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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239323, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339341

ABSTRACT

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Resumo Os medicamentos combinados de β-lactâmicos / inibidores da lactamase (BLBLIs) são considerados uma alternativa eficaz aos carbapenêmicos. No entanto, existe uma preocupação crescente de que o aumento do uso de BLBLIs pode levar ao aumento da resistência. Este estudo determinou a associação temporal entre o consumo de BLBLI e a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias gram-negativas. Neste estudo retrospectivo, os dados eletrônicos sobre as bactérias gram-negativas isoladas, incluindo A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli e K. pneumoniae de pacientes internados e os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade foram recuperados dos registros médicos do laboratório clínico. Uma regressão linear e análise de correlação cruzada foram realizadas nos dados adquiridos. Foram observadas tendências crescentes (p < 0,05) no consumo de BIBLI e carbapenem com uma mediana de uso de 27,68 e 34,46 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre, respectivamente. Foi observada uma tendência de diminuição (p = 0,023) no consumo de fluoroquinolonas com uma mediana de uso de 29,13 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre. A taxa de resistência de K. pneumoniae foi sincronizada com os consumos de BIBLI e carbapenem com coeficiente de correlação de 0,893 (p = 0,012) e 0,951 (p = 0,016), respectivamente. A análise de correlação cruzada contra o consumo de BIBLI e K. pneumoniae resistente ao meropenem atingiu o pico no intervalo de 0 quarto (r = 951, p = 0,016). Houve uma tendência de aumento no consumo de BLBLI e carbapenêmicos. A tendência crescente nas taxas de resistência a piperacilina/tazobactam, em linha com o consumo crescente de BLBLI, sugere que BLBLI deve ser usado com cautela e não pode ser considerado diretamente como alternativa de longo prazo aos carbapenêmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1325-1342, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402281

ABSTRACT

A infecção do trato urinário (ITU) nada mais é do que o acometimento das vias urinárias por microrganismo. Entre as infecções hospitalares de maior incidência está a infecção do trato urinário, acometendo mais mulheres do que homens. Uma das possíveis causas dessa infecção, em pacientes na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), é o uso de cateter vesical. Seu tratamento inadequado pode ocasionar uma pielonefrite, podendo adentrar à circulação sanguínea, gerando uma infecção sistêmica e levar o paciente a óbito. A resistência antimicrobiana é uma das principais dificuldades encontrada em UTI sendo considerado um problema de saúde pública. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um breve relato, baseado na literatura, sobre a resistência antimicrobiana na infecção urinária em unidade de terapia intensiva adulta. Em ambientes hospitalares o principal microrganismo causador de ITU é Escherichia coli, sendo 55,5% das culturas positivas estão associadas a procedimentos invasivos, como as sondas vesicais de demora, como consequência este é o microrganismo que mais apresenta resistência aos antimicrobianos utilizados como a ampicilina, trimetoprima e ciprofloxacino. O uso indiscriminado de antibióticos deixa em evidência a necessidade de análise criteriosa da real necessidade de qual antimicrobianos usar, tempo de uso e forma correta de administração. Portanto é necessária a ação dos profissionais de saúde frente a atenção ao paciente, desde a higiene das mãos, uso do cateter, quando necessário observar a real necessidade do uso do antimicrobianos e que esse seja feito após cultura e antibiograma.


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is nothing more than the involvement of the urinary tract by a microorganism. Among the hospital infections with the highest incidence is urinary tract infections, affecting more women than men. One of the possible causes of this infection in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is the use of a bladder catheter. Its inadequate treatment can cause pyelonephritis, which can enter the bloodstream, generating a systemic infection and leading the patient to death. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the main difficulties encountered in ICUs and is considered a public health problem. The objective of this study was to present a brief report, based on the literature, on antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections in an adult intensive care unit. In hospital environments, the main microorganism that causes UTI is Escherichia coli, and 55.5% of positive cultures are associated with invasive procedures, such as indwelling urinary catheters, as a consequence, this is the microorganism that is most resistant to antimicrobials used, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics highlights the need for a careful analysis of the real need for which antimicrobials to use, time of use, and correct form of administration. Therefore, it is necessary for the action of health professionals in the care of the patient, from the hygiene of the professional to, the use of the catheter, when necessary to observe the real need for the use of antimicrobials and that this is done after culture and antibiogram.


La infección del tracto urinario (ITU) no es más que la afectación de las vías urinarias por un microorganismo. Entre las infecciones hospitalarias con mayor incidencia se encuentra la infección del tracto urinario, que afecta más a mujeres que a hombres. Una de las posibles causas de esta infección en pacientes en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) es el uso de una sonda vesical. Su tratamiento inadecuado puede causar pielonefritis, la cual puede ingresar al torrente sanguíneo, generando una infección sistémica y llevando al paciente a la muerte. La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es una de las principales dificultades encontradas en las UCI y se considera un problema de salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue presentar un breve informe, basado en la literatura, sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana en infecciones del tracto urinario en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de adultos. En ambientes hospitalarios, el principal microorganismo causante de ITU es Escherichia coli, y el 55,5% de los cultivos positivos están asociados a procedimientos invasivos, como sondas vesicales permanentes, por lo que este es el microorganismo más resistente a los antimicrobianos utilizados, como la ampicilina. ., trimetoprima y ciprofloxacino. El uso indiscriminado de antibióticos pone de relieve la necesidad de un análisis cuidadoso de la necesidad real de qué antimicrobianos utilizar, el momento de uso y la forma correcta de administración. Por lo tanto, es necesaria la actuación de los profesionales de la salud en el cuidado del paciente, desde la higiene del profesional, uso del catéter, cuando sea necesario observar la necesidad real del uso de antimicrobianos y que este se realice previo cultivo y antibiograma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/mortality , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Urinary Tract , Women , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/complications , Cross Infection/transmission , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Catheters/microbiology , Hand Hygiene , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e302, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383637

ABSTRACT

Se expone el caso de un recién nacido que desarrolló sepsis connatal precoz a Streptococcus agalactiae, con meningitis aguda supurada y osteoartritis de rodilla izquierda. Como factor de riesgo la madre no tenía realizado el exudado rectovaginal, pesquisa que detecta la colonización por estreptococo del grupo B (EGB). Se aisló el germen en hemocultivo y en líquido de punción articular. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico adecuado a la sensibilidad del microorganismo y según pauta de sepsis con meningitis, evolucionando favorablemente. En este trabajo se describe la epidemiología de la sepsis neonatal y los cambios ocurridos luego de la implementación de la profilaxis antibiótica en el preparto.


We hereby present the case of a newborn with early connatal sepsis due to Streptococcus agalactiae, with acute suppurative meningitis and left knee osteoarthritis. As a risk factor, the mother had not performed the rectus vaginal exudate screening that detects colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS). The germ was isolated in blood culture and in joint puncture fluid. The patient received germ-sensitive antibiotic treatment for meningitis sepsis and evolved favorably. This paper describes the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis and the changes that have occurred after the administration of the antibiotic prophylaxis during pregnancy.


Apresentamos o caso de um recém-nascido com sepse neonatal precoce por Streptococcus agalactiae, com meningite supurativa aguda e osteoartrite de joelho esquerdo. Como fator de risco, a mãe não realizou teste de exsudato vaginal do reto que detecta a colonização por estreptococos do grupo B (SGB). O germe foi isolado em hemocultura e líquido de punção articular. A paciente recebeu tratamento com antibióticos germinativos para padrão meningite sepse e evoluiu favoravelmente. Este artigo descreve a epidemiologia da sepse neonatal e as mudanças ocorridas após a administração da profilaxia antibiótica durante a gravidez.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus agalactiae , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/etiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis, Knee/diagnosis , Osteoarthritis, Knee/etiology , Osteoarthritis, Knee/drug therapy , Neonatal Sepsis/complications , Neonatal Sepsis/diagnosis , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy
4.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e701, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1390036

ABSTRACT

La endocarditis infecciosa es una patología heterogénea con una alta mortalidad y requiere tratamiento quirúrgico en al menos la mitad de los casos. Cuando asienta en posición mitral, la reparación valvular en lugar de su sustitución, si bien representa un desafío técnico, ha ido ganando terreno en los últimos años. Describimos el caso de un paciente que se presentó con una endocarditis sobre válvula nativa mitral en quien se realizó una plastia valvular exitosa. Revisaremos la evidencia acerca de su beneficio.


Infective endocarditis is a heterogeneous disease with a high mortality and that requires surgical treatment in at least half of cases. When seated in mitral position, valve repair rather than replacement, while technically challenging, has been gaining popularity in recent years. We describe the case of a patient who presented with a mitral valve endocarditis in whom a successful valve repair was performed. Evidence supporting its use will be reviewed.


A endocardite infecciosa é uma doença heterogênea com alta mortalidade que requer tratamento cirúrgico em pelo menos metade dos casos. Quando sentado na posição mitral, o reparo da válvula, em vez da substituição da válvula, embora seja um desafio técnico, tem ganhado espaço nos últimos anos. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente que apresentou endocardite valvar mitral nativa, no qual foi realizada plastia valvar com sucesso. Vamos revisar as evidências sobre o seu benefício.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/surgery , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Cefazolin/therapeutic use , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/microbiology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/drug therapy , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging
5.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e601, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383632

ABSTRACT

La sepsis neonatal precoz se define como la que se manifiesta en las primeras 72 horas de vida. Es una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal. Su incidencia es inversamente proporcional a la edad gestacional. Los microorganismos considerados como frecuentes son Streptoccocus del grupo B, Escherichia coli y Listeria monocytogenes. El diagnóstico de sepsis precoz se basa principalmente en la presencia de factores de riesgo como la corioamnionitis y la edad gestacional. Los signos clínicos son inespecíficos y los exámenes paraclínicos disponibles actualmente, como los reactantes de fase aguda (proteína C reactiva y procalcitonia) tienen escaso valor predictivo positivo. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las últimas publicaciones disponibles sobre sepsis neonatal precoz en recién nacidos, en cuanto a su sospecha, confirmación diagnóstica y tratamiento. A partir de las últimas publicaciones se confeccionó una guía para el manejo clínico de los recién nacidos con sospecha de sepsis precoz.


Early neonatal sepsis is defined as that type of sepsis with an onset within the first 72 hours of life and that is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Its incidence is inversely proportional to its gestational age. Frequent microorganisms are group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Early sepsis diagnosis is mainly based on the presence of risk factors such as chorioamnionitis and gestational age. Clinical signs are non-specific and currently available paraclinical tests such as acute phase reactants (C-reactive protein and procalcitonin) have little positive predictive value. A bibliographic review of the suspicion, diagnostic confirmation and treatment on Early Neonatal Sepsis in newborns in the latest papers and guidelines were prepared for the clinical treatment of newborns with suspected early sepsis.


A sepse neonatal precoce é definida como aquela que se manifesta nas primeiras 72 horas de vida e que é uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade neonatal. Sua incidência é inversamente proporcional à idade gestacional. Os microrganismos considerados frequentes são o Streptococcus grupo B, Escherichia coli e Listeria monocytogenes. O diagnóstico de sepse precoce baseia-se principalmente na presença de fatores de risco como a coioamnionite e a idade gestacional. Os sinais clínicos são inespecíficos e os testes para-clínicos atualmente disponíveis, como reagentes de fase aguda (proteína C-reativa e procalcitonia) têm pouco valor preditivo positivo. Fizemos uma revisão bibliográfica das últimas publicações disponíveis sobre sepse neonatal precoce em recém-nascidos em termos de suspeita e confirmação diagnóstica e tratamento. Com base nas últimas publicações, elaboramos um guia para o manejo clínico de recém-nascidos com suspeita de sepse precoce.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Sepsis/diagnosis , Spinal Puncture , Blood Cell Count , Risk Factors , Chorioamnionitis/etiology , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Neonatal Sepsis/blood , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 109-116, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Existe un incremento de las infecciones por Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenémicos (KPRC) en la población pediátrica y los datos epidemiológicos son limitados. OBJETIVOS: Conocer la frecuencia de KPRC en pacientes pediátricos, determinar la actividad in vitro de colistina y detectar el gen mcr-1 en dichos aislados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 220 aislados de K. pneumoniae en un hospital pediátrico durante los años 2018 y 2019. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó por microdilución en caldo según CLSI y EUCAST. Los genes blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 y mcr-1 se analizaron mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC). RESULTADOS: El 9,5% (n: 21) de los aislados fueron caracterizados como KPRC, donde se observó una resistencia a colistina de 47,6% (10/21) con valores de CIM50 de 2 μg/mL y CIM90 de > 4 μg/mL. En todos los aislados de KPRC se caracterizó el gen blaKPC y no se detectó el gen mcr-1. El perfil de resistencia observado en otros antimicrobianos fue el siguiente: gentamicina 100% (n: 21), ciprofloxacina 100% (n: 21), cotrimoxazol 100% (n: 21) y amikacina 19% (n: 4). Se observó 100% de sensibilidad a tigeciclina y ceftazidima/avibactam. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio demuestra un valor significativo de la resistencia a colistina en comparación a ceftazidima/avibactam y tigeciclina.


BACKGROUND: There is an increase of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections in the pediatric population and epidemiological data are limited. Aim: To calculate the frequency of CRKP in pediatric patients, to determine the in vitro activity of colistin and to detect the presence of mcr-1 gene in said isolates. METHODS: 220 isolates of K. pneumoniae were studied in a pediatric hospital between January 2018 and December 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by microdilution in broth according to guidelines of CLSI and EUCAST. The genes blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 and mcr-1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: 9.5% (n: 21) of the isolates were characterized as CRKP, where was observed a resistance to colistin of 47.6% (10/21) with values of MIC50 of 2 μg/mL and MIC90 of ≥ 4 μg/mL. In 100% of CRKP strains the blaKPC gene was detected and the mcr-1 gene was not found. The resistance profile to other antimicrobials was as follow: gentamicin 100% (n: 21), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 100% (n: 21), ciprofloxacin 100% (n: 21), amikacin 19% (n: 4). All of the isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime/avibactam and tigecycline. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a significant value of resistance to colistin in pediatric patients compared to other last line antimicrobial such as ceftazidime/avibactam and tigecycline.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Argentina , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Ceftazidime , Colistin/pharmacology , Tigecycline , Hospitals, Pediatric , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 174-183, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388355

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección del tracto urinario (ITU) es una de las infecciones bacterianas más frecuentes en la infancia. Un adecuado diagnóstico es esencial para poder realizar un tratamiento racional, eficiente y eficaz; sin embargo, existe gran heterogeneidad en los métodos diagnósticos, específicamente en el estudio de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. El objetivo de estas recomendaciones es entregar herramientas para uniformar los criterios diagnósticos, el estudio de susceptibilidad bacteriana in vitro y el tratamiento antimicrobiano de la ITU en la población pediátrica, con un enfoque de uso racional de los antimicrobianos. En esta primera parte, se presentan las recomendaciones en cuanto a cómo obtener una adecuada muestra de orina, el diagnóstico de laboratorio incluyendo puntos de corte -unidades formadoras de colonias/mL de orina-, además de consideraciones microbiológicas para el estudio de susceptibilidad y finalmente, el manejo de la ITU en pediatría. En la segunda parte se detalla el tratamiento antimicrobiano de sus complicaciones, el manejo de ITU en situaciones especiales y consideraciones farmacocinéticas y farmacodinámicas de los antimicrobianos a indicar en ITU.


Abstract The urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in childhood. An adequate diagnosis is essential to be able to carry out a rational, efficient and effective treatment, however, there great heterogeneity in diagnostic methods, specifically in the study of antimicrobial susceptibility. The aim of these recommendations is to provide tools to homogenize the diagnosis criteria, susceptibility study and antimicrobial treatment of urinary tract infection in the pediatric population, with a rational use of antibiotics approach. In the first part, the recommendations regarding diagnosis are presented, such as sampling and cut-off points, as well as microbiological considerations for susceptibility study and management of UTI in pediatrics. The second part details the management of complications, UTI in special situations, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations of antimicrobials to be prescribed in UTI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatrics , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Chile , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 257-262, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374726

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The standard management of orbital cellulitis is to administer a combination of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics along with treatment of associated sinusitis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of corticosteroids could lead to earlier resolution of inflammation and improve disease outcome. Methods: We independently searched five databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane database) for studies published as recent as December 2019. Of the included studies, we reviewed orbital cellulitis and disease morbidity through lengths of hospitalization, incidence of surgical drainage, periorbital edema, vision, levels or C-reactive protein, and serum WBC levels in order to focus on comparing steroid with antibiotics treated group and only antibiotics treated group. Results: Lengths of hospitalization after admission as diagnosed as orbital cellulitis (SMD = −4.02 [−7.93; −0.12], p -value = 0.04, I2 = 96.9%) decrease in steroid with antibiotics treated group compared to antibiotics only treated group. Incidence of surgical drainage (OR = 0.78 [0.27; 2.23], p -value = 0.64,I2 = 0.0%) was lower in the steroid with antibiotics treated group compared to the antibiotics only treated group. Conclusion: Use of systemic steroids as an adjunct to systemic antibiotic therapy for orbital cellulitis may decrease orbital inflammation with a low risk of exacerbating infection. Based on our analysis, we concluded that early use of steroids for a short period can help shorten hospitalization days and prevent inflammation progression.


Resumo Introdução: O tratamento padrão da celulite orbitária inicia-se com uma combinação de antibióticos intravenosos de amplo espectro concomitante ao tratamento do seio comprometido. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a adição de corticosteroides poderia levar a uma resolução mais precoce da inflamação e melhorar o desfecho da doença. Método: Fizemos uma pesquisa independente em cinco bancos de dados (PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, Web of Science e o banco de dados Cochrane) em busca de estudos publicados até dezembro de 2019. Dos estudos incluídos, revisamos a celulite orbitária e a morbidade da doença através dos períodos de internação, incidência de drenagem cirúrgica, edema periorbital, visão, níveis de proteína C-reativa e níveis séricos de leucócitos com foco na comparação do grupo tratado com esteroides e antibióticos e do grupo tratado apenas com antibióticos. Resultados: Os tempos de internação após a admissão dos diagnosticados com celulite orbitária (SMD = -4,02 [-7,93; -0,12], p-valor = 0,04, I2 = 96,9%) diminuíram no grupo tratado com esteroides e antibióticos em comparação ao grupo tratado apenas com antibióticos. A incidência de drenagem cirúrgica (OR = 0,78 [0,27; 2,23], p-valor = 0,64, I2 =0,0%) foi menor no grupo tratado com esteroides e antibióticos em comparação com o grupo tratado apenas com antibióticos. Conclusão: O uso de esteroides sistêmicos como adjuvante da antibioticoterapia sistêmica para celulite orbitária pode diminuir a inflamação orbitária com baixo risco de agravar a infecção. Com base em nossa análise, concluímos que o uso precoce de esteroides por um curto período pode ajudar a encurtar os dias de internação e prevenir a progressão da inflamação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orbital Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Cellulitis/diagnosis , Orbital Cellulitis/etiology , Orbital Cellulitis/drug therapy , Steroids , Cellulitis/complications , Cellulitis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 193-199, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388001

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several treatment modalities are proposed for periprosthetic infections, with variable success rates. However, efficacy is related to the appropriate selection of cases for each type of treatment. Debridement with implant retention is indicated in acute infections with fixed implant, and its success depends on the type of infection, comorbidities of the host, and virulence of the etiological agent. One- or two-stage revision is required in cases in which biofilm is forming, or of implant loosening. The choice between performing the review in one or two stages depends on factors such as etiological agent identification, pathogen virulence, local and systemic host factors. Rescue procedures such as arthrodesis, amputation, resection arthroplasty or even antibioticsuppressionarereservedforcasesinwhichtheinfectionhasnotbeeneradicated.


Resumo Diversas modalidades de tratamento são propostas para as infecções periprotéticas, com índices de sucesso variáveis. No entanto, a eficácia está relacionada à seleção adequada dos casos para cada tipo de tratamento. O desbridamento com retenção do implante é indicado em infecções agudas com implante fixo, e seu sucesso depende do tipo de infecção, das comorbidades do hospedeiro e da virulência do agente etiológico. A revisão em um ou dois estágios se impõem nos casos em que haja formação de biofilme, ou nos quais se tenha afrouxamento do implante. A escolha entre realizar a revisão em um ou dois estágios depende de fatores como identificação do agente etiológico, virulência do patógeno, fatores locais e sistêmicos do hospedeiro. Os procedimentos de salvamento como artrodese, amputação, artroplastia de ressecção ou, ainda, supressão antibiótica são reservados para os casos em que não se conseguiu erradicação da infecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Wound Infection/therapy , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(108): 7-16, 20220000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363203

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPPB) en niños son una de las principales causas de prescripción de antimicrobianos. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las características clínicas y microbiológicas de las IPPB ambulatorias de niños asistidos en dos hospitales zonales. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo entre el 1/11/2017 y el 1/11/2018. Se incluyeron pacientes entre 1 mes y 15 años internados en dos hospitales. Se evaluó: edad, sexo, localidad, factores predisponentes, tipo de IPPB, muestras biológicas realizadas, aislamiento microbiológico, tratamiento empírico indicado y evolución del cuadro. Se realizó antibiograma y determinación genética. Se calculó chi2, IC95, OR; α=5%. N= 94. 58,7% masculinos. 12 pacientes <1 año, 85 >1 año (promedio de edad 4 años, 1-15). El 36% de Tandil y 63,8% de Florencio Varela. El 59,6% corresponden a IPPB purulentas. Se aislaron microorganismos en un 59,6%. Los aislamientos principales: SAMR (40,4%), SAMS (7,4%), S. agalactiae (2,1%) y S. pyogenes (2,1%). El 100% de SAMR son portadores de gen mecA y SCCmec tipo IV, sin multirresistencia. No hubo diferencia estadística entre los factores de riesgo evaluados para el desarrollo de IPPB por SAMR. El 52,1% de los niños recibió tratamiento antibiótico combinado, siendo la más indicada TMS-SMX + CLI en 36 eventos. (38,3%). La evolución fue favorable: no hubo diferencia significativa entre el subgrupo que se aisló SAMR y el que no se aisló SAMR; 91,9% (34/37) y 92,6% (50/54) correspondientemente (chi2: 0,01; p= 0,97 IC95: 0,26-3,88). El principal agente etiológico fue SAMRco, debiendo adecuar los tratamientos a este microorganismo.


Skin and soft tissue infections (SSIs) in children are one of the main causes of antimicrobial prescription. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of outpatient SSIs in children attended in two hospitals. A prospective study was conducted between 11/1/2017 and 11/1/2018. Patients between 1 month and 15 years old, hospitalized were included. We evaluated: age, sex, locality, predisposing factors, type of IPPB, biological samples taken, microbiological isolation, empirical treatment indicated and evolution of the condition. An antibiogram and genetic determination were performed. Chi2, CI95, OR; α=5% were calculated. N= 94. 58.7% male. 12 patients <1 year, 85 >1 year (mean age 4 years, 1-15). 36% were from Tandil and 63.8% from Florencio Varela. 59.6% corresponded to purulent SSIs. The diagnostic yield was 59.6%. Main isolates: MRSA (40.4%), MSSA (7.4%), S. agalactiae (2.1%) and S. pyogenes (2.1%). 100% of MRSA carried the mecA gene and SCCmec type IV, with no multidrug resistance. There was no statistical difference between the risk factors evaluated. 52.1% of children received combined antibiotic treatment, the most indicated being TMS-SMX + CLI in 36 events. (38,3%). Evolution was favorable: there was no significant difference between the subgroup that isolated MRSA and the subgroup that did not isolate MRSA; 91.9% (34/37) and 92.6% (50/54) respectively (chi2: 0.01; p= 0.97 CI95: 0.26-3.88). The main etiological agent was MRSA, and treatments should be adapted to this microorganism


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Skin Diseases, Infectious/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Soft Tissue Infections/microbiology , Skin Diseases, Infectious/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Soft Tissue Infections/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 7-13, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388326

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El uso de antimicrobianos es el principal factor de resistencia bacteriana. OBJETIVO: Determinar el consumo de antimicrobianos en instituciones de salud de Santiago de Cali entre 2013 y 2020. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se empleó la Dosis Diaria Definida por 100 camas-día. Se definieron como criterios de inclusión las instituciones que tuvieran como mínimo 9 reportes anuales y que el reporte fuese superior a 95%. En este caso quedaron incluidas 10 instituciones. RESULTADOS: El consumo en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) fue mayor que en servicios diferentes a UCI. Se consumió más ceftriaxona e imipenem en servicios diferentes a UCI, mientras que meropenem, piperacilina/tazobactam y vancomicina lo fueron en UCI. En servicios diferentes a UCI, dos instituciones aumentaron el consumo para ceftriaxona, ciprofloxacina y piperacilina/tazobactam y una para vancomicina, mientras que en UCI en una institución el consumo aumentó para piperacilina/tazobactam. CONCLUSIÓN: El sistema brindó herramientas de vigilancia prospectiva que mostraron necesidades de intervención en instituciones.


BACKGROUND: The use of antibiotics is the main factor of microbial resistance. Aim: To determine the consumption of antibiotics in health care institutions in Santiago de Cali between 2013 and 2020. METHODS: The methodology of the Defined Daily Dose per 100 beddays was employed. Institutions that had at least 9 annual reports and that the report is greater than 95% were defined as inclusion criteria. In this case, 10 institutions were included. RESULTS: Consumption in Intensive Care Units (ICU) was higher than in other units. Ceftriaxone and imipenem were more consumed in units other than ICU, whereas meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin were more consumed in the ICU. In units other than ICU, two institutions increased the consumption of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam and one the consumption of vancomycin, whereas in the ICU, one institution increased the consumption of piperacillin/tazobactam. The endemic range identified that vancomycin located itself in the epidemic zone in one institution. CONCLUSION: The system provided tools for prospective surveillance that showed the need for intervention in institutions.


Subject(s)
Vancomycin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Colombia , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination , Intensive Care Units
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 20-28, feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388328

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevalencia de microorganismos multirresistentes es un problema de salud pública que continúa creciendo a lo largo del mundo. Existe una población principalmente susceptible de ser colonizada y posteriormente infectarse, son los pacientes oncológicos. OBJETIVO: Identificar las características clínicas y patológicas de los pacientes oncológicos y su relación con la infección con microorganismos productores de BLEE y EPC. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se condujo un estudio retrospectivo y de carácter analítico entre el primero de enero de 2019 y el 30 de junio de 2020 en tres unidades hemato-oncológicas. RESULTADOS: Incluyó a 3.315 pacientes, de los cuales 217 (6,5%) se encontraban colonizados por microorganismos productores de BLEE y EPC; de éstos, 106/217 (48,8%) presentaron al menos un episodio de infección. El microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado fue Klebsiella pneumoniae, en 29/106 (27,4%). De los infectados, 18/106 (17%) presentaron infección por el mismo microorganismo colonizador. La mucositis (p = 0,002), edad mayor a 65 años (p = 0,041), hipoalbuminemia (p < 0,01), neutropenia (p < 0,01) y la presencia dispositivos invasivos (p < 0,01) demostraron una relación con el desarrollo de infección. CONCLUSIÓN: La presencia de hipoalbuminemia (OR 3,3, IC 1,5-7,1, p < 0,01), dispositivos invasivos (OR 5,8, IC 3.0-11,4, p < 0,01) y neutropenia (OR 4,1, IC 1,5-11,4, p < 0,01) predicen el desarrollo de infecciones.


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of multi-resistant microorganisms is a public health problem that continues to grow globally. There is a population that is mainly susceptible to being colonized and subsequently infected, and these are cancer patients. AIM: To identify the clinical and pathological characteristics of cancer patients and their relationship with infection with ESBL and CPE producing microorganisms. METHODS: A retrospective and analytical study was conducted between January 1, 2019 and June 30, 2020 in three hematooncological units. RESULTS: We included 3315 patients of which 217 (6.5%) were colonized by microorganisms producing ESBL and CPE. Of these, 106/217 (48.8%) had at least one episode of infection. The most frequently isolated microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae 29/106 (27.4%). Of those infected, 18/106 (17%) presented infection by the same colonizing microorganism. Mucositis (p = 0.002), age over 65 years (p = 0.041), hypoalbuminemia (p < 0.01), neutropenia (p < 0.01) and the presence of invasive devices (p < 0.01) demonstrated a relationship with development of infection. The presence of hypoalbuminemia (OR 3.3, CI 1.5-7.1, P < 0.01), invasive devices (OR 5.8, CI 3.0-11.4, p < 0.01) and neutropenia (OR 4.1, CI 1.5-11.4, p < 0.01) predict the development of infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hypoalbuminemia/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy , beta-Lactamases , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 142-146, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365338

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The vast majority of patients who hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are given empirical antibiotic therapy. However, information on the frequency, microorganism species, and resistance rates of secondary bacterial infections in coronavirus disease 2019 patients are insufficient. We aimed to show the frequency of secondary infections and resistance conditions in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized in the intensive care unit. METHODS: The results of tracheal aspirate culture, blood culture, and urine culture obtained from coronavirus disease 2019 patients - at least 2 days after their admission to the intensive care unit - were examined microbiologically. RESULTS: A total of 514 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit were included in our study. Tracheal aspirate, blood, or urine cultures were collected from 369 patients (71.8%). Bacterial reproduction was detected in at least one sample in 171 (33.3%) of all patients. The rate of respiratory tract infection and/or bloodstream infection was found to be 21%. Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in tracheal aspirate culture; Coagulase-negative staphylococci, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii in blood culture; and Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis in urine culture were the most common microorganisms. A. baumannii was resistant to most antibiotics except colistin and P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to most antibiotics except amikacin, colistin, cefepime, and imipenem. In K. pneumoniae, the highest meropenem sensitivity (73%) was observed; there was a strong resistance to most of the remaining antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: We think that our study can be useful in choosing empirical antibiotic therapy in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and reducing the mortality that may occur with secondary infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii , Coinfection , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(7): e00168021, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394187

ABSTRACT

A utilização indiscriminada de antibacterianos no período gestacional pode aumentar a resistência antimicrobiana e colocar em risco a saúde da gestante e da criança. Atualmente, está em vigência no Brasil a Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada nº 20/2011, que controla a prescrição e fornecimento de antibacterianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o uso de antibacterianos pelas gestantes participantes das coortes de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, de 2004 e 2015, considerando a regulamentação implementada entre as duas coortes. Foram utilizados dados coletados no período perinatal dos dois estudos. O desfecho principal foi o uso de antibacterianos na gestação. As prevalências de uso foram descritas a partir de variáveis independentes e diferenças em pontos percentuais (p.p.) entre as duas coortes. A prevalência do uso de antibacterianos foi de 41,9% (IC95%: 40,4; 43,3) em 2004 e 39,2% (IC95%: 37,7; 40,6) em 2015. Considerando-se as gestantes que relataram ter infecção durante a gestação, observou-se maior redução de uso em 2015, quando comparado a 2004, nas gestantes mais pobres (-15,4p.p., IC95%: 9,59; 21,20) e naquelas que foram a menos consultas (-17,1p.p., IC95%: 2,81; 31,36). Houve redução na proporção de antibacterianos usados, considerando o total de medicamentos de 20,6% (IC95%: 19,9; 21,4) em 2004 para 12,6% (IC95%: 12,1; 13,1) em 2015. As reduções encontradas, tanto nas prevalências de uso quanto na proporção dos antibacterianos sobre o total de medicamentos utilizados, podem ser reflexo da política de regulamentação implementada em 2011.


Indiscriminate use of anti-bacterial agents during pregnancy can increase antimicrobial resistance and endanger both the mother's and the children's health. Currently, Brazil has the Collegiate Directive Resolution n. 20/2011, which controls prescription and dispensation of anti-bacterial agents. Given this scenario, this study compared the use of anti-bacterial agents by pregnant women participating in the 2004 and 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, considering the regulation issued between the two cohorts. Data were collected in the perinatal period of the two studies. The main outcome was the use of anti-bacterial agents during pregnancy. Prevalence scans were described based on independent variables and differences in percentage points (p.p.) between the two cohorts. The prevalence of anti-bacterial use was 41.9% (95%CI: 40.4; 43.3) in 2004 and 39.2% (95%CI: 37.7; 40.6) in 2015. Considering the pregnant women who reported having infection during pregnancy, a greater reduction in use was observed in 2015, when compared to 2004, in poor women (-15.4p.p., 95%CI: 9.59; 21.20) and in those who had less consultations (-17.1p.p., 95%CI: 2.81; 31.36). Considering total medications, the proportion of anti-bacterial used dropped from 20.6% (95%CI: 19.9; 21.4) in 2004 to 12.6% (95%CI: 12.1; 13.1) in 2015. The reductions found in both the prevalence of use and the proportion of anti-bacterial agents over total medications used may be a reflection of the regulatory policy implemented in 2011.


El uso indiscriminado de antibacterianos durante el embarazo puede aumentar la resistencia a los antimicrobianos y poner en riesgo la salud de la gestante y del niño. Actualmente, está vigente en Brasil la Resolución de la Dirección Colegiada nº 20/2011, que controla la prescripción y dispensación de antibacterianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el uso de antibacterianos por gestantes participantes de las cohortes de nacimientos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, del 2004 y del 2015, considerando la regulación implementada entre las dos cohortes. Se utilizaron los datos recopilados en el período perinatal de los dos estudios. El resultado principal fue el uso de antibacterianos durante el embarazo. Las prevalencias de uso se describieron con base en las variables independientes y diferencias en puntos porcentuales (p.p.) entre las dos cohortes. La prevalencia de uso de antibacterianos fue del 41,9% (IC95%: 40,4; 43,3) en el 2004 y del 39,2% (IC95%: 37,7; 40,6) en el 2015. Teniendo en cuenta que las gestantes que reportaron haber tenido infección durante el embarazo, hubo una mayor reducción de uso en el 2015, en comparación con el 2004, en las gestantes más pobres (-15,4p.p., IC95%: 9,59; 21,20) y en las que consultaron menos (-17,1p.p., IC95% 2,81;31,36). Hubo una reducción en la proporción de antibacterianos usados, considerando la cantidad total de medicamentos del 20,6% (IC95%: 19,9; 21,4) en el 2004 al 12,6% (IC95%: 12,1; 13,1) en el 2015. Las reducciones encontradas, tanto en las prevalencias de uso como en la proporción de antibacterianos sobre la cantidad total de medicamentos utilizados, pueden ser reflejo de la política regulatoria implementada en el 2011.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pregnant Women , Birth Cohort , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
15.
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20210206, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386121

ABSTRACT

Resumo Aneurismas infecciosos, anteriormente chamados de aneurismas micóticos, são raros; acometem com maior frequência a aorta de pacientes jovens e apresentam maior tendência à rotura do que aneurismas de outras etiologias. O formato sacular é o mais característico, e os agentes etiológicos mais comuns são Staphylococcus sp e Salmonella sp. A literatura fornece informações limitadas e imprecisas sobre a correta nomenclatura, diagnóstico e tratamento da doença. Os autores reuniram três casos cujos procedimentos diagnósticos e terapêuticos foram documentados. Além de relatar essa série de casos, realiza-se uma revisão sobre o tema, a fim de estabelecer estratégias diagnósticas e terapêuticas pertinentes.


Abstract Infectious aneurysms, formerly known as mycotic aneurysms, are rare, most often involve the aorta in young patients, and have a greater tendency to rupture than aneurysms of other etiologies. The most characteristic shape is saccular and the most common etiologic agents are Staphylococcus sp. and Salmonella sp. There is scant and imprecise information in the literature about correct nomenclature, diagnosis, and treatment. The authors present three cases in which diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were documented. In addition to reporting this case series, the authors also present a review of the subject, outlining pertinent diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aneurysm, Infected/surgery , Aneurysm, Infected/diagnosis , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnosis , Aortic Aneurysm/drug therapy , Aneurysm, Infected/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943049

ABSTRACT

For elective surgery of colorectal cancer, current evidence supports preoperative mechanical bowel preparation combined with oral antibiotics. Meanwhile, for patients with varied degrees of intestinal stenosis, individualized protocol is required to avoid adverse events. We hereby summarize recent high-quality evidences and updates of guidelines and consensus, and recommend stratified bowel preparation based on the clinical practice of our institute as follows. (1) For patients with unimpaired oral intake, whose tumor can be passed by colonoscopy, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics are given. (2) For patients without symptoms of bowel obstruction but with impaired oral intake or incomplete colonoscopy due to tumor-related stenosis, small-dosage laxative is given for several days before surgery, and oral antibiotics the day before surgery. (3) For patients with bowel obstruction, mechanical bowel preparation or enema is not indicated. We proposed this evidence-based, individualized protocol for preoperative bowel preparation for the reference of our colleagues, in the hope of improving perioperative outcomes and reducing adverse events.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Constriction, Pathologic/etiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Preoperative Care/methods , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941005

ABSTRACT

Infective endocarditis in pregnancy is extremely rare in clinical practice. Guidelines addressing prophylaxis and management of infective endocarditis do not extensively deal with concomitant pregnancy, and case reports on infective endocarditis are scarce. Due to increased blood volume and hemodynamic changes in late pregnancy, endocardial neoplasms are easy to fall off and cause systemic or pulmonary embolism, respiratory, cardiac arrest and sudden death may occur in pregnant women, the fetus can suffer from intrauterine distress and stillbirth at any time, leading to adverse outcomes for pregnant women and fetuses. The disease is dangerous and difficult to treat, which seriously threatens the lives of mothers and babies. Early diagnosis and reasonable treatment can effectively improve the prognosis of patients. The most important method for the treatment of infective endocarditis requires early, adequate, long-term and combined antibiotic therapy. Moreover, surgical controversies regarding indication and timing of treatment exist, especially in pregnancy. In terms of the timing of termination of pregnancy, the timing of cardiac surgery, and the method of surgery, individualized programs must be adopted. A pregnant woman with 30+5 weeks of gestation is reported. She was admitted to hospital due to intermittent chest tightness, suffocation and fever, with grade Ⅲ cardiac insufficiency. Imaging revealed large mitral valve vegetation, 22.0 mm×4.1 mm and 22.0 mm×5.1 mm, respectively, and severe valve regurgitation. Mitral valve perforation was more likely, blood culture suggested Staphylococcus epidermidis infection, after antibiotic conservative treatment, the effect was poor. After the joint consultation including cardiology, neonatology, interventional vascular surgery, anesthesiology, and obstetrics, the combined operation of obstetrics and cardiac surgery was performed in time. The heart was blocked for 60 minutes, the bleeding was 1 200 mL, the newborn was mildly asphyxiated after birth, and the birth weight was 1 890 g. Nine days after the operation, the patient was discharged from the hospital, and the newborn was discharged with the weight of 2 020 g. Critical cases like this require a thorough weighing of risks and benefits followed by swift action to protect the mother and her unborn child. An optimal outcome in a challenging case like this greatly depends on effective interdisciplinary communication, informed consent of the patient, and concerted action among the specialists involved.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/therapy , Female , Heart Valve Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mitral Valve/surgery , Pregnancy , Staphylococcal Infections
18.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 697-700, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940977

ABSTRACT

Chronic and infectious wound healing has always been an issue of concern in clinical and scientific research, in which bacterial infection and oxidative damage are the key factors hindering wound healing. Carbon dots, as a new material, has attracted much attention because of its unique physical and chemical properties and good biological safety. In recent years, the researches on the antibacterial property, antioxidant, and photoluminescence properties of carbon dots are more and more extensive and carbon dots have great potential in the treatment of chronic and infectious wounds. This paper reviews the research progress of carbon dots in three aspects: antibacterial, anti-oxidation and monitoring of wound infection are reviewed, and further discusses its specific mechanism, potential research direction, and application prospect.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Carbon/therapeutic use , Humans , Wound Healing , Wound Infection/drug therapy
19.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 307-321, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939881

ABSTRACT

The discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4, has played an important role in the development of cancer immunotherapy. However, immune-related adverse events often occur because of the enhanced immune response enabled by these agents. Antibiotics are widely applied in clinical treatment, and they are inevitably used in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Clinical practice has revealed that antibiotics can weaken the therapeutic response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Studies have shown that the gut microbiota is essential for the interaction between immune checkpoint inhibitors and antibiotics, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. This review focuses on the interactions between immune checkpoint inhibitors and antibiotics, with an in-depth discussion about the mechanisms and therapeutic potential of modulating gut microbiota, as well as other new combination strategies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the characteristics of pathogen infection and to establish a prediction model of infections in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction.@*METHODS@#The retrospective cohort study consisted of 1 596 patients undergoing tumor resection and free flap reconstruction for oral squamous cell carcinoma from January 2018 to December 2020. According to the postoperative infection, the patients were divided into the infected group (n=154) and non-infected group (n=1 442). The characteristics of pathogens were analyzed in the infected patients. The primary outcome variable was postoperative infection, and Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors of the infection. The prediction model was established and the discriminatory accuracy of the model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.@*RESULTS@#Totally 154 cases were infected in the 1 596 cases undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction, and the infection rate was 9.65%. The most frequent sites of infection were the surgical wound and respiratory tract. A total of 268 pathogens were isolated and cultured, including 240 strains of Gram-negative bacteria, accounting for 89.55%, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae; 23 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, accounting for 8.58%, mainly Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus; and 5 strains of fungi, accounting for 1.87%. The isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa had high resistant rate to imipenem and meropenem, and was sensitive to antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus had high resistant rate to erythromycin and clindamycin, and was sensitive to vancomycin. According to the multivariate Logistic analysis, four independent variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection (P < 0.05): clinical N category≥1, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade ≥2, tracheotomy and length of hospital stay >13 d. The prediction model was established based on these factors and the expression of the risk prediction model was as follows: predicted probability value P=1/(1+e-a), a=-0.803+0.674×(clinical N category ≥1)+0.518×(the ASA grade ≥2)+0.918×(tracheotomy)+1.581×(length of hospital stay >13 d), Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2=10.647, P=0.223, the degree of fitting of the model was good. The area under the ROC curve was 0.818 and 95%CI of the model for predicting infection was 0.789-0.846.@*CONCLUSION@#Oral squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction are prone to have a high incidence of postoperative infection and Gram-negative bacteria are the main pathogens causing an infection. The established prediction model is of good predictive effect. Rational antimicrobial use coupled with awareness of infection control measures is paramount to reduce the incidence of postoperative infection in the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Free Tissue Flaps , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy
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