms coiled in our service were compared with series of microsurgical treatment. The impact of embolization on ruptured or unruptured aneurysms remains controversial according to the current data, considering aneurysm from this topography should be aggressively treated due to their high incidence of rupture, currently there is a tend to prefer endovascular treatment. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study with 1092 patients admitted with cerebral aneurysm from October 2005 to March 2015 in our service. There were 31 cases of DACA aneurysms treated with the endovascular technique. These were compared with same topography aneurysms underwent to clipping. Results A total of 21 (67%) of 31 cases presented with ruptured aneurysms, 13 (59%) suffered clinical or radiological vasospasms, with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 3­5 in 7 patients (31%), and 4 deaths (mRS 6), reaching 92% of occlusion at one year. Conclusion Endovascular approach is associated with high angiographic occlusion rates and security.


Objetivo Para esclarecer a segurança e eficácia do tratamento endovascular dos aneurismas distais da artéria cerebral anterior distal (DACA), foram relatados os resultados de aneurismas embolizados em nosso serviço e comparados com séries de tratamento microcirúrgico. O impacto da embolização em aneurisma roto ou não roto permanece controverso com base nos dados atuais, considerando que o aneurisma dessa topografia deve ser tratado agressivamente devido à elevada incidência de ruptura, há uma tendência em preferir tratamento endovascular. Métodos Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo de 1092 pacientes admitidos com aneurisma cerebral entre Outubro de 2005 a Março de 2015 em nosso serviço. Haviam 31 casos de aneurisma da DACA tratados com a técnica endovascular. Estes foram comparados com aneurismas da mesma topografia tratados através de microcirurgia. Resultados Um total de 21 (67%) dos 31 pacientes apresentaram aneurisma roto, 13 (59%) sofreram vasoespasmo clínico ou radiológico, desfecho Escala de Rankin modificada (ERm) 3­5 em 7 (31%) pacientes e 4 mortes (ERm 6). A taxa de oclusão imediata foi de 96% e a taxa de oclusão em um ano de 92% com apenas uma recanalização. Conclusão A abordagem endovascular está associada com altas taxas de oclusão angiográfica e segurança no procedimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Microsurgery , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Embolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224192

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Small unruptured aneurysms (<5 mm) are known for their very low risk of rupture, and are recommended to be treated conservatively. However, we encounter many patients with small ruptured aneurysms in the clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the incidence and characteristics of patients with small ruptured aneurysms. METHODS: We reviewed all patients admitted to our hospital with subarachnoid hemorrhage from January 2005 to December 2015. The patients were divided into two groups: those with aneurysms <5 mm (group S) and those with aneurysms ≥5 mm (group L). The patient’s age and sex, size and location of aneurysms, and risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, alcohol use, and smoking were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Eight-hundred eleven patients were diagnosed with ruptured aneurysms, and 337 (41.6%) were included in group S. The mean size of all aneurysms was 6.10±2.99 mm (range, 0.7–37.7); aneurysms with a diameter of 4–5 mm accounted for the largest subgroup of all aneurysms. Female sex was significantly associated with the incidence of small ruptured aneurysms (odds ratio [OR] 1.50, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.02–2.19, p=0.037). Despite female predominance in the incidence of small ruptured aneurysms, the proportion of small ruptured aneurysms in young (<50 years) men was high. In men, there were no significant differences regarding the location of the aneurysms between group S and group L (p=0.267), with the most frequent location being the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) in both group S (50.9%) and group L (51.4%). However, in women, there were significant differences regarding the location of the aneurysms between group S and group L (p=0.023), with the most frequent locations being the ACoA (33.0%) in group S, and the posterior communicating artery (30.6%) in group L. In women, two locations were significantly associated with small (<5 mm) ruptured aneurysms: the ACoA (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.01–4.54, p=0.047) and anterior cerebral artery (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.19–10.54, p=0.023). Multiplicity and smoking were significantly associated with large (≥5 mm) ruptured aneurysms in women. The use of alcohol was related to small ruptured aneurysms in men over 50 years of age (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.03–4.84, p=0.042). CONCLUSION: In this study, small (<5 mm) ruptured aneurysms exhibited different incidences by age, sex, location, and risk factors such as multiplicity, smoking, and alcohol use.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Intracranial Aneurysm , Male , Risk Factors , Rupture , Smoke , Smoking , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23105

ABSTRACT

Infantile hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors in infants. Facial segmental hemangiomas are often accompanied by other anomalies, and pre-treatment evaluation is needed. PHACE syndrome is associated with Posterior fossa anomalies, Hemangiomas, Arterial anomalies, Cardiac anomalies, and Eye anomalies (PHACE). PHACE syndrome is diagnosed in about 30% of patients with facial segmental hemangiomas. In PHACE syndrome, facial hemangioma usually requires initial treatment; propranolol use is increasing as a first-line treatment despite the risk of stroke. We report a case of PHACE syndrome in a patient with large facial hemangiomas, left cerebellar hypoplasia, and an absent A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. After 1 year of treatment with oral propranolol, facial hemangiomas improved and normal development was observed until 24 months of age. Evaluation of PHACE syndrome is important in patients with large facial segmental hemangiomas, and propranolol can be considered a first-line therapy for hemangioma.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Hemangioma , Humans , Infant , Propranolol , Stroke
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788607

ABSTRACT

Infantile hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors in infants. Facial segmental hemangiomas are often accompanied by other anomalies, and pre-treatment evaluation is needed. PHACE syndrome is associated with Posterior fossa anomalies, Hemangiomas, Arterial anomalies, Cardiac anomalies, and Eye anomalies (PHACE). PHACE syndrome is diagnosed in about 30% of patients with facial segmental hemangiomas. In PHACE syndrome, facial hemangioma usually requires initial treatment; propranolol use is increasing as a first-line treatment despite the risk of stroke. We report a case of PHACE syndrome in a patient with large facial hemangiomas, left cerebellar hypoplasia, and an absent A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. After 1 year of treatment with oral propranolol, facial hemangiomas improved and normal development was observed until 24 months of age. Evaluation of PHACE syndrome is important in patients with large facial segmental hemangiomas, and propranolol can be considered a first-line therapy for hemangioma.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Hemangioma , Humans , Infant , Propranolol , Stroke
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of ruptured aneurysms at anterior communicating artery (A com) with an analysis of clinical and morphological data, which could further our understanding of the risks of ruptured A com aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An analysis of data with 86 ruptured and 44 unruptured A com aneurysms were analyzed using a digital subtraction angiography or 3-dimensional computed tomography angiography between January 2010 and December 2015 in a single center. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of ruptured A com aneurysms were smaller than 4 mm in size. They had a smooth wall (44%), with a mean size ratio of 4.22 (range: 0.7-14.3) and mean height/width ratio of 1.48 (range: 0.5-2.9); 23 patients of A1 positive difference. Unruptured aneurysms were mostly 2-10 mm in size (94%) and had an irregular wall (43%), with a mean size ratio of 4.1 (range: 0.8-9.1) and mean height/width ratio of 1.2 (range: 0.1-2.6); 6 patients of A1 positive difference. In terms of the morphology of aneurysms, size of A com, maximum aneurysm size, neck width, aneurysm wall morphology, and size ratio were not different with statistical significance. However, dominance of A1 (p = 0.01) and height/width ratio (p = 0.03) were found to be a significant predictive factor for rupture of A com aneurysms. CONCLUSION: To better understand the rupture risk of A com aneurysms, a large, multicenter, collaborative, and prospective study should be performed in the future.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neck , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rupture
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152695

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cases of a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with a high risk of intraoperative premature rupture and technical difficulties for proximal vascular control require a technique for the early and safe establishment of proximal vascular control. METHODS: A combined pterional or subfrontal approach exposes the bilateral A1 segments or the origin of the ipsilateral A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) for proximal vascular control. Proximal control far from the ruptured aneurysm facilitates tentative clipping of the rupture point of the aneurysm without a catastrophic premature rupture. The proximal control is then switched to the pericallosal artery just proximal to the aneurysm and its intermittent clipping facilitates complete aneurysm dissection and neck clipping. RESULTS: Three such cases are reported: a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with a contained leak of the contrast from the proximal side of the aneurysm, a low-lying ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with irregularities on its proximal wall, and a multilobulated ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with the parasagittal bridging veins hindering surgical access to the proximal parent artery. In each case, the proposed combined pterional-interhemispheric or subfrontal-interhemispheric approach was successfully performed to establish proximal vascular control far from the ruptured aneurysm and facilitated aneurysm clipping via the interhemispheric approach. CONCLUSION: When using an anterior interhemispheric approach for a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with a high risk of premature rupture, a pterional or subfrontal approach can be combined to establish early proximal vascular control at the bilateral A1 segments or the origin of the A2 segment.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neck , Parents , Rupture , Veins
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease is characterized by a progressive stenosis or occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery and/or the proximal portion of the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery. Whether the onset time was childhood or adulthood, the bony carotid canal diameter might be different, but reflects the size of internal carotid artery passing through the bony carotid canal. In this study, we aimed to identify the relationship between bony carotid canal diameter and clinical manifestation. METHODS: 146 consecutive patients diagnosed with moyamoya disease by brain imaging studies were included. We measured the diameter of a transverse portion of bony carotid canal on bone window of a brain computed tomography(CT) image. Patients were divided into two groups, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke according to clinical manifestation. As a result, 115 patients were included. The Suzuki stage was used as criteria for disease progression. RESULTS: Bony carotid canal diameter was 3.6 ± 0.5 (right) and 3.6 ± 0.4 (left) in the hemorrhagic stroke group, and 3.7 ± 0.4 (right) and 3.6 ± 0.4 (left) in the ischemic stroke group. The bony carotid canal diameter of the moyamoya vessels (3.6 mm) was smaller than the diameter of non-moyamoya vessels (3.8 mm), significantly (p= 0.042). However, there was no difference in the collateral patterns and clinical manifestation in a comparison of both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, there was no significant difference of clinical manifestations and collateral patterns depend on the bony carotid canal diameter in patients with moyamoya disease. These findings suggest that the clinical presentations of moyamoya disease are not related to the onset time of the disease.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Brain , Carotid Artery, Internal , Constriction, Pathologic , Disease Progression , Humans , Middle Cerebral Artery , Moyamoya Disease , Neuroimaging , Stroke
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11239

ABSTRACT

A giant serpentine aneurysm (GSA) in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) poses a technical challenge in treatment given its large size, unique neck, and dependent distal vessels. Here we report the case of a GSA in the ACA successfully treated with a combined surgical and endovascular approach. A 54-year-old woman presented with dull headache. On brain computed tomography (CT), a large mass (7 cm × 5 cm × 5 cm) was identified in the left frontal lobe. Cerebral angiography revealed a GSA in the left ACA. Bypass surgery of the distal ACA was performed, followed byocclusion of the entry channel via an endovascular approach. Follow-up CT performed 5 days after treatment revealed disappearance of the vascular channel and peripheral rim enhancement. Follow-up imaging studies performed 7 months after treatment revealed gradual reduction of the mass effect and patency of bypass flow. No complications were noted over a period of 1 year after surgery.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Brain , Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Revascularization , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Frontal Lobe , Headache , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Middle Aged , Neck
18.
Journal of Stroke ; : 179-186, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The outcomes of acute internal carotid artery (ICA) terminus occlusions are poor. We classified ICA terminus occlusions into 2 groups according to the occlusion pattern of the circle of Willis and hypothesized that clinical outcomes would significantly differ between them. METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute ICA terminus occlusions evaluated by baseline computed tomographic angiography were enrolled. We investigated the occlusion patterns in the circle of Willis, retrospectively classified patients into simple ICA terminus occlusion (STO; with good Willisian collaterals from neighboring cerebral circulation) and complex ICA terminus occlusion (CTO; with one or more of A2 anterior cerebral artery, fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion, or hypoplastic/absent contralateral A1; or with poor collaterals from anterior communicating artery) groups, and compared their baseline characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS: The STO group (n=58) showed smaller infarct volumes at 72 hours than the CTO group (n=34) (median, 81 mL [interquartile range, 38-192] vs. 414 mL [193-540], P<0.001) and more favorable outcomes (3-month modified Rankin Scale 0-3, 44.8% vs. 8.8%, P<0.001; 3-month mortality, 24.1% vs. 67.6%, P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, STO remained an independent predictor for favorable outcomes (odds ratio 6.1, P=0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Favorable outcomes in STO group suggested that the outcomes of acute ICA terminus occlusions depend on Willisian collateral status. Documenting the subtypes on computed tomographic angiography would help predict patient outcome.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Carotid Artery Thrombosis , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Infarction , Circle of Willis , Collateral Circulation , Endovascular Procedures , Humans , Mortality , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Retrospective Studies
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 21-30, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135897

ABSTRACT

Although the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD) has not been fully elucidated, the effectiveness of surgical revascularization in preventing stroke has been addressed by many studies. The main mechanism of surgical revascularization is augmenting the intracranial blood flow using an external carotid system by either direct bypass or pial synangiosis. This can improve resting cerebral blood flow as well as vascular reserve capacity. For direct revascularization, the superficial temporal artery is used as the donor artery in most cases, although the occipital artery may be used in limited cases. Usually, the cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery is selected as the recipient of direct anastomosis. As for indirect revascularization, various techniques using different kinds of connective tissues have been introduced. In some cases, reinforcing the anterior cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery territories can be considered. The effectiveness of surgical revascularization for preventing ischemic stroke had been generally accepted by many studies. However, for preventing hemorrhagic stroke, new evidence has been added by a recent randomized controlled trial. The incidence of peri-operative complications such as stroke and hyperperfusion syndrome seems to be high due to the nature of the disease and technical demands for treatment. Preventing and adequately managing these complications are essential for ensuring the benefits of surgery.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Cerebral Revascularization , Connective Tissue , Humans , Incidence , Middle Cerebral Artery , Moyamoya Disease , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Temporal Arteries , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Journal of Stroke ; : 21-30, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135892

ABSTRACT

Although the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD) has not been fully elucidated, the effectiveness of surgical revascularization in preventing stroke has been addressed by many studies. The main mechanism of surgical revascularization is augmenting the intracranial blood flow using an external carotid system by either direct bypass or pial synangiosis. This can improve resting cerebral blood flow as well as vascular reserve capacity. For direct revascularization, the superficial temporal artery is used as the donor artery in most cases, although the occipital artery may be used in limited cases. Usually, the cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery is selected as the recipient of direct anastomosis. As for indirect revascularization, various techniques using different kinds of connective tissues have been introduced. In some cases, reinforcing the anterior cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery territories can be considered. The effectiveness of surgical revascularization for preventing ischemic stroke had been generally accepted by many studies. However, for preventing hemorrhagic stroke, new evidence has been added by a recent randomized controlled trial. The incidence of peri-operative complications such as stroke and hyperperfusion syndrome seems to be high due to the nature of the disease and technical demands for treatment. Preventing and adequately managing these complications are essential for ensuring the benefits of surgery.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Cerebral Revascularization , Connective Tissue , Humans , Incidence , Middle Cerebral Artery , Moyamoya Disease , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Temporal Arteries , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome
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