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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929060


Plant metabolites are important for plant development and human health. Plants of celery (Apiumgraveolens L.) with different-colored petioles have been formed in the course of long-term evolution. However, the composition, content distribution, and mechanisms of accumulation of metabolites in different-colored petioles remain elusive. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), 1159 metabolites, including 100 lipids, 72 organic acids and derivatives, 83 phenylpropanoids and polyketides, and several alkaloids and terpenoids, were quantified in four celery cultivars, each with a different petiole color. There were significant differences in the types and contents of metabolites in celery with different-colored petioles, with the most striking difference between green celery and purple celery, followed by white celery and green celery. Annotated analysis of metabolic pathways showed that the metabolites of the different-colored petioles were significantly enriched in biosynthetic pathways such as anthocyanin, flavonoid, and chlorophyll pathways, suggesting that these metabolic pathways may play a key role in determining petiole color in celery. The content of chlorophyll in green celery was significantly higher than that in other celery cultivars, yellow celery was rich in carotenoids, and the content of anthocyanin in purple celery was significantly higher than that in the other celery cultivars. The color of the celery petioles was significantly correlated with the content of related metabolites. Among the four celery cultivars, the metabolites of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were enriched in purple celery. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) suggested that the differential expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway might affect the biosynthesis of anthocyanin in celery. In addition, HPLC analysis revealed that cyanidin is the main pigment in purple celery. This study explored the differences in the types and contents of metabolites in celery cultivars with different-colored petioles and identified key substances for color formation. The results provide a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic improvement of celery petiole color.

Anthocyanins , Apium/metabolism , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Color , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Metabolomics , Plant Proteins/genetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928117


Morus alba, a traditional economic crop, is also a significant medicinal plant. The branches(Mori Ramulus), leaves(Mori Folium), roots and barks(Mori Cortex), and fruits(Mori Fructus) of M. alba are rich in chemical components, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, flavanols, anthocyanins, benzofurans, phenolic acids, and polysaccharides, and possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, liver protective, immunoregulatory, and other pharmacological activities. This study analyzed the sources, classification, and functions of the main chemical components in M. alba and systematically summarized the latest research results of essential active components in M. alba and their pharmacological effects to provide references for in-depth research and further development as well as utilization of active components in M. alba.

Anthocyanins , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Morus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1738-1752, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927815


Anthocyanins are widely distributed water-soluble pigments that not only give the fruit colorful appearances, but also are important sources of natural edible pigments. In recent years, the interest on anthocyanins of solanaceous vegetables is increasing. This paper summarized the structure of anthocyanins and its biosynthetic pathway, the structural genes and regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in solanaceous vegetables, as well as the environmental factors affecting the biosynthesis. This review may help clarify the synthesis and regulation mechanism of anthocyanins in solanaceous vegetables and make better use of anthocyanins for quality breeding of fruit colors.

Anthocyanins/metabolism , Fruit/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Breeding , Vegetables/genetics
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 275-286, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927711


This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of the transcription factor MYB10, which is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, in different colors of Ribes L. fruitification. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to clone the MYB10 genes from Ribes nigrum L. (RnMYB10), Ribes rubrum L. (RrMYB10), and Ribes album L. (RaMYB10), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RnMYB10 and RrMYB10 were evolutionarily homologous. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the expression of MYB10 in the fruits of Ribes nigrum L. was higher than that of Ribes rubrum L. and much higher than that of Ribes album L. The expression of RnMYB10 and RrMYB10 increased at first and then decreased as the fruit diameter increased and the fruit color deepened (the maximum expression level was reached at 75% of the fruit color change), while the expression level of RaMYB10 was very low. Overexpression of RnMYB10 and RrMYB10 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in purple petioles and leaves, whereas overexpression of RaMYB10 resulted in no significant color changes. This indicates that MYB10 gene plays an important role in the coloration of Ribes L. fruit.

Anthocyanins , Cloning, Molecular , Fruit , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Ribes/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888176


Leaves of Euryale ferox are rich in anthocyanins. Anthocyanin synthesis is one of the important branches of the flavonoid synthesis pathway, in which flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase(F3'H) can participate in the formation of important intermediate products of anthocyanin synthesis. According to the data of E. ferox transcriptome, F3'H cDNA sequence was cloned in the leaves of E. ferox and named as EfF3'H. The correlation between EfF3'H gene expression and synthesis of flavonoids was analyzed by a series of bioinforma-tics tools and qRT-PCR. Moreover, the biological function of EfF3'H was verified by the heterologous expression in yeast. Our results showed that EfF3'H comprised a 1 566 bp open reading frame which encoded a hydrophilic transmembrane protein composed of 521 amino acid residues. It was predicted to be located in the plasma membrane. Combined with predictive analysis of conserved domains, this protein belongs to the cytochrome P450(CYP450) superfamily. The qRT-PCR results revealed that the expression level of EfF3'H was significantly different among different cultivars and was highly correlated with the content of related flavonoids in the leaves. Eukaryotic expression studies showed that EfF3'H protein had the biological activity of converting kaempferol to quercetin. In this study, EfF3'H cDNA was cloned from the leaves of E. ferox for the first time, and the biological function of the protein was verified. It provi-ded a scientific basis for further utilizing the leaves of E. ferox and laid a foundation for the further analysis of the biosynthesis pathway of flavonoids in medicinal plants.

Anthocyanins , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Transcriptome
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1312-1323, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878633


Dihydroflavanol-4-reductase (Dfr) is a key enzyme that regulates the synthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. To investigate the difference of dfr gene in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi with different colors in the same ecological environment, three complete full-length sequences of dfr gene were cloned from the cDNA of S. baicalensis with white, purple-red and purple colors using homologous cloning and RACE techniques. The three genes were named Sbdfr1, Sbdfr2 and Sbdfr3, respectively, and their corresponding structures were analyzed. The results showed that all three Dfr proteins have highly conserved NADPH binding sites and substrate-specific binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they are closely related to that of the known S. viscidula (ACV49882.1). Analysis of key structural domains and 3D models revealed differences in the catalytically active regions on the surface of all three Dfr proteins, and their unique structural characteristics may provide favorable conditions for studying the substrate specificity of different Dfr proteins. qRT-PCR analysis shows that dfr was expressed at different level in all tissues except the roots of S. baicalensis in full-bloom. During floral development, the expression level of dfr in white and purple-flowered Scutellaria showed an overall upward trend. In purple-red-flowered Scutellaria, the expression first slowly increased, followed by a decrease, and then rapidly increased to the maximum. This research provides a theoretical basis for further exploring the mechanism and function of Dfr substrate selectivity, and are of great scientific value for elucidating the molecular mechanism of floral color variation in S. baicalensis.

Anthocyanins , Cloning, Molecular , Color , Phylogeny , Scutellaria baicalensis/genetics
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 822-829, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138619


RESUMEN La enfermedad de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa corresponden a Enfermedades Inflamatorias Intestinales (EII). En la actualidad aún no se ha establecido la cura de estas enfermedades; sin embargo, se han desarrollado diversas terapias dirigidas a disminuir la inflamación de la mucosa (5 aminosalicílicos) y a disminuir la respuesta del sistema inmune (ejemplo: inmunomoduladores y tratamientos biológicos). Otro pilar de manejo de los pacientes con EII es la nutrición, esta es fundamental en el tratamiento por su capacidad de disminuir síntomas gastrointestinales. La alimentación tiene un impacto en la microbiota intestinal (MI), al asociarse la dieta occidental a un cambio en la biodiversidad de la microbiota. En este sentido, la MI podría tener un rol en la patogenia de la enfermedad, al existir una disminución de la biodiversidad y un aumento de bacterias que podrían favorecer la inflamación y generar una disminución en la producción de ácidos grasos de cadena corta. En EII, los hábitos alimentarios tienden a ser restrictivos y el estado nutricional se caracteriza por desnutrición, pérdida de masa muscular, sarcopenia, déficit de vitamina D y hierro. Por ello en periodos de remisión no se debe restringir la alimentación. En periodos de crisis, las dietas de exclusión de alimentos disminuyen los síntomas y, nutrientes específicos como las antocianinas y ácidos grasos w-3 podrían tener un efecto en la inflamación.

ABSTRACT Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis correspond to Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). At present, its cure is not known, however nutrition is a fundamental pillar in treatment due to its ability to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms. Food has an impact on intestinal microbiota (IM), as the Western Diet is associated with a change in microbiota biodiversity. In this sense, IM could have a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, since there is a decrease in biodiversity and an increase in bacteria that could favor inflammation and generate a decrease in the production of short-chain fatty acids. In IBD, eating habits tend to be restrictive and nutritional status is characterized by malnutrition, loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia, and vitamin D and iron deficiency. Therefore, during periods of remission, feeding should not be restricted. In periods of crisis, exclusion diets decrease specific symptoms and nutrients such as anthocyanins and w-3 fatty acids could have an effect on inflammation.

Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Microbiota , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Diet Therapy , Anthocyanins
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 272-280, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115498


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the antioxidant characteristics and sensory acceptance of Greek yogurt with added whole sorghum flours (WSF) from genotypes BRS305 (tannin) and BR501 (tannin-free). Five formulations were elaborated: 1) Control (without WSF); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 and 5) 4% BRS305 and evaluated for antioxidant capacity, total anthocyanins, total phenols, condensed tannins, sensory acceptance and purchase intention. The 4% BRS305 formulation presented higher antioxidant properties, but lower sensory acceptance. No significant difference was observed for: color, flavor and overall acceptability between the control and 2% BR501; nor for texture and overall acceptability between the control and 4% BR501. Principal component analysis explained that all variables associated with antioxidant properties were positively correlated with the first major component (PC1: 82.7%). The 2% and 4% BR501 formulations were more highly correlated with PC1 (92.7%), as well as the control in relation to sensorial characteristics. The addition of WSF BRS305 improved the antioxidant properties of yogurts and the addition of WSF BR501 did not interfere with the sensory acceptance of the formulations. The similarity of the sensory acceptance of the yogurt containing WSF from the BR 501 genotype to the control, opens perspectives for the insertion of sorghum in human food, using dairy products as suitable matrices, adding potential functionality to this type of product.

RESUMEN El trabajo tuvo como propósito desarrollar y evaluar las características antioxidantes y la aceptación sensorial de yogurt griego con adición de harinas integrales de sorgo (HIS) de los genotipos BRS305 (con taninos) y BR501 (sin taninos). Cinco formulaciones fueron elaboradas: 1) Control (sin HIS); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 y 5) 4% BRS305. Las formulaciones fueron evaluadas en función de su actividad antioxidante, antocianinas totales, fenólicos totales, taninos condensados, aceptación sensorial e intención de compra. La formulación 4% BRS305 presentó más propiedades antioxidantes, pero menor aceptación sensorial que las otras formulaciones. No se observó diferencia significativa entre el control y el 2% BR501 para el color, sabor e impresión global, ni tampoco para textura e impresión global en relación al 4% BR501. El análisis de componente principal ha explicado que todas las variables asociadas a las propiedades antioxidantes han sido positivamente correlacionadas con el primer componente principal (PC1: 82,7%). Las formulaciones 2% y 4% BR501 se han correlacionado más con el PC1 (92,7%), así como el control con las características sensoriales. La adición de HIS BRS305 ha mejorado las propiedades antioxidantes de los yogurts y la adición de HIS BR501 no ha interferido en la aceptación sensorial de las formulaciones. La similitud de la aceptación sensorial del yogurt que contiene el HIS del genotipo BR501 con el control, abre perspectivas para la inserción del sorgo en la alimentación humana, utilizando productos lácteos como matrices adecuadas, agregando funcionalidad potencial a este tipo de producto.

Tannins/genetics , Yogurt , Sorghum/chemistry , Flour , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Tannins/analysis , Taste , Dairy Products , Principal Component Analysis , Functional Food , Anthocyanins/analysis
Vitae (Medellín) ; 26(3): 135-147, 2020. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1103784


Background:Vaccinium meridionale produces fruits with a high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols with great antioxidant capacity. Objective: produce vinegar from V. meridionale alcoholic beverages and to determine the content of bioactive antioxidant compounds, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxic activity on colorectal cancer cells. Methods: Wine and vinegar samples were obtained by fermentation of V. meridionale berries juice, using three extractive processes: mechanical maceration (MAC), preheating to 80°C (CAL) and a combination of both (MIX). During acetic fermentation, titratable acidity and acetic acid content were evaluated. Fermentation progress was recorded and compared by measuring the antioxidant potential by DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Polyphenols, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids were quantified. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of vinegar was evaluated in SW480 colon cancer cells. Results: In acetic fermentation, yield and productivity were independent of extraction, indicating that they do not affect the biotransformation of alcohol into vinegar. The alcoholic beverages showed the highest antioxidant activity; after acetic fermentation, a decrease in antioxidant potential was observed in all three extractive processes evaluated. The different vinegar obtained by CAL and MIX, showed the highest values of antioxidant activity, polyphenols, and anthocyanins. The inhibition of the antiproliferative activity of vinegar was dose-dependent and showed an IC50 of 536 µg/mL. Conclusions: The vinegar prepared from V. meridionale berries presented an outstanding antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The reason is the contents of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant power, which may contribute to chemoprevention in secondary cancer prevention.

Antecedentes: Vaccinium meridionale produce frutos con alto contenido en antocianinas y polifenoles con elevada capacidad antioxidante. Objetivo: Producir vinagre a partir de bebidas alcohólicas de V. meridionale y determinar el contenido de compuestos bioactivos antioxidantes, capacidad antioxidante y actividad citotóxica sobre células de cáncer colorrectal. Métodos: Muestras de Vino y vinagre fueron obtenidas mediante fermentación del jugo de V. meridionale, usando tres procesos extractivos: maceración mecánica (MAC), precalentamiento a 80 °C (CAL) y una combinación de ambos (MIX). En la fermentación acética fueron evaluadas la acidez titulable y el contenido de ácido acético. Se registró y comparó la evolución de la fermentación midiendo el potencial antioxidante por DPPH, FRAP y ORAC. Se cuantificaron los polifenoles, antocianinas y ácidos hidroxicinámicos. Finalmente, la actividad antiproliferativa del vinagre fue evaluada en células de cáncer de colon SW480. Resultados: En la fermentación acética, el rendimiento y la productividad fueron independientes de la extracción indicando que no afectan la biotransformación del alcohol en vinagre. Las bebidas alcohólicas mostraron la mayor actividad antioxidante, después de la fermentación acética se observó una disminución del potencial antioxidante en los tres procesos extractivos evaluados. Los vinagres obtenidos por CAL y MIX, presentaron los mayores valores de actividad antioxidante, polifenoles y antocianinas. La inhibición de la actividad antiproliferativa del vinagre fue dosis dependiente y mostró un IC50 de 536 µg/mL. Conclusiones: El vinagre preparado a partir de bayas de V. meridionale presentó una excelente actividad antioxidante y antiproliferativa debido al contenido de compuestos bioactivos y poder antioxidante que puede contribuir a la quimioprevención en la prevención secundaria del cáncer.

Humans , Acetic Acid , Fruit , Vaccinium , Polyphenols , Anthocyanins
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 678-692, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827001


As water-soluble, natural pigments, anthocyanins are responsible for the red, purple and blue colors of many flowers, which attract pollinators to spread pollen. The colors of flowers are also essential for plants to survive in the nature and become one of the most significant characteristics of ornamental plants. In the booming floriculture industry, to produce various flower colors could increase the richness of natural colors, but it is still difficult to breed flowers with coveted blue color. The diversity of flower color is mainly determined by the types and contents of anthocyanins and their derivatives. The synthesis of delphinidin pigments is the key factor for breeding blue flowers. However, there are no structural genes in many plants to biosynthesize delphinidin pigments. Blue flowers are successfully created by genetic engineering in recent years. In this paper, using common ornamental plants as examples, we review the mechanism of plant flower coloration from the aspects of the key factors affecting the synthesis of delphinidin pigment and the production strategies of blue flowers based on the regulation of anthocyanin metabolism. Different strategies of molecular breeding could provide opportunities to improve colors of other floriculture plants and to develop anthocyanin-rich economic crops, such as colored cotton with blue fibers.

Anthocyanins , Metabolism , Flowers , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genetic Engineering , Pigmentation , Genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886557


@#Background and Objective: Anthocyanins are associated with aging and longevity. However, the mechanism involving the pure anthocyanin compounds in aging remains elusive. To investigate the possible mechanism of action of the different anthocyanin compounds towards aging-associated enzymes, the lead-likeness, binding affinity, and binding interactions were evaluated. Methodology: The different anthocyanin compounds such as cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and petunidin were assessed for lead-likeness following the criteria of Lipinski's rule of five (Ro5). These same compounds were virtually docked to different aging-related enzymes involved in MAPK, AMPK, and insulin signaling pathways. The top binding anthocyanins for each enzyme were visualized and compared to the enzyme inhibitors. Results: The different anthocyanin compounds abide with Ro5 denoting its potential as a lead compound. For each enzyme, there were different top-binding anthocyanins. The crystal structures of the docked anthocyanins reveal that there were different substructures involved during the non-covalent interaction. Some substructures, particularly the hydroxy groups, have different roles during the H-bond formation. These findings suggest that the various anthocyanin compounds may have a distinct mechanism of action towards a specific enzyme. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that the anthocyanin compounds may have varying effects in aging enzymes, which may be due to the differences in their substructures. Nonetheless, further investigations are needed to understand these findings using cells and animal models.

Insulin , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Anthocyanins , Insulin, Regular, Human , Computer Simulation
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 42: 42-48, Nov. 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087459


Background: Foods including probiotics are considered "functional foods." As an alternative to dairy products, we investigated the behavior of Lactobacillus casei when exposed to low-pH fruit juice. Juices of fruits such as pineapple, raspberry, and orange were assessed. Free and microencapsulated forms of L. casei were compared, and the viability of the probiotic was evaluated under storage at 4°C for 28 d. Microbiological analyses were carried out to ensure a safe and healthy product for consumers who look for foods with probiotics from sources other than dairy. Results: Low pH affected L. casei survival during storage depending on the type of fruit juice. In the case of pineapple juice, some microcapsules were broken, but microcapsules recovered at the end of the storage period had 100% viability (2.3 × 107 CFU/g spheres). In the case of orange juice, more than 91% viability (5.5 × 106 CFU/g spheres) was found. In raspberry juice, viability decreased rapidly, disappearing at the end of the storage period, which was caused by the absorption of high concentrations of anthocyanin inside microcapsules more than low pH. Conclusion: Low pH affected the survival of L. casei under refrigeration; even when they were microencapsulated, acidic conditions impacted their viability. Although pH affects viability, its value is very sensitive and will depend on the type of fruit juice and its composition. Some fruit juices contain compounds used as substrates for Lactobacillus and other compounds with antimicrobial effects.

Microbial Viability , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Lactobacillus casei/growth & development , Vibration , Cold Temperature , Probiotics , Alginates/chemistry , Food Storage , Pasteurization , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Anthocyanins
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 509-517, mar./apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048606


Oenocarpus bacaba Mart. is a palm tree native from Amazon with highlighted antioxidant activities. Its fruit (bacaba) processing dismisses the peel, which has nutrients that can collaborate for its antioxidant activity and preventing diseases. Thus, this study assessed the centesimal and mineral composition, physicochemical characterization (acidity, total soluble solids, pH, and color), total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu method), anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2 difenil-1-picril hidrazil) method in bacaba peels. For the centesimal composition, it was found 4.87, 1.42, 29.13, 1.08 and 63.32 g 100 g-1 for water content, ashes, lipids, proteins, and total carbohydrates, respectively. For the mineral composition, it was found 582.97, 79.00, 51.79, 0.625, 37.02, 2.37 and 77.12 mg 100g-1 contents for potassium, sodium, magnesium, copper, calcium, manganese, and phosphorus, respectively. The physicochemical characterization showed pH 5.66, titratable acidity 0.306% of citric acid, total soluble solids 9,75, and coordinates L* a* e b* of 19.03, 8.07 and 9.25, respectively. Phenolic contents were 42.07 mg EAG g-1. The antioxidant potential IC50 was 1.07 mg mL-1 and anthocyanins 37.31 mg 100 g-1. Results show that bacaba peels are an alternate source of nutrients suggesting their use in food as well cosmetic industries, especially for their antioxidant activity and mineral composition

Oenocarpus bacaba MART. (bacaba) é uma palmeira nativa da Amazônia que se destaca por suas propriedades antioxidantes. O processamento de seu fruto gera a casca como produto de descarte, que possui nutrientes que podem colaborar na ação antioxidante e na prevenção de doenças. Assim, o presente trabalho avaliou a composição centesimal e mineral, caracterização físico-química (acidez, sólidos solúveis totais, pH e cor), fenóis totais (método de Folin-Ciocalteu), antocianinas e potencial antioxidante pelo método do DPPH (2,2 difenil-1-picril hidrazil) em cascas de bacaba. Para a composição centesimal verificou-se teores (%) de 4.87, 1.42, 29.13, 1.08 e 63.32 para o teor de água, cinzas, lipídeos, proteínas e carboidratos totais, respectivamente. Para a composição mineral foi encontrado teores (mg100g-1) de 582.97, 79.00, 51.79, 0.625, 37.02, 2.37 e 77.12 para potássio, sódio, magnésio, cobre, cálcio, manganês e fósforo, respectivamente. A caracterização físico-química apresentou valores de pH de 5.66, acidez titulável de 0.306% de ácido cítrico, sólido solúveis totais de 9.75 e cor nas coordenadas L* a* e b* com valores de 19.03, 8.07 e 9.25 . Para o teor de fenóis foi encontrado 42.07 mg EAG.g-1. O EC50 para a potencial antioxidante foi de 1.07 mg.mL-1 e o teor de antocianinas foi de 37.31 mg.100g-1. Os resultados mostram que as cascas de bacaba são uma fonte alternativa de nutrientes sugerindo seu aproveitamento na indústria alimentícia e cosmética, principalmente pela sua potencial atividade antioxidante e composição em minerais.

Arecaceae , Anthocyanins , Antioxidants , Phenols , Food
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(1): 55-62, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984047


Abstract Introduction: Cisplatin is one of the main chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of many types of cancer. However, ototoxicity, one of the most serious side effects of cisplatin, restricts its usage. Objective: We aimed to investigate the protective effects of whortleberry extract against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by evaluating hearing and histopathological cochlear damage and by measuring the biochemical parameters affected byoxidative stress. Methods: Forty-eight male rats were included in the study after performing Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission test to confirm that their hearing levels were normal. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: the control group, the sham group, and, which received only whortleberry extract, only cisplatin, cisplatin + 100 mg whortleberry extract, cisplatin + 200 mg whortleberry extract, respectively. Audiologic investigation was performed by performing the Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission test at the beginning and at the eighth day of the study. Cardiac blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and the rats were sacrificed to obtain cochlear histopathological specimens on the eighth day. Results: The results revealed that whortleberry protects hearing against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity independent of the dose. However, high doses of whortleberry extract are needed to prevent histopathological degeneration and oxidative stress. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study show that whortleberry extract has a protective effect against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

Resumo Introdução: A cisplatina é um dos principais agentes quimioterápicos utilizados para o tratamento de muitos tipos de câncer. No entanto, a ototoxicidade, um dos efeitos colaterais mais graves da cisplatina, restringe seu uso. Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi investigar os efeitos protetores do extrato de uva-do-monte contra a ototoxicidade induzida por cisplatina, avaliar o dano auditivo e histopatológico coclear e medir os parâmetros bioquímicos afetados pelo estresse oxidativo. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 48 ratos machos após teste de emissão otoacústica evocada por produto de distorção para confirmar que seus níveis de audição eram normais. Os ratos foram divididos aleatoriamente em seis grupos: o grupo controle, o grupo simulado, o que recebeu apenas extrato de uva-do-monte, o que recebeu apenas cisplatina, o que recebeu cisplatina + 100 mg de extrato de uva-do-monte e o que recebeu cisplatina + 200 mg de extrato de uva-do-monte, respectivamente. A investigação audiológica foi feita através do teste de emissão otoacústica de produto de distorção no início e no oitavo dia do estudo. As amostras de sangue cardíaco foram coletadas para análise bioquímica e os ratos foram sacrificados para obtenção de espécimes histopatológicos cocleares no oitavo dia. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram que o extrato de uva-do-monte protege a audição contra a ototoxicidade induzida por cisplatina, independentemente da dose. No entanto, são necessárias doses elevadas do extrato para evitar a degeneração histopatológica e o estresse oxidativo. Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos neste estudo mostram que o extrato de uva-do-monte tem um efeito protetor contra a ototoxicidade induzida por cisplatina.

Animals , Male , Cisplatin/toxicity , Cochlea/drug effects , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Hearing/drug effects , Anthocyanins/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Reference Values , Acoustic Stimulation , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/drug effects , Cochlea/pathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180470, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989423


Abstract The effects of gamma radiation (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy) were used to evaluate the stability and thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins, as well as the stability of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity at different temperatures (4, 25, 35 and 45 °C) during the storage (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days) of black rice flour. This flour can be used as ingredient for gluten-free cereal products with higher nutritional value. For this it is necessary to preserve the anthocyanin content during thermal processing and shelf-life periods. At time 0, the dose of 3 kGy provided all of the most available bioactive compounds, raising their antioxidant potential, except for TPC. During the storage at different temperatures up to 120 days, gradual losses occurred in all the analysed parameters. Regarding the total anthocyanin content and TPC, the sample irradiated with a 1 kGy dose remained most stable. The analysis of kinetic data indicated a first-order reaction for the degradation of anthocyanins. The combination of irradiation with different temperatures may improve the shelf-life of black rice flour.

Radiation , Oryza , Thermodynamics , Phytochemicals , Anthocyanins/chemistry
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 855-862, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781389


To study the effects of the anthocyanin single component cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy-3-glu) on the proliferation and migration of mouse melanoma cells and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, B16-F10 cells were treated with different concentrations of Cy-3-glu. Cell viability was analyzed by a CCK-8 method. Cell migration was determined by the callus scratching technique. Cell cycle was measured by the flow cytometry. The expression levels of genes involved in cell cycle regulation were detected by real-time PCR. Protein expression levels of p-AKT, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin were analyzed by Western blot. The growth and migration of B16-F10 cells in C57BL/6J mice were monitored by the cryogenically cooled IVIS-imaging system. The results showed that Cy-3-glu significantly inhibited the growth (P < 0.001) and migration (P < 0.01) of B16-F10 cells, and arrested the cell cycle in the S phase. After Cy-3-glu treatment, the expression levels of p-AKT (P < 0.05), N-cadherin and vimentin (P < 0.001) were decreased significantly, and the expression level of E-cadherin was dramatically increased (P < 0.05). The size and weight of tumors and tumor metastasis in mice fed with a diet containing Cy-3-glu were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Cy-3-glu inhibits proliferation and migration of B16-F10 cells by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, cell adhesion and migration signals.

Animals , Anthocyanins , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Glucosides , Pharmacology , Melanoma, Experimental , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Metabolism
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 759-765, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760904


OBJECTIVE: Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), is a component of anthocyanin, have been considered to positively influence cognition and be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of dementia. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of cyanidin-3-glucoside-rich Oryza sativa L. (black rice) extract on cognitive function. METHODS: A 12-weeks double-blind randomized, placebo controlled trial assessed safety and cognitive outcomes in participants with subjective memory impairment (n=48) following consumption of 6 black rice extract capsules or a placebo. Cognitive function was assessed using the ADAS-cog and the CERAD-K. Subjective memory impairment also assessed. Safety was assessed by hematologic blood test, urine analysis, and participant reports of adverse events. RESULTS: There was significant improvement on subjective memory in intervention group. There was no statistically significant difference in objective cognitive outcomes following 12 weeks of consuming black rice extract. ADAS-cog scores, however, trended toward improvement in the intervention group compared to the placebo group. There was no adverse event. CONCLUSION: Although significant improvement in objective cognitive function was not proved, we found that C3G-rich Oryza sativa L. extract improves subjective memory in this study. Therefore the results may be informative of the possible effectiveness of the C3G-rich Oryza sativa L. on cognitive function.

Adult , Anthocyanins , Capsules , Cognition , Dementia , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Memory , Oryza
Biol. Res ; 52: 17, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011419


BACKGROUND: Prunella vulgaris L. has been an important medicinal plant for the treatment of thyroid gland malfunction and mastitis in China for over 2000 years. There is an urgent need to select effective wavelengths for greenhouse cultivation of P. vulgaris as light is a very important factor in P. vulgaris growth. Here, we described the effects of natural light (control) and UV solar exclusion on the morphological and physiological traits, secondary metabolites contents and antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris. RESULTS: The results showed that UV solar exclusion resulted in remarkable alterations to morphological and biomass traits; significantly reduced the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents; significantly enhanced the ratio of chlorophyll a to b; and significantly increased the carotenoid and anthocyanin contents in P. vulgaris. UV solar exclusion significantly increased the catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and slightly decreased the glutathione (GSH) content. UV solar exclusion significantly increased the soluble sugar and H2O2 contents and increased the soluble protein content but significantly decreased the proline content and slightly decreased the MDA content. The secondary metabolite contents (total phenolics, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, hyperoside, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) and in vitro antioxidative properties (DPPH· and ABTS·+scavenging activities) were significantly increased in P. vulgaris spicas under UV solar exclusion. Additionally, the total polysaccharide and total flavonoids contents were slightly increased by UV solar exclusion. The salviaflaside content was significantly reduced by UV solar exclusion. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that P. vulgaris activates several antioxidant defence systems against oxidative damage caused by UV solar exclusion.

Photosynthesis/physiology , Prunella/metabolism , Anthocyanins/biosynthesis , Antioxidants/metabolism , Ultraviolet Rays , Prunella/radiation effects , Prunella/chemistry , Antioxidants/radiation effects
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6): 1584-1592, nov.-dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-968984


Purple sweet potato (PSP) contains antioxidant compounds and it can be used to prevent oxidative damage to cellular components of human body. The research purpose is to find out the potential of PSP extract on inhibiting glycation process and free radicals scavenging activities. Purple sweet potato was extracted using ethanol 25, 50, and 75% (PSP25, PSP50, PSP75) and then it was analyzed for free radical scavenging activities and antiglycation in forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs) using spectrophotometric method. Then all the collected data were examined with one-way ANOVA (p<0.05). The results showed that PSP extract has antioxidant activities and antiglycation properties.Based on IC50 values, PSP75 extract has a lower IC50 value compared to PSP25 and PSP50 (P <0.05) and has better activity in scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals. This potentiality was shown by the IC50 value of each PSP extract. The value of IC50 of scavenging DPPH radical acitivity for PSP25, PSP50, PSP75 extracts was respectively 281.08, 254.94, and 241.30 µg/mL. The value of IC50 scavenging hydroxyl radicals was respectively 1.03, 088, and 0,79 mg/mL, and the IC50 value of scavenging radicals of superoxide anion was respectively 1.10, 0.97, and 0.82 mg/mL. The absorbance value of PSP75 in the BNT test and Fluorescence intensity are lower than PSP25 and PSP50, so that PSP75 extract is better at inhibiting glycation reaction.It can be concluded that the PSP extract has the potential in the inhibition of the glycation reaction and in the activity of elimination of free radicals (DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals).

Batata-doce roxa (PSP) contém compostos antioxidantes e pode ser usada para prevenir o dano oxidativo aos componentes celulares do corpo humano. O objetivo da pesquisa é descobrir o potencial do extrato de PSP na inibição do processo de glicação e atividades de eliminação de radicais livres. A batata-doce roxa foi extraída usando etanol 25, 50 e 75% (PSP25, PSP50, PSP75) e, em seguida, foi analisada quanto a atividades de eliminação de radicais livres e antiglicação na formação de produtos finais de glicação avançada (AGEs) usando método espectrofotométrico. Em seguida, todos os dados coletados foram examinados com uma análise de variância simples (one-way ANOVA) (p <0,05). Os resultados mostraram que o extrato de PSP possui atividade antioxidante e propriedades antiglicantes. O extrato de PSP75 apresentou a maior atividade de eliminação dos radicais DPPH, hidroxila e superóxido significativamente maiores (P <0,05) que os extratos PSP25 e PSP50. Esta potencialidade foi demonstrada pelo valor de IC50 de cada extrato de PSP. O valor de IC50 da atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH para os extractos PSP25, PSP50, PSP75 foi respectivamente de 281,08, 254,94 e 241,30 g/mL. O valor IC50 dos sequestrantes dos radicais hidroxila foi, respectivamente, de 1,03, 088 e 0,79 mg/mL, e o valor de IC50 dos radicais sequestrantes do superóxido foi, respectivamente, 1,10, 0,97 e 0,82 mg/mL. Como antiglicante, o extrato de PSP75 tem uma capacidade melhor do que PSP25 e PSP50 em inibir produtos de AGEs. Pode-se concluir que o extrato etanólico PSP75 possui alta atividade antioxidante e potencial como antiglicante.

Ipomoea batatas , Free Radicals , Antioxidants , Oxidation , Anthocyanins
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 36: 15-23, nov. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047981


Background: Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers is a wild plant used in folk medicine to treat several diseases owing to bioactive secondary metabolites present in its tissue. The accumulation of such molecules in plant cells can occur as a response against abiotic stress, but these metabolites are often deposited in low concentrations. For this reason, the use of a biotechnological approach to improve the yields of technologically interesting bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins is a compelling option. This work focuses on investigating the potential of in vitro T. officinale cultures as an anthocyanin source. Results: To demonstrate the suitability of anthocyanin induction and accumulation in calluses under specific conditions, anthocyanin was induced in the T. officinale callus. A specific medium of 5.5% sucrose supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine /1-naphthaleneacetic acid in a 10:1 ratio was used to produce an anthocyanin yield of 1.23 mg g-1 fw. An in vitro dandelion callus line was established from this experiment. Five mathematical models were then used to objectively and predictably explain the growth of anthocyanin-induced calluses from T. officinale. Of these models, the Richards model offered the most suitable representation of anthocyanin callus growth in a solid medium and permitted the calculation of the corresponding kinetic parameters. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the potential of an in vitro anthocyanin-induced callus line from T. officinale as an industrial anthocyanin source.

Taraxacum/growth & development , Plant Development , Anthocyanins/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Plant Cells , Phytochemicals