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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22009, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447565


Abstract Oxazolidine derivatives (OxD) have been described as third-line antibiotics and antitumoral agents. The inclusion complexes based on cyclodextrin could improve the solubility and bioavailability of these compounds. A novel synthetic OxD was used, and its inclusion complexes were based on 2-hydroxy-beta-cyclodextrin (2-HPßCD). We conducted an in silico study to evaluate the interaction capacity between OxD and 2-HPßCD. Characterization studies were performed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal analyses. A kinetic study of the OxD was performed, including a cytotoxicity assay using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The maximum increment of solubility was obtained at 70 mM OxD using 400 mM 2-HPßCD. SEM analyses and FTIR spectra indicated the formation of inclusion complexes. 1H-NMR presented chemical shifts that indicated 1:1 stoichiometry. Different thermal behaviors were obtained. The pharmacokinetic profile showed a short release time. Pure OxD and its inclusion complex did not exhibit cytotoxicity in PBMCs. In silico studies provided a foremost insight into the interactions between OxD and 2-HPßCD, including a higher solubility in water and an average releasing profile without toxicity in normal cells

Solubility/drug effects , Cyclodextrins/agonists , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-11, 2023. graf, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468840


Oral diseases caused by various microorganisms are common around the world. Scientific research has now been focusing on novel medicines to overcome bacterial resistance and antibiotics side effects; therefore, the current study was designed to assess the efficacy of certain antibiotics, toothpaste, and medicinal plant extracts (Ajuga bracteosa and Curcuma longa) versus the bacterial pathogens isolated from the human oral cavity. A total of 130 samples were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, among those 27 species isolated, and eight bacterial species were identified from the samples. Among all the bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) and Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) were found to be more prevalent oral pathogens. In comparison, the least pervasive microbes were Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The study also suggested that dental problems were more prevalent in males (41-50 years of age) than females. Among the eight antibiotics used in the study, the most promising results were shown by Foxicillin against A. hydrophila. The survey of TP1 revealed that it showed more potent antagonist activity against Proteus vulgaris as compared TP2 and TP3 that might be due to the high content of fluoride. The Curcuma longa showed more significant activity than Ajuga bracteosa (Stem, leaves and root) extracts. The data obtained through this study revealed that antibiotics were more effective for oral bacterial pathogens than toothpaste and plant extracts which showed moderate and low activity, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that the active compounds in individual medicinal plants like Curcuma longa and Ajuga bracteosa could replace the antibiotics when used in daily routine as tooth cleansers or mouth rinses.

As doenças bucais causadas por vários microrganismos são comuns em todo o mundo. A pesquisa científica agora tem se concentrado em novos medicamentos para superar a resistência bacteriana e os efeitos colaterais dos antibióticos; portanto, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a eficácia de certos antibióticos, pasta de dente e extratos de plantas medicinais (Ajuga bracteosa e Curcuma longa) contra os patógenos bacterianos isolados da cavidade oral humana. No total, 130 amostras foram coletadas do Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Paquistão, entre essas, 27 espécies foram isoladas e oito espécies bacterianas foram identificadas a partir das amostras. Entre todas as espécies bacterianas, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) e Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) foram os patógenos orais mais prevalentes. Em comparação, os micróbios menos difundidos foram Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli e Aeromonas hydrophila. O estudo também sugeriu que os problemas dentários eram mais prevalentes em homens (41-50 anos de idade) do que em mulheres. Entre os oito antibióticos usados no estudo, os resultados mais promissores foram mostrados pelo Foxicillin contra A. hydrophila. A pesquisa de TP1 revelou que ele mostrou atividade antagonista mais potente contra Proteus vulgaris em comparação a TP2 e TP3, o que pode ser devido ao alto teor de flúor. A Curcuma longa apresentou atividade mais significativa em relação aos extratos de Ajuga bracteosa (caule, folhas e raiz). Os dados obtidos neste estudo revelaram que os antibióticos foram mais eficazes para os patógenos bacterianos orais do que os dentifrícios e os extratos vegetais que apresentaram atividade moderada e baixa, respectivamente. Portanto, sugere-se que os compostos ativos em plantas medicinais individuais como Curcuma longa e Ajuga bracteosa possam substituir os antibióticos quando usados na rotina diária como limpadores de dentes ou enxaguatórios bucais.

Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Ajuga , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Curcuma , Gingival Diseases/pathology , Gingival Diseases/drug therapy
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468841


The objective of the present study was to analyse the bioactive compounds of the leaves of Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). The GC-MS analysis of the hot methanolic extract of the leaves (HMEL) of C. lancifolius exhibited the bioactive compounds such as 1-(3-Methoxy-2-nitrobenzyl) iso quinoline, morphin-4-ol-6,7-dione, 1-bromo N-methyl-, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, 2,2’:4’,2”-terthiophene, ethyl iso-allocholate, caryophyllene oxide, campesterol, epiglobulol, cholestan-3-ol, 2-methylene-, (3á,5à)-, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, acetate (ester) and oleic acid, eicosyl ester. The FT-IR analysis of HMEL of C. lancifolius showed a unique peak at 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-¹ representing coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. The HMEL of C. lancifolius was actively inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 ATCC at the concentration of 72.66 ± 8.21 µg/ml as IC50 value. The HMEL of C. lancifolius also revealed a good spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram negative bacterial cultures screened in this work. The activity observed has shown more or less similar effects against screened bacteria. However, the magnitude of potentiality was significantly lesser compared to standard ciprofloxacin disc at p< 0.001 level (99% confidence intervals). Furthermore, the study demonstrating the bioactive compounds can be isolated from the leaves of C. lancifolius.

O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os compostos bioativos das folhas de Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). A análise por GC-MS do extrato metanólico quente das folhas (HMEL) de C. lancifolius exibiu os compostos bioativos como 1- (3-Metoxi-2-nitrobenzil) isoquinolina, morfina-4-ol-6,7- diona, 1-bromo-N-metil-, fitol, ácido hexadecanoico, 2,3-di-hidroxipropil éster, 2,2 ‘: 4’, 2 ” - tertiofeno, isoalocolato de etil, óxido de cariofileno, campesterol, epiglobulol, colestano -3-ol, 2-metileno-, (3á, 5à) -, dasycarpidan-1-metanol, acetato (éster) e ácido oleico, éster eicosílico. A análise FT-IR de HMEL de C. lancifolius mostrou um pico único em 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-¹ representando ácido cumarico, ácido clorogênico e ácido ferúlico. O HMEL de C. lancifolius inibiu ativamente a proliferação de células de câncer de mama MCF-7 ATCC na concentração de 72,66 ± 8,21 µg/ml como valor de IC50. O HMEL de C. lancifolius também revelou bom espectro de atividade contra culturas de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas rastreadas neste trabalho. A atividade observada mostrou efeitos mais ou menos semelhantes contra bactérias rastreadas. No entanto, a magnitude da potencialidade foi significativamente menor em comparação com o disco de ciprofloxacina padrão em nível de p < 0,001 (intervalos de confiança de 99%). Além disso, o estudo demonstrando os compostos bioativos pode ser isolado das folhas de C. lancifolius.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anticarcinogenic Agents/analysis , Combretaceae/cytology , Combretaceae/chemistry , Combretaceae/toxicity , Drug Resistance, Multiple
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468862


ncreasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These [...].

A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia [...].

Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Lythraceae/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Chromatography, Liquid
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468890


Now a day’s multidrug resistance phenomenon has become the main cause for concern and there has been an inadequate achievement in the development of novel antibiotics to treat the bacterial infections. Therefore, there is an unmet need to search for novel adjuvant. Vitamin C is one such promising adjuvant. The present study was aimed to elucidate the antibacterial effect of vitamin C at various temperatures (4°C, 37°C and 50°C) and pH (3, 8, and 11), against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at various concentrations (5-20 mg/ml) through agar well diffusion method. Growth inhibition of all bacterial strains by vitamin C was concentration-dependent. Vitamin C significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus licheniformis (25.3 ± 0.9 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (22.0 ± 0.6 mm), Bacillus subtilis (19.3 ± 0.3 mm) and Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus mirabilis (27.67 ± 0.882 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.33±0.9 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.0 ± 1.5 mm) and Escherichia coli (18.3 ± 0.3 mm). The stability of vitamin C was observed at various pH values and various temperatures. Vitamin C showed significant antibacterial activity at acidic pH against all bacterial strains. Vitamin C remained the stable at different temperatures. It was concluded that vitamin C is an effective and safe antibacterial agent that can be used in the future as an adjunct treatment option to combat infections in humans.

Agora, a resistência antimicrobiana de um dia em patógenos aos antibióticos tornou-se a principal causa de preocupação e houve uma realização inadequada no desenvolvimento de novos antibióticos para tratar infecções bacterianas. Portanto, há uma necessidade de pesquisar um novo adjuvante, e a vitamina C é um desses adjuvantes promissores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi elucidar o efeito antibacteriano da vitamina C em diferentes temperaturas (4 °C, 37 °C e 50 °C) e pH (3, 8 e 11), contra Gram-positivos e Gram-cepas bacterianas negativas em várias concentrações (5-20 mg / ml) através do método de difusão em ágar bem. A inibição do crescimento de todas as cepas bacterianas pela vitamina C era dependente da concentração. A vitamina C inibiu significativamente o crescimento de bactérias Gram-positivas: Bacillus licheniformis (25,3 ± 0,9 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (22,0 ± 0,6 mm), Bacillus subtilis (19,3 ± 0,3 mm) e bactérias Gram- negativas: Proteus mirabilis (27,7 ± 0,9 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21,3 ± 0,9 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18,0 ± 1,5 mm) e Escherichia coli (18,3 ± 0,3 mm). A estabilidade da vitamina C foi observada em vários valores de pH e várias temperaturas. A vitamina C mostrou atividade antibacteriana significativa em pH ácido contra todas as cepas bacterianas. A estabilidade da vitamina C permaneceu nas mesmas diferentes temperaturas (4 °C, 37 °C e 50 °C). Concluímos que a vitamina C é um agente antibacteriano eficaz e seguro que pode ser usado no futuro como uma opção de tratamento auxiliar para combater infecções em humanos, pois pode apoiar o sistema imunológico diretamente.

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus subtilis , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Proteus mirabilis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Ascorbic Acid/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468911


Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.

Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), uma minhoca nativa do Paquistão e sudeste da Ásia, tem ampla utilização em processos de vermicompostagem e biorremediação. Neste estudo, o fluido celômico de P. posthuma (PCF) e a pasta corporal (PBP) foram avaliados como agente antibacteriano contra cinco isolados clínicos Gram-positivos e quatro Gram-negativos resistentes à ampicilina (AMP). O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes doses (ou seja, 25-100 µg / ml) de PCF e PBP juntamente com AMP e azitromicina (AZM) (controles negativo e positivo, respectivamente) foi observado por meio de métodos de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Todos os nove isolados clínicos foram notados como resistentes a AMP e sensíveis a AZM. Os efeitos antibacterianos de PCF e PBP foram dependentes da dose e a zona de inibição (ZI) contra todos os isolados clínicos foi entre 23,4 ± 0,92 a 0 ± 00 mm. O perfil de sensibilidade do PCF e PBP contra isolados clínicos foi observado como 44,44% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Tanto o PCF quanto o PBP mostraram ação bacteriostática (BTS) contra S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Além disso, o potencial BTS cumulativo de PCF e PBP contra todos os isolados foi de 66,67% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Os MICs de PCF e PBP variaram de 50-200 µg / ml contra isolados selecionados. As curvas de crescimento bacteriano indicaram que o PCF e o PBP inibiram o crescimento de todos os isolados em suas concentrações específicas de MIC. No entanto, PBP tem melhor potencial antibacteriano em comparação com PCF contra isolados selecionados. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o PCF quanto o PBP de P. posthuma possuem potencial antibacteriano e BTS contra isolados clínicos resistentes à ampicilina. Esse organismo pode ser considerado como uma segunda escolha de agentes antibacterianos e pode ainda ser utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas para a fabricação de novos medicamentos por meio da prospecção de agentes com potencial bioativo.

Ampicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Azithromycin , Oligochaeta
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468921


Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.

Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Antineoplastic Agents/analysis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Persea/chemistry
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. map, ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468982


Seaweeds are a major marine resource that can be explored to develop novel pharmaceutical molecules. The present study showed the presence of unique bioactive components in the petroleum ether extract (PEE) and methanolic extract (ME) of Sargassum tenerrimum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the PEE of S. tenerrimum contained antibacterial biomolecules: hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 17-pentatriacontene, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, and acetate (ester). However, the ME of S. tenerrimum exhibited better antibacterial effect than the PEE due to the presence of the bioactive compounds 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, tetratetracontane, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzenediol, and benzoic acid. Thus, promising antibacterial molecules can be isolated from S. tenerrimum for better therapeutic use.

As algas marinhas são um importante recurso marinho que pode ser explorado para desenvolver novas moléculas farmacêuticas. O presente estudo mostrou a presença de componentes bioativos únicos no extrato etéreo de petróleo (PEE) e no extrato metanólico (ME) de Sargassum tenerrimum. A análise por cromatografia gasosa espectrometria de massa sugeriu que o PEE de S. tenerrimum continha biomoléculas antibacterianas: ácido hexadecanoico, éster metílico, 17-pentatriaconteno, dasycarpidan-1-metanol e acetato (éster). Entretanto, o ME de S. tenerrimum exibiu melhor efeito antibacteriano do que o PEE devido à presença dos compostos bioativos ácido 1,2-benzenodicarboxílico, éster diisooctil, tetratetracontano, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzoenodiol e ácido benzoico. Assim, moléculas antibacterianas promissoras podem ser isoladas de S. tenerrimum para melhor uso terapêutico.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Sargassum/chemistry
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-8, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468555


High resistance to antimicrobials is associated with biofilm formation responsible for infectious microbes to withstand severe conditions. Therefore, new alternatives are necessary as biofilm inhibitors to control infections. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Fagonia indica extracts were evaluated against MDR clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica has antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-¹ against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica had antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-¹ and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-¹ against MDR isolates. The maximum inhibitory effects of Fagonia indica chloroform extract on biofilm formation was observed on Staphylococcus aureus (71.84%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (70.83%) after 48 hrs showing that inhibition is also time dependent. Our results about bacterial cell protein leakage indicated that MDR isolates treated with chloroform extract of Fagonia indica showed maximum protein leakage of K. pneumoniae (59.14 µg mL-¹) followed by S. aureus (56.7 µg mL-1). Cell attachment assays indicated that chloroform extract resulted in a 43.5-53.5% inhibition of cell adherence to a polystyrene surface. Our results revealed that extracts of Fagonia indica significantly inhibited biofilm formation among MDR clinical isolates, therefore, could be applied as antimicrobial agents and cost effective biofilm inhibitor against these MDR isolates.

A alta resistência aos antimicrobianos está associada à formação de biofilme responsável por micróbios infecciosos para suportar condições severas. Portanto, novas alternativas são necessárias como inibidores de biofilme para controlar infecções. Neste estudo, as atividades antimicrobiana e antibiofilme dos extratos de Fagonia indica foram avaliadas contra isolados clínicos MDR. O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica tem efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-¹, e valor de concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados clínicos multirresistentes (MDR). O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica teve efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-¹, e concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-¹ contra isolados MDR. Os efeitos inibitórios máximos do extrato de clorofórmio Fagonia indica na formação de biofilme foi observada em Staphylococcus aureus (71,84%), seguido por Klebsiella pneumoniae (70,83%) após 48 horas, mostrando que a inibição também é dependente do tempo. Nossos resultados sobre extravasamento de proteínas de células bacterianas indicaram que isolados MDR tratados com extrato clorofórmico de Fagonia indica apresentaram vazamento máximo de proteínas de K. pneumoniae (59,14 µg mL-¹), seguido por S. aureus(56,7 µg mL-¹). Ensaios de fixação de células indicaram que o extrato de clorofórmio resultou em uma inibição de 43,5-53,5% da aderência das células a uma superfície de poliestireno. Nossos resultados revelaram que extratos de Fagonia indica inibiram [...].

Bacterial Adhesion , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Biofilms , Klebsiella , Staphylococcus aureus
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19373, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384009


Abstract The main purposes of the current study were to formulate o/w nanoemulsions as a carrier for Tamarindus indica (tamarind) fruit pulp extract and to study the antioxidant and antibacterial potentials of nanoemulsions containing tamarind extract, focusing on cosmetic/hygiene applications. The o/w nanoemulsions using a mixture of Tween 80 and Span 80 as an emulsifier (5%w/w) were prepared by a high pressure homogenization process. Two concentrations of sweet tamarind extract, 3.3 and 6.6%w/w, based on the bioactivity study, were incorporated into the blank nanoemulsions to produce loaded nanoemulsions, F1-3.3TE (3.3%) and F1- 6.6TE (6.6%). As compared with the unloaded nanoemulsion, both tamarind extract loaded nanoemulsions showed reduced pH and significantly increased viscosity. Overall, the loaded nanoemulsions had droplet sizes of approximately 130 nm, zeta potential around -38 mV and polydispersity index (PDI) values less than 0.2. The nanoemulsion F1-3.3TE had better stability (e.g. significantly greater % tartaric acid content and lesser PDI value) than the nanoemulsion F1-6.6TE did. The antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay revealed that the nanoemulsions F1-3.3TE and F1-6.6TE had scavenging activities of 81.66 ± 0.77% and 63.80 ± 0.79%, respectively. However, antioxidant activity of these two formulations decreased under stress conditions (heating-cooling cycles). Such incidence did not occur for their antibacterial properties investigated by agar well diffusion technique. The two formulations exhibited inhibition zones of approximately 24.0-27.7 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, responsible for malodor of underarms. The results suggest the potential of using sweet tamarind pulp extract loaded nanoemulsions as hygiene products.

Tamarindus/adverse effects , Fruit/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/classification , zeta Potential , Heating/instrumentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20484, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403701


Abstract To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns in URTIs reporting to tertiary hospitals of Lahore. A cross-sectional study employing 259 culture sensitivity reports obtained from tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. Using SPSS, descriptive statistics were used to estimate frequencies and percentages. In URTIs, S. aureus (5%) was the frequent gram-positive isolate followed by MRSA (1.5%) and MSSA (1.5%), while P. aeruginosa (15.8%) was the prevalent gram-negative isolate followed by Klebsiella (13.1%) and E. coli (6.9%). Against P. aeruginosa, ceftazidime (7.7%), cefuroxime/ceftriaxone (4.6%), amoxicillin (4.3%) and ciprofloxacin (4.2%), were tested resistant, while imipenem (11.2%), ciprofloxacin (9.2%), amikacin (9.2%), meropenem/ levofloxacin/gentamicin (8.1%) and piptaz (6.9%) were found sensitive. Against Klebsiella, carbepenems (7.3%), amikacin (6.5%), ciprofloxacin (5.4%) and gentamicin (5%) were tested sensitive, whereas, ceftazidime (8.5%), ceftriaxone (5.8%), cefaclor (5.5%), ampicillin (4.6%), co-amoxiclave (4.2%) and ciftazidime/ciprofloxacin (3.8%) were found resistant. Overall, imipenem (35%), meropenem (30.8%) and amikacin (31.9%) were the three most sensitive antibiotics, while ceftazidime (25.4%), ceftriaxone (19.2%) and ampicillin (18.5%) were the three most resistant antibiotics. Data suggested that P.aeruginosa and Klebsiella, were the most frequent bacterial isolates in URTIs of Lahore. These isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxime and ceftazidime, but were sensitive to carbapenem and aminoglycosides

Patients/classification , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Pakistan/ethnology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Ciprofloxacin , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/classification
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1336, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357306


Introducción: En la medicina militar, la aplicación de las sustancias antibacterianas en las infecciones tópicas, es importante en el tratamiento de las tropas. Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto antibacteriano sinérgico de rifamicina en propóleo sobre bacterias grampositivas. Métodos: Estudio experimental in vitro y comparativo. Se efectuó el análisis fitoquímico preliminar del propóleo de Apis mellífera. Se utilizaron 96 placas de agar Muller Hinton (Britania®) (48 placas para cada especie bacteriana) repartidas en 6 grupos (n = 8). grupo I (agua destilada), grupo II (alcohol etílico al 96 por ciento), grupo III (rifamicina al 0,5 por ciento), grupo IV (rifamicina al 1 por ciento), grupo V (propóleo al 20 por ciento) y grupo VI (rifamicina al 1 por ciento en propóleo al 40 por ciento); se empleó la metodología de Kirby - Bauer; las cepas usadas fueron Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 y las mediciones de las zonas de inhibición se efectuaron a las 24 horas. Resultados: Se detectaron compuestos fenólicos, taninos, flavonoides, alcaloides y triterpenoides en propóleo. Se comprobó el efecto antibacteriano del grupo V con 18,627 ± 0,1008 mm (92,59 por ciento) y 19,247 ± 0,0762 mm (96,74 por ciento), y el efecto antibacteriano sinérgico del grupo VI con 19,316 ± 0,1202 mm (96,02 por ciento) y 19,613 ± 0,0820 mm (98,58 por ciento), comparados con rifamicina al 1 por ciento (100 por ciento) sobre S. aureus ATCC 25923 y S. pyogenes ATCC 19615. Conclusiones: La combinación de rifamicina al 1 por ciento unida al propóleo al 40 por ciento presenta una mayor actividad antibacteriana in vitro sobre bacterias grampositivas debido a su efecto sinérgico(AU)

Introduction: In military medicine, the application of antibacterial substances in topical infections are important in the treatment of troops. Objectives: To evaluate the synergistic antibacterial effect of rifamycin in propolis on gram-positive bacteria. Methods: In vitro and comparative experimental study. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Apis mellifera propolis was carried out. 96 Muller Hinton agar plates (Britania®) (48 plates for each bacterial species) divided into 6 groups (n = 8) were used group I (distilled water), group II (96 percent ethyl alcohol), group III (rifamycin 0,5 percent), group IV (rifamycin 1 percent), group V (propolis 20 percent) and group VI (rifamycin 1 percent in 40 percent propolis); Kirby-Bauer methodology was used; the strains used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 and the measurements of the zones of inhibition were carried out at 24 hours. Results: Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and triterpenoids were detected in propolis. The antibacterial effect of group V was verified with 18,627 ± 0,1008 mm (92,59 percent) and 19,247 ± 0,0762 mm (96,74 percent), and the synergistic antibacterial effect of group VI with 19,316 ± 0,1202 mm (96,02 percent) and 19,613 ± 0,0820 mm (98,58 percent), compared with rifamycin 1 percent (100 percent) on S. aureus ATCC 25923 y S. pyogenes ATCC 19615. Conclusions: The combination of rifamycin 1 percent together with propolis 40 percent has a greater antibacterial activity in vitro on gram-positive bacteria due to its synergistic effect(AU)

Humans , Rifamycins , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Military Medicine , In Vitro Techniques , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 196-204, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1348153


Salmonellosis is a relevant public health threat worldwide. Reptiles are commonly involved in human cases. A microbiological survey was conducted from August to October 2018 to isolate Salmonella bacteria and de-termine if they were resistant to regularly used antibiotics in eight species of pet turtles (Kinosternon acutum sp., K. leucostomum, K. scorpioides, Rhinoclemmys areolata sp., R. pulcherrima, Staurotypus salvinii sp., Trachemys scripta and T. venusta) in Guatemala city, San Lucas Sacatepéquez and Antigua Guatemala. Cloacal swabs were taken from 63 turtles and cultivated in the Microbiology Laboratory at the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Hus-bandry Faculty, University of San Carlos of Guatemala, in Guatemala City. Three samples were positive to the presence of Salmonella sp. One of these isolates (from Trachemys scripta) was resistant to gentamicin, penicillin and amikacin, other isolate (from T. scripta) was partially resistant to amoxicilin + clavulanic acid and penicillin, and other (from T. venusta) to penicillin. These findings highlight the need for better biosecurity practices and show the capacity of bacteria to develop survival strategies that involve resistance to harmful substances like antibiotics.

La salmonelosis es una importante enfermedad zoonótica considerada una amenaza a la salud pública a nivel mundial. Los reptiles están comúnmente involucrados en la transmisión animal-humano. Con el objetivo de determinar la presencia de Salmonella y determinar su resistencia a antibióticos de uso común, se realizó un estudio exploratorio en ocho especies de tortugas (Kinosternon acutum sp., K. leucostomum, K. scorpioides, Rhinoclem-mys areolata sp., R. pulcherrima, Staurotypus salvinii sp., Trachemys scripta y T. venusta) en Guatemala y en San Lucas Sacatepéquez. Se tomaron hisopados cloacales de 63 especímenes y se cultivaron en el Laboratorio de Microbiología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. Tres muestras fueron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella sp. Uno de los aislados (de Trachemys scripta) fue resistente a gentamicina, penicilina y amikacina, otro aislado (de T. scripta) fue parcialmente resistente a amoxicilina + ácido clavulánico y a penicilina y un tercer aislado (de T. venusta) a penicilina. Estos hallazgos resaltan la necesidad de mejores prácticas de bioseguridad y muestran la capacidad de las bacterias para desarrollar estrategias de sobrevivencia que involucran la resistencia a sustancias que les son nocivas, como los antibióticos.

Salmonella/drug effects , Turtles/parasitology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Penicillins/adverse effects , Amikacin/adverse effects , Gentamicins/adverse effects , Pets/microbiology
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 81 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290784


Muitos pacientes acometidos por infecções fúngicas sucumbem devido a não eficácia dos antibióticos ou por toxicidade dos mesmos. Anfotericina B é um dos antifúngicos mais eficientes do mercado apesar de sua alta toxicidade, tem estrutura poliênica e é um composto insolúvel em água, sendo necessário o uso de adjuvantes e novas tecnologias para preparo de formulações eficazes. Cetoconazol é um composto imidazólico, também com ação antifúngica de grande espectro de ação e difícil solubilização em meio aquouso, porém solúvel somente em baixos valores de pH. Estudos têm demonstrado a utilização de bixina na preparação de dispersões aquosas de compostos insolúveis ou pouco solúveis em água. Bixina é o principal composto das cascas de semente de Bixa orellana (urucum), sendo um carotenoide insolúvel em água, porém, permite preparações na forma de nanodispersões aquosas com incorporação de fármacos apolares ou lipofílicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar anfotericina B e cetoconazol na forma de nanodispersões a partir de bixina, utilizando pullulan e trealose como adjuvantes e avaliar estabilidade e eficácia antimicrobiana por ensaios físico-químicos e microbiológicos. Pullulan é um polissacarídeo constituído por unidades de maltotriose, com propriedades adesivas e capacidade de formar biofilmes, enquanto trealose é um composto com duas unidades de glicose, com boa estabilidade em faixas de pH de 3 a 10 e capaz de suportar altas temperaturas, como processos de esterilização por calor úmido. Ensaios físico-químicos demonstraram boa manutenção das características das preparações propostas neste projeto, como, por exemplo, diâmetro hidrodinâmico e potencial zeta das estruturas das nanodispersões de bixina e antifúngicos e também eficácia antimicrobiana frente a Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Os resultados apresentam perspectivas para aprimoramentos de formulações com fármacos pouco solúveis ou insolúveis em água, pesquisa de novos biomateriais e outras aplicações nas áreas farmacêutica e cosmética

Many patients with fungal infections succumb due to ineffectiveness or toxicity of antibiotics. Amphotericin B is one of the most efficient antifungals on the market despite its high toxicity. It presents polyenic structure and is a water-insoluble compound. In this case, it is necessary to use adjuvants and new technologies to prepare effective formulations. Ketoconazole is an imidazolic compound, also with broad spectrum antifungal action and difficult solubilization in aqueous medium but it is soluble at low pH values. Studies have demonstrated the use of bixin in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of insoluble or poorly soluble compounds in water. Bixin is the main compound of Bixa orellana (annatto) seed husks, being a water-insoluble carotenoid, but it allows preparations in the form of aqueous nanodispersions with incorporation of apolar or lipophilic drugs. The objective of this work was to prepare amphotericin B and ketoconazole as nanodispersions from bixin, using pullulan and trehalose as adjuvants and to evaluate them under aspects of stability and efficacy by physicochemical and microbiological assays. Pullulan is a polysaccharide consisting of maltotriose units with adhesive properties and ability to form biofilms, while trehalose is a compound with two glucose units with good stability at pH ranges from 3 to 10 and capable of withstanding high temperatures such as processes of sterilization by moist heat. Physicochemical tests demonstrated good maintenance of the characteristics of the preparations proposed in this project, such as hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of bixin and antifungal nanodispersions and also antimicrobial efficacy against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results present prospects for improvement. of poorly soluble or water-insoluble drug formulations, research on new biomaterials and other applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields

Trehalose , Amphotericin B/agonists , Growth and Development , Ketoconazole/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Patients , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18474, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249171


Due to the increase of bacterial resistance, the search for new antibiotics is necessary and the medicinal plants represent its most important source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial property of extract and fractions from Protium spruceanum leaves, against pathogenic bacteria. By means of diffusion and microdilution assays, the crude extract was active against the nine bacteria tested being the hydromethanolic fraction the most active. During phytochemical procedures, procyanidin (1) and catechin (2) were identified as the main antibacterial constituents of this fraction. In silico results obtained using PASSonline tool indicated 1 and 2 as having good potential to interact with different targets of currently used antibiotics. These results no indicated potential to none DNA effect and indicated the cell wall as mainly target. Electrophoresis result supported that had no DNA damage. Cell wall damage was confirmed by propidium iodide test that showed increased membrane permeability and by cell surface deformations observed in scanning electronic microscopy. The in vitro assays together with the in silico prediction results establish the potential of P. spruceanum as source of antibacterial compounds that acts on important bacterial targets. These results contribute to the development of natural substances against pathogenic bacteria and to discovery of new antibiotics.

Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/analysis , Catechin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Computer Simulation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Plant Leaves/classification , Burseraceae/classification , Phytochemicals
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 345-353, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057399


Abstract A novel microbiological system in microtiter plates consisting of five bioassays is presented for the detection and classification of antibiotic residues in milk. The bioassays were optimized for the detection of beta-lactams (Bioassay B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrolides (Bioassay M: Bacillus megaterium with fusidic acid), tetracyclines (Bioassay T: B. megaterium with chloramphenicol), quinolones (Bioassay Q: Bacillus licheniformis) and sulfamides (Bioassay QS: B. licheniformis with trimethoprim) at levels near the maximum residue limits (MRL). The response of each bioassay was interpreted visually (positive or negative) after 4-5.5h of incubation. The system detects and classifies beta-lactams (5 pg/l of amoxicillin, 4 pg/l of ampicillin, 36 pg/l of cloxacillin, 22 pg/l of amoxicillin, 3 pg/l of penicillin, 114 pg/l of cephalexin, 89pg/l of cefoperazone and 116 pg/l of ceftiofur), tetracyclines (98 pg/l of chlortetracycline, 92 pg/l of oxytetracycline and 88 pg/l of tetracycline), macrolides (33 pg/l of erythromycin, 44 pg/l of tilmicosin and 50 pg/l of tylosin), sulfonamides (76 pg/l of sulfadiazine, 85 pg/l of sulfadimethoxine, 77 pg/l of sulfamethoxazole and 87pg/l of sulfathiazole) and quinolones (94 pg/l of ciprofloxacin, 98 pg/l of enrofloxacin and 79 pg/l marbofloxacin). In addition, the specificity values were high for B, T, Q (99.4%), M (98.8%) and QS (98.1%) bioassays. The control of antibiotics through this system can contribute to improving the quality and safety of dairy products.

Resumen Se presenta un novedoso sistema microbiológico en placas de microtitulación compuesto por 5 bioensayos para la detección y clasificación de residuos de antibióticos en leche. Los bioensayos fueron optimizados para la detección de betalactámicos (bioensayo B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrólidos (bioensayo M: Bacillus megaterium con ácido fusídico), tetraciclinas (bioensayo T: Bacillus megaterium con cloranfenicol), quinolonas (bioensayo Q: Bacillus licheniformis) y sulfamidas (bioensayo QS: Bacillus licheniformis con trimetoprima), a niveles cercanos a los límites máximos de residuos (LMR). La respuesta de cada bioensayo se interpretó visualmente (positiva o negativa) después de 4 a 5,5 h de incubación. El sistema detecta y clasifica betalactámicos (5 pg/l de amoxicilina, 4 pg/l de ampicilina, 36 pg/l de cloxacilina, 22 pg/l de amoxicilina, 3 pg/l de penicilina, 114 pg/l de cefalexina, 89 pg/l de cefoperazona y 116 pg/l de ceftiofur), tetraciclinas (98 pg/l de clortetraciclina, 92 pg/l de oxitetraciclina y 88 pg/l de tetraciclina), macrólidos (33 pg/l de eritromicina, 44 pg/l de tilmi-cosina y 50 pg/l de tilosina), sulfamidas (76 pg/l de sulfadiacina, 85 pg/l de sulfadimetoxina, 77 pg/l de sulfametoxazol y 87 pg/l de sulfatiazol) y quinolonas (94 pg/l de ciprofloxacina, 98 pg/l de enrofloxacina y 79pg/l de marbofloxacina). Además, los valores de especificidad fueron altos para los bioensayos B, T, Q (99,4%), M (98,8%) y QS (98,1%). El control de residuos de antibióticos mediante este sistema puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos lácteos.

Biological Assay/methods , Food Microbiology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Sulfonamides/analysis , Tetracycline/analysis , Quinolones/analysis , Macrolides/analysis , Dairy Products , beta-Lactams/analysis
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2287-2291, abr.-maio 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482204


O pequi é uma fruta nativa do Cerrado brasileiro que apresenta elevado teor de compostos antioxidantes e pode apresentar ação antimicrobiana. Dessa forma, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a atividade bacteriostática e bactericida do extrato da casca do pequi. Das cepas estudadas 5 são padrões cedidos pela FIOCRUZ e 5 são bactérias de alta resistência a antimicrobianos isoladas de carne e frango. Foi determinada a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima do extrato da casca do pequi. O extrato da casca do pequi apresenta atividade antimicrobiana frente a bactérias patogênicas e deteriorantes. C. jejuni e C. colisão as mais sensíveis. S. aureus apresentou tolerância. E. coli O157:H7 e E. coli são menos sensíveis. O resíduo do pequi é uma potencial e importante fonte de antimicrobianos naturais.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Ericales , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Garbage , Bacteriological Techniques/analysis
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2292-2296, abr.-maio 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482205


O ozônio possui efeito bactericida, fungicida e viricida e tem sido usado para o trat amento de diversas enfermidades. O objetivo do trabalho, foi avaliar a ação bactericida do ozônio, in vitro, contra Staphylococcus aureus isolados de vacas leiteiras. O experimento foi realizado com vacas, produtoras de leite, uma fazenda do Sul da Bahia. Foram avaliadas vacas que foram positivas para mastite, depois de ter sido feito o teste California Mastitis Test. No laboratório realizou-se os testes de coloração de gram, catalase e coagulase, acetoína, maltose e trealose e foi realizada a diluição seriada das amostras em solução salina. Foi realizada também a ozonização das colônias na concentração de 40 microgramas por mililitro por 5 minutos. Nas análises após a ozonização, observou-se uma significativa diminuição do crescimento de colônias.

Cattle , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Milk , Mastitis, Bovine/drug therapy , Ozone/therapeutic use , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Bacteriological Techniques/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/veterinary
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2343-2347, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482216


O risco de Doenças Veiculadas por Alimentos - DVA em hambúrgueres pode ser minimizado pelo uso de antimicrobianos naturais. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes concentrações do Extrato Aquoso de Alho - EAA na inibição de Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Cronobacter sakazakii, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus e Bacillus cereus e avalia r sensorialmente as amostras de hambúrguer adicionadas de EAA. Os resultados indicaram que o EAA inibiu o crescimento das cepas bacterianas, sendo a ação inibitória proporcional às concentrações usadas sendo que a refrigeração a 7°C por 72 h do EAA não afetou seu efeito inibitório. Na análise sensorial, houve boa aceitabilidade e intenção de compra positiva para as amostras, com destaque para aquelas com maior concentração de EAA (1000μL/mL).

Garlic/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Meat Products/analysis , Meat Products/microbiology , Bacteriological Techniques/analysis , Foodborne Diseases
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1846-1850, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482417


Avaliou-se ação bactericida e caracterização físico-química de duas diferentes formulações de nanolipossomas preparados utilizando técnica de hidratação do filme lipídico. Nanolipossomas contendo carvacrol apresentaram diâmetro médio de 270,83 nm, PDI de 0,20 e potencial zeta de + 8,64 mV. Nanolipossomas contendo carvacrol e nisina apresentaram diâmetro médio de 205,25 nm, PDI de 0,31 e potencial zeta de - 22,48 mV. Para ambas formulações a concentração bactericida mínima foi de 3,53 mg/mL para Salmonella e 5,3 mg/mL para Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus. Não ocorreu efeito sinérgico entre carvacrol e nisina, porém os nanolipossomas contendo carvacrol apresentaram ação bactericida contra os microrganismos testados, demonstrando potencial para sua utilização no desenvolvimento de um sanitizante para uso em indústrias de alimentos.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Capsules , Liposomes , Nanostructures , Nisin/administration & dosage , Food Industry , Biological Products