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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(1): 111-121, ene. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554149

ABSTRACT

Anxiety and depression cause alterations in the physiology of an organism. Extracts from the leaves of several Passiflora species are traditionally use d Peru and in many countries as anxiolytic and in treatment for inflammatory problems. T his study aimed to determine the neuropharmacological effect of the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (Kunth) Holm - Niels. & P. Jørg. and its an xiolytic effect on mouse ( Mus musculus var. albinus ). A nxiety was evaluated with the marble burying test and the depressant effect with the Irwin test (locomotor activity, base of support, wobbly gait, immobility, escape, ease of handling, muscular strengt h, tight rope, inclined plane, catatonia, nociceptive reflex and death). Doses of 100 mg/Kg/body weight and 200 mg/kg/body weight by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) significantly decreased anxiety levels (p<0.05) in mice, and had a non - significant depressant effect in 11 of the 12 tests, showing a similar direction of correlation between diazepam and Passiflora extract effect. A greater anxiolytic and anti - depressant effects in mice was observed with the extract dose of 200 mg/kg/body weight with neuropharmaco logical manifestations found where no death was observed at any dose used.


L a ansiedad y la depresión provocan alteraciones fisiológicas. Las especies de Pa ssiflora se utilizan tradicionalmente en Perú como ansiolíticos y para tratar problemas inflamatorios. D eterminar el efecto neurofarmacológico del extracto etanólico de Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (Kunth) Holm - Niels. & P. Jørg. y su efecto ansiol ítico en ratones. S e evaluó la ansiedad con el test de enterramiento de canicas y el efecto depresor con el test de Irwin . Las dosis de 100 mg/kg/peso corporal y 200 mg/kg/peso corporal por vía intraperitoneal (i.p.) disminuyeron significativamente la ansi edad ( p <0,05) con efecto depresor no significativo en 11 de las 12 pruebas, mostrando una correlación similar entre el diazepam aplicado a dosis de 1 mg/Kg/p.c. (i.p) y el efecto de Passiflora . S e observó un mayor efecto ansiolítico y antidepresivo en rato nes con 200 mg/kg/peso corporal encontrándose manifestaciones neurofarmacológicas pero no se observó muerte a ninguna de las dosis empleadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Passiflora/drug effects , Passiflora/chemistry , Species Specificity , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
2.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 87(2): 98-108, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1555471

ABSTRACT

La catatonía es un síndrome neuropsiquiátrico que se presenta con una serie heterogénea de signos y síntomas psicomotores, afectivos, conductuales y autonómicos. Es una manifestación inespecífica de ciertos trastornos mentales, metabólicos, inmunológicos, endocrinológicos, infecciosos y neurológicos, y es fundamental establecer estrategias de diagnóstico precoz para implementar medidas terapéuticas eficaces y oportunas. El objetivo de esta revisión sistematizada es evaluar la utilidad de la prueba de lorazepam como estrategia diagnóstica en individuos con catatonía. Se utilizó los buscadores Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed y Scopus. Los artículos seleccionados son ensayos clínicos y cohortes prospectivos, en los cuales se analizó la forma de diagnóstico de catatonía, la utilización y protocolo de la prueba de lorazepam y las medidas de respuesta. La búsqueda inicial determinó 87 artículos; aplicando los criterios de inclusión y exclusión se culminó en la elección de 8 artículos. La identificación de la catatonía presenta dificultades y su diagnóstico es variable, lo cual genera limitaciones en cuanto a intervenciones precoces. Existe una heterogeneidad de evaluaciones y de estrategias, pero la bibliografía es sugerente en cuanto a la utilización de lorazepam como evaluación confirmatoria y tratamiento inicial de la catatonía. La prueba de lorazepam forma parte de un protocolo de manejo, y puede ser un paso en la toma de decisiones para que individuos con catatonía reciban una intervención oportuna. Se concluye que la prueba de lorazepam es una técnica accesible y replicable, con resultados prometedores para su eventual implementación, pero se necesita nuevos estudios que involucren su aplicación estandarizada.


Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by a heterogeneous range of psychomotor, affective, behavioral, and autonomic signs and symptoms. It is a nonspecific manifestation of certain mental, metabolic, immunological, endocrinological, infectious, and neurological disorders. Therefore, it is essential to establish early diagnostic strategies to implement effective and timely therapeutic measures. This review aims to evaluate the utility of the Lorazepam Challenge Test as a diagnostic strategy in individuals with catatonia. A review was conducted using search engines such as Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed, and Scopus. The initial search yielded 87 articles, and after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 articles were selected. The selected articles are clinical trials and prospective cohorts, where catatonia diagnosis, the use and protocol of the Lorazepam Challenge Test, and response measures were analyzed. Identifying catatonia is challenging, and its diagnosis varies, leading to limitations in early interventions. There is a heterogeneity of evaluations and strategies, but the literature suggests the use of lorazepam as a confirmatory evaluation and initial treatment for catatonia. The Lorazepam Challenge Test is part of a management protocol and can be a decision-making step for individuals with catatonia to receive timely intervention. It is concluded that The Lorazepam Challenge Test is an accessible and replicable technique with promising results for potential implementation, requiring further studies involving its standardized application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Catatonia/diagnosis , Lorazepam/therapeutic use
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1023-1031, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970574

ABSTRACT

This study used m-chloropheniperazine(MCPP) and chronic unforeseeable mild stress(CUMS) to induce the rat models of anxiety and depression, respectively. The behaviors of rats were observed by the open field test(OFT), light-dark exploration test(LDE), tail suspension test(TST), and forced swimming test(FST), and the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of agarwood essential oil(AEO), agarwood fragrant powder(AFP), and agarwood line incense(ALI) were explored. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to determine the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), glutamic acid(Glu), and γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA_A) in the hippocampal area. The Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression levels of glutamate receptor 1(GluR1) and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1(VGluT1), exploring the anxiolytic and antidepressant mechanism of agarwood inhalation. The results showed that compared with the anxiety model group, the AEO, AFP, and ALI groups decreased the total distance(P<0.05), decreased the velocity of movements(P<0.05), prolonged the immobile time(P<0.05), and reduced the distance and velocity of the rat model of anxiety in the dark box(P<0.05). Compared with the depression model group, the AEO, AFP, and ALI groups increased the total distance and average velocity(P<0.05), reduced the immobile time(P<0.05), and reduced the forced swimming and tail suspension time(P<0.05). In terms of transmitter regulation, the AEO, AFP, and ALI groups decreased the level of Glu in the rat model of anxiety(P<0.05) and increased the levels of GABA_A and 5-HT(P<0.05), while the AEO, AFP, and ALI groups all increased the level of 5-HT in the rat model of depression(P<0.05) and decreased the levels of GABA_A and Glu(P<0.05). At the same time, the AEO, AFP, and ALI groups all increased the protein expression levels of GluR1 and VGluT1 in the hippocampus of the rat models of anxiety and depression(P<0.05). In conclusion, AEO, AFP, and ALI exert anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, and the mechanism might be related to the regulation of the neurotransmitter and the protein expression of GluR1 and VGluT1 in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Serotonin , alpha-Fetoproteins , Antidepressive Agents , Glutamic Acid , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
4.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411333

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a possível atividade ansiolítica de compostos presentes no extrato padronizado de camomila por meio da interação com o receptor GABAa, como também analisar parâmetros farmacocinéticos das moléculas escolhidas por meio de ferramentas computacionais. Método: Simulação da interação proteína-ligante da apigenina, alfa-bisabolol e camazuleno, por meio de docagem molecular com o receptor GABAa, comparadas com diazepam. Por fim, os parâmetros farmacocinéticos dos três compostos foram calculados, usando a ferramenta on line SwissADME. Resultados: Alfa-bisabolol e camazuleno adequaram-se aos parâmetros farmacocinéticos favoráveis, enquanto a apigenina e o diazepam não atenderam ao perfil de ideal de biodisponibilidade. No estudo docking, as energias de ligação obtidas foram de -5-1 (a-bisabolol), -7,0 (camazuleno), -7,5 (diazepam), e -8.3 kcal/mol (apigenina); também foram observadas ligações do tipo hidrofóbicas, de Van der Waals e interações eletrostáticas. Conclusão: Os parâmetros analisados sugerem a atividade ansiolítica das moléculas estudas. Ademais, mais pesquisas in vivo devem ser realizadas a fim de elucidar os resultados e seus mecanismos e possíveis limitações em humanos.


Objective: To evaluate the possible anxiolytic activity of compounds present in standardized chamomile extract through interaction with the GABAa receptor and to analyze pharmacokinetic parameters of the chosen molecules through computational tools. Methods: Simulation of the protein-ligand interaction of apigenin, alpha-bisabolol, and camazulene by molecular docking with the GABAa receptor compared with diazepam. Finally, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the compounds were calculated using the SwissADME online tool. Results: Alpha-bisabolol and camazulene fit the favorable pharmacokinetic parameters, while apigenin and diazepam did not meet the ideal bioavailability profile. In the docking study. The binding energies obtained were -5-1 ( a-bisabolol), -7.0 (camazulene), -7.5 (diazepam), and -8.3 kcal/mol (apigenin). Hydrophobic bonds, Van der Waals and electrostatic interactions were observed. Conclusion: The parameters analyzed suggest an anxiolytic activity of the molecules studied. Also, more in vivo research to elucidate the results and their human and possible resources used in humans


Subject(s)
Receptors, GABA-A , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Biological Availability , Chamomile , Simulation Exercise , Molecular Docking Simulation , Patient Health Questionnaire
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1149-1162, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414432

ABSTRACT

A depressão é uma doença grave que atinge a população em geral, estudos epidemiológicos estimam que a prevalência da depressão ao longo da vida no Brasil está em torno de 15,5%. Os fatores que desencadeiam o aparecimento da depressão incluem fatores sociais, psicológicos, biológicos e também fatores externos específicos como eventos estressantes, solidão, consumo de álcool e drogas, doenças crônicas e dar á luz (depressão pós-parto). O objetivo da presente pesquisa consistiu em realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre as principais plantas medicinais com ação antidepressiva. A ansiedade vem se tornando um dos principais problemas da atualidade, sendo intensificada pela pandemia causada pelo coronavírus, onde constatou-se que durante o pico da pandemia onde os casos confirmados de COVID-19 no Brasil ascenderam de 45.757 para 330.890, e as mortes, de 2.906 para 21.048, o sentimento de tristeza/depressão atingiu 40% dos adultos brasileiros. Os sintomas de depressão podem ser amenizados quando a disponibilidade sináptica de monoaminas são aumentadas, e esse aumento pode ocorrer através da diminuição da metabolização desses neurotransmissores. Neste sentido, busca-se através da farmacoterapia a utilização de antidepressivos que disponibilizem as monoaminas na fenda sináptica. A escolha do fármaco é feita com base nos sintomas da depressão e na boa resposta a uma determinada classe de antidepressivos. Em fevereiro de 2009 o Ministério da saúde lançou a Relação Nacional de Plantas Medicinais de Interesse ao SUS (RENISUS), contendo 71 espécies vegetais que são distribuídas de forma in natura nas unidades básicas de saúde (UBS). Destas, somente três espécies apresentam efeito antidepressivo e ansiolítico comprovados na literatura sendo Matricharia chamomilla, Erytrinum mulungu e a Passiflora incarnata que também fazem parte da RENISUS. Além destas, outras espécies como a Melissa officinalis, Lippia alba, Valeriana officinalis e Piper methysticum são utilizadas pela população para tratar ansiedade, insônia e depressão, sugerindo desta forma que estas espécies sejam incluídas na RENISUS.


Depression is a serious disease that affects the general population, epidemiological studies estimate that the prevalence of depression throughout life in Brazil is around 15.5%. The factors that trigger the onset of depression include social, psychological, biological and also specific external factors such as stressful events, loneliness, alcohol and drug consumption, chronic diseases and giving birth (postpartum depression). The objective of the present research was to carry out a literature review on the main medicinal plants with antidepressant action. Anxiety has become one of the main problems of today, being intensified by the pandemic caused by the coronavirus, where it was found that during the peak of the pandemic where confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Brazil rose from 45,757 to 330,890, and deaths, from 2,906 to 21,048, the feeling of sadness/depression reached 40% of Brazilian adults. Symptoms of depression can be alleviated when synaptic availability of monoamines is increased, and this increase can occur through decreased metabolization of these neurotransmitters. In this sense, the use of antidepressants that make monoamines available in the synaptic cleft is sought through pharmacotherapy. The choice of drug is based on symptoms of depression and good response to a particular class of antidepressants. In February 2009, the Ministry of Health launched the National List of Medicinal Plants of Interest to the SUS (RENISUS), containing 71 plant species that are distributed in natura form in basic health units (UBS). Of these, only three species have antidepressant and anxiolytic effects proven in the literature, being Matricharia chamomilla, Erytrinum mulungu and Passiflora incarnata, which are also part of RENISUS. In addition to these, other species such as Melissa officinalis, Lippia alba, Valeriana officinalis and Piper methysticum are used by the population to treat anxiety, insomnia and depression, thus suggesting that these species are included in RENISUS.


Los estudios epidemiológicos estiman que la prevalencia de la depresión a lo largo de la vida en Brasil es de alrededor del 15,5%. Los factores que desencadenan la aparición de la depresión son sociales, psicológicos, biológicos y también factores externos específicos, como los acontecimientos estresantes, la soledad, el consumo de alcohol y drogas, las enfermedades crónicas y el parto (depresión posparto). El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre las principales plantas medicinales con acción antidepresiva. La ansiedad se ha convertido en uno de los principales problemas de la actualidad, intensificándose por la pandemia causada por el coronavirus, donde se encontró que durante el pico de la pandemia donde los casos confirmados de COVID-19 en Brasil aumentaron de 45.757 a 330.890, y las muertes, de 2.906 a 21.048, el sentimiento de tristeza/depresión alcanzó el 40% de los adultos brasileños. Los síntomas de la depresión pueden aliviarse cuando se aumenta la disponibilidad sináptica de las monoaminas, y este aumento puede producirse mediante una disminución de la metabolización de estos neurotransmisores. En este sentido, se busca a través de la farmacoterapia el uso de antidepresivos que hagan disponibles las monoaminas en la hendidura sináptica. La elección del fármaco se hace en función de los síntomas de la depresión y de la buena respuesta a una clase concreta de antidepresivos. En febrero de 2009, el Ministerio de Salud lanzó la Lista Nacional de Plantas Medicinales de Interés para el SUS (RENISUS), que contiene 71 especies de plantas que se distribuyen in natura en unidades básicas de salud (UBS). De ellas, sólo tres especies tienen efectos antidepresivos y ansiolíticos probados en la literatura: Matricharia chamomilla, Erytrinum mulungu y Passiflora incarnata, que también forman parte del RENISUS. Además de éstas, otras especies como Melissa officinalis, Lippia alba, Valeriana officinalis y Piper methysticum son utilizadas por la población para tratar la ansiedad, el insomnio y la depresión, lo que sugiere que estas especies se incluyan en el RENISUS.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Unified Health System , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Valerian/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Kava/drug effects , Passiflora/drug effects , Matricaria/drug effects , Melissa/drug effects , Lippia/drug effects , Depression/drug therapy , Drug Therapy , Emotions/drug effects , Erythrina/drug effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(3): 1-8, 2022-08-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393176

ABSTRACT

Background: Medicinal plants are part of traditional medicine and should be considered a therapeutic alternative for mental diseases. Several plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family have proved useful in treating general anxiety disorders, the most prevalent psychiatric disorders. Objective: This research aimed to verify the extract's safety, the effect on general behavior, and the effect on sleeping time, as well as to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effect of the methanol extract of Aloysia virgata var. platyphylla (Avp), in mice. Methodology: The toxicity test was done according to the OECD guide (mice groups n=5), and general behavior was observed during the assay. Sleeping time was assessed using the pentobarbital-induced hypnosis method (n=8). Male Swiss albino mice (n=6) were treated with 50 to 400 mg/kg of Avp extract and diazepam as a control. The anxiolytic-like effect was tested through the hole board and elevated plus-maze test. Results: The Avp extract has no side effects in tested doses, and no central nervous system depressant activity was noted. A. virgatavar. platyphyllaincreased exploration (number and time) in the hole board. In the elevated plus-maze, increased number and time into open arms were evidenced compared to the control group. Conclusion: With all these results, we concluded that the Avp extract is safe and has a potential anxiolytic-like activity in the animal model used


Antecedentes: Las plantas medicinales forman parte de la medicina tradicional y deben ser consideradas una alternativa terapéutica para las enfermedades mentales. Varias plantas pertenecientes a la familia Verbenaceae han demostrado su utilidad en el tratamiento de los trastornos de ansiedad, uno de los trastornos psiquiátricos más prevalentes. Objetivo: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo verificar la seguridad del extracto, el efecto sobre el comportamiento general y el efecto sobre el tiempo de sueño, así como evaluar el efecto tipo ansiolítico del extracto metanólico de Aloysia virgata var. platyphylla(Avp), en ratones. Metodología: La prueba de toxicidad se realizó de acuerdo con la guía de la OCDE (grupos de ratones n=5), y se observó el comportamiento general durante el ensayo. El tiempo de sueño se evaluó mediante el método de hipnosis inducida por pentobarbital (n=8). Se trataron ratones albinos suizos macho (n=6) con 50 a 400 mg/kg de extracto de Avp y diazepam como control. El efecto ansiolítico se probó a través de la placa perforada y prueba del laberinto en cruz elevado. Resultados: El extracto de Avp no tiene efectos secundarios en las dosis probadas y no se observó actividad depresora del sistema nervioso central. A. virgata var. platyphylla aumentó la exploración (número y tiempo) en el tablero de agujeros. En el laberinto en cruz elevado, se evidenció un mayor número y tiempo en los brazos abiertos en comparación con el grupo de control. Conclusión: Con todos estos resultados, concluimos que el extracto de Avp es seguro y tiene una potencial actividad ansiolítica en el modelo animal utilizado


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Sleep/drug effects , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Models, Animal
7.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 560-567, fev 11, 2022. tab, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359322

ABSTRACT

Introdução: depressão e ansiedade têm sido observadas entre universitários, sendo apontado como desencadeadores a sobrecarga de tarefas, cobranças pessoais e familiares entre outros fatores que podem resultar na necessidade de uso de psicofármacos. Objetivo: avaliar o uso de psicofármacos por universitários. Metodologia: estudo transversal, utilizando questionário contendo informações sociodemográficas, econômicas e sobre uso de psicofármacos. Foi realizada análise bivariada com teste qui-quadrado de Pearson para verificar associação entre as variáveis utilização de antidepressivos/ansiolíticos e sociodemográficas e econômicas. Resultados: dos 408 entrevistados, 22,3% afirmaram fazer uso de ansiolíticos/antidepressivos, tendo iniciado após o ingresso na universidade e em uso diário. A maioria relata ter alterado a dosagem sem consultar o médico, asseguraram conhecimento sobre os efeitos adversos do medicamento, sabe que a remoção do medicamento deve ser feita de maneira gradual, mas afirmam ter interrompido o tratamento sem consultar o médico. Permaneceram associadas a utilização de psicofármacos, no modelo final, ser do sexo feminino (p=0,013), idade maior que 29 anos (p=0,009) e possuir plano de saúde (p=0,020). Conclusão: verificou-se a necessidade de alertar a comunidade acadêmica e gestão sobre a necessidade de acolhimento dos universitários em sofrimento mental e propor ações que visem orientar sobre o uso racional dos psicofármacos.


Introduction: depression and anxiety have been observed among university students, with task overload, personal and family demands being pointed out as triggers, among other factors that result in the use of psychotropic drugs. Objective: to evaluate the use of psychopharmaceuticals by university students. Methodology: cross-sectional study, using a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, economic and psychotropic drug use information. A bivariate analysis was performed with Pearson's chi-square test to verify the association between the variables use of antidepressants/anxiolytics and sociodemographic and economic variables. Results: of the 408 respondents, 22.3% said they used anxiolytics/antidepressants, having started after entering university and in daily use. The majority report having changed the dosage without consulting the doctor, assured knowledge about the adverse effects of the medication, know that the removal of the medication must be done gradually, but claim to have stopped the treatment without consulting the doctor. The use of psychotropic drugs in the final model, being female (p=0.013), older than 29 years (p=0.009) and having a health plan (p=0.020) remained associated. Conclusion: there was a need to alert the academic and management community about the need to welcome university students in mental distress and propose actions that aim to guide the rational use of psychotropic drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anxiety , Psychotropic Drugs , Students , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression , Antidepressive Agents , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 53(1): 38105, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415380

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se identificar o uso de medicamento ansiolítico e/ou antidepressivo e associá-lo às características dos estudantes de medicina de uma universidade. Trata-se de um estudo com 449 estudantes de medicina no interior do estado de São Paulo. O uso de medicamento antidepressivo e/ou ansiolítico era feito por 24,3% dos estudantes, sendo a maior parte do sexo feminino e cursando os dois primeiros anos da faculdade. Não houve associação entre o uso de medicamento e os fatores como: idade, renda, morar com a família, horas de sono, relação com docentes e ter pai e mãe vivos. Observou-se maior chance de fazer terapia entre os estudantes que usavam medicamento (ß=1,12, OR=3,07, p<0,001) e uma menor chance de realizar exercício físico (ß=-0,051, OR=0,60, p=0,03). Estratégias para o manejo da depressão e da ansiedade devem ser incentivadas e ações para reduzir o estresse durante o curso devem fazer parte de um programa de apoio das universidades.


The objective was to identify the use of anxiolytic and/or antidepressant medication and to associate it with the characteristics of medical students at a university. This is a study with 449 medical students in the interior of the state of São Paulo. The use of antidepressant and/or anxiolytic medication was done by 24.3% of the students, most of them female and attending the first two years of college. There was no association between the use of medication and factors such as: age, income, living with the family, hours of sleep, relationships with teachers and having a father and mother alive. There was a greater chance of undergoing therapy among students who used medication (ß = 1.12, OR = 3.07, p <0.001) and a lesser chance of performing physical exercise (ß = -0.051, OR = 0.60, p = 0.03). Strategies for the management of depression and anxiety should be encouraged and actions to reduce stress during the course should be part of a university support program.


El objetivo fue identificar el uso de medicamentos ansiolíticos y/o antidepresivos y asociarlo con las características de los estudiantes de medicina en una universidad. Este es un estudio con 449 estudiantes de medicina en el interior del estado de São Paulo. El uso de medicamentos antidepresivos y/o ansiolíticos fue realizado por el 24,3% de los estudiantes, la mayoría de ellos mujeres y que asistieron a los primeros dos años de la universidad. No hubo asociación entre el uso de medicamentos y factores tales como: edad, ingresos, vivir con la familia, horas de sueño, relaciones con los maestros y tener un padre y una madre con vida. Hubo una mayor probabilidad de someterse a terapia entre los estudiantes que usaron medicamentos (ß = 1,12, OR = 3,07, p <0,001) y una menor probabilidad de realizar ejercicio físico (ß = -0,051, OR = 0,60, p = 0,03). Deben fomentarse las estrategias para el manejo de la depresión y la ansiedad y las acciones para reducir el estrés durante el curso deben formar parte de un programa de apoyo universitario.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anxiety , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Depression , Faculty , Antidepressive Agents
9.
Ghana Medical Journal ; 56(3): 198-205, )2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398791

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study sought to assess the level of anti-glycaemic medication-taking and its predictors among adults living with diabetes receiving treatment at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH). Design: This was a cross-sectional study carried out among adults living with diabetes and receiving care at CCTH. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and anti-glycaemic medication-taking were gathered using a structured questionnaire. A scale consisting of 4 domains (filling prescribed medication; taking medications appropriately according to the instructions of healthcare professionals; practising behavioural modifications and showing up for follow-up appointments) and eight items was used to measure the level of anti-glycaemic medication-taking. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test (and Fisher's exact test where appropriate), bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used in analysing the data. Setting: The study was carried out in the diabetes clinic in Cape Coast Teaching Hospital. Participants: The total enumerative sampling technique was used to select 250 adults living with diabetes and receiving care at CCTH. Main outcome measures: Anti-glycaemic medication-taking Results: Out of 250 participants studied, 42% had high anti-glycaemic medication-taking. Predictors of anti-glycaemic medication-taking included forgetfulness (aOR=0.02, 95% CI: 0.00-0.64, p<0.001), patient's involvement in treatment plan (aOR=0.12, 95% CI: 0.02-0.64, p=0.014) and having good knowledge about one's medication (aOR=2.34, 95% CI: 1.10-4.98, p=0.028). Conclusion: Less than half of the sample population (42%) had high anti-glycaemic medication-taking, with forgetfulness, involvement in the treatment plan and good knowledge about anti-glycaemic medications, predicting medication-taking


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycemic Control , Health Services Accessibility , Hospitals, Teaching
10.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(1): 39-47, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | INDEXPSI, LILACS | ID: biblio-1280639

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: caracterizar os idosos atendidos em um Serviço de Urgência e Emergência Psiquiátrica quanto ao perfil sociodemográfico, diagnóstico psiquiátrico, prescrição de medicamentos e conduta médica e avaliar suas associações com o sexo. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, quantitativo, em que os dados foram obtidos a partir dos prontuários de pacientes atendidos no referido serviço, entre julho/2015 e junho/2016. A variável independente foi o sexo e as dependentes foram: idade; procedência; informante; tratamento psiquiátrico anterior; diagnóstico; medicamentos prescritos e conduta. RESULTADOS: nos 152 prontuários analisados, observam-se idade prevalente entre 60 a 69 anos, maioria de mulheres, procedência do município local e comparecimento com acompanhante. Os diagnósticos prevalentes são a esquizofrenia e os transtornos mentais e comportamentais decorrentes do uso de substâncias psicoativas. As medicações prescritas com maior frequência são da classe dos antipsicóticos e anti-histamínicos, seguidas dos ansiolíticos/sedativos. O critério de Beers considera a prescrição de medicamentos do grupo dos benzodiazepínicos, antipsicóticos e anti-histamínicos inapropriada para idosos. A principal conduta foi a alta, sem encaminhamento a outro serviço. CONCLUSÃO: embora haja incentivo do Ministério da Saúde, com a criação de novas políticas de saúde mental, muitos profissionais mantêm o modelo de atendimento baseado na queixa e conduta, dificultando a reabilitação psicossocial dos pacientes.


OBJECTIVE: characterize the elderly treated in a Psychiatric Emergency and Urgency Service regarding their sociodemographic profile, psychiatric diagnosis, prescription of medication and medical conduct and evaluate their associations with sex. METHOD: a cross-sectional, quantitative study in which data was obtained from the medical records of patients seen in the referred service, between July/2015 and June/2016. The independent variable was gender and dependents were: age; origin; informant; previous psychiatric treatment; diagnosis; prescribed drugs and conduct. RESULTS: in the 152 medical records analyzed, the prevailing age is between 60 and 69 years old, most of them women, coming from the local municipality and attending with a companion. The prevalent diagnoses are schizophrenia and mental and behavioral disorders resulting from the use of psychoactive substances. The most frequently prescribed medications are in the class of antipsychotics and antihistamines, followed by anxiolytics/sedatives. Beers' criteria consider the prescription of benzodiazepine, antipsychotic and antihistamine medications inappropriate for the elderly. The main conduct was discharge, without referral to another service. CONCLUSION: although there is encouragement from the Ministry of Health, with the creation of new mental health policies, many professionals maintain the model of care based on complaint and conduct, hindering the psychosocial rehabilitation of patients.


OBJETIVO: caracterizar a los ancianos atendidos en un servicio psiquiátrico de emergencia y urgencia en relación con el perfil sociodemográfico, el diagnóstico psiquiátrico, la prescripción de medicamentos y la conducta médica; y evaluar sus asociaciones con el sexo. MÉTODO: un estudio cuantitativo y transversal en el que se obtuvieron datos de los registros médicos de los pacientes tratados en el citado servicio, del 2015 al 2016 de julio. La variable independiente era el sexo y los dependientes eran: edad, procedencia, informante, tratamiento psiquiátrico previo, diagnóstico, medicamentos recetados y conducta. RESULTADOS: de los 152 registros médicos analizados, se observa que: la edad predominante es de 60 a 69 años, la mayoría de ellos son mujeres, desde el municipio local y atendido a la atención de un acompañante. Los diagnósticos prevalentes son la esquizofrenia y los trastornos mentales y conductuales resultantes del uso de sustancias psicoactivas. Los medicamentos recetados con mayor frecuencia son la clase antipsicótica y anti-histamina, seguida de ansiolíticos/sedantes. El criterio de Beers considera que la prescripción de fármacos del grupo de benzodiazepinas, antipsicóticos y antihistaminas, es inadecuada para los ancianos. La conducta principal era alta, sin remisión a otro servicio. CONCLUSIÓN: aunque hay aliento del Ministerio de salud con la creación de nuevas políticas de salud mental, muchos profesionales mantienen el modelo de cuidado basado en la queja y la conducta, obstaculizando la rehabilitación psicosocial de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Mentally Ill Persons , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Mental Disorders/therapy
11.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-12, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151620

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la prescripción de los medicamentos ansiolíticos utilizados en población de adultos mayores institucionalizados en el hogar de ancianos de Pinar del Río durante el año 2017.Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, con recogida de datos retrospectiva, sobre prescripción de medicamentos ansiolíticos en la población de adultos mayores institucionalizados en el hogar de ancianos, se analizó la forma de utilización de los medicamentos, su indicación y prescripción con elementos de esquema terapéutico y factores que condicionan los hábitos de prescripción. Se trabajó con el universo (U= 98) de estudio el cual estuvo conformado por el total de pacientes institucionalizados, que estaban consumiendo ansiolíticos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas individuales y se confeccionó un modelo de recolección de datos.El medicamento más consumido por los adultos mayores fue el nitrazepam (41,8 %), siendo este a su vez el más consumido por el sexo masculino, no así para el femenino que resultó ser el clorodiazepóxido (64,6 %), el grupo de edad que más predominó fue el de 60-69 años, asimismo los viudos y el nivel educacional primario, el 79,5 % de los ancianos consume otros medicamentos que poseen interacción farmacocinética. El profesional que más indicó fue el médico de familia, la prescripción e intervalos entre dosis fue adecuada, la prescripción se consideró no racional.La prescripción de ansiolíticos en la población objeto de estudio, disminuye a medida que aumenta la edad, los más consumidores son los del sexo masculino y los institucionalizados por abandono familiar, esto apunta a la necesidad de continuar trabajando desde el nivel primario de atención dado que es de donde proceden estos ancianos.


The objective of this study was to characterize the prescription of anxiolytic medications used in the institutionalized elderly population at the Pinar del Río Nursing Home during 2017.A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, with retrospective data collection, on the prescription of anxiolytic medications in the population of institutionalized older adults in the Nursing Home, the form of use of the medications, their indication and prescription with elements of the therapeutic scheme was analyzed and factors that condition prescription habits. We worked with the universe (U = 98) of the study, which was made up of the total number of institutionalized patients who were consuming anxiolytics. Individual medical records were reviewed and a data collection model was created.The drug most consumed by older adults was nitrazepam (41.8%), this in turn being the most consumed by males, not so for females, which turned out to be chlorodiazepoxide (64.6%), the group The most prevalent age group was 60-69 years, likewise widowers and primary educational level, 79.5% of the elderly consume other drugs that have pharmacokinetic interaction. The professional who indicated the most was the family doctor, the prescription and intervals between doses were adequate, the prescription was considered non-rational.The prescription of anxiolytics in the population under study decreases as age increases, the most consumers are those of the male sex and those institutionalized due to family abandonment, this points to the need to continue working from the primary level of care since that is where these elders come from.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Prescriptions , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Chlordiazepoxide/therapeutic use , Homes for the Aged , Nitrazepam/therapeutic use , Nursing Homes , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1943-1950, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879113

ABSTRACT

Based on the research literatures of Passiflora incarnata and the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the paper discussed the traditional Chinese medicinal properties of P. incarnate, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the compatibility and application of P. incarnata. The literature databases of CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus were selected, and the literatures relating to P. incarnata were reviewed to screen out the scientific research literatures with a high credibility, rational design and reliable conclusions. Foreign pharmacopoeia was consulted, and the listed products were summarized. The traditional Chinese medicine properties of P. incarnata were studied based on 32 clinical trials, 66 pharmacological researches, 64 chemical constituents researches as well as the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. It was preliminarily concluded that the medicinal properties of P. incarnata are sweet, cool, and enter heart, liver channels. The function is mainly to calm the heart and tranquilizing the mind, and calm the liver wind. It is used for hyperactivity of liver-Yang, stagnation of liver-Qi, restlessness of mind, depression, nervousness, insomnia. This paper summarized the source, characteristics of natures, tastes and channel tropism, usage and dosage, function indications of P. incarnata, and defined its clear traditional Chinese medicine property, which lays a theoretical foundation for the compatibility and clinical application of P. incarnata and Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Anxiety , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Passiflora , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy
13.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 9(1): 1-7, 2021. tab, gráf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352382

ABSTRACT

Objetctive: Realize a systematic review on articles about cannabidiol (CBD) as an anxiolytic and antidepressant drug. Methodology: A systematic review in PubMed, Science Direct and PsycINFO databases taking into consideration articles published in English and Portuguese from 2008 to 2018 with animal experimentation. Results: Eleven articles with experimental studies on animals were included. All studies exhibited anxiolytic and antidepressant activities after CBD use. Conclusion: It was proven by several experiments the anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of CBD, however there is still a need of more preclinicals and clinicals studies to elucidate its mechanisms.


Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão sistemática de artigos sobre o canabidiol (CBD) como ansiolítico e antidepressivo. Metodos: Revisão sistemática nas bases de dados PubMed, Science Direct e PsycINFO considerando artigos publicados em inglês e português de 2008 a 2018 com experimentação animal. Resultados: Onze artigos com estudos experimentais em animais foram incluídos. Todos os estudos exibiram atividades ansiolíticas e antidepressivas após o uso de CBD. Conclusão: Foi comprovada por diversos experimentos a atividade ansiolítica e antidepressiva do CBD, porém ainda há necessidade de mais estudos pré-clínicos e clínicos para elucidar seus mecanismos.


Subject(s)
Cannabidiol , Cannabis , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Antidepressive Agents
14.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 38(2): 55-64, ago.2020. ^c21 cm.ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179314

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la pandemia del COVID-19 significa un gran impacto en la salud mental de pacientes hospitalizados, ya sea por el aislamiento, la incertidumbre, su propio estado de salud, generando diversas emergencias y urgencias psiquiátricas que deben abordarse. Objetivo: definir la estrategia de intervención del personal de salud para dar una respuesta médica oportuna, eficiente y eficaz, que minimice el impacto que produce el COVID-19 en la salud mental de los pacientes hospitalizados. Método: se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre el tratamiento de las emergencias psiquiátricas en pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19, la búsqueda incluyó bases de datos como PubMed, Medscape y Google Académico. Los términos de búsqueda incluyeron SARS-CoV-2, MERSCoV y COVID-19 en combinación con salud mental, tratamiento y farmacología. Resultados: se revisaron artículos sobre alteraciones psiquiátricas de la pandemia por COVID-19 en pacientes hospitalizados y los protocolos que deben implementarse en los casos de urgencias psiquiátricas. Conclusiones: la pandemia por COVID-19 ha generado alteraciones en la salud mental de la población como ansiedad y depresión, principalmente en pacientes hospitalizados, requiriéndose protocolos emergentes en aquellos con patología psiquiátrica previa (AU);


Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic means a great impact on the mental health of hospitalized patients, either due to isolation, uncertainty, their own health, generating various emergencies and psychiatric urgencies that must be addressed. Objective: to define the intervention strategy of the health personnel to provide a timely, efficient and effective medical response that minimizes the impact that COVID-19 produces on the mental health of hospitalized patients. Method: a literature review was carried out on the treatment of psychiatric emergencies in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the search included databases such as PubMed, Medscape and Google Scholar. The search terms included SARS-CoV-2, MERSCoV, and COVID-19 in combination with mental health, treatment, and pharmacology.Results: articles on psychiatric disorders of the COVID-19 pandemic in hospitalized patients and the protocols to be implemented in psychiatric emergencies were reviewed. Conclusions: the COVID-19 pandemic has generated alterations in the mental health of the population such as anxiety and depression, mainly in hospitalized patients, requiring emerging protocols in those with previous psychiatric pathology (AU);


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Health , Emergencies , COVID-19/psychology , Inpatients/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Mental Disorders/drug therapy
17.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 42: e46774, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370837

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of use of psychoactive substances (PS) and its associated factors in undergraduate students of a university in southern Brazil. The study was carried out with 830 undergraduate students in the year 2016. The individuals answered a self-administered questionnaire about the PS and its prevalence of daily use, in the last 30 days or at any time of their lives, as well as socioeconomic conditions and academic variables. Caffeine-based energy drinks was the most consumed psychoactive substance (96.3%) among undergraduates in the last 30 days, followed by alcohol (64.0%). Among the illicit drugs most consumed in the last 30 days was marijuana (17.3%), while anxiolytics and amphetamines were the most prevalent psychoactive medicaments in the last 30 days. The prevalence of lifetime illicit drugs used by these students was 41.5%, where we highlight besides marijuana (38.6%) the high consumption of cocaine (7.8%), ecstasy (9.3%) and solvents. Socioeconomic and demographic factors such as gender, have children, religion, and financial background as well as academic variables were associated to recent consumption of these substances. This study concluded there is a high prevalence of use of PS among the undergraduate students, including illicit drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Psychotropic Drugs , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Illicit Drugs , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Social Class , Students , Anti-Anxiety Agents/analysis , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Caffeine/analysis , Alcohol Drinking , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking in College , Marijuana Use , Cocaine Smoking , Amphetamine/analysis
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 14-19, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008432

ABSTRACT

Anxiety disorders are a common mental illness that seriously endangered physical and mental health of human beings. The etiology of anxiety disorders is closely related to the abnormality of monoamines neurotransmitters, amino acids neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. The long-term use of anti-anxiety chemical drugs has some adverse effects, such as constipation, muscle relaxation, lethargy, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. However, traditional Chinese medicines have advantages of multi-component, multi-target coordination, with less adverse reactions. Therefore, it is a promising prospect to develop novel anti-anxiety drugs from traditional Chinese medicines and formulas. This article reviewed some traditional Chinese medicines and formulas that can relieve anxiety symptoms. These include traditional Chinese medicines(Panax ginseng, Lycium ruthenium, Morus alba, Bupleurum plus dragon bone oyster soup, Chailong Jieyu Pills, and Naogongtai Formulas) with the effect on monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine; traditional Chinese medicines(Rehmannia glutinosa, Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa, Jielv Anshen Decoction, Baixiangdan Capsules, Antianxietic Compound Prescription Capsules) with the effect on amino acid neurotransmitters, such as glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyrc acid; and traditional Chinese medicines(P. ginseng, Xiaoyao San, Shuyu Ningxin Decoction)with the effect on neuropeptide Y pathway, with the aim to provide theoretical basis for the further development of some novel and more effective anti-anxiety therapeutics from traditional Chinese medicine and formulas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neurotransmitter Agents , Norepinephrine , Serotonin
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200206, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132262

ABSTRACT

Abstract The high prevalence of anxiety disorders associated with pharmacotherapy side effects have motivated the search for new pharmacological agents. Species from Citrus genus, such as Citrus limon (sicilian lemon), have been used in folk medicine as a potential therapy to minimize emotional disorders. In order to searching for new effective treatments with fewer side effects, the present study evaluated the anxiolytic mechanism of action and the hypnotic-sedative activity from the Citrus limon fruit's peels essential oil (CLEO). Adults male Swiss mice were submitted to barbiturate-induced sleep test; elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB) (evaluation of the mechanism of action); rotarod; and catalepsy tests. CLEO oral treatment decreased latency and increased the sleep total time; moreover it induced in animals an increased the number of entries and percentage of time spent into open arms of the EPM; an increased the number of transitions and the percentage of time into light compartment in the LDB; which were only antagonized by flumazenil pretreatment, with no injury at motor function. Thus, results suggest that CLEO treatment induced an anxiolytic behavior suggestively modulated by the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptor or by an increase of GABAergic neurotransmission, without cause impairment in the motor coordination.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Citrus/chemistry , GABA Modulators/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Anti-Anxiety Agents/isolation & purification , Maze Learning/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/isolation & purification
20.
Saúde Soc ; 28(4): 137-146, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058987

ABSTRACT

Resumen A pesar de que son ampliamente conocidos los perfiles de utilización de las benzodiazepinas (BZD) y los riesgos asociados, este conocimiento no ha conducido a visibles transformaciones que mejoren la seguridad de los tratamientos y la salud de los pacientes. Por tanto, es necesaria una mejor compresión del contexto de su utilización, con el fin de implementar acciones educativas eficaces, tomar decisiones clínicas pertinentes y perfeccionar su regulación en los servicios de salud. Este artículo se propone caracterizar el perfil de utilización de benzodiazepinas en un área de salud de Santiago de Cuba y analizar el contexto de consumo a partir de los sentidos construidos por usuarios crónicos. Se realiza un estudio de caso, que describe el perfil de consumo a partir de las recetas dispensadas en la Farmacia Principal Municipal, y se realizan entrevistas a profundidad a los usuarios crónicos. El contenido de las entrevistas fue realizado temáticamente. Los resultados revelan los siguientes temas: poca concientización sobre el beneficio-riesgo del tratamiento, sufrimiento con la dependencia y tolerancia, autonomía en el tratamiento y limitada credibilidad en las terapias alternativas. La proporción de adultos mayores que reciben las BZD es mayor que la identificada en otros estudios. Se concluye que los usuarios perciben aspectos negativos del uso, pero están presos en la dependencia. Se evidencia la importancia de estudiar estrategias para el tratamiento del insomnio y la ansiedad en la atención primaria de salud, así como valorizar las políticas de implementación de terapias naturales y otros abordajes para contribuir al uso racional de las BZD.


Abstract The profiles for the use of benzodiazepines and associated risks are well known. However, this knowledge has not led to visible transformations that improve the safety of treatments and the health of patients. It is therefore necessary to better understand the context of use of these medications in order to implement effective educational actions, make relevant clinical decisions and improve their regulation in health services, especially in primary care. To characterize the profile of use of benzodiazepines in a health area of Santiago de Cuba and to analyze the context of consumption from the senses built by chronic users. Methods: A case study was carried out on the consumption patterns and interviews with chronic users was performed. The content of the interviews was thematically analyzed. The themes revealed were: little awareness of the benefit-risk of treatment; suffering with dependence and tolerance; autonomy in treatment; and limited credibility in alternative therapies. The proportion of older adults receiving benzodiazepines is greater than that identified in other studies. The users perceive negative aspects of use, but they are tied to the dependence. It is evident the importance of studying strategies for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety in primary health care, as well as valuing the policies of implementation of natural therapies and other approaches to contribute to the rational use of benzodiazepines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmaceutical Services , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Benzodiazepines , Substance-Related Disorders
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