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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 625-633, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440306

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: One of the reasons for acute kidney damage is renal ischemia. Nevertheless, there are limited protective and therapeutic approaches for this problem. Diacerein is an anti-inflammatory drug characterized by numerous biological activities. We aimed to determine the ameliorative impact of diacerein on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) condition, exploring the underlying mechanisms. Twenty-four male rats were allotted into four groups (n= 6): sham group; Diacerein (DIA) group; I/R group, in which a non-crushing clamp occluded the left renal pedicle for 45 min, and the right kidney was nephrectomized for 5 min before the reperfusion process; I/R + diacerein group, injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg diacerein/kg i.m 30 minutes prior to I/R operation. Ischemia/ reperfusion was found to affect renal function and induce histopathological alterations. The flow cytometry analysis demonstrated an elevated expression of innate and mature dendritic cells in I/R renal tissues. Moreover, upregulation in the expression of the inflammatory genes (TLR4, Myd88, and NLRP3), and overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β), apoptotic (caspase-3) and pyroptotic (caspase-1) markers were observed in I/R-experienced animals. The aforementioned deteriorations were mitigated by pre-I/R diacerein treatment. Diacerein alleviated I/R-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, it could be a promising protective agent against I/R.


La isquemia renal es una de los motivos del daño renal agudo. Sin embargo, los enfoques protectores y terapéuticos para este problema son limitados. La diacereína es un fármaco antiinflamatorio caracterizado por numerosas actividades biológicas. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el impacto de mejora de la diacereína en la condición de lesión por isquemia/ reperfusión renal (I/R), explorando los mecanismos subyacentes. Veinticuatro ratas macho se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos (n= 6): grupo simulado; grupo de diacereína (DIA); grupo I/R, en el que una pinza no aplastante ocluyó el pedículo renal izquierdo durante 45 min, y el riñón derecho fue nefrectomizado durante 5 min antes del proceso de reperfusión; Grupo I/R + diacereína, inyectado por vía intraperitoneal con 50 mg de diacereína/kg i.m. 30 min antes de la operación I/R. Se encontró que la isquemia/ reperfusión afecta la función renal e induce alteraciones histopatológicas. El análisis de citometría de flujo demostró una expresión elevada de células dendríticas innatas y maduras en tejidos renales I/R. Además, se observó una regulación positiva en la expresión de los genes inflamatorios (TLR4, Myd88 y NLRP3) y una sobreexpresión de las citoquinas proinflamatorias (IL-1β), marcadores apoptóticos (caspasa-3) y piroptóticos (caspasa-1) en animales con experiencia en I/R. Los deterioros antes mencionados fueron mitigados por el tratamiento previo a la diacereína I/R. La diacereína alivió la inflamación y la apoptosis inducidas por I/R. Por lo tanto, podría ser un agente protector prometedor contra I/R.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/immunology , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Anthraquinones/immunology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney Diseases/immunology
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6545-6550, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008854

ABSTRACT

Rhein, which is one of the main active components of Rheum palmatum, has a range of pharmacological activities such as the regulation of the metabolism of glucose and lipids, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-fibrosis, etc. Epigenetics refers to the heritable variation of gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. It is involved in the emergence and development of inflammation, renal fibrosis, diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis, and other diseases, thus becoming a new strategy for the treatment of many di-seases. A series of studies have shown that epigenetic modification may be a common molecular mechanism of various pharmacological effects of rhein. This paper summarized the effects of rhein on the regulation of epigenetic modification and its underlying mechanisms, which involve the regulation of DNA methylation, protein acetylation, and RNA methylation, so as to provide a basis for the development and application of rhein.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Fibrosis
3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 951-960, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010279

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the primary cause of mortality among diabetic patients. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, it has become a major concern around the world. The therapeutic effect of clinical use of drugs is far from expected, and therapy choices to slow the progression of DKD remain restricted. Therefore, research on new drugs and treatments for DKD has been a hot topic in the medical field. It has been found that rhein has the potential to target the pathogenesis of DKD and has a wide range of pharmacological effects on DKD, such as anti-nephritis, decreasing blood glucose, controlling blood lipids and renal protection. In recent years, the medical value of rhein in the treatment of diabetes, DKD and renal disease has gradually attracted worldwide attention, especially its potential in the treatment of DKD. Currently, DKD can only be treated with medications from a single symptom and are accompanied by adverse effects, while rhein improves DKD with a multi-pathway and multi-target approach. Therefore, this paper reviews the therapeutic effects of rhein on DKD, and proposes solutions to the limitations of rhein itself, in order to provide valuable references for the clinical application of rhein in DKD and the development of new drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Kidney/pathology , Anthraquinones/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469011

ABSTRACT

Rubiadin is identified as a bioactive anthraquinone that exists in some quinone rich plants. The current research was carried out to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory impact of Rubiadin in acute and chronic inflammation test models in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity of Rubiadin was examined in cotton pellet-induced granuloma and carrageenan-induced edema as chronic and acute inflammation models in rats. TNF-α level and histopathological changes were assessed using sampled foot tissue of rat in the acute model. Also, the IL-1β level was assessed in the chronic model. One-way ANOVA (post hoc Tukey’s) analysis was used for comparing the groups. Rubiadin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a significant reduction in TNF α level and the paw edema compared to the control group in carrageenan test. Also, it was observed that the anti-inflammatory activity of Rubiadin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) is comparable to mefenamic acid (30 mg/kg, i.p.) as the standard drug. Rubiadin was effective in granuloma induced by cotton pellet concerning the granuloma and transudate formation amount. Rubiadin's anti-inflammatory effects were associated with a significant IL-1β decrease in this model. The results suggest that Rubiadin as a natural compound can possess significant peripheral anti-inflammatory impacts.


A rubiadina é identificada como uma antraquinona bioativa que existe em algumas plantas ricas em quinonas. A presente pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar o potencial impacto anti-inflamatório da rubiadina em modelos de teste de inflamação aguda e crônica em roedores. A atividade anti-inflamatória da rubiadina foi examinada em granuloma induzido por pellet de algodão e edema induzido por carragenina como modelos de inflamação crônica e aguda em ratos. O nível de TNF-α e as alterações histopatológicas foram avaliados usando amostra de tecido do pé de rato no modelo agudo. Além disso, o nível de IL-1β foi avaliado no modelo crônico. A análise ANOVA de uma via (post hoc de Tukey) foi usada para comparar os grupos. A rubiadina (0,5 mg / kg, i.p.) induziu uma redução significativa no nível de TNF α e no edema da pata em comparação com o grupo de controle no teste de carragenina. Além disso, foi observado que a atividade anti-inflamatória da rubiadina (0,5 mg / kg, i.p.) é comparável ao ácido mefenâmico (30 mg/kg, i.p.) como o fármaco padrão. A rubiadina foi eficaz no granuloma induzido por pellet de algodão no que diz respeito à quantidade de granuloma e formação de transudato. Os efeitos anti-inflamatórios da rubiadina foram associados a uma redução significativa de IL-1β nesse modelo. Os resultados sugerem que a rubiadina como um composto natural pode ter impactos anti-inflamatórios periféricos significativos.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Anthraquinones/therapeutic use , Analysis of Variance
5.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 825-831, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the spectrum-effect relationship between the total anthraquinone extract of Cassia seeds and fluorouracil (5-Fu)-induced liver injury in mice and identify the effective components in the extract.@*METHODS@#A mouse model of liver injury was established by intraperitoneal injection of 5-Fu, with bifendate as the positive control. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the liver tissue were detected to investigate the effect of the total anthraquinone extract of Cassia seeds (0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg) on liver injury induced by 5-Fu. HPLC fingerprints of 10 batches of the total anthraquinone extracts were established to analyze the spectrum- effectiveness of the extract against 5- Fu- induced liver injury in mice and screen the effective components using the grey correlation method.@*RESULTS@#The 5- Fu- treated mice showed significant differences in liver function parameters from the normal control mice (P < 0.05), suggesting successful modelling. Compared with those in the model group, serum ALT and AST activities were decreased, SOD and T- AOC activities significantly increased, and MPO level was significantly lowered in the mice treated with the total anthraquinone extract (all P < 0.05). HPLC fingerprints of the 31 components in the total anthraquinone extract of Cassia seeds showed good correlations with the potency index of 5-Fu-induced liver injury but with varying correlation strengths. The top 15 components with known correlations included aurantio-obtusina (peak 6), rhein (peak 11), emodin (peak 22), chrysophanol (peak 29) and physcion (peak 30).@*CONCLUSION@#The effective components in the total anthraquinone extract of Cassia seeds, including aurantio-obtusina, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion, are coordinated to produce protective effects against 5-Fu-induced liver injury in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Emodin , Cassia , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic , Anthraquinones , Antioxidants , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468482

ABSTRACT

Plants that produce secondary metabolites with allelopathic activity or phytotoxicity can be biotechnologically important, serving as sources of allelochemicals, and thus contributing to the agroindustrial sector. Vismia japurensis (Hypericaceae) is an Amazonian species that grows in clumps called vismiais, from which most other plants are absent. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to identify possible phytotoxicity effects of hexane and methanol extracts of Vismia japurensis leaves and branches in vivo and from seedlings grown in vitro on Lactuca sativa. In addition, fresh and dry leaves were assayed by the sandwich method in order to determine their ability to release allelochemicals. The hexanic extract from in vitro seedlings reduced germination by 10%, while the methanol extract produced a 16% reduction in germination speed. Root growth of Lactuca sativa was inhibited by 64.7% when subjected to hexane leaf extract, by 39.3% under the influence of hexane branch extract, and by 96.09% for in vitro seedling hexanic extract. When analysed by thin layer chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, extracts showed evidence of terpenes, anthraquinones and flavonoids, with greater intensity of signals in the aromatic region of in vitro seedling hexanic extract. Clearly, Vismia japurensis has a high biotechnological potential in terms of the production of substances of low polarity with capacity to interfere in plant development.


Plantas que produzem metabólitos secundários com atividade alelopática ou fitotóxica podem ser biotecnologicamente importantes, servindo como fontes de aleloquímicos e, assim, contribuindo para o setor agroindustrial. Vismia japurensis (Hypericaceae) é uma espécie amazônica que cresce em grupos, formando vismiais. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos de extratos hexânicos e metanólicos de folhas e ramos de Vismia japurensis in vivo e de plântulas cultivadas in vitro sobre Lactuca sativa. Além disso, folhas frescas e secas foram analisadas pelo método sanduíche, a fim de determinar sua capacidade de liberação de aleloquímicos. O extrato hexânico de plântulas in vitro reduziu a germinação em 10% e o extrato metanólico promoveu uma redução de 16% na velocidade de germinação. O crescimento radicular de Lactuca sativa foi inibido em 64,7% quando submetido ao extrato hexânico das folhas, em 39,3% sob influência do extrato hexânico dos galhos e em 96,09% para o extrato de hexânico das plântulas in vitro. Quando analisados por cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear de 1H, os extratos mostraram evidências de terpenos, antraquinonas e flavonoides, com maior intensidade de sinais na região aromática do extrato hexânico das plântulas in vitro. Assim, Vismia japurensis possui elevado potencial biotecnológico em termos de produção de substâncias de baixa polaridade com capacidade de interferência no desenvolvimento de plantas.


Subject(s)
Lactuca/drug effects , Anthraquinones , Clusiaceae/chemistry , Clusiaceae/toxicity , Terpenes , In Vitro Techniques
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6204-6215, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921778

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of rhein(RH) on the apoptosis and autophagy of human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) induced by hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2) and its underlying mechanism. The oxidative damage model in HUVECs was established and the cells were divided into different treatment groups. Cell survival rate was detected by MTT assay, apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining, autophagy by Ad-mCherry-GFP-LC3 B adenovirus transfection, and protein expression by Western blot. The results showed that RH could protect cells by increasing the cell survival rate in a dose-dependent manner, decreasing the expression of apoptosis-related proteins(Bax and cleaved caspase-3) and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, elevating the expression of Bcl-2, up-regulating the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3)-Ⅱ, and down-regulating the expression of p62. Adenovirus transfection results showed that RH could increase the green and red spots, as well as the yellow spots. However, after the addition of autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, autophagy was reduced and apoptosis was increased. RH could enhance the expression of silent information regulator 2 related enzyme 1(SIRT1). The addition of SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 reduced the protective effect of RH and cell viability. The addition of 3-MA had no effect on the expression of SIRT1 protein, but the expression of SIRT1 and LC3-Ⅱ proteins decreased and the expression of p62 increased after the addition of EX-527. After RH treatment, the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK) increased, while that of the mechanistic target of rapamycin(mTOR) decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, this effect could be weakened by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. RH may enhance autophagy through SIRT1/AMPK/mTOR pathway to reduce H_2O_2-induced apoptosis of HUVECs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthraquinones , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Hydrogen Peroxide , Signal Transduction
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1060-1066, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879004

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma is a kind of commonly used Chinese medicinal materials. Due to the overharvesting, the wild resource is endangering. Large market demand caused severely adulterant of commercial Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces. This manuscript reviewed the advances of the original species authentication in the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma during the latest decade, including characteristics and microscopic features, phytochemical analysis on anthraquinones, and molecular authentication based on DNA barcoding. Accordingly, an original species authentication route for the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was summarized:(1)the identification of seeds and seedlings by DNA barcoding;(2) the selection of high variable sites based on the chloroplast genome;(3)biomonitoring of the Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces by two-dimensional DNA barcode;(4)traceability of Chinese patent medicines by third-generation sequencing. In conclusion, the combination of molecular identification and traditional identification methods provides a new idea for the identification of the original species of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in the industrial chain and a essential guidance for the research of drug safety and efficacy of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 15-23, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878905

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was first recorded in Shennong Ben Cao Jing, with a wide range of pharmacological activities. Autoimmune disease is a kind of disease that damages the tissue structure and function of immune cells and their components due to the impairment of immune tolerance function, including atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, ulcerative colitis, type 1 diabetes and IgA nephropathy. In recent years, clinical and experimental studies show that Rhei Radix et Rhizoma has potential therapeutic effects on autoimmune diseases. Under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, this paper reviews therapeutic and intervening effects of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and its main active ingredient anthraquinone on autoimmune diseases. It also puts forward new study directions in view of the existing problems in studies of rhubarb and its anthraquinone, with the aim to provide reference for clinical treatment and scientific studies of effect of Rhei Radix et Rhizomaon autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Rheum , Rhizome
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2147-2165, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887787

ABSTRACT

Angucyclines/angucyclinones are a large group of polycyclic aromatic polyketides and their producers are widely distributed in nature. This family of natural products attracts great attention because of their diverse biological activities and unique chemical structures. With the development of synthetic biology and the exploitation of the actinomycetes from previously unexplored environments, angucyclines/angucyclinones-like natural products with new skeletons were continuously discovered, thus enriching the structural diversity of this family. In this review we summarize the new angucyclines/angucyclinones analogues discovered in the last decade (2010-2020) by using different strategies, such as changing cultivation conditions, genetic modification, genome mining, bioactivity-guided compound isolation, and fermentation of actinomycetes from underexplored environments. We also discuss the role of synthetic biology in the discovery and development of new compounds of the angucycline/angucyclinone family.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Biological Products , Polyketides , Streptomyces
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 133-141, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008448

ABSTRACT

A simple, specific and selective quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS) method for simultaneous determination of anthraquinones and anthraquinone glycosides in Polygonum multiflorum was developed. Four main anthraquinones and its glycosides, emodin, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside, physcion and physcion-8-O-β-D-glucoside were selected as analytes to evaluate the quality of P. multiflorum. Emodin was used as the internal standard, and the relative correction factors(RCFs) between emodin and the other three anthraquinones were calculated. Comparison of the contents of the four components in 30 batches of P. multiflorum from different regions and 12 batches decoction pieces from different manufacturers by QAMS and external standard method(ESM) showed that there was no significant difference between QAMS and ESM for quantification of the four main components by using relative error results, and the QAMS method was accurate and reliable, and had a good repeatability. In addition, compared with the results calculated by the difference method between total anthraquinone and free anthraquinone in the content determination of P. multiflorum in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the results of direct determination combined anthraquinone by QAMS were very close to that by measured the external standard method. Therefore, simultaneous quantification of four main anthraquinones by using QAMS is suitable to evaluate the quality of P. multiflorum. Then the optimized assay method of the combined anthraquinone contents showed simple and feasible, which could be replaced and improved the quantification method of the combined anthraquinone in the current Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Fallopia multiflora/chemistry , Glucosides , Phytochemicals/analysis
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 412-417, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008352

ABSTRACT

The bilirubin metabolism mediated by the phase Ⅱ metabolizing enzyme UGT1A1 in the liver was evaluated to study the potential hepatotoxicity risk based on investigation on the inhibitory effect of rhein and its metabolites on the UGT1A1 enzyme in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. Firstly, in vitro liver microsomes incubation was used to initiate the phase Ⅱ metabolic reaction to investigate the inhibitory effect of rheinon UGT1A1 enzyme. Secondly, the phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ metabolic reactions were initiated to investigate the hepatotoxicity risk of rhein metabolites. It was found that the rhein and its phase Ⅱ metabolites had no significant inhibitory effect on UGT1A1 enzyme, but its phase Ⅰ metabolites significantly reduced UGT1A1 enzyme activity. Based on the metabolites analysis, it is speculated that the rhein phase Ⅰ metabolite rheinhydroxylate and its tautomers have certain hepatotoxicity risks, while the toxicity risk induced by the prototype and phase Ⅱ metabolites of rheinglucoside, rheinglucuronic acid and rhein sulfate is small.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthraquinones/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Glucuronosyltransferase/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Microsomes, Liver/drug effects , Rhizome
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1128-1134, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008482

ABSTRACT

A combination of LC-MS technology and activity evaluation was used to identify the antipyretic ingredients in rhubarb. The rat model of fever was established with dried yeast and then was administered ethanol extract and different polar fractions of rhubarb. Next, the anal temperature of these rats was measured and recorded at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after administration, and the inhibition rate of each part on the rise of body temperature was calculated. The inhibition rate is higher and the antipyretic effect is better. The chemical composition of the effective fraction was analyzed with UPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS technology. Compared with the model group, the increase of body temperature of ethanol extract group all reduced at each measurement time especially after 3 h, and the inhibition rate were 38.7%(P<0.05), 78.2%(P<0.01) and 72.4%(P<0.01) at 3 h, 4 h, and 5 h after administration, respectively. Both n-butanol and water fraction showed some antipyretic activity in the early stage, with the inhibition rate of 28.1%(P<0.01) and 24.9%(P<0.05) at 1 h after administration, respectively, while other fractions were not active. Thirty-three and twelve compounds were identified from n-butanol and water fraction by LC-MS/MS analysis, respectively, including ten tannins, fifteen anthraquinone glycosides, four anthrone glycosides, one phenolic glycoside, one naphthaline derivative, one anthraquinone and one sucrose. These results revealed that rhubarb had antipyretic activity on rats, and tannin and anthraquinone glycosides were the main active ingredients inside.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anthraquinones , Antipyretics/pharmacology , Chromatography, Liquid , Fever/drug therapy , Glycosides , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Rheum/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tannins
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5151-5158, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008378

ABSTRACT

Based on the ancient method of nine-steaming and nine-sun-curing,the chemical composition changes and quality profiles in different processes of Polygoni Multiflori Radix were studied. Their contents of stilbene glycoside,anthraquinones and polysaccharides were determined by nine-steaming and nine-sun-curing with black bean juice and pharmacopoeia method. HPLC chemical fingerprints were established,and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA) was performed on different processed products using SIMCA 14. 1 software to evaluate the quality difference between samples. The results of content determination show that,with the increase of the number of processing and steaming times,the stilbene glycoside and the combined anthraquinone showed a decreasing trend,and the free anthraquinone,total anthraquinone and polysaccharide showed an upward trend in the different preparations of Polygoni Multiflori Radix and Pharmacopoeia. Six-steamed and six-sun-cured products can be used as the finishing point for the classic steaming. Fingerprint results showed that there were significant differences in chemical composition in Polygoni Multiflori Radix at different processing processes. It can be identified stilbene glycoside( peak 13),emodin( peak 21),and physcion( peak 24). By comparing the relative peak areas of the 26 chromatographic peaks in the sample after normalization( the reference is peak 7),it was found that the relative peak areas of 12 peaks in the processed products were higher than the raw products,13 peaks were reduced; according to statistical analysis of OPLS-DA,Polygoni Multiflori Radix at different processing degrees was further divided into three categories,sample S1 was class I,S2-S5 were class Ⅱ,and S6-S11 were class Ⅲ. And 8 peaks with the VIP value higher than 1. 0 were peak 13,21,4,3,11,14,5,and 24 in order. The eight chemical components were the main components to distinguish the difference between Polygoni Multiflori Radix in the process of nine-steaming and nine-sun-curing,suggesting that it was rational to use stilbene glycoside,emodin and emodin methyl ether as quality control indicators of Polygoni Multiflori Radix. The method established in this experiment conformed to the methodological verification requirements,established a method of multi-component content determination combined with fingerprint,and clarified that six-steaming and six-sun-curing was used as an improved classical processing technology,and more clearly defined the whole dynamic change of chemical composition in Polygoni Multiflori Radix by nine-steaming and ninesun-curing process. It provides a basis for the chemical quality evaluation model about different processed products of Polygoni Multiflori Radix.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Discriminant Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Glycosides/analysis , Least-Squares Analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Polygonum/chemistry , Polysaccharides/analysis , Steam , Stilbenes/analysis , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 920-926, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777537

ABSTRACT

Anthraquinones,dianthrones and tannins are the main active ingredients of Rheum tanguticum. In this study the three components were determined by HPLC,and the results were analyzed by multiple comparisons,principal components analysis(PCA)and correspondence analysis(CA). The results showed that the contents of components in different growing areas and types(wild and cultivated) reached a significant level(P<0. 05). Baiyu county,Xiaojin county and Ruoergai county had obvious advantages in the accumulation of catechin hydrate,rhien and sensenoside A respectively. The principal component was different in two growing type and the wild environment was conducive to combined anthraquinones accumulation. For active components,normalized planting was better than retail cultivating. Therefore,the effect on the accumulation of chemical components in Rh. tangusticum,should be taken into full account in the selection of the cultural base of Rh. tanguticum. The standardized cultivating is superior to retail cultivating in terms of the accumulation of active ingredients,and standardized planting is inferior to the wild.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Phytochemicals , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rheum , Chemistry , Tannins
16.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 528-540, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776710

ABSTRACT

Anthraquinone dyes, which contain anthraquinone chromophore groups, are the second largest class of dyes after azo dyes and are used extensively in textile industries. The majority of these dyes are resistant to degradation because of their complex and stable structures; consequently, a large number of anthraquinone dyes find their way into the environment causing serious pollution. At present, the microbiological approach to treating printing and dyeing wastewater is considered to be an economical and feasible method, and reports regarding the bacterial degradation of anthraquinone dyes are increasing. This paper reviews the classification and structures of anthraquinone dyes, summarizes the types of degradative bacteria, and explores the possible mechanisms and influencing factors of bacterial anthraquinone dye degradation. Present research progress and existing problems are further discussed. Finally, future research directions and key points are presented.


Subject(s)
Adsorption , Anthraquinones , Chemistry , Classification , Metabolism , Bacteria , Metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Coloring Agents , Chemistry , Classification , Metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Temperature
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180429, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-990101

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the radiopacity of Biodentine (BD) and BD associated with 15% calcium tungstate (BDCaWO4) or zirconium oxide (BDZrO2), by using conventional and digital radiography systems, and their physicochemical and biological properties. Materials and Methods: Radiopacity was evaluated by taking radiographs of cement specimens (n=8) using occlusal film, photostimulable phosphor plates or digital sensors. Solubility, setting time, pH, cytocompatibility and osteogenic potential were also evaluated. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-test or two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-test (α=0.05). Results: BD radiopacity was lower than 3 mm Al, while BD ZrO2 and BD CaWO4 radiopacity was higher than 3 mm Al in all radiography systems. The cements showed low solubility, except for BDCaWO4. All cements showed alkaline pH and setting time lower than 34 minutes. MTT and NR assays revealed that cements had greater or similar cytocompatibility in comparison with control. The ALP activity in all groups was similar or greater than the control. All cements induced greater production of mineralized nodules than control. Conclusions: Addition of 15% ZrO2 or CaWO4 was sufficient to increase the radiopacity of BD to values higher than 3 mm Al. BD associated with radiopacifiers showed suitable properties of setting time, pH and solubility, except for BDCaWO4, which showed the highest solubility. All cements had cytocompatibility and potential to induce mineralization in Saos-2 cells. The results showed that adding 15% ZrO2 increases the radiopacity of BD, allowing its radiography detection without altering its physicochemical and biological properties.


Subject(s)
Humans , Zirconium/chemistry , Tungsten Compounds/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Radiography, Dental, Digital/methods , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Reference Values , Solubility , Time Factors , Zirconium/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Anthraquinones , Tungsten Compounds/pharmacology , Silicates/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180338, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011519

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: In this study, the effects of different pH values ​​(2.4, 3.2, 4.4 and 5.0), temperatures (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C) and agitation (100 rpm) on the enzymatic decolourisation of twenty-two dyes belonging to the chromophore groups anthraquinone, azo and triphenylmethane were assessed. (2) Methods: In all conditions, it was used a crude enzyme broth containing 30 U mL-1 laccases produced by Pleurotus sajor-caju PS-2001 in submerged process. (3) Results: Regarding the effects of pH values, the best results were obtained at pH 3.2 and 30°C, in which bleaching was observed for all dyes evaluated. In assays conducted at different temperatures, highest levels of decolourisation were observed at 35°C and pH 3.2 for nineteen of the dyes assessed. Thirteen dyes presented colour reduction exceeding 50% after the enzymatic treatment, including all acid and all disperse dyes evaluated. The reciprocal agitation of 100 rpm promoted negative effect on decolourisation. (4) Conclusion: From the results achieved, one can conclude that the laccase-containing preparation of P. sajor-caju PS-2001 has potential for the decolourisation of some dyes widely used in different industrial sectors, especially in the textile industry, and therefore could be used in future strategies for the biotreatment of coloured wastes.


Subject(s)
Pleurotus/chemistry , Laccase , Bleaching Agents , Azo Compounds , Trityl Compounds , Anthraquinones
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17110, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011643

ABSTRACT

Rhubarb is commonly used as a cathartic in Asian countries. However, researchers have devotedextensive concerns to the quality control and safety of rhubarb and traditional Chinese preparations composed of rhubarb due to the instable purgative effect and potential nephrotoxicity of anthraquinones. In this study, we aimed to prepare rhubarb total free anthraquinones (RTFA) oral colon-specific drug delivery granules (RTFA-OCDD-GN) to delivery anthraquinones to colon to produce purgative effect. RTFA-OCDD-GN were prepared using chitosan and Eudragit S100 through a double-layer coating process and the formulation was optimized. Continuous release studies were performed in a simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2), followed by a small-intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) and a colonic fluid (pH 7.4, containing rat cecal contents). The purgative effect test was performed in rats. The dissolution profile of RTFA-OCDD-GN showed that the accumulative dissolution rate of RTFA was about 83.0% in the simulated colonic fluid containing rat cecal contents and only about 9.0% in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. And the RTFA-OCDD-GN could produce the comparative purgative activity as rhubarb, suggesting it could deliver the free AQs to the colon. The RTFA-OCDD-GN was a useful media to enhance the purgative activity of free anthraquinones after administered orally.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Rheum/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anthraquinones/adverse effects , Colon , Projects , Cathartics/analysis
20.
Biol. Res ; 52: 50-50, 2019. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ureteral obstruction causes injury of the renal tissues and can irreversibly progress to renal fibrosis, with atrophy and apoptosis of tubular cells. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of rhein on the apoptosis o renal tubular cells as well as renal fibrosis using a rodent model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). METHODS: UUO was induced through ureteral ligation, then animals received treatments with rhein or vehicle. The control rats only received sham operation. The renal tissue was harvested 1 week after surgery for assessment of kidney fibrosis. RESULTS: The expressions of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), as well as the severity of renal tubular apoptosis and fibrosis were time-dependently increased following UUO. Treatments with rhein partially inhibited such responses. Renal interstitial fibrosis was associated with STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) phosphorylation as well as altered expressions of Bax and Bcl2, both apoptosis-related proteins. Treatment with rhein also partly blocked these responses. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that rhein mitigated apoptosis of renal tubular cell as well as renal fibrosis in a UUO rodent model. This curative effect is likely mediated via suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ureteral Obstruction/prevention & control , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Phosphorylation , Ureteral Obstruction/metabolism , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/prevention & control , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Progression , Disease Models, Animal , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
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