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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 220-224, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248974

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the corneal and anterior chamber morphology in phakic eyes with noninfectious intraocular inflammation. Methods: This study included 59 eyes with active uveitis, 62 with inactive uveitis, and 95 healthy eyes. Corneal endothelial cell density, hexagonal cell ratio, coefficient of variation (CV), corneal thickness and volume, maximum keratometry, and anterior chamber volume and depth (ACD) measurements were performed using a specular microscope and Pentacam HR. Results: The mean duration of uveitis was 24.6 ± 40.5 (0-180) months. The mean number of uveitis attacks was 2.8 ± 3.0 (1-20). Coefficient of variation was significantly higher in the active uveitis group compared with inactive uveitis group (p=0.017, Post Hoc Tukey). Anterior segment parameters other than coefficient of variation were not significantly different between active/inactive uveitis and control groups (p>0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that coefficient of variation was greater in active uveitis compared with inactive uveitis after adjusting for the duration of uveitis, type of uveitis, having a rheumatologic disease, and having immunosuppressive treatment (p=0.003). The duration of uveitis and number of attacks were not significantly correlated with ocular parameters (p>0.05, Spearman's correlation). The difference in parameters was not significant based on uveitis type (p>0.05). Conclusions: Coefficient of variation was higher in eyes with active uveitis than that in eyes with inactive uveitis, whereas corneal endothelial cell density and anterior chamber morphology did not significantly differ between active/inactive uveitis and control groups.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a morfologia da córnea e da câmara anterior em olhos fácicos com inflamação intraocular não infecciosa. Métodos: Esse estudo incluiu 59 olhos com uveíte ativa, 62 olhos com uveíte inativa e 95 olhos saudáveis. A densidade de células endoteliais da córnea, a proporção de células hexagonais, o coeficiente de variação, o volume e a espessura da córnea, a ceratometria máxima e o volume e profundidade da câmara anterior foram medidos com um microscópio especular e uma Pentacam HR. Resultados: A duração média da uveíte foi de 24,6 ± 40,5 (0-180) meses. O número médio de crises de uveíte foi de 2,8 ± 3,0 (1-20). O coeficiente de variação foi significativamente maior no grupo com uveíte ativa do que no grupo com uveíte inativa (p=0,017, Tukey post-hoc). Não houve diferença significativa nos demais parâmetros do segmento anterior entre os grupos com uveíte ativa, com uveíte inativa e controle (p>0,05). A análise de regressão linear múltipla demonstrou que o coeficiente de variação foi maior na uveíte ativa do que na uveíte inativa, após ajustes para a duração e tipo de uveíte e a presença ou não de doença reumática e de tratamento imunossupressor (p=0,003). A duração da uveíte e o número de crises não demonstraram correlação significativa com os parâmetros oculares (p>0,05, correlação de Spearman). A diferença nos parâmetros não demonstrou correlação significativa com o tipo de uveíte (p>0,05). Conclusões: O coeficiente de variação foi maior nos olhos com uveíte ativa do que naqueles com uveíte inativa, ao passo que a densidade de células endoteliais e a morfologia da câmara anterior não mostraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos com uveíte ativa, com uveíte inativa e controle.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Uveitis/physiopathology , Endothelium, Corneal/anatomy & histology , Cell Count/instrumentation , Cornea/anatomy & histology , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(4): 289-293, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131608

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Pharmacological pupillary dilation is performed in comprehensive ophthalmological examinations and before biometric measurements. So far, there is no consensus regarding its impact on biometric measurements. This study's aim was to investigate the effects of pharmacological pupillary dilation on ocular biometric measurements in healthy children. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, non-randomized study of children (4-18 years of age) who were admitted for routine ophthalmological examination. Biometric measurements were performed, using a non-contact optical biometry device, both before and after pharmacological pupillary dilation with cyclopentolate hydrochloride. Intraocular lens power calculations were performed using Hill-RBF, Barrett, Olsen, Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff/Theoretical, Holladay, and Hoffer Q formulas. Descriptive statistical analyses were also performed. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare measurements before and after pharmacological pupillary dilation. Relationships between variables were analyzed using the Spearman-Brown rank correlation coefficient. Results: The study included 116 eyes of 58 children (mean age, 8.4 ± 0.32 years; 34 girls). Significant changes were observed after pupillary dilation, compared with before pupillary dilation, in terms of anterior chamber depth, aqueous depth, and central corneal and lens thicknesses. No significant change was observed in axial length. Intraocular lens power calculations revealed no significant changes after pupillary dilation in most formulas except for the Olsen formula. The intraocular lens power was significantly inversely correlated with axial length and anterior chamber depth. Conclusions: Pharmacological pupillary dilation in children appeared to have no impact on axial length and intraocular lens power, but caused a significant increase in anterior chamber depth. The difference in anterior chamber depth measurements before and after pupillary dilation could be related to the optical biometry device model used. These outcomes should be considered in intraocular lens power calculations performed using anterior chamber depth parameters.


RESUMO Objetivo: A dilatação pupilar farmacológica é realizada em exames oftalmológicos abrangentes e antes das medições biométricas. Até o momento, não há consenso sobre seu impacto nas medições biométricas. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da dilatação pupilar nas medidas biométricas oculares em crianças saudáveis. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, observacional e não randomizado de crianças (4-18 anos) que foram admitidas para exame oftalmológico de rotina. As medidas biométricas foram realizadas usando um dispositivo de biometria óptica sem contato, antes e após a dilatação pupilar farmacológica com cloridrato de ciclopentolato. Os cálculos de potência das lentes intraoculares foram realizados utilizando as fórmulas de Hill-RBF, Barrett, Olsen, Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff/ Teórica, Holladay e Hoffer Q. Análises estatísticas descritivas também foram realizadas. O teste dos postos sinalizados de Wilcoxon foi usado para comparar as medidas antes e após a dilatação pupilar farmacológica. As relações entre as variáveis foram analisadas pelo coeficiente de correlação de Spearman-Brown. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 116 olhos de 58 crianças (idade média de 8,4 ± 0,32 anos; 34 meninas). Alterações significativas foram observadas após a dilatação pupilar, em termos de profundidade da câmara anterior, profundidade do humor aquoso e espessura central da córnea e do cristalino. Nenhuma mudança significativa ocorreu no comprimento axial. Os cálculos de potência da lente intraocular não revelaram alterações significativas após a dilatação pupilar na maioria das fórmulas, com exceção da fórmula Olsen. O poder da lente intraocular foi significativamente inversa correlacionada com o comprimento axial e a profundidade da câmara anterior. Conclusões: A dilatação pupilar farmacológica em crianças parece não ter impacto no comprimento axial e no poder da lente intraocular, mas causou um aumento significativo na profundidade da câmara anterior. A diferença nas medidas da profundidade da câmara anterior antes e após a dilatação pupilar pode estar relacionada ao modelo do dispositivo de biometria óptica utilizado. Tais resultados devem ser considerados nos cálculos de potência da lente intraocular realizados usando parâmetros de profundidade da câmara anterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Biometry , Dilatation , Axial Length, Eye/diagnostic imaging , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Anterior Chamber/diagnostic imaging , Refraction, Ocular , Prospective Studies , Optics and Photonics , Lenses, Intraocular
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 209-213, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794570

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effects of the Valsalva maneuver (VM) on optic disc morphology, choroidal thickness, and anterior chamber parameters. Methods: This prospective observational study included 60 eyes of 60 healthy subjects. The anterior chamber parameters, including central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), pupil diameter (PD), axial length (AL), subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, optic disc parameters, and intraocular pressure (IOP), were measured at rest and during VM. Results: VM did not have any significant influence on AL, subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, optic disc area, rim area, cup area, cup-to-disc area ratio, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, rim volume, cup volume, and nerve head volume measurements (for all; p >0.05). IOP and PD significantly increased during VM (for both; p <0.001). VM significantly decreased CCT, ACD, ACA, and ACV values (for all; p <0.001). Moreover, the optic nerve cup volume decreased and the horizontal cup-to-disc ratio significantly increased during VM (for both; p <0.05). Conclusions: VM may cause transient changes in IOP, optic disc morphology, and anterior chamber parameters.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da manobra de Valsalva (VM) sobre a morfologia do disco óptico, a espessura da coroide e parâmetros câmara anterior. Métodos: Estudo observacional, prospectivo incluiu 60 olhos de 60 indivíduos saudáveis. Os parâmetros da câmara anterior, incluindo da espessura central da córnea (CCT), profundidade da câmara anterior (ACD), ângulo da câmara anterior (ACA), volume de câmara anterior (ACV), diâmetro da pupila (PD), comprimento axial (AL), espessura da coroide subfoveal e peripapilar, parâmetros de disco óptico e pressão intraocular (IOP) foram medidos em repouso e durante VM. Resultados: A VM não apresentou influência significativa em AL, espessura da coroide subfoveal e peripapilar, área de disco óptico, área da rima neural, área da escavação, relação da área escavação-disco, a relação vertical escavação-disco, volume da rima neural, volume da escavação, medidas de volume cabeça do nervo (para todos; p >0,05). IOP e PD aumentaram significativamente durante VM (para ambos; p <0,001). A VM diminuiu os valores CCT, ACD, ACA e ACV significativamente (para todos; p <0,001). Além disso, o volume da escavação do nervo óptico diminuiu e a razão horizontal escavação-disco aumentou significativamente durante VM (para ambos; p <0,05). Conclusões: A VM pode causar alterações transitórias na pressão intraocular, na morfologia do disco óptico e em parâmetros câmara anterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Optic Disk/anatomy & histology , Valsalva Maneuver/physiology , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Optic Nerve/physiology , Posture/physiology , Reference Values , Prospective Studies , Regression Analysis
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 146-149, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753019

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze ocular biometry parameters and evaluate their relationship with gestational age, birth weight, and postmenstrual age in prematurely born infants. Methods: The right eyes of 361 premature infants born before the 36th gestational week were evaluated. Birth weight, gestational week, and gender were recorded. An A-scan Biometer was used for obtaining axial measurements, including anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous length, and total axial length. Results: Gestational age and birth weight values ranged from 23 to 36 weeks and from 560 to 2,670 g, respectively. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 30.8 ± 2.8 weeks and 1,497.9 ± 483.6 g, respectively. During the first examination (4-5 weeks of postnatal age), birth weight and gestational age of the infants correlated significantly and positively with lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length (r>0.5, p<0.001), but not with anterior chamber depth (r<0.5). Increased vitreous and axial lengths correlated significantly with increasing postmenstrual age of the infants (r=0.669, p<0.001; r=0.845, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length, but not anterior chamber depth, were significantly correlated with birth weight and gestational age. All four parameters increased with increasing postmenstrual age, with higher correlations for vitreous and axial lengths than for anterior chamber depth and lens thickness. It was concluded that axial elongation resulted primarily from increasing posterior chamber length. .


RESUMO Objetivo: Medir os comprimentos axiais dos componentes oculares e avaliar a relação com a idade gestacional, peso ao nascer e idade pós-menstrual em crianças nascidas prematuramente. Método: O olho direito de 361 crianças prematuras, que nasceram com menos de 36 semanas de gestação, foram avaliados. O peso ao nascer, semanas de gestação e gênero foram registrados. Um biômetro A-scan foi utilizado para a obtenção das medidas axiais da profundidade da câmara anterior, espessura do cristalino, comprimento vítreo e comprimento axial total. Resultados: A idade gestacional e os valores de peso ao nascimento variaram de 23 a 36 semanas e de 560 a 2.670 g, respectivamente. A idade gestacional e o peso ao nascer foram 30,8 ± 2,8 semanas e 1.497,9 ± 483,6 g. Ao primeiro exame (4 a 5 semanas de idade pós-natal), o peso ao nascimento e a idade gestacional dos recém-nascidos apresentaram correlação positiva, estatisticamente significativa, com a espessura do cristalino, comprimento vítreo e comprimento axial total (r>0,5 p<0,001), mas não com a profundidade da câmara anterior (r<0,5). O alongamento de comprimento vítreo e do comprimento axial total se correlacionaram significativamente com o aumento da idade pós-menstrual dos lactentes (r=0,669; p<0,001 e r=0,845; p<0,001, respectivamente). Conclusões: A espessura do cristalino, o comprimento vítreo e o comprimento axial total, mas não profundidade da câmara anterior, foram significativamente correlacionados com o peso ao nascimento e com a idade gestacional. Todos os quatro componentes aumentaram com a idade pós-menstrual, apresentando correlações mais elevadas do comprimento vítreo e comprimento axial total do que da profundidade da câmara anterior e espessura do cristalino. Concluiu-se que o alongamento axial resultou principalmente do aumento do comprimento da câmara posterior. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Birth Weight/physiology , Gestational Age , Infant, Premature/growth & development , Retinopathy of Prematurity/physiopathology , Age Factors , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Axial Length, Eye/physiology , Biometry , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Infant, Low Birth Weight/growth & development , Lens, Crystalline/anatomy & histology , Sex Factors , Vitreous Body/anatomy & histology
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(4): 243-249, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728661

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To study the changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and pupil diameter (PD) during accommodation. Methods: Eighty eyes of 80 subjects, aged 22 to 40 years, were included. The rotating Dual Scheimpflug and a Placido disc system (Galilei G4, Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG, Switzerland) was used to measure the changes in ACD, ACA, and PD during accommodation. ACD measurement was taken for the central zone and for 4 more positions, each in different orientation (nasal, superior, temporal and inferior), 4 mm away from the centre. ACA was measured for the whole eye as well for the nasal, superior, temporal, and inferior quadrants. These metrics were obtained for various accommodation stimuli, ranging from +1 D to -4 D in 1-D steps. Results: For a given position, the ACD did not vary significantly with accommodation. For the central ACD, the percentage of relative change between far and near vision was -4.11%. The ACA was significantly lower at the inferior, temporal, and superior positions. There was no change in the ACA of the whole eye and that of the nasal orientation. These two eye metrics were significantly lower in the superior-nasal than in the inferior-temporal region. At each vergence studied, the PD decreased significantly with accommodation. The relative change after the -4 D stimulus was -8.13%. Conclusion: ACA and PD varied significantly with accommodation, whereas no such variation of ACD was observed. Further, the anterior chamber was found to be asymmetrical, with the nasal-superior area becoming significantly shallower than the inferior temporal region. .


Objetivo: Estudar as mudanças na profundidade da câmara anterior (ACD), ângulo da câmara anterior (ACA) e diâmetro da pupila (PD) durante a acomodação. Métodos: Foram incluídos 80 olhos de 80 indivíduos com idades entre 22 e 40 anos. Um sistema rotacional de Scheimpflug duplo acoplado a um sistema de disco de Placido (Galilei G4, Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG, Suíça) foi usado para medir as mudanças na ACD, ACA e PD, durante a acomodação. As medidas da ACD foram consideradas na zona central e em mais 4 posições, cada uma em orientação diferente (nasal, superior, temporal e inferior), a 4 milímetros de distância do centro. O ACA do olho inteiro, assim como nos quadrantes nasal, superior, temporal e inferior foram medidos. Todos estes indicadores foram obtidos por vários estímulos acomodativos, que variaram de +1 D a -4 D em intervalos de 1 D. Resultados: A ACD não variou significativamente com acomodação para qualquer determinada orientação, sendo a percentagem de variação relativa entre longe e visão de perto -4,11% para a ACD central (onde sinal negativo representa uma diminuição na ACD). Em relação ao ACA, este diminuiu significativamente em posições inferiores, temporais e superiores. O ACA total de olho e o ACA nasal não se alterou. Estas duas métricas oculares foram significativamente menores no par nasal-superior do que no temporal-inferior. Finalmente, PD diminuiu significativamente com a acomodação em cada vergência estudada, a mudança relativa após o estímulo de -4 D foi -8,13%. Conclusão: ACA e PD variaram significativamente com a acomodação, enquanto ACD não. Além disso, a câmara anterior se mostrou alterar assimetricamente, com a área nasal-superior se tornando ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Iris/anatomy & histology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/instrumentation , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Iris/physiology , Photography/instrumentation , Pupil/physiology
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(4): 233-237, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728664

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare the ocular anterior chamber depth, white-to-white distance, anterior chamber angle, and pupil diameter, as measured with two different Scheimpflug imaging devices. Methods: This transversal study included 80 right eyes from 80 subjects aged from 20 to 40 years. Their spherical equivalents ranged from -4.25 to +1.00 diopters (D). Each eye's anterior chamber depth, white-to-white distance, anterior chamber angle, and pupil diameter, were measured for far vision using both the Galilei G4 (double Scheimpflug camera) and the Pentacam HR (single Scheimpflug camera) systems. Results: Mean anterior chamber depths were calculated as 3.12 ± 0.23 mm and 3.19 ± 0.24 mm when measured with the Galilei G4 and the Pentacam HR, respectively. The mean white-to-white distance measured was 11.84 ± 0.31 mm and 11.90 ± 0.43 mm when measured with the Galilei G4 and the Pentacam HR, respectively. Mean pupil diameters were measured as 3.22 ± 0.58 mm and 3.22 ± 0.52 mm when measured with the Galilei G4 and the Pentacam HR, respectively. Finally, the mean anterior chamber angle was 34.30 ± 2.86 degrees when it was measured with the Galilei G4, and 39.26 ± 2.85 degrees when measured with the Pentacam HR. A comparative analysis revealed that the Galilei G4 yielded a significantly lower (P<0.05) measurement for the anterior chamber depth, anterior chamber angle, and pupil diameter, than the Pentacam HR system. Comparable values (P>0.05) for both devices were obtained for the white-to-white distance measurements. Conclusion: The Galilei G4 and Pentacam HR Scheimpflug systems cannot be used interchangeably because they produce significant measurement differences. .


Objetivo: Avaliar a medida da profundidade da câmara anterior, distância branco a branco, ângulo da câmara anterior e diâmetro pupilar usando dois dispositivos de imagens de Scheimpflug diferentes. Métodos: Este estudo transversal incluiu 80 olhos direitos de 80 indivíduos com idades entre 20 e 40 anos. O equivalente esférico variou de -4,25 a +1,00 dioptrias (D). A profundidade da câmara anterior de cada olho, a distância branco a branco, o ângulo da câmara anterior e o diâmetro pupilar, foram medidos para visão de longe usando tanto o Galilei G4 (câmera de Scheimpflug dupla) e os sistemas Pentacam HR (câmera de Scheimpflug simples). Resultados: A profundidade média da câmara anterior foi 3,12 ± 0,23 mm e 3,19 ± 0,24 mm, usando o Galilei G4 e o Pentacam HR, respectivamente. A distância média da medida de branco a branco com o Galilei G4 foi 11,84 ± 0,31 mm e com o HR Pentacam foi 11,90 ± 0,43 mm. A média do diâmetro pupilar foi 3,22 ± 0,58 mm e 3,22 ± 0,52 mm, medidos com o Galilei G4 e o Pentacam HR, respectivamente. Finalmente, a média do ângulo da câmara anterior foi de 34,30 ± 2,86 graus quando foi medido com o G4 Galileu, e 39,26 ± 2,85 graus com o Pentacam HR. A comparação revelou que o dispositivo Galilei G4 mediu significativamente menor (P<0,05) profundidade da câmara anterior, ângulo da câmara anterior e diâmetro da pupila do que o sistema de Pentacam HR, enquanto valores comparáveis (P>0,05) entre os dois dispositivos Scheimpflug foram obtidos para as medidas da distância branco a branco. Conclusão: O Galileu G4 e o Pentacam HR não podem ser usados indiferentemente, devido ás diferenças entre os dois aparelhos terem sido significativas sob o ponto de vista clínico. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation , Interferometry/instrumentation , Iris/anatomy & histology , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Pupil , Photography/instrumentation
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2013 Jan-Feb; 61(1): 32-35
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145342

ABSTRACT

We report an anterior megalophthalmos case with decreased corneal thickness and show the findings using Scheimpflug imaging. A 25-year-old male was diagnosed with anterior megalophthalmos. In both eyes, enlarged corneal length was measured. Beside a comparatively good visual acuity, a thin but clear cornea, a fairly deep anterior chamber, and central lens opacity were found. Scheimpflug images were taken using Pentacam HR. Scheimpflug-based imaging can provide us new data at the examination of this syndrome affecting the whole anterior segment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anterior Chamber/abnormalities , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Cornea/anatomy & histology , Corneal Topography/methods , Eye Abnormalities/diagnosis , Eye Abnormalities/epidemiology , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/instrumentation , Cornea/abnormalities , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Male
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40423

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) and angle width induced by phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in eyes with glaucoma, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). METHODS: Eleven eyes of 11 patients with angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) and 12 eyes of 12 patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Using AS-OCT, ACD and angle parameters were measured before and 2 days after surgery. Change in intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of ocular hypotensive drugs were evaluated. RESULTS: After surgery, central ACD and angle parameters increased significantly in eyes with glaucoma (p < 0.05). Prior to surgery, mean central ACD in the ACG group was approximately 1.0 mm smaller than that in the OAG group (p < 0.001). Post surgery, mean ACD of the ACG group was still significantly smaller than that of the OAG group. No significant differences were found in angle parameters between the ACG and OAG groups. In the ACG group, postoperative IOP at the final visit was significantly lower than preoperative IOP (p = 0.018) and there was no significant change in the number of ocular hypotensive medications used, although clinically, patients required fewer medications. In the OAG group, the IOP and number of ocular hypotensive drugs were almost unchanged after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The ACD and angle width in eyes with glaucoma increased significantly after phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Postoperative ACD significantly differed between the ACG and OAG groups, whereas angle parameters did not differ.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Female , Glaucoma, Angle-Closure/drug therapy , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/drug therapy , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Preoperative Period , Tomography, Optical Coherence
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2011 Nov; 59(6): 471-474
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136230

ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine the risk factors for developing phacomorphic glaucoma in eyes with mature cataracts. Materials and Methods: This is a case-control study comprising of 90 eyes with phacomorphic glaucoma and 90 age- and sex-matched control eyes with mature cataracts without phacomorphic glaucoma. Patients with pre-existing glaucoma, previous intraocular surgery and /or absence of documented axial lengths were excluded from this study. Binary logistic regression analysis of the variables, axial length and anterior chamber depth, was performed. Anterior chamber depth of the contralateral eye was used as a proxy measure of the pre-phacomorphic state in the eye with phacomorphic glaucoma as majority of them first presented to our center during the phacomorphic attack without prior measurements of the pre-phacomorphic ACD or lens thickness; therefore, their anterior chamber depth would not be representative of their pre-phacomorphic state. Axial length of 23.7 mm was selected as a cut-off for dichotomized logistic regression based on the local population mean from published demographic data. Results: The mean age was 73.1 ± 10.2 years. All phacomorphic and control eyes were ethnic Chinese. The mean presenting intraocular pressures were 49.5 ± 11.8 mmHg and 16.7 ± 1.7 mmHg in the phacomorphic and control eyes respectively (P< 0.0001), whilst the median Snellen best corrected visual acuity were light perception and hand movement in the phacomorphic and control eyes respectively. Eyes with phacomorphic glaucoma had shorter axial length of 23.1 ± 0.9 mm median when compared with that of control eyes, 23.7 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.0006). Eyes with AL ≤ 23.7 mm were 4.3 times as likely to develop phacomorphic glaucoma when compared with AL > 23.7 mm (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Axial length less than ≤ 23.7 mm was a risk factor for developing phacomorphic glaucoma. Eyes with AL shorter than the population mean were 4.3 times as likely to develop phacomorphic glaucoma compared with eyes with longer than average AL. In an area where phacomorphic glaucoma is prevalent and medical resources are limited, patients with AL shorter than their population mean may be considered for earlier elective cataract extraction as a preventive measure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Anterior Chamber/surgery , Case-Control Studies , Cataract/epidemiology , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Cataract Extraction/statistics & numerical data , Glaucoma/epidemiology , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2010 Nov; 58(6): 483-485
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136111

ABSTRACT

Aim: To study the relationship between ocular parameters and amplitude of accommodation (AA) in the peri-presbyopic age group (35–50 years). Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of consecutive patients in the age group 35–50 years, who attended our outpatient clinic, were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20, J1 in both eyes were included. The AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation. The axial length (AL), central anterior chamber depth (CACD) and lens thickness (LT) were also measured. Results: There was moderate correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = 0.56) between AL and AA as well as between CACD and AA (r = 0.53) in myopes in the age group 35–39 years. In the other age groups and the groups taken as a whole, there was no correlation. In hypermetropes and emmetropes, there was no correlation between AA and the above ocular parameters. No significant correlation existed between LT and AA across different age groups and refractive errors. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between AA and ocular parameters like anterior chamber depth, AL and LT.


Subject(s)
Accommodation, Ocular , Adult , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Anterior Chamber/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Refractive Errors/pathology , Refractive Errors/physiopathology , Visual Acuity
12.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 73(4): 333-337, July-Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-560605

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and test accuracy of corneal biomechanical metrics and anterior segment data in differentiating keratoconus from healthy corneas. METHODS: Comparative case series. Patients with and without keratoconus (gender and age-matched) were submitted for complete eye examinations including corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) as measured by the Ocular Response Analyzer and anterior segment data as gathered through Pentacam assessments. The anterior segment data measurement included average central keratometric readings (K-Ave), corneal astigmatism (CA), central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (AC depth) and corneal volume (CV). All parameters were assessed, compared and analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point by which to maximize the sensitivity and specificity of discriminating keratoconus from normal corneas for each data category. RESULTS: Seventy seven eyes from forty three patients (24 male, 19 female) with keratoconus and eighty six eyes from forty three (24 male, 19 female) healthy controls were enrolled. ROC curve analysis showed poor overall predictive accuracy for all studied parameters in differentiating keratoconus from normal corneas. The highest sensitivity (79.2 percent) was obtained for both AC depth and CH (cutoff points 3.22 mm and 9.39 mmHg respectively). The best specificity (89.5 percent) and test accuracy (80.34 percent) were obtained for CA (cutoff point of 2.2 D). CONCLUSION: When considered together, studied parameters showed statistical differences between groups. However, when considered independently they presented low sensitivity, specificity and test accuracy in differentiating keratoconus from healthy corneas.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia de parâmetros biomecânicos e anatômicos do segmento anterior isolados na diferenciação de córneas saudáveis e com ceratocone. MÉTODOS: Estudo tipo série de casos comparativa. Pacientes com ceratocone e controles saudáveis foram pareados (idade e sexo) e submetidos a exame oftalmológico completo, incluindo avaliação biomecânica (ORA) e tomográfica (Pentacam). Ceratometria central média, astigmatismo corneano, espessura corneana central, profundidade da câmara anterior, volume corneano, CH e CRF foram estabelecidos, avaliados e comparados. Curvas ROC (Receiver operating characteristic) foram utilizadas para identificar o melhor valor de corte que apresentasse a maior sensibilidade e especificidade na discriminação entre ceratocone e córneas saudáveis para cada dado estudado. RESULTADOS: Setenta e sete olhos de 43 pacientes com ceratocone (24 homens e 19 mulheres) e 86 olhos de pacientes saudáveis (24 homens e 19 mulheres) foram incluídos no estudo. Curvas ROC mostraram baixa acurácia na predição do diagnóstico de ceratocone em todos os parâmetros isolados estudados. Maior sensibilidade encontrada foi 79,2 por cento para profundidade da câmara anterior e CH (ponto de corte 3,22mm e 9,39mmHg respectivamente); maior especificidade e acurácia foram encontradas na análise do astigmatismo corneano (ponto de corte 2,2 D; 89,5 por cento e 80,34 por cento respectivamente). CONCLUSÃO: Todos os parâmetros estudados mostraram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. No entanto, quando considerados isoladamente apresentaram baixas sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia na diferenciação entre ceratocone e córneas saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Cornea/anatomy & histology , Keratoconus/diagnosis , Anterior Chamber/pathology , Biomechanical Phenomena , Case-Control Studies , Cornea/pathology , Corneal Topography/methods , ROC Curve , Statistics, Nonparametric
13.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 69(1): 55-58, Jan,-Feb. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-549436

ABSTRACT

Relato de um caso de surpresa refracional pós-operatória não pretendida em paciente portador de distrofia corneana posterior amorfa submetida à facoemulsificação. A provável causa do erro, bem como a conduta tomada a partir do reconhecimento da mesma, são discutidas neste relato.


One case of post-phacoemulsification refractive surprise in a posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy patient is reported herein. Its likely causative factor, as well as our approach once it was recognized are discussed in this report.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Biometry , Cataract Extraction , Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary , Corneal Topography , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Cornea/physiology , Lenses, Intraocular
14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2009 Jan-Feb; 57(1): 23-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-70732

ABSTRACT

The Blumenthal;s 'Mininuc' technique enables nuclear expression through a 5-6.5-mm sclerocorneal tunnel incision using a Sheet's lens glide and anterior chamber maintainer (ACM). A 6-mm or larger capsulorrhexis, reduction in nuclear size by hydroprocedure and its manipulation manually into the anterior chamber are performed. The nucleus is expressed out of the chamber by use of hydrostatic pressure created by balanced salt solution delivered continuously through the ACM. This continuous flow from ACM to anterior chamber keeps the eye under positive pressure physiological state besides clearing the chamber of cortex, blood and pigments offering excellent visualization. The procedure, with an initial learning curve, is highly effective, applicable to all grades of cataracts, has minimum intraocular instrumentation resulting in an early rehabilitation of the patient.


Subject(s)
Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Cataract Extraction/methods , Humans , Hydrostatic Pressure , Therapeutic Irrigation , Lens Nucleus, Crystalline/surgery , Microsurgery/methods , Prostheses and Implants , Prosthesis Implantation , Surgical Flaps
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 525-528, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178610

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess efficacy of the Pentacam (PTC) and the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AOCT) for detection of occludable angles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourty-one eyes with gonioscopically diagnosed occludable angles and 32 normal open-angle eyes were included. Anterior chamber angle (ACA) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured with PTC and AOCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for each parameter and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated. RESULTS: Values of ACA and ACD measured by PTC and AOCT were similar not only in normal open angle eyes but also in occludable angle eyes. For detection of occludable angle, the AUCs of PTC with ACA and ACD were 0.935 and 0.969, respectively. The AUCs of AOCT with ACA and ACD were 0.904 and 0.947, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both PTC and AOCT allow accurate discrimination between open and occludable angle eyes, so that they may aid to screening the occludable angles.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Humans , Middle Aged , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 71(3): 321-327, maio-jun. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-486106

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer o perfil dos pacientes com glaucoma agudo primário (GAP) e proceder a uma análise clínica e morfométrica comparativa entre o olho que sofreu a crise de GAP e o olho contralateral (OCL). Métodos: Estudo prospectivo. Foram avaliados pacientes no período de setembro de 2005 a março de 2007. Critério de inclusão: diagnóstico de GAP. Critérios de exclusão: catarata (exceto "glaukomflecken") à biomicroscopia que acarrete baixa acuidade visual ou miopização, glaucomas secundários, sinais de crise GAP prévio ou de procedimento cirúrgico anterior no OCL, impossibilidade de controle clínico do GAP, íris em platô. Foram avaliados: incidência do GAP, idade, sexo, raça, história familiar de glaucoma, acuidade visual com (AVCC) e sem correção (AVSC) na escala decimal, equivalente esférico (EE), escavação do disco óptico (E/D), gonioscopia, ceratometria (K), espessura central da córnea (ECC) e dados ecobiométricos [profundidade central da câmara anterior (PCCA), diâmetro axial ântero-posterior do olho (AXL), espessura do cristalino (CR)], e relação espessura do cristalino e diâmetro axial (CR/AXL). RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos 1346 pacientes no período de setembro de 2005 a março de 2007, 28 (2,1 por cento) tiveram o diagnóstico de GAP. A incidência de GAP no SGHSG (Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo) foi de 20,8 por 1000 atendimentos. Os pacientes com GAP eram, na grande maioria, do sexo feminino, leucodérmicos, com história familiar negativa para glaucoma e média de idade de 59,6 anos. Na comparação entre olhos com GAP e os OCLs verificou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa nos seguintes parâmetros clínicos: AVSC (GAP:0,27 ± 0,32; OCL:0,57 ± 0,33, p=0,000); AVCC (GAP:0,53 ± 0,44; OCL:0,88 ± 0,23, p=0,000); EE (GAP: +0,49 ± 1,98; OCL: +1,21 ± 2,03, p=0,007); E/D (GAP: 0,51 ± 0,28; OCL: 0,42 ± 0,20; p=0,031). Além disso, à gonioscopia, os olhos com GAP apresentaram com maior freqüência os seios camerulares fechados...


PURPOSE: To establish the profile of patients with acute primary angle-closure glaucoma (APACG) and to assess comparatively clinical and morphometric parameters between eyes with APACG and contralateral eyes (CLEs). METHODS: Prospective study including patients attended from September 2005 to March 2007. Inclusion criteria: diagnosis of APACG. Exclusion criteria: presence of cataract (except for "glaukomflecken") that may cause low visual acuity or myopization, secondary glaucoma, previous APAGC or surgical procedure in the (CLE), no possibility to control the acute crisis of glaucoma clinically, plateau iris. The following were evaluated: incidence of APACG, age, gender, race, family history of glaucoma, corrected visual acuity (CVA) and uncorrected visual acuity (UVA), spherical equivalent (SE), cup/disc ratio (C/D), gonioscopy, keratometry (K), central corneal thickness (CCT), and echobiometric data [anterior central chamber depth (ACCD), axial length (AL), lens thickness (LT)] and relation between lens thickness and axial length (LT/AL). RESULTS: One thousand and three hundred and forty-three patients were examined from September 2005 to March 2006; 28 (2.1 percent) had the diagnosis of APACG. The incidence of the APACG was 20.8 cases per 1000 patients. The patients with APACG were manly white women with a negative familial history of glaucoma and with an average age of 59.6 years. When clinical aspects were compared between eyes with APACG and CLEs, statistical significance was observed: UVA (APACG: 0.27 ± 0.32; CLE: 0.57 ± 0.33, p=0.000); CVA (APACG: 0.53 ± 0.44; CLE: 0.88 ± 0.23, p=0.000); SE (APACG: +0.49 ± 1.98; CLE: +1.21 ± 2.03, p=0.007); C/D (APACG: 0.51 ± 0.28; CLE: 0.42 ± 0.20; p=0.031). Also, by gonioscopy, eyes with APACG demonstrated more frequently angle closure than CLEs. The eye of the crisis showed the following characteristics: average K of 45.21 ± 1.96 D, average CCT of 534.46 ± 34.15 mm, average ACCD of 2.43 ±...


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Glaucoma, Angle-Closure/pathology , Acute Disease , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Anterior Chamber/pathology , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Gonioscopy , Prospective Studies , Refractive Errors/pathology , Vision Tests , Visual Acuity/physiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150870

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the reproducibility and agreement of anterior chamber measurements between the Pentacam (PTC) and the Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AOCT) in normal healthy eyes with open angle. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional comparative case series. A total of 162 eyes of 81 healthy volunteers with normal open angle were included in this study. Anterior chamber angle (ACA) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured with PTC and AOCT. Intra-observer variability and inter-methods agreement of both instruments for ACA and ACD were evaluated. RESULTS: Values of temporal and nasal ACA measured by two instruments were similar, and the results of ACD were also not significantly different between modalities (p>0.01). ACA and ACD measurements by PTC and AOCT showed good intra-observer and inter-method agreements (all >0.9). CONCLUSIONS: PTC and AOCT are presumed to be very useful for the anterior chamber angle examination. They may provide good images and quantitative data about the angle structures including ACA and ACD.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Anterior Eye Segment , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Female , Humans , Male , Observer Variation , Photography/methods , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Trabecular Meshwork/anatomy & histology , Young Adult
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 70(2): 330-336, mar.-abr. 2007.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-453177

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar a presença de simetria das medidas morfométricas do segmento anterior entre olhos adelfos normais. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados, pela biomicroscopia ultra-sônica (UBM), 178 olhos de 89 pacientes com exame oftalmológico normal. Em cada olho, além da profundidade da câmara anterior (PCA), foram realizadas onze outras medidas que caracterizam a morfometria do segmento anterior em 4 quadrantes distintos (superior, nasal, inferior e temporal). Determinou-se a presença da simetria e a intensidade da correlação das medidas entre olhos direitos e esquerdos, para cada uma das medidas morfométricas, nos meridianos pesquisados. RESULTADOS: Para a maioria das variáveis estudadas, não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas na morfometria do segmento anterior, entre olhos adelfos. Apenas duas variáveis, em dois meridianos distintos, apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas, que foram inferiores a 0,025 mm, sendo consideradas clinicamente não-significativas, por se situarem no limite da precisão da UBM. A análise de Pearson demonstrou correlação estatisticamente significante entre as medidas obtidas entre os olhos, de intensidade, em geral, moderada para todas as variáveis, exceto para a variável PCA, cuja correlação foi considerada excelente. CONCLUSÃO: Em olhos adelfos com refração e biometria semelhantes, foi observada a presença de simetria nos parâmetros que caracterizam a morfometria do segmento anterior.


PURPOSE: To determine the presence of symmetry of anterior segment morphometric measurements between normal adelphic eyes. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-eight eyes of 89 subjects with normal ophthalmic examination were examined by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). In each eye, the anterior chamber depth (ACD) as well as 11 other measurements that characterize anterior segment morphometry were measured in 4 different quadrants (superior, nasal, inferior and temporal). The presence of symmetry between right and left eye for each of these variables was then compared for each meridian. RESULTS: No significant statistical differences were observed concerning anterior segment morphometry between right and left eyes for most measured parameters. Only two variables, in two different meridians, presented statistical significant differences between right and left eyes. The difference, however, was inferior to 0.025 mm, which is beyond the precision of UBM and therefore was not considered to be clinically significant. Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated the presence of a statistical significant correlation, with a moderate intensity for the majority of the variables except ACD, whose correlation was excellent. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symmetry of morphometric measurements between right and left eyes is expected to occur, provided these eyes have similar refractive errors and biometric measurements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Anterior Chamber , Anterior Eye Segment/anatomy & histology , Anterior Eye Segment , Retinal Detachment , Biometry , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Microscopy, Acoustic , Models, Statistical , Prospective Studies , Refractive Errors , Vision Screening
19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2006 Sep; 54(3): 159-63
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-69716

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the ultrasound biomicroscopic measurement of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes, with the angle width estimated by gonioscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants: Patients with open and closed angles attending a glaucoma clinic were recruited for the study. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Temporal quadrants of the angles of patients were categorized by gonioscopy as Grade 0 to Grade 4, using Shaffer's classification. These angles were quantified by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) using the following biometric characteristics: Angle opening distance at 250 micro (AOD 250) and 500 micro (AOD 500) from the scleral spur and trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (TCPD). The angles were further segregated as "narrow angles" (Schaffer's Grade 2 or less) and "open angles" (Schaffer's Grade 3 and 4). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The UBM measurements were computed in each case and analyzed in relation to the gonioscopic angle evaluation. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty three eyes of 163 patients were analyzed. One hundred and six eyes had "narrow angles" and 57 eyes had "open angles" on gonioscopy. There was a significant difference among the mean UBM measurements of each angle grade estimated by gonioscopy (P < 0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficient between all UBM parameters and gonioscopy grades was significant at the 0.01 level. The mean AOD 250, AOD 500 and TCPD in narrow angles were 58+/-49 micro, 102+/-84 micro and 653+/-124 respectively, while it was 176+/-47 micro, 291+/-62 micro and 883+/-94 micro in eyes with open angles (P < 0.001) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The angle width estimated by gonioscopy correlated significantly with the angle dimensions measured by UBM. Gonioscopy, though a subjective test, is a reliable method for estimation of the angle width.


Subject(s)
Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Female , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Gonioscopy/methods , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Iris/anatomy & histology , Male , Microscopy, Acoustic/methods , Middle Aged , Sclera/anatomy & histology , Trabecular Meshwork/anatomy & histology
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-41844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the anterior structures of the eyes in normal Northern Thais include the corneal topography and thickness, as well as the anterior chamber depth (ACD) and the white-to-white (WTW) using the Orbscan II system. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred and six eyes of 56 normal subjects were investigated using the Orbscan II. The simulated keratometry (SimK), astigmatism, corneal thickness, ACD and WTW were collected. The axial power maps as well as anterior and posterior elevation maps were read and categorized. Corneal thickness was measured in different regions and the pachymetry patterns were classified. RESULTS: The mean SimK was 44.18 (1.41)/43.30 (1.46) diopters (D) and the mean astigmatism was 0.93 (0.58) D. Symmetric bow tie was the most common axial power pattern in the anterior cornea (57.6%), followed by asymmetric bow tie (19.8%), irregular patterns (12.3%), round (9.4%), and oval (0.9%). Incomplete ridge (40.6%) and island (34%) were common elevation patterns observed in the anterior corneal surface, and island (92.5%) was the most common topographic pattern in the posterior. The thinnest point on the cornea had an average thickness of 512.49 (35) micron and was located at an average of 0.43 (0.24) mm from visual axis. In the pachymetry maps, round (47.2%) and oval (45.3%) were common patterns. The mean ACD and WTW was 2.79 (0.35) and 11.61 (0.36) mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated the normal variations of anterior segment structures of the eyes in normal Northern Thais using the Orbscan II topography system. This information may be useful for comparison with further quantitative studies of various abnormal states.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Cohort Studies , Cornea/anatomy & histology , Corneal Diseases/ethnology , Corneal Topography/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Probability , Reference Values , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Thailand
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