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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-12, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151620

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la prescripción de los medicamentos ansiolíticos utilizados en población de adultos mayores institucionalizados en el hogar de ancianos de Pinar del Río durante el año 2017.Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, con recogida de datos retrospectiva, sobre prescripción de medicamentos ansiolíticos en la población de adultos mayores institucionalizados en el hogar de ancianos, se analizó la forma de utilización de los medicamentos, su indicación y prescripción con elementos de esquema terapéutico y factores que condicionan los hábitos de prescripción. Se trabajó con el universo (U= 98) de estudio el cual estuvo conformado por el total de pacientes institucionalizados, que estaban consumiendo ansiolíticos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas individuales y se confeccionó un modelo de recolección de datos.El medicamento más consumido por los adultos mayores fue el nitrazepam (41,8 %), siendo este a su vez el más consumido por el sexo masculino, no así para el femenino que resultó ser el clorodiazepóxido (64,6 %), el grupo de edad que más predominó fue el de 60-69 años, asimismo los viudos y el nivel educacional primario, el 79,5 % de los ancianos consume otros medicamentos que poseen interacción farmacocinética. El profesional que más indicó fue el médico de familia, la prescripción e intervalos entre dosis fue adecuada, la prescripción se consideró no racional.La prescripción de ansiolíticos en la población objeto de estudio, disminuye a medida que aumenta la edad, los más consumidores son los del sexo masculino y los institucionalizados por abandono familiar, esto apunta a la necesidad de continuar trabajando desde el nivel primario de atención dado que es de donde proceden estos ancianos.


The objective of this study was to characterize the prescription of anxiolytic medications used in the institutionalized elderly population at the Pinar del Río Nursing Home during 2017.A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, with retrospective data collection, on the prescription of anxiolytic medications in the population of institutionalized older adults in the Nursing Home, the form of use of the medications, their indication and prescription with elements of the therapeutic scheme was analyzed and factors that condition prescription habits. We worked with the universe (U = 98) of the study, which was made up of the total number of institutionalized patients who were consuming anxiolytics. Individual medical records were reviewed and a data collection model was created.The drug most consumed by older adults was nitrazepam (41.8%), this in turn being the most consumed by males, not so for females, which turned out to be chlorodiazepoxide (64.6%), the group The most prevalent age group was 60-69 years, likewise widowers and primary educational level, 79.5% of the elderly consume other drugs that have pharmacokinetic interaction. The professional who indicated the most was the family doctor, the prescription and intervals between doses were adequate, the prescription was considered non-rational.The prescription of anxiolytics in the population under study decreases as age increases, the most consumers are those of the male sex and those institutionalized due to family abandonment, this points to the need to continue working from the primary level of care since that is where these elders come from.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Prescriptions , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Chlordiazepoxide/therapeutic use , Homes for the Aged , Nitrazepam/therapeutic use , Nursing Homes , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
2.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(1): 39-47, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1280639

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: caracterizar os idosos atendidos em um Serviço de Urgência e Emergência Psiquiátrica quanto ao perfil sociodemográfico, diagnóstico psiquiátrico, prescrição de medicamentos e conduta médica e avaliar suas associações com o sexo. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, quantitativo, em que os dados foram obtidos a partir dos prontuários de pacientes atendidos no referido serviço, entre julho/2015 e junho/2016. A variável independente foi o sexo e as dependentes foram: idade; procedência; informante; tratamento psiquiátrico anterior; diagnóstico; medicamentos prescritos e conduta. RESULTADOS: nos 152 prontuários analisados, observam-se idade prevalente entre 60 a 69 anos, maioria de mulheres, procedência do município local e comparecimento com acompanhante. Os diagnósticos prevalentes são a esquizofrenia e os transtornos mentais e comportamentais decorrentes do uso de substâncias psicoativas. As medicações prescritas com maior frequência são da classe dos antipsicóticos e anti-histamínicos, seguidas dos ansiolíticos/sedativos. O critério de Beers considera a prescrição de medicamentos do grupo dos benzodiazepínicos, antipsicóticos e anti-histamínicos inapropriada para idosos. A principal conduta foi a alta, sem encaminhamento a outro serviço. CONCLUSÃO: embora haja incentivo do Ministério da Saúde, com a criação de novas políticas de saúde mental, muitos profissionais mantêm o modelo de atendimento baseado na queixa e conduta, dificultando a reabilitação psicossocial dos pacientes.


OBJECTIVE: characterize the elderly treated in a Psychiatric Emergency and Urgency Service regarding their sociodemographic profile, psychiatric diagnosis, prescription of medication and medical conduct and evaluate their associations with sex. METHOD: a cross-sectional, quantitative study in which data was obtained from the medical records of patients seen in the referred service, between July/2015 and June/2016. The independent variable was gender and dependents were: age; origin; informant; previous psychiatric treatment; diagnosis; prescribed drugs and conduct. RESULTS: in the 152 medical records analyzed, the prevailing age is between 60 and 69 years old, most of them women, coming from the local municipality and attending with a companion. The prevalent diagnoses are schizophrenia and mental and behavioral disorders resulting from the use of psychoactive substances. The most frequently prescribed medications are in the class of antipsychotics and antihistamines, followed by anxiolytics/sedatives. Beers' criteria consider the prescription of benzodiazepine, antipsychotic and antihistamine medications inappropriate for the elderly. The main conduct was discharge, without referral to another service. CONCLUSION: although there is encouragement from the Ministry of Health, with the creation of new mental health policies, many professionals maintain the model of care based on complaint and conduct, hindering the psychosocial rehabilitation of patients.


OBJETIVO: caracterizar a los ancianos atendidos en un servicio psiquiátrico de emergencia y urgencia en relación con el perfil sociodemográfico, el diagnóstico psiquiátrico, la prescripción de medicamentos y la conducta médica; y evaluar sus asociaciones con el sexo. MÉTODO: un estudio cuantitativo y transversal en el que se obtuvieron datos de los registros médicos de los pacientes tratados en el citado servicio, del 2015 al 2016 de julio. La variable independiente era el sexo y los dependientes eran: edad, procedencia, informante, tratamiento psiquiátrico previo, diagnóstico, medicamentos recetados y conducta. RESULTADOS: de los 152 registros médicos analizados, se observa que: la edad predominante es de 60 a 69 años, la mayoría de ellos son mujeres, desde el municipio local y atendido a la atención de un acompañante. Los diagnósticos prevalentes son la esquizofrenia y los trastornos mentales y conductuales resultantes del uso de sustancias psicoactivas. Los medicamentos recetados con mayor frecuencia son la clase antipsicótica y anti-histamina, seguida de ansiolíticos/sedantes. El criterio de Beers considera que la prescripción de fármacos del grupo de benzodiazepinas, antipsicóticos y antihistaminas, es inadecuada para los ancianos. La conducta principal era alta, sin remisión a otro servicio. CONCLUSIÓN: aunque hay aliento del Ministerio de salud con la creación de nuevas políticas de salud mental, muchos profesionales mantienen el modelo de cuidado basado en la queja y la conducta, obstaculizando la rehabilitación psicosocial de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Mentally Ill Persons , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Mental Disorders/therapy
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200206, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132262

ABSTRACT

Abstract The high prevalence of anxiety disorders associated with pharmacotherapy side effects have motivated the search for new pharmacological agents. Species from Citrus genus, such as Citrus limon (sicilian lemon), have been used in folk medicine as a potential therapy to minimize emotional disorders. In order to searching for new effective treatments with fewer side effects, the present study evaluated the anxiolytic mechanism of action and the hypnotic-sedative activity from the Citrus limon fruit's peels essential oil (CLEO). Adults male Swiss mice were submitted to barbiturate-induced sleep test; elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB) (evaluation of the mechanism of action); rotarod; and catalepsy tests. CLEO oral treatment decreased latency and increased the sleep total time; moreover it induced in animals an increased the number of entries and percentage of time spent into open arms of the EPM; an increased the number of transitions and the percentage of time into light compartment in the LDB; which were only antagonized by flumazenil pretreatment, with no injury at motor function. Thus, results suggest that CLEO treatment induced an anxiolytic behavior suggestively modulated by the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptor or by an increase of GABAergic neurotransmission, without cause impairment in the motor coordination.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Citrus/chemistry , GABA Modulators/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Anti-Anxiety Agents/isolation & purification , Maze Learning/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/isolation & purification
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 311-317, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013477

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the effects of preoperative anxiety relieving on electrophysiological changes in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: A total of 61 patients at ASA III risk group in the age range of 18-65 years were enrolled in the present study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group S (Sedation group) was administered 0.04 mg/kg lorazepam per os (PO) twice before the operation. Group C (control group) was not administered with any anxiolytic premedication. State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-I) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to evaluate the level of anxiety. Electrocardiography (ECG), pulse oximeter and standard monitoring were performed for each patient. QT and P dispersions in each derivation of all ECGs were calculated. Results: Preoperative STAI-I scores were significantly lower in sedation group compared to the controls. Mean values of QT dispersion measured before induction, at the 1st minute of induction, 30th second of intubation and 4th minute of intubation in sedation group were significantly reduced compared to controls (P=0.024; P=0.027; P=0.001; P=0.033, respectively). The mean values of P dispersion measured before induction, at the 3rd minute of induction, 30th second of intubation and 4th minute of intubation in sedation group were significantly reduced compared to controls (P=0.001; P=0.020; P=0.023; P=0.005, respectively). Conclusion: Elevated anxiety levels in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery have a negative effect through prolonged QT and P-wave dispersion times. Anxiolytic treatment before surgery may be useful to prevent ventricular and atrial arrhythmias and associated complications through decreasing the QT and P-wave dispersion duration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety/physiopathology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Preoperative Care/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/psychology , Electrocardiography/psychology , Lorazepam/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/psychology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods
6.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190021, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990733

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: O uso de ansiolíticos é uma opção no tratamento de sintomas psíquicos. Contudo, ainda que o uso seja controlado há riscos de dependência, intoxicação e alterações cognitivas. O uso não controlado entre trabalhadores agrava tais problemas. Objetivos: Identificar a prevalência do uso de ansiolíticos e conhecer os fatores associados ao consumo em bombeiros militares. Método: Pesquisa transversal de base censitária investigou 711 bombeiros de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, por meio de autorrelato. Regressão logística multinomial foi utilizada para verificar associação entre características sociodemográficas, condições de vida, trabalho e saúde e consumo de ansiolíticos de modo controlado ou não. Resultados: A prevalência do uso de ansiolíticos foi 9,9%. Para 7,5% dos bombeiros o consumo ocorreu sem indicação e/ou controle terapêutico especializado. O uso controlado foi associado ao relato compatível com Transtorno Mental Comum (OR = 23,6; IC95% 6,54 - 85,11). O uso não controlado foi associado ao tempo de serviço (OR = 2,57; IC95% 1,03 - 6,40), ao tabagismo (OR = 3,22; IC95% 1,50 - 6,91) e ao Transtorno Mental Comum (OR = 4,02; IC95% 2,17 - 7,45). Conclusão: A alta prevalência de consumo indica alerta para as ações dos programas de saúde ocupacional.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Use of anxiolytic drugs is an option for treating psychological symptoms. However, even if their use is controlled, there are risks of dependence, intoxication and cognitive alterations. Uncontrolled use among workers worsens these problems. Objectives: Identify the prevalence of anxiolytic use and to know the factors associated with consumption in military firefighters. Method: Cross-sectional survey of 711 firefighters from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was conducted through self-reporting. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate associations between sociodemographic characteristics, living, working and health conditions and anxiolytic consumption in a controlled or uncontrolled manner. Results: Prevalence of anxiolytic use was 9.9%. For 7.5% of firefighters the consumption occurred without indication and/or specialized therapeutic control. Controlled use was only associated with symptoms compatible with Common Mental Disorder (OR = 23.6; 95%CI 6.54 - 85.11). Uncontrolled use was associated with length of service (OR = 2.57; 95%CI 1.03 - 6.40), smoking (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.50 - 6.91) and symptomatology compatible with Common Mental Disorder (OR = 4.02; 95%CI 2.17 - 7.45). Conclusion: The high prevalence of consumption indicates alert to occupational health programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Firefighters/psychology , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Military Personnel/psychology , Occupational Diseases/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Occupational Health , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology
7.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(1): 12-18, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846393

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome to a university hospital and to examine associations with use of psychotropic drugs. Methods: Ninety-one patients who had had an acute coronary event were enrolled on this cross-sectional prevalence study. Characteristics of the study population and the prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in the sample were assessed using the Hospital São Lucas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) psychiatric consultation protocol, which includes clinical and sociodemographic data, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety was 48.4% (44 patients) and the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 26.4% (24 patients). Of these, 19 patients (20.9% of the whole sample) had scores indicative of both types of symptoms concomitantly. Considering the whole sample, just 17 patients (18.7%) were receiving treatment for anxiety or depression with benzodiazepines and/or antidepressants. Conclusions: Anxiety and depression are disorders that are more prevalent among patients with acute coronary syndrome than in the general population, but they are generally under-diagnosed and under-treated. Patients with anxiety and depression simultaneously had higher scores on the HADS for anxiety and depression and therefore require more intensive care.


Resumo Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de ansiedade e depressão em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda internados em um hospital universitário e examinar sua associação com o uso de drogas psicotrópicas. Métodos: Noventa e um pacientes que sofreram evento coronariano agudo foram incluídos nesse estudo transversal de prevalência. O protocolo de interconsulta psiquiátrica do Hospital São Lucas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), com os dados clínicos e sociodemográficos, e a Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão (HADS) foram utilizados para avaliar as características da população estudada e a prevalência de depressão e ansiedade nessa amostra. Resultados: A prevalência de sintomas ansiosos foi de 48,4% (44 pacientes), e a de sintomas depressivos, de 26,4% (24 pacientes). Desses, 19 (20,9% do total da amostra) pontuaram para os dois sintomas concomitantemente. Considerando a amostra como um todo, apenas 17 pacientes (18,7%) estavam recebendo tratamento para ansiedade ou depressão com benzodiazepínicos e/ou antidepressivos. Conclusão: Ansiedade e depressão são transtornos mais prevalentes em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda do que na população geral, mas geralmente são subdiagnosticados e subtratados. Os pacientes com presença simultânea de ansiedade e depressão apresentam escores mais altos na escala HADS para ansiedade e depressão e necessitam, portanto, de um controle mais intensivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/psychology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Depression/drug therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(4): 1267-1276, Abr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-778584

ABSTRACT

Resumo Foi objetivo deste estudo comparar as prescrições de benzodiazepínicos (bzd) em adultos e idosos quanto aos indicadores do uso apropriado. Estudo transversal de coleta de dados de pacientes atendidos no Ambulatório Municipal de Saúde Mental de Sorocaba/SP, entre março e novembro de 2013. Foram utilizados indicadores de uso apropriado: medicamento apropriado, com adequada posologia e duração de uso; como também, o uso de apenas um bzd, como ansiolítico por menos de 3 meses, no tratamento da depressão com antidepressivo, uso por menos de 2 meses se associado ao antidepressivo e o não uso de bzd de longa ação em idoso. Dos 330 participantes, a maioria era mulheres, com histórico familiar de transtorno mental e uso de bzd, não realizava acompanhamento com psicólogo e fazia uso de outros psicotrópicos e de polifarmácia (p > 0,05). A minoria das prescrições tinha indicação de uso do bzd (37,5% para idosos e 32,4% para adultos) (p > 0,05). Apenas 5,8% das prescrições para idosos e 1,9% para adultos eram racionais (p > 0,05). O uso crônico foi observado em todos os adultos e idosos com transtornos depressivos e ansiosos (p > 0,05). Uma minoria das prescrições de bzd para adultos e idosos era apropriada.


Abstract The aim of this study was to compare benzodiazepine (bzd) prescriptions for adults and older adults regarding appropriate use indicator. It is a cross-sectional study for collecting data on patients treated at the City’s Mental Health Clinic in Sorocaba/SP, between March and December 2013. Appropriate use indicators were used: appropriate drug, with adequate posology and period of use; as well as the use of a single bzd, as anxiolytic for less than 3 months in depression treatment with antidepressants, use for less than 2 months if associated to an antidepressant and no use of long-acting bzd in older adults. From the 330 participants, most were women, with a family history of mental disorders and bzd use, without monitoring of a psychologist and using other psychotropic and polypharmacy (p>0.05).The minority of prescriptions had indication for the use of bzd (37.5% for older adults and 32.4% for adults) (p>0.05). Only 5.8% of the prescriptions for older adults and 1.9 for adults were rational (p>0.05). The chronic use was observed in all adults and older adults with depressive and anxiety disorders (p>0.05). A minority of prescriptions for adults and older adults was appropriate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Benzodiazepines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mental Health
10.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(1): 65-72, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776489

ABSTRACT

Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline). Methods: Papers published until 3 April 2015 were retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and using a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. Results: Five hundred and fourteen studies were identified, of which 21 met the established criteria. Studies in animals have shown anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of ayahuasca, harmine, and harmaline, and experimental studies in humans and mental health assessments of experienced ayahuasca consumers also suggest that ayahuasca is associated with reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms. A pilot study reported rapid antidepressive effects of a single ayahuasca dose in six patients with recurrent depression. Conclusion: Considering the need for new drugs that produce fewer adverse effects and are more effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptomatology, the described effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Banisteriopsis , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , N,N-Dimethyltryptamine/pharmacology , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Harmaline/pharmacology , Harmine/pharmacology , Mice , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 21(1): 83-95, jan.-mar. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-781975

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a Kielmeyera rubriflora Cambess, pertence à família Clusiaceae. É uma planta nativa da Região do Vale do Jequitinhonha em Minas Gerais no Brasil. É utilizada na medicina caseira, entretanto, até o momento não existem publicações de estudos farmacológicos a seu respeito. Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos ansiolíticos do extrato da K. rubriflora sobre o sistema nervoso central de camundongos. Métodos: o extrato bruto das partes aéreas foi administrado de modo agudo por gavagem nas doses de 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg e 500 mg/kg em camundongos albinos, suíços, machos, com idade entre 9 e 13 semanas, com peso entre 25 e 40 g. Foram utilizados os testes de movimentação espontânea, potencialização do tempo de sono induzido por barbitúrico, placa perfurada e labirinto em cruz elevado. Resultados: o tempo de duração do sono não foi significativamente alterado por nenhuma das doses do extrato. Na ambulação houve aumento significativo nas doses de 100 e 500 mg/kg sugerindo efeito ansiolítico e diminuição significativa na dose de 250 mg/kg sugerindo efeito sedativo. No teste do labirinto em cruz elevado, houve diminuição do tempo de permanência nos braços fechados com a dose de 100 mg/kg e aumento significativo de entradas no braço aberto na dose de 250mg/kg sugerindo atividade ansiolítica. No teste da placa perfurada houve diminuição significativa de mergulhos de cabeça nas doses de 250 mg/kg e 500 mg/kg sugerindo ação sedativa e aumento significativo de mergulhos de cabeça na dose de 100 mg/kg sugerindo ação ansiolítica. Conclusão: os dados sugerem ação sedativa e ansiolítica dose-dependente do extrato bruto da K. rubriflora(AU)


Introducción: la Kielmeyera rubriflora Cambess, pertenece a la familia Clusiaceae. Es una planta nativa de la región del Valle de Jequitinhonha en Minas Gerais en Brasil. Se utiliza en la medicina popular, sin embargo, hasta el momento no existen publicaciones de estudios farmacológicos sobre esta especie. Objetivo: evaluar los efectos ansiolíticos del extracto de K. rubriflora sobre el sistema nervioso central (SNC) en ratones. Métodos: el extracto crudo de las partes aéreas se administró de forma aguda por sonda en dosis de 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg y 500 mg/kg en ratones albinos, suizos, varones, con edades comprendidas entre 9 y 13 semanas, con un peso entre 25 y 40 g. Se utilizaron las pruebas de movimiento espontáneo, potenciación de tiempo de sueño inducido por barbitúricos, placa perforada y laberinto en cruz elevado. Resultados: la duración del sueño no se alteró de manera significativo por ninguna de las dosis del extracto. La ambulación aumentó significativamente a dosis de 100 y 500 mg/kg, lo que sugiere un efecto ansiolítico y disminuyó significa a una dosis de 250 mg/kg que sugirió efecto sedante. En la prueba del laberinto en cruz elevado, hubo disminución del tiempo pasado en los brazos cerrados con la dosis de 100 mg/kg y aumento significativo de entradas en los brazos abiertos a una dosis de 250 mg/kg lo que sugere actividad ansiolítica. En la prueba de la placa perforada hubo una disminución significativa de inmersiones de cabeza en dosis de 250 mg/kg y 500 mg/kg, que sugirió una acción sedante y un aumento significativo en las inmersiones de cabeza a una dosis de 100 mg/kg lo que sugere una acción ansiolítica. Conclusión: los datos sugieren acción ansiolítica y sedante de manera dosis dependiente del extracto crudo de K. rubriflor(AU)


Introducción: la Kielmeyera rubriflora Cambess, pertenece a la familia Clusiaceae. Es una planta nativa de la región del Valle de Jequitinhonha en Minas Gerais en Brasil. Se utiliza en la medicina popular, sin embargo, hasta el momento no existen publicaciones de estudios farmacológicos sobre esta especie. Objetivo: evaluar los efectos ansiolíticos del extracto de K. rubriflora sobre el sistema nervioso central (SNC) en ratones. Métodos: el extracto crudo de las partes aéreas se administró de forma aguda por sonda en dosis de 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg y 500 mg/kg en ratones albinos, suizos, varones, con edades comprendidas entre 9 y 13 semanas, con un peso entre 25 y 40 g. Se utilizaron las pruebas de movimiento espontáneo, potenciación de tiempo de sueño inducido por barbitúricos, placa perforada y laberinto en cruz elevado. Resultados: la duración del sueño no se alteró de manera significativo por ninguna de las dosis del extracto. La ambulación aumentó significativamente a dosis de 100 y 500 mg/kg, lo que sugiere un efecto ansiolítico y disminuyó significa a una dosis de 250 mg/kg que sugirió efecto sedante. En la prueba del laberinto en cruz elevado, hubo disminución del tiempo pasado en los brazos cerrados con la dosis de 100 mg/kg y aumento significativo de entradas en los brazos abiertos a una dosis de 250 mg/kg lo que sugere actividad ansiolítica. En la prueba de la placa perforada hubo una disminución significativa de inmersiones de cabeza en dosis de 250 mg/kg y 500 mg/kg, que sugirió una acción sedante y un aumento significativo en las inmersiones de cabeza a una dosis de 100 mg/kg lo que sugere una acción ansiolítica. Conclusión: los datos sugieren acción ansiolítica y sedante de manera dosis dependiente del extracto crudo de K. rubriflora(AU)


Subject(s)
Mice , Clusiaceae/drug effects , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil
12.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(1): 83-90, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-770667

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do artigo é conhecer a distribuição e a frequência de consumo de ansiolíticos benzodiazepínicos, bem como avaliar a correlação entre consumo e características demográficas, epidemiológicas, econômicas e sociais. Estudo ecológico tendo como unidade amostral as 27 capitais brasileiras. A coleta de dados foi executada através do banco da Anvisa, para a dispensação do Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Clonazepam, Diazepam e Lorazepam, de 2010 a 2012, do Censo Demográfico 2010 (IBGE), Datasus e da pesquisa Demografia Médica. A análise estatística descritiva e a de regressão linear múltipla foram realizadas para análise dos dados. A região Norte possui as capitais com menores médias de consumo desses medicamentos e o Sudeste as mais elevadas. O consumo médio para a população de todas as capitais foi de 3,60 DHD. O Alprazolam é o mais dispensado pelas farmácias e drogarias particulares, com média de 2,00 DHD para as capitais. A análise de regressão linear múltipla demonstrou que 76% da variância do consumo foi explicada pela variação da densidade demográfica (β = 0,310 p = 0,045) e percentual de médicos (β = 0,507 p = 0,016). O consumo de ansiolíticos de meia vida curta vem crescendo ao longo dos anos, principalmente nas capitais de maior densidade demográfica e concentração de médicos.


Abstract The scope of this article is to determine the distribution and frequency of consumption of anxiolytic benzodiazepines and the correlation between consumption and demographic, epidemiological, economic and social characteristics. It is an ecological study with a sample of 27 state capitals. Data collection was performed through the ANVISA database for the dispensation of Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Clonazepam, Diazepam and Lorazepam in 2010-2012, the 2010 Demographic Census (IBGE), DATASUS and Medical Demographic Research. Descriptive statistical analysis and multiple linear regression analyses were performed for data analysis. The northern region has capitals with the lowest and the southeast has capitals with the highest average consumption of these products. The average consumption for the population of all capitals was 3.60 DHD. Alprazolam is the drug most dispensed by pharmacies and private drugstores with average 2.00 DHD for the capitals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 76% of the variation was explained by population density (β = 0.310 p = 0.045) and percentage of physicians (β = 0.507 p = 0.016). The consumption of short half-life anxiolytics has been on the increase, mainly in the cities of greater population density and concentration of physicians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Alprazolam/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cities
13.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 68-75, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757428

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the cephalometric pattern of children with and without adenoid obstruction.METHODS: The sample comprised 100 children aged between four and 14 years old, both males and females, subjected to cephalometric examination for sagittal and vertical skeletal analysis. The sample also underwent nasofiberendoscopic examination intended to objectively assess the degree of adenoid obstruction.RESULTS: The individuals presented tendencies towards vertical craniofacial growth, convex profile and mandibular retrusion. However, there were no differences between obstructive and non-obstructive patients concerning all cephalometric variables. Correlations between skeletal parameters and the percentage of adenoid obstruction were either low or not significant.CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that specific craniofacial patterns, such as Class II and hyperdivergency, might not be associated with adenoid hypertrophy.


OBJETIVO: a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar o padrão cefalométrico de crianças com e sem obstrução adenoidiana.MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 100 crianças, com idades entre 4 e 14 anos, de ambos os sexos, submetidas a exames cefalométricos para a avaliação de variáveis cefalométricas horizontais e verticais. A amostra também foi submetida à nasofibroendoscopia, por meio da qual o grau de obstrução adenoidiana foi objetivamente aferido.RESULTADOS: os pacientes avaliados demonstraram tendência ao crescimento vertical acentuado, ao perfil convexo e à retrusão mandibular. No entanto, não houve diferenças entre pacientes portadores e não portadores de obstrução, em relação a todas as variáveis cefalométricas. As correlações estabelecidas entre os parâmetros esqueléticos e os percentuais de hipertrofia foram baixas ou não significativas.CONCLUSÕES: os resultados sugerem que padrões faciais específicos, tais como Classe II e hiperdivergência, parecem não estar associados à hipertrofia adenoideana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anxiety, Separation/therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Clomipramine/therapeutic use , Clorazepate Dipotassium/therapeutic use , Dogs , Anti-Anxiety Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Clorazepate Dipotassium/administration & dosage , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(7): 601-606, 07/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752388

ABSTRACT

Objective This study evaluated the provision of two configuration of the Elevated Pluz-Maze (EPM) by analizing the exploratory behaviour of female Wistar rats in different phases of the estrous cycle in EPMs with different gradients of luminosity between the open and enclosed arms (O/E∆Lux).Methods Female Wistar rats were treated with Midazolam (MDZ, 1.0 mg.kg-1) and were tested for their exploratory behaviour in either the EPM 10 O/E∆Lux or EPM 96 O/E∆Lux.Results A multiple regression analysis indicated that the O/E∆Lux is negatively associated with the %Open arm entries and %Open arm time, suggesting that as O/E∆Lux increases, the open arm exploration decreases. The estrous cycle phase did not influence the open-arm exploration in either EPM. MDZ- induced anxiolysis was detected in 96 O/E∆Lux EPM in all phases of the EC.Discussion Results of this study suggest the importance of the O/E∆Lux to establish the arm preference in the EPM, and to preserve the predictive validity of the EPM.


Objetivo Avaliar a provisão de duas configuracōes do Labirinto Elevado em Cruz (LEC) através do comportamento exploratório de ratas Wistar em diferentes fases do ciclo estral (CE) em LEC com diferentes gradientes de luminosidade entre os braços aberto e fechado (A/F∆Lux).Método Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com Midazolam (MDZ, 1.0 mg.kg-1) e foram testadas no LEC 10 A/F∆Lux ou LEC 96 A/F∆Lux.Resultados A análise de regressão múltipla indicou que o A/F∆Lux está negativamente associado com a % de entrada no braço aberto e % de tempo no braço aberto, sugerindo que no aumento do A/F∆Lux, a exploração do braço aberto diminui. A fase do CE não influenciou a exploração do braço aberto no LEC. A ansiólise induzida pelo MDZ foi demonstrada no 96 LEC A/F∆Lux em todas as fases do CE.Discussão Estes resultados sugerem a importância do A/F∆Lux para estabelecer a preferência da exploração do LEC e preservar a validade do LEC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anxiety/physiopathology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Exploratory Behavior/physiology , Lighting , Maze Learning/physiology , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/drug therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Estrous Cycle/drug effects , Estrous Cycle/physiology , Exploratory Behavior/drug effects , Models, Animal , Maze Learning/drug effects , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
15.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 37(1): 13-20, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741933

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Ayahuasca (AYA), a natural psychedelic brew prepared from Amazonian plants and rich in dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmine, causes effects of subjective well-being and may therefore have antidepressant actions. This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single dose of AYA in six volunteers with a current depressive episode. Methods: Open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results: Statistically significant reductions of up to 82% in depressive scores were observed between baseline and 1, 7, and 21 days after AYA administration, as measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Anxious-Depression subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). AYA administration resulted in nonsignificant changes in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores and in the thinking disorder subscale of the BPRS, suggesting that AYA does not induce episodes of mania and/or hypomania in patients with mood disorders and that modifications in thought content, which could indicate psychedelic effects, are not essential for mood improvement. Conclusions: These results suggest that AYA has fast-acting anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in patients with a depressive disorder. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Banisteriopsis/chemistry , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Hallucinogens/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Analysis of Variance , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Harmine/therapeutic use , N,N-Dimethyltryptamine/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Rev. salud pública ; 16(5): 661-673, set.-oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-743928

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Revisar la eficacia y seguridad de medicamentos para cesación del tabaquismo en el contexto de construcción de guías de práctica clínica (GPC). Métodos Revisión sistemática de GPC para adaptación mediante ADAPTE. Los desenlaces fueron cesación ≥6 meses y seguridad de las intervenciones. Las GPC se calificaron por pares con DELBI. Se extrajeron resultados de estudios agregativos incluidos en las guías seleccionadas. Resultados Los fármacos duplican la cesación comparados con placebo (tasas de 25,0 % hasta 27,0 % al combinarse con consejería). Los mayores incrementos en cesación se obtienen con ansiolíticos y antidepresivos (8,7% a 19,4%), y los menores con terapia de reemplazo nicotínico -TRN- (5,2% a 12,9%). La nortriptilina tiene eficacia similar al bupropion (aproximadamente 10,0 %). Con limitadas excepciones (parche e inhalador, tabletas y bupropion), las combinaciones de medicamentos no incrementan la abstinencia. Conclusiones TRN, vareniclina, bupropion y nortriptilina son eficaces para dejar de fumar. Las combinaciones de medicamentos requieren más evidencia y deberían restringirse a personas con alta dependencia o con falla terapéutica inicial. Serían deseables análisis de costo-efectividad para valorar implementación de programas en países en desarrollo.


Objective To review the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in the context of clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Methods A systematic review of CPGs was conducted, aimed at adapting recommendations for Colombia following the ADAPTE methodology. Outcomes comprised 6-months or higher smoking cessation rates and intervention safety. CPGs were peer-assessed based on DELBI. Results from aggregative studies included in selected CPGs were obtained. Results Pharmacotherapy doubles smoking cessation rates as compared with placebos (rates @25% and up to 27 % when combined with counseling). The highest efficacy was observed for ansyolitic and antidepressive drugs (8.7 % to 19.4 %), and the lowest for nicotine replacement therapy -NRT- (5.2 % to 12.9 %). Nortriptiline shows an efficacy similar to that of bupropion (@10%). With limited exceptions, combined pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation has shown no significant increase in cessation rates. Conclusions NRT, varenicline, bupropion and nortriptiline are effective treatments for smoking cessation. Combination of drugs deserves further clinical evidence and should be restricted to highly dependent smokers or initial therapeutic failure. Cost-effectiveness analyses might help to introduce smoking cessation programs in low and middle income countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Anti-Anxiety Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Bupropion/adverse effects , Bupropion/therapeutic use , Chest Pain/chemically induced , Clonidine/adverse effects , Clonidine/therapeutic use , Colombia , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Administration Routes , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Mucositis/chemically induced , Nortriptyline/adverse effects , Nortriptyline/therapeutic use , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/chemically induced , Smoking Cessation/economics , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices/economics , Treatment Outcome , Varenicline/adverse effects , Varenicline/therapeutic use
17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 12(3): 310-313, Jul-Sep/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723917

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the use of a therapeutic regimen to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients. Methods A total of 140 patients initially underwent physical, neurological and laboratory evaluation. Thereafter, treatment was initiated with a compounding product consisting of a tricyclic antidepressant and an anxiolytic. Results The response was positive in 71.43% of patients in controlling hyperactivity and improving dispersion and attention deficit. Conclusion The therapeutic regimen utilized proved to be an effective therapeutic alternative, especially for patients who do not adapt to psychostimulant drugs. .


Objetivo Avaliar a aplicação de um esquema terapêutico para o tratamento do transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade. Métodos Os 140 pacientes foram submetidos inicialmente à avaliação clínico-neurológica e laboratorial. Posteriormente, foi iniciado um tratamento com medicamento formulado composto por um antidepressivo tricíclico e um ansiolítico. Resultados A resposta foi positiva em 71,43% dos pacientes no controle da hiperatividade e na melhoria do quadro de dispersão e desatenção. Conclusão O esquema terapêutico aplicado se mostrou uma alternativa terapêutica eficaz, especialmente para os pacientes que não se adaptam aos medicamentos psicoestimulantes. .


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic/therapeutic use , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Chlordiazepoxide/therapeutic use , Imipramine/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 36(supl.1): 40-50, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727711

ABSTRACT

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category), as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Compulsive Personality Disorder/diagnosis , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , International Classification of Diseases , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Compulsive Personality Disorder/classification , Compulsive Personality Disorder/drug therapy , Fluvoxamine/therapeutic use , Impulsive Behavior , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/classification , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/drug therapy , Placebos
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74446

ABSTRACT

Functional dyspepsia is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders encountered in clinical practice. Functional dyspepsia is currently defined by Rome III criteria as the chronic dyspeptic symptoms (postprandial fullness, early satiety, epigastric pain or burning) in the absence of underling structural or metabolic disease that readily explain the symptoms. According to the Rome III consensus, functional dyspepsia can be subdivided into postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). Although the Rome III criteria have been published more than 8 years ago, not much effort has been put into validating these criteria and direct scientific evidence supporting the validity of the subdividing functional dyspepsia into PDS and EPS are lacking. This article is intended to review the validity of the Rome III criteria on the subdivisions of functional dyspepsia, i.e. PDS and EPS. The impact of sleep disorder, Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia, and the emerging drug therapies in functional dyspepsia will also be discussed in this article.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspepsia/complications , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Humans , Serotonin Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology
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