Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 73
Filter
1.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.298-302, ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352326
2.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.545-547, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352997
3.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131008

ABSTRACT

Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia; its prevalence is near 2% in the general population; in Mexico, more than one-half million people are affected. AF needs to be considered as a public health problem. Because AF is an independent risk factor associated with mortality, due to embolic events, heart failure, or sudden death; early diagnosis is of utmost importance. In unstable patients with a recent onset of AF, electrical cardioversion should be practiced. In stable patients, once thromboembolic measures have been taken, it is necessary to assess whether it is reasonable to administer an antiarrhythmic drug to restore sinus rhythm or performed electrical cardioversion. For recidivating cases of paroxysmal and persistent presentation, the most effective strategy is performed pulmonary vein isolation with either radiofrequency or cryoballoon energy. Permanent AF is that in which recovery of sinus rhythm is not possible, the distinguishing feature of this phase is the uncontrollable variability of the ventricular frequency and could be treated pharmacologically with atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockers or with a VVIR pacemaker plus AV nodal ablation. The presence of AF has long been associated with the development of cerebral and systemic (pulmonary, limb, coronary, renal, and visceral) embolism. The prevention of embolisms in “valvular” AF should perform with Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). For patients with AF not associated with mitral stenosis or a mechanical valve prosthesis, a choice can be made between anticoagulant drugs, VKA, or direct oral anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents have the weakest effect in preventing embolism.


Resumen La fibrilación auricular (FA) es una arritmia frecuente; su prevalencia es cercana al 2% en la población general, en México se ven afectados más de medio millón de personas por eso debe considerarse como un problema de salud pública. Debido a que la FA es un factor de riesgo independiente asociado a mortalidad, por eventos embólicos, insuficiencia cardíaca o muerte súbita, la identificación y diagnóstico temprano es de suma importancia. En el inicio reciente de FA en pacientes inestables, se debe practicar la cardioversión eléctrica. En pacientes estables, una vez que se han tomado medidas tromboembólicas, es necesario evaluar si es razonable administrar un medicamento antiarrítmico para restaurar el ritmo sinusal o realizar una cardioversión eléctrica. Para los casos que recidivan, ya sea paroxística o persistente, la estrategia más efectiva es realizar el aislamiento de la venas pulmonares con radiofrecuencia o crioablación con balón. La FA permanente es aquella en la que no es posible la recuperación del ritmo sinusal, la característica distintiva de esta fase de la FA es la variabilidad incontrolable de la frecuencia ventricular. Puede tratarse farmacológicamente con bloqueadores nodales AV o con un marcapasos VVIR mas ablación del nodo AV. La presencia de FA se ha asociado durante mucho tiempo con el desarrollo de embolia cerebral y sistémica (pulmonar, de extremidades, coronaria, renal y visceral). La prevención de embolias en la FA “valvular” debe realizarse con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK). Para los pacientes con FA no asociados con estenosis mitral o una prótesis valvular mecánica, se puede elegir entre medicamentos anticoagulantes, AVK o anticoagulantes orales directos (DOAC). Los agentes antiplaquetarios tienen el efecto más débil para prevenir la embolia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cryosurgery/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
4.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7996, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122647

ABSTRACT

Se sabe que la amiodarona, un potente antiarrítmico, causa toxicidad pulmonar. La neumonitis intersticial crónica es la presentación más común. Sin embargo, la toxicidad pulmonar aguda es rara y provoca una mayor mortalidad. Se presenta un paciente de 61 años con fibrilación auricular persistente que, tras tratamiento por un mes con amiodarona vía oral a dosis baja de impregnación de 400 miligramos al día, desarrolló toxicidad pulmonar aguda secundaria al antiarrítmico confirmada por radiografía y tomografía. Su caso tuvo resolución después de la suspensión del fármaco y tratamiento con esteroides.


Amiodarone, considered a potent antiarrhythmic, is known to cause pulmonary toxicity. Chronic interstitial pneumonitis is the most common presentation. However, acute pulmonary toxicity is rare and has a higher case fatality rate. We present a 61-year-old patient with persistent atrial fibrillation who, after a one-month treatment with oral amiodarone at a low dose impregnation of 400 mg/day, develops acute pulmonary toxicity, with radiographic and tomographic resolution after antiarrhythmic suspension and steroid treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amiodarone/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
5.
In. Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Rios, Isabel Cristina; Takaoka, Flávio. Anestesia e bioética / Anesthesia and bioethics. São Paulo, Atheneu, 8; 2017. p.785-840.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847828
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e00054, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889427

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study was carried out to understand the influence of a selected antiarrhythmic drug on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of an antidiabetic drug in animal models. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic responses were determined by measurements of blood glucose and serum insulin and serum metformin to drug interactions between disopyramide and metformin. Single dose and multi dose studies showed that the maximum blood glucose reductions in normal and diabetic rats were at the 6th hour, and in rabbits at the 3rd hour. Glucose-insulin homeostasis was evaluated to assess the safety and effectiveness of the combination. There was a marginal increase in the pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin with multiple dose treatments of disopyramide but no significant changes in kinetic parameters between single and multiple dose studies, compared to metformine alone. There may be a possibility of disopyramide and metformin interaction at the excretion stage, or an additive pharmacodynamic action. This study validates the drug interaction in two dissimilar species, which indicates more probability of its occurrence in humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Drug Interactions , Metformin/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Disopyramide/pharmacokinetics , Hypoglycemia
7.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 28(4): 155-166, out.-dez. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-788752

ABSTRACT

A tempestade elétrica em portadores de cardiodesfibriladores implantáveis é a ocorrência de pelo menos três intervenções apropriadas, resultante de taquicardia ventricular ou fibrilação ventricular, em 24 horas. É preditor de mau prognóstico e a terapia varia de medicamentos até transplante cardíaco. Este estudo teve por objetivo revisar orientações de diagnóstico e prevenção, visando ao tratamento (farmacológico, intervencionista e cirúrgico) da tempestade elétrica em portadores desses dispositivos. Compilamos publicações no Medline/PubMed e em revistas nacionais. O tratamento das condições basais e desencadeantes, como insuficiência cardíaca e insuficiência coronária, reduziu a morte súbita. A miodarona, betabloqueadores, lidocaína e magnésio são a base terapêutica. A ablação por cateter reduz arritmias e choques, estabiliza o ritmo e melhora o prognóstico. A taquicardia ventricular com substrato permite a abordagem de um circuito estável. A compreensão dos mecanismos e as melhorias no mapeamento eletrofisiológico possibilitam seu uso na fibrilação ventricular. Diferentes condições necessitam de abordagem cirúrgica, eliminando focos arritmogênicos e/ou permitindo o remodelamento,utilizando ressincronização, tratamentos para coronariopatia, valvopatias e cardiopatias congênitas, ressecção endocárdica guiada por eletrofisiologia e transplante em pacientes refratários. Atuando no sistema nervoso, aneuromodulação é alternativa. Durante anestesia peridural torácica, a denervação simpática cardíaca tem efeitos consistentes e persistentes. De modo semelhante à denervação simpática renal, pode ser um novo horizonte. Concluímos que identificar a causa é fundamental. O tratamento dos fatores causais melhora o controle e o prognóstico. Amiodarona, bloqueadores beta-adrenérgicos, lidocaína e magnésio são opções. Procedimento ablativo deve ser ponderado para taquicardia e fibrilação ventricular. Abordagem cirúrgica e neuromodulação...


Electrical storm in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the occurrence of at least three appropriate interventions resulting from tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation within 24 hours. It a predictor of poor prognosis and its treatment may vary from drug therapy to heart transplantation. Our objectivewas to review diagnostic and prevention guidelines aiming at the treatment (drug therapy, interventional and surgical treatment) of electrical storm in patients using these devices. We analyzed publications from Medline/PubMed and Brazilian medical journals. The treatment of baseline conditions and triggers, such as heart failure and coronary insufficiency, reduced sudden death. Amiodarone, betablockers, lidocaine and magnesium are the therapeutic basis. Catheter ablation reduces shock and arrhythmia, stabilizes rhythm and improves prognosis. Ventricular tachycardia with substratum allows the approach of a stable circuit. Understanding the mechanismsand improvements in electrophysiological mapping enables the use of catheter ablation in ventricular fibrillation.Different conditions require a surgical approach, eliminating arrhythmogenic cores and/or allowing cardiac remodeling, using cardiac resynchronization therapy, treatment for coronary artery disease, valve disease,congenital heart disease, electrophysiology-guided endocardial resection and heart transplantation in refractory patients. Neuromodulation is an alternative that acts on the nervous system. During thoracic epidural anesthesia, cardiac sympathetic denervation has consistent and persisting effects. Similarly, renal denervation may be anotherfuture possibility. In conclusion, identifying the cause is essential. Treatment of baseline factors improves control and prognosis. Amiodarone, betablockers, lidocaine and magnesium are pharmacological options. Catheterablation may be considered for tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Surgical approach and neuromodulation...


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Electric Countershock/methods , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Tachycardia/complications , Tachycardia/therapy , Catheter Ablation/methods , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Ventricular Fibrillation/complications , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy , Secondary Prevention/methods , Sympathectomy/methods , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/methods
8.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 25(4): 200-206, out.-dez.2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-789231

ABSTRACT

As taquicardias ventriculares são as arritmias cardíacas com maior potencial de instabilidade clínica e mortalidade cardíaca. Embora possam ocorrer no contexto de pacientes sem cardiopatia estrutural demonstrável, quase sempre ocorrem em coração estruturalmente alterado, com substrato anatômico para reentradas. As alterações cardíacas podem ser isquêmicas e não isquêmica. A distinção entre as etiologias é importante por terem diferentes mecanismos e origens de taquicardia ventricular, que irá determinar a escolha do tratamento adequado das arritmias ventriculares e prevenção de morte súbita. Os principais objetivos no manejo destes pacientes são: a reversão imediata da taquicardia, a prevençãode recorrências e a redução da mortalidade cardiovascular. Atualmente os fármacos com eficácia e perfil de segurança mais utilizados para tratamento de taquicardia ventricular em pacientes com cardiopatia estrutural são os betabloqueadores, amiodarona e sotalol. Com exceção dos betabloqueadores, os antiarrítmicos não possuem a eficácia em manejo primário ou na prevenção de morte súbita demonstrada em estudos clínicos randomizados atuais de forma consistente. Em portadores de cardiodesfibrilador implantável, os antiarrítmicos podem atuar na supressão das taquicardias ventriculares não sustentadas e sustentadas, na lentificação das taquicardias ventriculares com intuito de facilitar a reversão por antitachycardia pacing e prevenir sincopes, além de controlas as taquicardias supraventriculares. Devido aos efeitos colaterais e potencial efeito pró-arrítmico, devem ser utilizados com precaução e com controle adequado...


Ventricular tachycardia is the cardiac arrhythmia with the most potential to result in clinical instability and cardiac mortality. Although it can occur in patients without structural heart disease, it tends to occur where there is underlying heart disease, with anatomical substrate for reentry. It can be subdivided into ischemic and non-ischemic. This is an important distinction, because the mechanisms and origins of ventricular tachycardia may differ between the two, which will determine the choice of treatment for the ventricular arrhythmia and help prevent sudden death. The objective in clinical management of these patients includes: immediate reversal of tachycardia, prevention of relapses, and reducing cardiovascular mortality. The beta-blockers amiodarone and sotalol are currently the most commonly used antiarrhythmic agents, with the best efficacy and safety profile for treating ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease. With the exception of beta-blockers, currently available antiarrhythmic drugs have not been shown, in randomized clinical trials, to be effective in the primary management of patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias or in the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Inpatients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, the potential beneficial effects of antiarrhythmic drugs may be the suppression of non-sustained and sustained ventricular tachycardias, slowing of ventricular tachycardia rate to facilitate pace termination or prevent syncope, and control of atrial tachyarrhythmias. Due to potential adverse effects of antiarrhythmic drugs and the risk of proarrhythmia, close monitoring of the patient is recommended...


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Myocardial Ischemia , Patients , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Amiodarone/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/therapy , Drug Therapy/methods , Sotalol/adverse effects , Sotalol/therapeutic use , Heart Ventricles
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 75(4): 239-244, Aug. 2015. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841504

ABSTRACT

La fibrilación auricular (FA) es la arritmia sostenida más frecuente. La cardioversión es uno de los tratamientos de primera elección para la finalización de la FA de reciente comienzo, especialmente la farmacológica, ya que tiene la ventaja de no utilizar sedación. El vernakalant es un antiarrítmico que actúa selectivamente sobre la aurícula, inhibiendo las corrientes de potasio, con mínimo bloqueo de la corriente ventricular IKr. Este antiarrítmico ha sido aprobado recientemente por la Unión Europea para la cardioversión farmacológica de la FA de reciente comienzo. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar las características farmacocinéticas y farmacodinámicas del vernakalant, y demostrar la seguridad y eficacia del mismo para la conversión de la FA a ritmo sinusal.


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Cardioversion is considered one of the best treatments for recent onset AF, especially with drugs for avoiding sedation. Vernakalant is a novel antiarrhythmic that acts selectively in the atrium, and inhibits potassium currents, with minor blockade of IKr currents in the ventricle. It has been recently approved for pharmacological cardioversion of recent-onset AF in the European Union. The aim of this review is to analyze the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of vernakalant, and to show the efficacy and safety of this drug for the conversion of AF to sinus rhythm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyrrolidines/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Anisoles/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Heart Conduction System/drug effects
10.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 23(2): 84-90, abr.-jun. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-786988

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Cardiodesfibriladores implantáveis (CDIs) são geralmente indicados para pacientes com arritmias malignas considerados de alto risco. A hiperatividade simpática desempenha um papel crítico no desenvolvimento, na manutenção e no agravamento de arritmias ventriculares. Novas opçõesde tratamento nessa população representam uma necessidade clínica. Nosso objetivo foi relatar osresultados de pacientes com CDIs e tempestade elétrica submetidos à denervação simpática renal paracontrole da arritmia. Métodos: Oito pacientes com CDIs internados por tempestade elétrica refratária ao tratamento médico otimizado foram submetidos à denervação simpática renal. Condições subjacentes foram: doença de Chagas (n = 6), cardiomiopatia dilatada não isquêmica (n = 1) e cardiomiopatia isquêmica (n = 1). As informações sobre o número de taquicardias ventriculares/fibrilações ventriculares e episódios de terapiasantitaquicardia na última semana pré-procedimento e nos 30 dias pós-tratamento foram obtidas por meiode interrogação dos CDIs. Resultados: As medianas dos episódios de taquicardias ventriculares/fibrilações ventriculares, sobreestimulaçãoe choques na semana que antecedeu a denervação simpática renal foram de 29 (9 a 106), 23 (2 a 94) e 7,5 (1 a 88), sendo significativamente reduzidas para 0 (0 a 12), 0 (0 a 30) e 0 (0 a 1), respectivamente, 1 mês após o procedimento (p = 0,002; p = 0,01; p = 0,003). Nenhum paciente morreu durante o acompanhamento. Não ocorreram complicações maiores relacionadas ao procedimento.Conclusões: Em pacientes com CDIs e tempestade elétrica refratária ao tratamento médico otimizado, a denervação simpática renal reduziu significativamente a carga de arritmia e, consequentemente, as sobre-estimulações e os choques. Ensaios clínicos randomizados, no contexto de denervação simpática renal para controle de arritmias cardíacas refratárias, são necessários para trazer maior robustez aos nossos achados.


Background: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are usually indicated for patients with malignant arrhythmias considered as high risk. Sympathetic hyperactivity plays a critical role in thedevelopment, maintenance, and worsening of ventricular arrhythmias. New treatment options in thispopulation represent a clinical necessity. This study’s objective was to report the outcomes of patients with ICDs and electrical storm submitted to renal sympathetic denervation for arrhythmia control. Methods: Eight patients with ICDs admitted for electrical storm refractory to optimal medical therapy underwent renal sympathetic denervation. Underlying diseases included Chagas disease (n = 6), non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1), and ischemic cardiomyopathy (n = 1).Information on the number of episodes of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation and antitachycardia therapies in the week before the procedure and 30 days after treatment were obtained through interrogation of the ICDs.Results: The median numbers of episodes of ventricular achycardia/ ventricular fibrillation,antitachycardia pacing, and shocks in the week before renal sympathetic denervation were 29 (9 to 106), 23 (2 to 94), and 7.5 (1 to 88), and significantly reduced to 0 (0 to 12), 0 (0 to 30), and 0 (0 to 1), respectively, 1 month after the procedure (p = 0.002; p = 0.01; p = 0.003, respectively). No patients diedduring follow-up. There were no major complications related to the procedure.Conclusions: In patients with ICDs and electrical storm refractory to optimal medical treatment, renal sympathetic denervation significantly reduced arrhythmia load and, consequently, antitachycardia pacing and shocks. Randomized clinical trials in the context of renal sympathetic denervation tocontrol refractory cardiac arrhythmias are needed to further support these findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Catheter Ablation/methods , Heart Diseases/etiology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Sympathectomy/methods , Therapeutics , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Renal Artery/physiopathology , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Heparin/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Mar; 52(3): 215-222
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150351

ABSTRACT

Cynodon dactylon (L.) (Poaceae) is traditionally used herb to treat fevers, skin diseases and rheumatic affections. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was found to be safe at all the dose levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) and there was no mortality up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg of extract when administered orally. C. dactylon showed significant antiarthritic activity against Freund’s complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Treatment with C. dactylon significantly reduced the mean percentage change in injected and non injected paw, ankle diameter, clinical severity and significantly increased body weight. Results were confirmed using biochemical parameters; there was a significant improvement in the levels of Hb and RBC in C. dactylon treated rats. The increased levels of WBC, ESR, C- reactive protein (CRP) and TNFα were significantly suppressed in C. dactylon treated rats. C. dactylon showed protective effect in arthritic joints but it has been supported by an improvement in bone lesions rather than in cartilage lesions. It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at a dose of 400 mg/kg is effective in improving haematological level, CRP and reducing TNFα level. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides in ethanolic extract. All the above results support the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/chemistry , Arthritis, Experimental/chemically induced , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy , Arthritis, Experimental/pathology , Blood Cell Count , Blood Cells/drug effects , Blood Cells/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cynodon/chemistry , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Most current knowledge regarding amiodarone toxicity derives from clinical trials. This study was performed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of overall adverse effects of amiodarone in real-world practice using a large sample size. METHODS: Between January 1, 2000 and March 10, 2012, a total of 930 consecutive patients who had been treated with amiodarone for arrhythmia were reviewed retrospectively. An amiodarone-associated adverse event was considered in cases of discontinuation or drug dose reduction due to an unexpected clinical response. RESULTS: The mean daily dose of amiodarone was 227 +/- 126 mg, and the mean duration was 490 +/- 812 days. During the mean follow-up duration of 982 +/- 1,137 days, a total of 154 patients (16.6%) experienced adverse effects related to amiodarone, the most common being bradycardia or conduction disturbance (9.5%). Major organ toxicities in the thyroid (2.5%), liver (2.2%), eyes (0.6%), and lungs (0.3%) were rare. All patients recovered fully without complications after amiodarone discontinuation or dose reduction. The only independent predictor of adverse effects was the duration of amiodarone treatment (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.41; p = 0.016, per year). CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose amiodarone is well tolerated in a real-world clinical population. Further studies with a prospective design are needed to confirm this finding.


Subject(s)
Aged , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Atrioventricular Block/chemically induced , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 23(1): 44-55, jan.-mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-686352

ABSTRACT

O tratamento das arritmias cardíacas é prerrogativa do clínico. Quando são diagnosticadas, é o médico assistente quem opta pela forma de tratar o que, na grande maioria dos casos , se baseia na prescrição de fármacos. Os medicamentos são úteis para a reversão de uma crise aguda e também para a prevenção de recorrências, mas não curam o paciente. A necessidade de tratar ou não uma arritmia depende de vários fatores, como a forma de apresentação clínica baseada na qualidade dos sintomas e a presença ou não de uma cardiopatia. Arritmias que causam colapso hemodinâmico estão associadas a elevado risco de complicações, como traumas físico e até parada cardiorespiratória, como acontece com a taquicardia ventricular. O tratamento, muitas vezes não somente com fármacos, deve ser agressivo visando à proteção do paciente. A presença de uma cardiopatia com disfunção ventricular pode tornar uma arritmia potencialmente maligna e o seu tratamento com fármacos envolve-se de alto risco, não somente pela eficácia apenas moderada dos medicamentos disponíveis, como também pelo risco de agravamento da arritmia, efeito conhecido como pró-arritmia. Não se deve transformar o tratamento mais grave do que a próxima arritmia. Com o avanço no conhecimento dos mecanismos de origem e manutenção das arritmias, houve certa redução da importância e da dependência do antiarrítmico no esquema terapêutico, já que outras classes de fármacos mostraram perfil favorável no tratamento, tal como acontece com os betabloqueadores, inibidores da enzima de conversão da angiotensina, espironolactona, estatinas, etc. Neste artigo, serão discutidos aspectos atuais do tratamento farmacológico das arritmias cardíacas.


The treatment of cardiac arrhythmias is a prerogative of the clinician. When they are diagnosed is the physician who chooses the way of dealing with that, in most cases, is based on prescription of antiarrhythmic drugs. The drugs are useful for the reversal of an acute attack and also for the prevention of recurrences, but not to cure the patient. The need to treat an arrhythmia or not depends on several factors, such as clinical presentation based on the quality of symptoms and the presence or absence of heart disease. Hemodynamic collapse caused by arrhythmias are associated with increased risk of complications, including physical trauma and even cardiac arrest as what happens during verntricular tachycardia. Treatment often, not only with drugs, should be aggressive in order to protect the patient. Some types of arrhythmias in the presence of heart disease with left ventricular dysfunctioin can be become a potentially malignant arrhythmia and its treatment with drugs engages high risk, not only for the modest effectiveness of the medications available but also due to the risk of aggravation of arrhythmia, an effect know as proarrhythmia. One should not make the treatment worse than the arrhythmia itself. With the advances in knowledge of the mechanisms of origin and maintenance of arrhythmia, there was some reduction of the importance and reliance on antiarrhytmic agent in the therapeutic regimen, as other classes of drugs showed favorable profile during treatment, as what happens with beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, spironolactone, statins, etc. This paper will discuss current aspects of pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume
15.
J. bras. med ; 100(3): 7-18, jul.-ago. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-678746

ABSTRACT

A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia cardíaca mais comumente encontrada na prática clínica, por vezes associada a cardiopatias estruturais, porém muitas vezes ocorrendo em corações estruturalmente normais. Nos últimos 10 anos, avanços significativos no entendimento de sua fisiopatologia levaram à possibilidade de tratamentos intervencionistas visando à eliminação da arritmia, redução dos sintomas e, principalmente, do risco tromboembólico associado. Destes, destacam-se o uso de novos anticoagulantes de mais fácil manejo clínico, a ablação por cateter e a oclusão percutânea do apêndice atrial esquerdo


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice, commonly associated with structural heart disease but many times occurring in completely normal hearts. In the past 10 years, significant advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology lead to new interventional treatment options aimed at arrhythmia elimination, symptom reduction and, mostly, reduction on the associated thromboembolic risk. Among them, use of new anticoagulants that are easier to manage, catheter ablation and percutaneous occlusion of the left atrial appendage are the most relevant


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Appendage , Catheter Ablation/methods , Catheter Ablation , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Cardiac Catheterization/instrumentation , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
17.
Rev. argent. anestesiol ; 69(1): 97-104, jul.-sept. 2011. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-649156

ABSTRACT

Las arritmias durante el embarazo son eventos de aparición frecuente. Desde las extrasístoles aisladas hasta las taquiarritmias, capaces de poner en riesgo las vidas materna y fetal, constituyen el amplio espectro de presentación. Muchas de ellas exigen intervenciones de urgencia, tratamientos crónicos o ambos. La comunicación de este caso nos motivó a realizar una revisión de las indicaciones y posibilidades farmacológicas de las taquicardias paroxísticas supraventriculares en este período particular de la mujer. El fármaco de elección para el manejo agudo de las taquicardias paroxísticas supraventriculares es la adenosina. Este agente debería encontrarse siempre en el área de quirófano al alcance de los anestesiólogos, para un manejo terapéutico de urgencia. La conducta obstétrica estará marcada por el estado hemodinámico de la madre y del feto.


Arrhythmias during pregnancy are frequent events. There is a wide spectrum of presentations: from isolated extrasystoles to tachyarrhythmias with risk to mother and fetal life. Many of these arrhythmias need urgent interventions and/or chronic treatment. The communication of this clinical case motivated us to realize a review of the indications and pharmacological possibilities in paroxysmal tachyarrhythmias in this particular period in women. Adrenosine is the pharmacological treatment of choice to manage paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. This drug should always be at hand in the operating theater, to be used by the anesthesiologists for the therapeutic managing of the emergencies. Obstetric clinical conduct will depend on the haemodynamic condition of the mother and the fetus.


As arritmias durante a gravidez são eventos de ocorrência freqüente. Desde as extrassístoles isoladas até as taquiarritmias, que podem pôr em risco as vidas materna e fetal, constituem o amplo espectro de apresentação. Muitas delas exigem intervenções de urgência, tratamentos crônicos ou ambos. Este caso nos estimulou a fazer uma revisão das indicações e possibilidades farmacológicas das taquicardias paroxísticas supraventriculares nesse período da mulher. O fármaco de escolha para o manejo agudo das taquicardias paroxísticas supraventriculares é a adenosina. Este agente deveria estar sempre disponível na sala de operações, ao alcance da mão dos anestesiologistas, para um manejo terapêutico de urgência. A conduta obstétrica estará marcada pelo estado hemodinâmico da mãe e do feto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Pregnancy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/classification , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Tachycardia, Paroxysmal/drug therapy , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/drug therapy
18.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 24(1): 5-9, jan.-mar. 2011. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-590523

ABSTRACT

A taquicardia ventricular sustentada (TVS) que degenera para fibrilação ventricular é oprincipal mecanismo eletrofisiológico que leva à morte súbita cardíaca. A TVS pode ser monomórfica oupolimórfica, relacionada a cardiopatia estrutural (90% dos casos) ou a corações normais (10%). A TVSassociada a cardiopatia estrutural tem alto risco de mortalidade súbita e total. O tratamento da fase agudarequer reversão imediata da arritmia, seja por cardioversão farmacológica, se houver estabilidadehemodinâmica, seja por cardioversão elétrica, em caso de hipotensão ou choque. O tratamento farmacológicopara a prevenção das recorrências é geralmente necessário para melhorar a qualidade de vida, masnão está associado à redução da mortalidade. Este artigo revisa o tratamento antiarrítmico farmacológicopara o término da TVS aguda e para a prevenção de recorrências em pacientes com e sem cardiodesfibriladorimplantável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Defibrillators, Implantable , Tachycardia, Ventricular/complications , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy , Death, Sudden
19.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 20(4): 495-503, out.-dez. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-574401

ABSTRACT

As arritmias cardíacas são eventos pouco comuns na gestação; entretanto, quando aparecem, podem ser causa de preocupação materna quanto a seu estado bem como do concepto. As arritmias podem ocorrer pela primeira vez ou terem seu exacerbado nessa fase. As modificações fisiológicas e adaptativas, tais como aumento da volemia, queda da resistência periférica e aumento da atividade autonômica, podem ser bem toleradas pelo coração normal, mas são causa de estresse para um coração doente e isso pode causar arritmia. Em corações normais o prognóstico das arritmias de maneira geral é bom e a evolução costuma ser benigna, sendo o tratamento necessário somente nos casos muito sintomáticos. Por outro lado, em mulheres com alguma cardiopatia, em que a arritmia se associa a sintomas exuberantes, o tratamento deve ser sempre indicado para trazer segurança e tranquilidade à mãe. O tratamento de uma arritmia na grávida não é diferente do tratamento na mulher não grávida, embora deva ser tomados alguns cuidados...


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Ventricular Premature Complexes/complications , Ventricular Premature Complexes/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Risk Factors
20.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2009 Jan-Jun; 12(1): 10-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-1605

ABSTRACT

Maintenance of sinus rhythm (SR) is superior to rate control in atrial fibrillation (AF). In order to achieve SR, we administered single-dose intravenous amiodarone intraoperatively and evaluated its effect on conversion of rheumatic AF to SR in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to amiodarone (n = 42) or control (n = 40) group in a double blind manner. The amiodarone group received amiodarone (3 mg/kg) intravenously prior to the institution of cardiopulmonary bypass and the control group received the same volume of normal saline. In the amiodarone group, the initial rhythm after the release of aortic cross clamp was noted to be AF in 14.3% (n = 6) and remained so in 9.5% (n = 4) of patients till the end of surgery. In the control group, the rhythm soon after the release of aortic cross clamp was AF in 37.5% (n = 15) (p = 0.035) and remained so in 32.5% (n = 13) of patients till the end of surgery (p = 0.01). At the end of first post-operative day 21.4% (n = 9) of patients in amiodarone group and 55% (n = 22) of patients in control group were in AF (p = 0.002). The requirement of cardioversion/defibrillation was 1.5 (+/-0.54) in amiodarone group and 2.26 (+/-0.73) in the control group (p = 0.014), and the energy needed was 22.5 (+/-8.86) joules in the amiodarone group and 40.53 (+/-16.5) in the control group (p = 0.008). A single intraoperative dose of intravenous amiodarone increased the conversion rate of AF to normal sinus rhythm, reduced the need and energy required for cardioversion/defibrillation and reduced the recurrence of AF within one day.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Electric Countershock/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Humans , Intraoperative Care/methods , Male , Pacemaker, Artificial , Prospective Studies , Rheumatic Heart Disease/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL