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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929054


Marine fungi are important members of the marine microbiome, which have been paid growing attention by scientists in recent years. The secondary metabolites of marine fungi have been reported to contain rich and diverse compounds with novel structures (Chen et al., 2019). Aspergillus terreus, the higher level marine fungus of the Aspergillus genus (family of Trichocomaceae, order of Eurotiales, class of Eurotiomycetes, phylum of Ascomycota), is widely distributed in both sea and land. In our previous study, the coral-derived A. terreus strain C23-3 exhibited potential in producing other biologically active (with antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and anti-inflammatory activity) compounds like arylbutyrolactones, territrems, and isoflavones, and high sensitivity to the chemical regulation of secondary metabolism (Yang et al., 2019, 2020; Nie et al., 2020; Ma et al., 2021). Moreover, we have isolated two different benzaldehydes, including a benzaldehyde with a novel structure, from A. terreus C23-3 which was derived from Pectinia paeonia of Xuwen, Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province, China.

Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Animals , Anthozoa/microbiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/chemistry , Benzaldehydes/pharmacology , Mice , Signal Transduction
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(4)dic. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387693


Abstract Introduction: Estimates of contemporary connectivity of the broadcast spawning coral Pocillopora verrucosa between multi-use marine protected areas (MUMPAs) are required to assess MUMPA effectiveness and their ability to enhance resilience against disturbances. Objective: To determine the genetic structure and connectivity patterns between P. verrucosa demes inside the Gulf of California and evaluate the role and effectiveness of established MUMPAS in their protection and resilience. Methods: We assessed P. verrucosa connectivity along its peninsular range (∼350 km), including five locations and three MUMPAs in the Gulf of California using six microsatellite genetic markers. Results: Population structure was significant (F ST = 0.108***) when demes included clonal replicates; however, when these clones were removed from the analysis, the sexual individuals comprised a metapopulation panmixia (F ST = 0.0007 NS). To further understand connectivity patterns, an assignment test was carried out which identified ten recent between-deme migrants with a mean dispersal distance of 116.6 km (± 80.5 SE). No long-distance dispersal was detected. These results highlight the ecological importance of the Bahía de La Paz region, including Archipiélago de Espíritu Santo MUMPA. This region, located at the center of the species peninsular range, exports larva to downstream sink demes such as the Loreto (northwardly) and Cabo Pulmo (southwardly) MUMPAs. Of importance, inter-MUMPA spacing was larger than the mean larval dispersal by ~56 km, suggesting thar the designation of intermediate 'no-take' zones would enhance short-distance connectivity. Conclusion: This study contributes as a baseline for policymakers and authorities to provide robust strategies for coral ecosystem protection and suggest that protection efforts must be increased towards peninsular intermediate reefs to promote metapopulation resilience from natural and anthropogenic factors.

Resumen Introducción: La estimación de la conectividad en corales escleractinios, como P. verrucosa, dentro de una red de áreas marinas protegidas (MPA) preestablecidas es fundamental para garantizar la efectividad en su conservación e incrementar su resiliencia. Objetivo: Determinar la estructura genética y la conectividad entre los demes de P. verrucosa dentro del Golfo de California, y evaluar el papel y efectividad de la red preestablecida de áreas marinas protegidas. Métodos: Se evaluó la conectividad de P. verrucosa en cinco locaciones a lo largo del golfo incluyendo tres MPA usando seis marcadores microsatélites. Resultados: Se demostró que existe estructura poblacional adjudicada a la presencia local y heterogénea de individuos clones (F ST = 0.108***); pero al removerlos del análisis, los individuos de origen sexual conformaron una metapoblación en panmixia (F ST = 0.0007 NS). Así mismo, se identificaron 10 potenciales migrantes en la región con una dispersión promedio de 116.57 km (± 80.47 SE) y sin conexión entre localidades extremas. De relevancia, se identificó la importancia ecológica del área central o Bahía de La Paz y MPA Archipiélago Espíritu Santo, como fuente larvaria de corales a toda la región. Además, se determinó que el espacio inter-MPA fue mayor que la distancia de dispersión promedio larvaria mencionada, por lo que sería de importancia ecológica el establecimiento de MPAs intermedias que favorezcan la conectividad a distancias cortas. Conclusiones: Los resultados encontrados en el estudio son pertinentes y contribuyen como línea base para los tomadores de decisiones y autoridades, proporcionando la conectividad de la región para establecer las estrategias de protección apropiadas, sugiriendo aumentar la conservación de las subpoblaciones centrales, la cuales promueven la resiliencia metapoblacional de P. verrucosa ante factores ambientales y/o antropogénicos.

Anthozoa/genetics , Marine Conservation Area
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(2)jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387651


Abstract Introduction: The coral-associated bacteria with antimicrobial activity may be important to promote the health of their host through various interactions, and may be explored as a source of new bioactive compounds. Objective: To analyze the antimicrobial activity of bacteria associated with the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum from the coral reefs of Carapibus, Paraiba state, Brazil. Methods: The phylogenetic analysis of the bacteria was conducted based on partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene using molecular and bioinformatics tools. The antimicrobial activity of the 49 isolates was tested against four bacterial strains and one yeast strain: Bacillus cereus (CCT0198), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231). The antibiosis and antibiogram assays were conducted and the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution method. Results: The bacterial isolates belonged to Firmicutes phylum (84 % of the isolates) and the Proteobacteria phylum (16 % of the isolates). Among the 49 isolates five genera were found, with the Bacillus genus being the most abundant (82 % of the isolates), followed by Vibrio (10 %), Pseudomonas (4 %), Staphylococcus (2 %) and Alteromonas (2 %). Antibiosis test revealed that 16 isolates (33 %) showed antimicrobial activity against one or more of five tested reference strains. The highest number of antagonistic bacteria were found in the Bacillus genus (12 isolates), followed by Vibrio (three isolates) and Pseudomonas (one isolate) genera. The B. subtilis NC8 was the only isolate that inhibited all tested strains in the antibiosis assay. However, antibiogram test with post-culture cell-free supernatant of NC8 isolate showed the inhibition of only B. cereus, S. aureus and C. albicans, and the lyophilized and dialyzed material of this isolate inhibited only B. cereus. The lyophilized material showed bacteriostatic activity against B. cereus, with a MIC value of 125 μg/μl, and in the cytotoxicity assay, the hemolysis value was of 4.8 %, indicating its low cytotoxicity. Conclusions: The results show the antimicrobial potential of some bacterial isolates associated with the P. caribaeourum tissue, especially those belonged to Bacillus genus.

Resumen Introducción: La actividad antimicrobiana realizada por las bacterias asociadas con los corales, además de promover la salud de su huésped, representa una fuente para obtener nuevos compuestos bioactivos. Objetivo: Analizar la actividad antimicrobiana de las bacterias asociadas con el zoantario Palythoa caribaeorum de los arrecifes de Carapibus, Paraíba, Brasil. Metodología: El análisis filogenético de la bacterias se realizó con base en secuencias parciales del gen RNAr 16S utilizando herramientas moleculares y de bioinformática. La actividad antimicrobiana de las cepas se probó contra cuatro cepas bacterianas y una cepa de levadura: Bacillus cereus (CCT0198), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), utilizando ensayos antibiosis y antibiograma, y la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) que se determinó por el método de microdilución. Resultados: Las cepas bacterianas pertenecían a Firmicutes (84 %) y Gammaproteobacteria (16 %). Entre 49 cepas se encontraron cinco géneros de bacterias: Bacillus, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus y Alteromonas. Un total de 19 cepas exhibieron actividad antimicrobiana, siendo el género Bacillus el responsable del mayor número de bacterias antagonistas, con 12 cepas positivas en el ensayo de antibiosis y cuatro en la prueba de antibiograma. El mayor número de bacterias antagonistas se encontró en Bacillus (12 aislamientos), seguido por Vibrio (tres aislamientos) y Pseudomonas (un aisladmiento). El NC8, clasificado como Bacillus subtilis, inhibió todas las cepas estándar en el ensayo de antibiosis y las cepas de B. cereus, S. aureus y C. albicans en la prueba de antibiograma. El material liofilizado del B. subtilis NC8 mostró acción bacteriostática contra B. cereus, con un valor de CIM de 125 μg/μl. En la prueba de citotoxicidad, el grado de hemólisis fue del 4.8 % para el material liofilizado a las concentraciones probadas, lo que indica su baja citotoxicidad. Conclusión: Los resultados muestran el potencial antimicrobiano de algunos aislamientos bacterianos asociados al P. caribaeourum, especialmente los pertenecientes al género Bacillus.

Bacteria , Anthozoa/microbiology , Bacillus , Biota
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1055-1064, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977366


Abstract The sea anemone Condylactis gigantea is an ecologically important member of the benthic community in coral reefs of the tropical Atlantic, and displays two morphotypes with respect to the color in their tentacular tips: the green tip morphotype and the pink/purple tip morphotype. Although some molecular and ecological differences have been found between these morphotypes, no other morphological distinctions have been reported, and currently both are still considered a single taxonomic species. In the present study, we perform an exploration on the variability in the size of cnidae between these two morphotypes and performed statistical analyses to compare the 10 categories of cnidae from specimens hosted in the Cnidarian Collection of Gulf of Mexico and Mexican Caribbean, of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, which were previously collected in several coral reefs localities of the Yucatán Peninsula. Results reveal no significant variation in cnidae size between the two morphotypes, but significant variations were found within each morphotype. In addition, we update the composition of the cnidom of C. gigantea, and the utility of the size of cnidae to distinguish between morphotypes or closely related species is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1055-1064. Epub 2018 September 01.

Resumen La anémona Condylactis gigantea es un miembro ecológicamente importante de la comunidad bentónica en arrecifes de coral del Atlántico tropical, y exhibe dos morfotipos con respecto al color de las puntas de sus tentáculos: el morfotipo de puntas verdes y el morfotipo de puntas rosadas/púrpuras. Aunque se han encontrado algunas diferencias moleculares y ecológicas entre estos morfotipos, no se han reportado otras distinciones morfológicas, y actualmente ambos siguen siendo considerados una sola especie taxonómica. En el presente estudio, realizamos una exploración sobre la variabilidad en el tamaño de los cnidocistos entre estos dos morfotipos y realizamos un análisis estadístico de 10 categorías de cnidocistos a partir de especímenes albergados en la Colección de cnidarios del Golfo de México y Caribe Mexicano, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, los cuales fueron previamente recolectados en varias localidades arrecifales de la Península de Yucatán. Los resultados no revelan variación significativa en el tamaño de los cnidocistos entre los dos morfotipos, aunque fueron encontradas variaciones significativas dentro de cada morfotipo. Adicionalmente, actualizamos la composición del cnidoma de C. gigantea, y discutimos sobre la utilidad de la talla de los cnidocistos para distinguir entre morfotipos o entre especies estrechamente relacionadas.

Animals , Sea Anemones/growth & development , Anthozoa/anatomy & histology , Nematocyst , Coral Reefs , Caribbean Region , Mexico
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 873-884, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886678


ABSTRACT Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean warming and acidification, and it is important to determine the role of reef building species in this environment in order to obtain insight into their susceptibility to expected impacts of global changes. Aspects of the life history of a coral population, such as reproduction, growth and size-frequency can contribute to the production of models that are used to estimate impacts and potential recovery of the population, acting as a powerful tool for the conservation and management of those ecosystems. Here, we present the first evidence of Siderastrea stellata planulation, its early growth, population size-frequency distribution and growth rate of adult colonies in Rocas Atoll. Our results, together with the environmental protection policies and the absence of anthropogenic pressures, suggest that S. stellata population may have a good potential in the maintenance and recovery in the atoll. However, our results also indicate an impact on corals' recruitment, probably as a consequence of the positive temperature anomaly that occurred in 2010. Thus, despite the pristine status of Rocas Atoll, the preservation of its coral community seems to be threatened by current global changes, such as more frequent thermal stress events.

Animals , Climate Change , Anthozoa/anatomy & histology , Anthozoa/growth & development , Coral Reefs , Time Factors , Atlantic Ocean , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Population Growth , Geographic Mapping
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812049


In the present study, two new trinor-guaiane sesquiterpenes, named clavuridins B (1), and A (2), along with three known sesquiterpenes (3-5), were isolated from the Xisha soft coral Clavularia viridis. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα radiation and by comparison with related model compounds. Compounds 1 and 3-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity.

Animals , Anthozoa , Chemistry , Biological Products , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane , Chemistry , Pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812534


In the present study, a new ceramide, namely 2S, 3R-4E, 8E-2-(heptadecanoylamino)-heptadeca-4, 8-diene-1, 3-diol (1), along with four known steroids, including 24-methylcholesta-5, 24(28)-diene-3β-ol (2), 24-methylcholesta-5, 24(28)-diene-3β-acetate (3), 4-methyl-24-methylcholesta-22-ene-3-ol (4), and cholesterol, was isolated and characterized from CHCl/MeOH extract of Cespitularia stolonifera. A new acetate derivative of compound 1, termed 2S, 3R-4E, 8E-2-(heptadecanoylamino)-heptadeca-4, 8-diene-1, 3-diacetate (1a), was also prepared in the present study. All the structures were established on the basis of modern spectroscopic techniques, including FT-IR, 1D, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and GC-MS, in addition of chemical methods. (-)-Alloaromadendren, ledane, (1)-alloaromadendren oxide, isoaromadendrene epoxide and (-)-caryophellen oxide were identified from the n-hexane fraction using GC-MS. The extract and the two ceramides (1) and (1a) exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against lung cancer A549 cells, while the extract and the two steroids (2) and (3) exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The CHCl/MeOH extract exhibited significant antiulcer activity in both ethanol and acetic acid induced ulcer models in rats, as evidenced by histopathological, histochemical, and biochemical examinations.

A549 Cells , Acetic Acid , Animals , Anthozoa , Chemistry , Anti-Ulcer Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antineoplastic Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Biological Products , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Ceramides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , MCF-7 Cells , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methods , Rats , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Methods , Steroids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Ulcer , Drug Therapy
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1077-1089, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958197


Abstract:Coral reefs are under intense conditions of stress caused by the anthropogenic activities in coastal areas and the increase of human population. Water effluents from urban and industrial areas carry large amounts of sediments and pollutants affecting corals populations, inducing bioerosion, increasing diseases and promoting the development of algae that compete for space with corals. In the Veracruz Reef System National Park (VRSNP) coral reefs are strongly affected by human activities carried out in the area. Gallega and Galleguilla reefs are among the most affected by wastewater discharges from the industrial (petrochemical and metallurgical) and urban areas in their vicinity. To assess the potential impact of this contamination on corals in the VRSNP, a chemical composition and morphology study of 76 Pseudodiploria colonies collected in reefs Gallega, Galleguilla, Isla Verde and Isla de Enmedio, was performed. Fragments of ~10 cm2 were collected and boric acid at 0.5 % was used to remove tissue from the skeleton; once clean, the morphology of each sample was determined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Subsequently, to test the chemical composition, an energy dispersion spectroscopy of X-ray chemical microanalysis (EDSX) was performed in the SEM. We found that corals from Gallega and Galleguilla reefs, located closer to human populations, presented high levels of tungsten and the skeleton exhibited multiple perforations. In contrast, corals from the farthest offshore reefs (Isla Verde and Isla de Enmedio) exhibited lower levels of tungsten and fewer perforations in their skeleton. These results demonstrated that anthropogenic activities in the NPVRS are affecting corals skeleton, highly damaging and promoting their bioerosion. The presence of traces of tungsten in the skeleton of corals is an evidence of the damage that waste discharges are causing to coral reefs. Discharges of large amounts of contaminants promoted the growth of harmful species that grow and develop into the corals skeleton, causing its bioerosion, and making them susceptible to disease and physical damage. This study is the first evidence of the effects of contamination on these species; therefore, further studies are necessary to determine the impact of pollution on their biology and survival. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 1077-1089. Epub 2016 September 01.

ResumenLos arrecifes de coral se encuentran bajo condiciones intensas de estrés causado por las actividades antropogénicas y el incremento de las poblaciones humanas en las zonas costeras. Las descargas de aguas de origen urbano e industrial transportan sedimentos y contaminantes que afectan a las poblaciones de corales, induciendo la bioerosion, el aumento de enfermedades en los corales y promueven el desarrollo de algas que compiten por espacio con los corales. En el Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano (NPVRS) los arrecifes de coral son afectados fuertemente por las actividades humanas que se llevan a cabo en la zona. Los arrecifes Gallega y Galleguilla son de los más afectados por las descargas de aguas residuales provenientes de la industria (petroquímica y metalúrgica) y de áreas urbanas que desembocan sus aguas en las proximidades de los arrecifes. Para evaluar el posible impacto de las descargas de aguas en los corales del NPVRS, se realizó un estudio de la composición química y morfología de 76 colonias de Pseudodiploria en los arrecifes Gallega, Galleguilla, Isla Verde e Isla de Enmedio. Se recolectaron fragmentos de ~10 cm2, el tejido del esqueleto fue removido utilizando ácido bórico al 0.5 %. Una vez limpia la muestra, la morfología fue analizada con un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM), posteriormente, para analizar la composición química de las muestras, realizamos una espectroscopia de dispersión de energía o micro-análisis químico de rayos X (EDSX) en el SEM. Encontramos que los corales de los arrecifes Gallega y Galleguilla que se encuentran ubicados cerca de poblaciones humanas, presentan altos niveles de tungsteno y el esqueleto exhibe múltiples agujeros. En contraste, los corales de los arrecifes más lejanos (Isla Verde e Isla de En medio) mostraron niveles más bajos de tungsteno y un menor número de agujeros en su esqueleto. Nuestros resultados demuestran que las actividades antropogénicas en el NPVRS, están afectando el esqueleto de los corales y promueven la bioerosión. Las descargas de grandes cantidades de contaminantes hacia las zonas costeras, promueven el crecimiento de especies dañinas que crecen y se desarrollan dentro del esqueleto de los corales, causando bioerosión del esqueleto, haciéndolos susceptibles a enfermedades y daños físicos. Debido a que este estudio es la primera evidencia de los efectos de la contaminación sobre esta especie de corales, son necesarios más estudios para determinar el impacto de la contaminación sobre su biología y la supervivencia de los corales.

Animals , Tungsten/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry , Anthozoa/chemistry , Coral Reefs , Reference Values , Seawater/chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Environmental Monitoring , Anthozoa/anatomy & histology , Mexico
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(1): 79-93, ene.-mar. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843262


Abstract Wave exposure can influence community structure and distribution of shallow coral reefs, by affecting organisms both directly and indirectly. To assess the current stony coral community condition under different degrees of wave exposure at a marine protected area of the Gulf of Cazones (SW Cuba), two expeditions were carried out in May 2010 and June 2012. Four sampling sites were sampled at reef crests (1.5 m deep), and twelve at fore-reefs, at 10, 15 and 20 m deep in four geographic locations. Live coral cover, species richness and composition, colony density, and maximum diameter were assessed using the AGRRA 2001 methodology. Multivariate and non-parametric statistics were applied to compare sites. The coral community structure within reef crests was not homogenous. The observed variability of indicators apparently was determined by great coral mortality events resulting from natural disturbances that occurred in the past (hurricanes, bleaching and diseases). Forereef coral communities displayed better condition and lower coral mortality than reef crests. Species richness and coral composition varied, while multivariate and statistical methods did not reveal site grouping with regard to wave exposure. The remaining biological condition indicators were similar among sites, except in the most exposed one, where coral cover and coral size were slightly lower. Wave exposure in the gulf of Cazones seemed not to have a significant influence on differences in condition and structure of the assessed coral communities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (1): 78-93. Epub 2016 March 01.

ResumenEl oleaje es una perturbación natural que puede inferir en la estructura y condición de los arrecifes de coral someros, afectando los organismos directa e indirectamente. Para evaluar la condición de comunidades de corales con diferente exposición al oleaje, se realizaron dos expediciones al Área Marina Protegida del Golfo de Cazones durante mayo 2010 y junio 2012. Se escogieron cuatro arrecifes (localidades) ubicados en posiciones diferentes del golfo. Se ubicaron cuatro sitios en la zona de cresta (1.5 m de profundidad) y 12 en la zona de arrecife frontal (en cuatro localidades a 10, 15 y 20 m de profundidad) donde se replicaron transectos lineales (10 m de largo) de muestreo. Se evaluó la cobertura de coral vivo, riqueza y composición por especies, densidad y diámetro máximo de las colonias mediante la metodología AGRRA 2001. Para la comparación entre sitios se aplicaron métodos evaluativos multivariados y análisis estadísticos no paramétricos. La estructura y condición de la comunidad de corales en las crestas fue distinta pero la variabilidad observada parece responder a grandes eventos de mortalidad producto de huracanes, blanqueamientos y enfermedades del pasado. La condición de los arrecifes frontales fue más favorable observándose menor mortalidad coralina. La riqueza y composición por especies fue variable y los métodos estadísticos y multivariados no definieron grupos de sitios con similitud respecto a la exposición al oleaje. Los demás indicadores biológicos de condición fueron parecidos entre sitios, excepto en el más expuesto al oleaje, donde la cobertura y la talla de los corales fueron ligeramente inferiores. En general, la diferente influencia del oleaje dentro del golfo de Cazones, parece no afectar significativamente la estructura y condición de las comunidades coralinas.

Animals , Anthozoa , Biodiversity , Coral Reefs , Environmental Monitoring , Population Density , Cuba
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2): 431-434, 05/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749691


Analyses of 16S rDNA genes were used to identify the microbiota isolated from the mucus of the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum at Porto de Galinhas on the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil. This study is important as the first report of this association, because of the potential biotechnological applications of the bacterium Alcanivorax dieselolei, and as evidence for the presence of a hydrocarbon degrading bacterium in a reef ecosystem such as Porto de Galinhas.

Análises dos genes 16S rDNA foram empregadas para identificar a microbiota isolada do muco do zoantídeo Palythoa caribaeorum de Porto de Galinhas, litoral do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Este estudo é importante pelo ineditismo dessa associação, pelas relevantes aplicações biotecnológicas da bactéria Alcanivorax dieselolei e pela indicação da presença de uma bactéria degradadora de hidrocarbonetos em um ecossistema recifal como o de Porto de Galinhas.

Animals , Alcanivoraceae/genetics , Anthozoa/microbiology , Mucus/microbiology , Alcanivoraceae/physiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , /genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250342


This review briefly describes the origin, chemistry, molecular mechanism of action, pharmacology, toxicology, and ecotoxicology of palytoxin and its analogues. Palytoxin and its analogues are produced by marine dinoflagellates. Palytoxin is also produced by Zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), and Cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Palytoxin is a very large, non-proteinaceous molecule with a complex chemical structure having both lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties. Palytoxin is one of the most potent marine toxins with an LD50 of 150 ng/kg body weight in mice exposed intravenously. Pharmacological and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that palytoxin acts as a hemolysin and alters the function of excitable cells through multiple mechanisms of action. Palytoxin selectively binds to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with a Kd of 20 pM and transforms the pump into a channel permeable to monovalent cations with a single-channel conductance of 10 pS. This mechanism of action could have multiple effects on cells. Evaluation of palytoxin toxicity using various animal models revealed that palytoxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin following an intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous or intratracheal route of exposure. Palytoxin also causes non-lethal, yet serious toxic effects following dermal or ocular exposure. Most incidents of palytoxin poisoning have manifested after oral intake of contaminated seafood. Poisonings in humans have also been noted after inhalation, cutaneous/systemic exposures with direct contact of aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and/or through maintaining aquaria containing Cnidarian zoanthids. Palytoxin has a strong potential for toxicity in humans and animals, and currently this toxin is of great concern worldwide.

Acrylamides , Chemistry , Toxicity , Animals , Anthozoa , Virulence , Physiology , Dinoflagellida , Virulence , Physiology , Dogs , Guinea Pigs , Haplorhini , Humans , Lethal Dose 50 , Marine Toxins , Chemistry , Toxicity , Mice , Rabbits , Rats , Seaweed , Virulence , Physiology , Shellfish Poisoning , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1156-1160, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257013


Seven guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids, a new compound 6-formyl-5-isopropyl-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methyl-1H-indene (1), a new natural product 5-isopropyl-3, 7-dimethyl-1H-indene-1-one (2), along with five known compounds: guaiazulene (3), 4-formyl-7-isopropyl-10-methylazulene (4), sesquiterpene ketolactone (5), alismoxide (6) and guaia-1 (5), 6-diene (7), were isolated from gorgonian Muriceides collaris collected in South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis [MS, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR (DEPT), HMQC, HMBC, NOESY] and by comparison of the spectral data with those of the literatures.

Animals , Anthozoa , Chemistry , Azulenes , China , Sesquiterpenes , Chemistry , Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.3): 249-257, Jul.-Sep. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-757329


Black band disease (BBD) is a complex, polymicrobial disease that consists of cyanobacteria, sulfide-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and heterotrophic bacteria. The cyanobacterium Roseofilum reptotaenium has been implicated as the primary pathogen of BBD, but other consortium members may be secondary pathogens that are necessary to the development of the disease. It is known that populations of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio are present in BBD and that these populations generate sulfide within the band as a byproduct of dissimilatory sulfate reduction. It is also known that exposure of healthy corals to sulfide leads to cell lysis and coral tissue death. Previous work showed that when freshly collected BBD, which easily infects healthy corals, is exposed to sodium molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, infection does not occur. In this study we examined the effect of sodium molybdate on infection of corals by a unialgal culture of R. reptotaenium. Coral fragments of Montastraea cavernosa and Siderastrea siderea were transferred into two experimental aquaria, one a control with only artificial seawater (ASW) and the second containing ASW and 2mM sodium molybdate. Small mats of cultured R. reptotaenium were inoculated onto the surface of experimental coral fragments. Both M. cavernosa (n = 6) and S. siderea (n=4) became infected and developed BBD-like infections in the control tank, while there were temporary attachments to, but no successful infection of M. cavernosa (n=3) or S. siderea (n=2) in the experimental tank containing sodium molybdate. The results of this study reveal that a secondary pathogen is essential to the infection process and development of BBD in scleractinian corals. Specifically, SRB such as Desulfovibrio are required for the development of BBD on the coral host. This is the first step in understanding the roles of secondary pathogens in a complex, polymicrobial coral disease.

La enfermedad de la Banda Negra (BBD) es una enfermedad polimicrobiana compleja, que consiste en las cianobacterias, sulfuro oxidante y bacterias reductoras de sulfato (SRB) y bacterias heterotróficas. La cianobacteria Roseofilum reptotaenium se considera como el principal patógeno de BBD, pero otros miembros del consorcio pueden ser patógenos secundarios que son necesarios para el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Se conoce que las poblaciones de la bacteria reductora de sulfato Desulfovibrio están presentes en BBD y que estas poblaciones generan sulfuro dentro de la banda como un subproducto de la reducción del sulfato. También se conoce que la exposición de los corales sanos a sulfuro conduce a la lisis celular y la muerte del tejido de coral. Trabajos previos muestran que cuando recién colectado el tejido con BBD, que infecta fácilmente corales sanos, se expone al molibdato de sodio, un inhibidor específico de la reducción del sulfato, la infección no se produce. En este estudio analizamos el efecto del molibdato de sodio sobre la infección de los corales en un cultivo unialgal de R. reptotaenium. Fragmentos de coral de Montastraea cavernosa y Siderastrea siderea se transfirieron a dos acuarios experimentales, uno control con solo agua de mar artificial (ASW) y el segundo que contenía ASW y molibdato de sodio 2mM. Pequeñas esteras de cultivo R. reptotaenium se inocularon en la superficie de fragmentos experimentales de coral. Tanto M. cavernosa (n=6) y S. siderea (n=4) se infectaron y desarrollaron infecciones BBD- como en el tanque de control, mientras que había adjuntos temporales, sin infección exitosa en M. cavernosa (n=3) o S. siderea (n=2) en el tanque experimental con molibdato de sodio. Los resultados de este estudio revelan que un patógeno secundario es esencial para el proceso de infección y el desarrollo de BBD en corales escleractíneos. Específicamente, SRB como Desulfovibrio son necesarios para el desarrollo de BBD en el coral hospedero. Este es el primer paso en la comprensión de las funciones de los patógenos secundarios en una enfermedad polimicrobiana compleja de coral.

Sulfates , Bacteria , Disease , Anthozoa/anatomy & histology , Coral Reefs
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.3): 39-47, Jul.-Sep. 2014. ilus, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-757325


Foul and Folly Bays are located within the Morant Wetlands near the eastern tip of Jamaica. They have never been investigated but were believed to be important for larval productivity because of the extent of benthic habitats, absence of major coastal developments and remote location. The study was aimed at providing baseline data on the spatial distribution and status of corals and associated benthos. We investigated coral reefs and associated areas with phototransects at eight stations analysed with the Coral Point Count software. Most areas were dominated by algae, evidence of a phase shift from coral to algal reefs. Coral cover varied significantly across the bays (ANOVA, p= 0.0342) with a maximum of 27.03% at the deepest station and a mean of 5.6% at all other stations combined. Mean cover of macroalgae was 39% and varied significantly across stations (α= 0.05, F= 7.472, p= 0.005). The deepest station also had the highest percentage of calcareous algae and live coral while dead coral with algae (DCA) was a significant variable across all other stations (ANOVA, p<0.001). Gorgonians (ANOVA, p<0.001), sponges and urchins were also assessed. Diadema antillarum was not observed at any station. Overall the status of the reefs was poor, probably due to overfishing, absence of urchins and the resultant algal proliferation.

Las bahías Foul y Folly se encuentran dentro de los Humedales Morant cerca de la punta oriental de la isla de Jamaica. Estos dos bahías nunca han sido investigadas pero se cree que son áreas importantes para la productividad larvaria debido a la extensión de los hábitats bentónicos, ausencia de desarrollos importantes a lo largo de la costa y la ubicación remota de la zona. El estudio tuvo como objetivo proporcionar datos de referencia sobre la distribución espacial y el estado de los corales y del bentos asociado. Investigamos los arrecifes coralinos y áreas asociadas utilizando fototransectos en ocho estaciones analizadas con el programa Coral Point Count. La mayoría de las áreas tuvieron predominio algal, mostrando evidencia del desplazamiento de fase de coral a algas. La cobertura de coral varió significativamente a través de las bahías (ANOVA , p= 0.0342), con un máximo de 27.03% en la estación estación más profunda y una media de 5.6% en todas las demás estaciones combinadas. La media de porcentaje de cobertura de macroalgas fue de 39% y varió significativamente entre las estaciones (α= 0.05, F= 7.472, p= 0.005). La estación mas profunda presentaba el mayor porcentaje de algas calcáreas y coral vivo, mientras que el coral muerto con algas (DCA) fue una variable significativa en todas las demás estaciones (ANOVA , p<0.001). También se evaluaron las gorgonias (ANOVA , p<0.001), esponjas y erizos de mar. No se observó Diadema antillarum en todas las estaciones dentro de los transectos. En general, el estado de los arrecifes era pobre, probablemente debido a la pesca excesiva, la ausencia de erizos y la proliferación de algas resultante.

Seaweed/classification , Benthic Flora/analysis , Anthozoa , Coral Reefs , Jamaica
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.1): 209-219, feb. 2014. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-753734


Owing to the decrease of reef organisms in general, it has become essential to study populations that are prone to marine diseases, with the purpose of developing accurate survivorship predictions and in turn alarm on triggers and drivers of disease outbreaks. In this study, we quantified the octocorals of Gorgona island, Tropical Eastern Pacific (Colombia), during 2007 and 2009 documenting a mass mortality occurred during 2008. We recorded 16 octocoral species with densities that ranged between 2 and 30 colonies m-2. Most abundant octocorals were Leptogorgia alba and Pacifigorgia spp. (Gorgoniidae: Octocorallia). During 2009 we noticed a mass mortality involving Pacifigorgia irene, P. adamsi, P. rubicunda and P. eximia, with a reduction of 70% of the colonies between 12 and 20 m in water depth. Around 5% of seafans during 2007 had an epizootic disease similar to aspergillosis, which seems the cause of the mass octocoral mortality. This disease outbreak observed in Gorgona island, and other nearby areas of the Colombian Pacific during 2007-2010, corresponded to extended periods of anomalous elevated seawater surface temperatures and thermal anomalies during the upwelling season of 2008. Constant monitoring of seawater temperatures and octocoral populations are urgently needed in this area to understand the nature of this new disease outbreak. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1): 209-219. Epub 2014 February 01.

Debido a la disminución de los organismos de los arrecifes en general, es fundamental conocer las poblaciones de organismos propensos a enfermedades marinas, con el propósito de desarrollar predicciones precisas de supervivencia y a su vez dar la alarma sobre los motivos y las causas de los brotes de las enfermedades. En este estudio, hemos cuantificado los octocorales de la Isla Gorgona, Pacífico Oriental Tropical (Colombia), durante 2007 y 2009, y documentamos una mortalidad masiva que se produjo durante el año 2008. Se registraron 16 especies de octocorales con densidades que oscilan entre 2 y 30 colonias m-2. Los octocorales más abundantes fueron Leptogorgia alba y Pacifigorgia spp. (Gorgoniidae: Octocorallia). Durante el año 2009 nos dimos cuenta de una mortalidad masiva que afectaba a Pacifigorgia irene, P. adamsi, P. rubicunda y P. eximia, con una reducción del 70% de las colonias entre 12 y 20 m de profundidad. Alrededor del 5% de los abanicos de mar durante el año 2007 tenían una epizootia similar a la aspergilosis, que parece ser la causa de la mortalidad masiva de octocorales. Este brote de la enfermedad observada en la Isla Gorgona, y otras zonas cercanas del Pacífico colombiano durante el período 2007-2010, corresponden a períodos prolongados de altas temperaturas superficiales del mar y de anomalías térmicas durante la temporada de surgencia durante 2008. Se necesita con urgencia un monitoreo constante de las temperaturas marinas y de las poblaciones de octocorales en esta área para comprender la naturaleza de este nuevo brote de enfermedad marina.

Anthozoa , Coral Reefs , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Marine Flora , Disease , Colombia
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.1): 199-207, feb. 2014. ilus, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-753733


Carijoa riisei (Octocorallia: Cnidaria), a western Atlantic species, has been reported in the Pacific as an invasive species for nearly forty years. C. riisei has been recently observed overgrowing native octocorals at several rocky-coral littorals in the Colombian Tropical Eastern Pacific-(TEP). C. riisei has inhabited these reefs for at least 15 years but the aggressive overgrowth on other octocorals have been noted until recently. Here, we surveyed for the first time the distribution and inter-specific aggression by C. riisei in both coastal and oceanic areas colonized in the Colombian TEP (Malpelo, Gorgona and Cabo Corrientes), including preliminary multiyear surveys during 2007-2013. We observed community-wide octocoral mortalities (including local extinction of some Muricea spp.) and a steady occurrence of competing and overgrowing Pacifigorgia seafans and Leptogorgia seawhips. In Gorgona Island, at two different sites, over 87% (n=77 tagged colonies) of octocorals (Pacifigorgia spp. and Leptogorgia alba) died as a result of C. riisei interaction and/or overgrowth between 2011 and 2013. C. riisei overgrows octocorals with an estimate at linear growth rate of about 1cm m-1. The aggressive overgrowth of this species in TEP deserves more attention and regular monitoring programs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1): 199-207. Epub 2014 February 01.

Carijoa riisei (Octocorallia: Cnidaria), una especie nativa del Atlántico Occidental. Sin embargo, se ha reportado como especie exótica invasora en el Pacífico desde hace unos cuarenta años y en la costa occidental de Colombia hace 15-20 años. Recientemente C. riisei se ha observado sobrecreciendo octocorales nativos en varios litorales rocosos coralinos en el Pacífico Oriental Tropical-(POT) de Colombia. C. riisei ha habitado estos arrecifes durante al menos 15 años, pero este comportamiento agresivo frente a otros octocorales no se habían notado hasta hace unos pocos años. En este estudio, se evalúa por primera vez, en las zonas costeras y oceánicas, la distribución e incidencia C. riisei en otros octocorales del POT colombiano (Malpelo, Gorgona y Cabo Corrientes), incluyendo información observaciones entre 2007-2013. Hemos observado mortalidad en toda la comunidad de octocorales (incluyendo la extinción local de algunas especies de Muricea) y una constante competencia y cubrimiento de abanicos de mar Pacifigorgia y gorgonáceos Leptogorgia. C. riisei presento una tasa lineal de crecimiento sobre otros octocorales de aproximadamente 1 cm m-1. El comportamiento agresivo de C. riisei en el POT merece más atención y programas regulares de monitoreo.

Cnidaria/growth & development , Anthozoa/classification , Introduced Species , Colombia , Coral Reefs
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812191


AIM@#To study the minor diterpenes from the soft coral Sinularia depressa@*METHOD@#The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the chemical structures, including absolute configuration, were established on the basis of detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and by literature comparison with the data of related known compounds.@*RESULTS@#A new casbane-type diterpene, 2-epi-10-hydroxydepressin (1), was isolated and identified.@*CONCLUSION@#Compound 1 is a new casbane-type diterpene.

Animals , Anthozoa , Chemistry , Diterpenes , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Hexamethonium , Spectrum Analysis
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950763


BACKGROUND: Marine invertebrate-associated microbial communities are interesting examples of complex symbiotic systems and are a potential source of biotechnological products. RESULTS: In this work, pyrosequencing-based assessment from bacterial community structures of sediments, two sponges, and one zoanthid collected in the Mexican Caribbean was performed. The results suggest that the bacterial diversity at the species level is higher in the sediments than in the animal samples. Analysis of bacterial communities' structure showed that about two thirds of the bacterial diversity in all the samples belongs to the phyla Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria. The genus Acidobacteriumappears to dominate the bacterial community in all the samples, reaching almost 80% in the sponge Hyrtios. CONCLUSIONS: Our evidence suggests that the sympatric location of these benthonic species may lead to common bacterial structure features among their bacterial communities. The results may serve as a first insight to formulate hypotheses that lead to more extensive studies of sessile marine organisms' microbiomes from the Mexican Caribbean.

Animals , Porifera/microbiology , Anthozoa/microbiology , Acidobacteria/physiology , Sympatry , Microbiota/physiology , Phylogeny , Porifera/classification , Symbiosis/physiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Caribbean Region , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Proteobacteria/classification , Proteobacteria/physiology , Anthozoa/classification , Biodiversity , Mexico
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308217


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To prepare the Praval bhasma (PB) and to perform its characterization.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The preparation was performed strictly as per method prescribed in Ayurvedic formulary of India followed by preliminary tests including Nischandratva, Rekhapurnatvam, Varitaramtavm, Nisvadutvam and Amla pariksha. The physicochemical characterization was done with the use of instrumental techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The FTIR bands appearing in final product spectra showed a significant shift in infrared vibration frequency as well as intensity when compared with the raw material, which was indicative of formulation of bhasma. The XRD analysis revealed that raw material contained CaCO3 whereas in case of final product of bhasma, CaO was identified. SEM analysis revealed the difference in particles size of bhasma (10-15 μm) and raw material (100-150 μm). The EDAX analysis showed presence of different concentration of carbon in both the samples.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It may be concluded that modern analytical techniques may be involved to evaluate the quality aspects of PB. The findings of the present research work may be helpful for further formulation and standardization of PB in routine analysis.</p>

Animals , Anthozoa , Chemistry , Biological Factors , Chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Female , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Mice , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Quality Control , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(3): 1157-1166, sep. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688466


Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25m) using three 10m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

La composición de especies y estructura de la comunidad de gorgonáceos se determinó a lo largo de un perfil batimétrico en la costa suroeste del Pacífico Mexicano. La composición de especies se realizó a través de una revisión y recolecta de especímenes entre 0 y 70m de profundidad en 15 sitios de muestreo. La caracterización de la estructura de la comunidad se realizó en seis sitios, en los cuales se colocaron tres transectos de 10m² cada uno a 5, 10, 20 y 25m de profundidad. Se encontraron 27 especies de gorgonáceos pertenecientes a seis géneros y tres familias; aunque seis especies requieren ser confirmadas. La mayor riqueza de especies se registró entre 40 y 70m. La estructura de la comunidad entre 5 y 25m de profundidad mostró la existencia de dos zonas con la misma composición de especies pero con diferente abundancia relativa: una somera entre 5 y 10m de profundidad, caracterizada por una mayor abundancia de gorgonáceos y dominado por colonias de Leptogorgia cuspidata y Leptogorgia ena y una zona profunda entre 20 y 25m de profundidad, caracterizada por una baja abundancia de gorgonáceos y dominada por colonias de Leptogorgia alba.

Animals , Anthozoa/classification , Ecosystem , Biodiversity , Mexico , Population Density