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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00290620, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355979

ABSTRACT

Resumo: A profilaxia pré-exposição ao HIV (PrEP) tem sido considerada uma estratégia fundamental para o controle da epidemia de HIV/aids, e desde 2018 tem sido objeto de estudo de implementação (Estudo ImPrEP Stakeholders), realizado no Brasil, no México e no Peru. Um componente qualitativo desse estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar os contextos sociais e estruturais que envolvem e organizam a oferta de serviços de PrEP no Brasil, as subjetividades dos atores envolvidos e as diferentes percepções que podem impactar a efetivação dessa estratégia. O presente artigo teve como foco de análise o acesso das populações vulneráveis aos serviços de PrEP, na perspectiva de gestores, profissionais de saúde, lideranças ou ativistas e usuários de PrEP. É um estudo qualitativo com o uso de metodologia compreensiva, realizado em seis capitais brasileiras, em que foram entrevistados 71 atores-chave no período de novembro de 2018 a maio de 2019. A análise foi pautada pelos modelos analíticos sobre acesso propostos por Giovanella & Fleury, McIntyre et al. e Penchansky & Thomas. Os resultados são apresentados com base em três eixos: "percepções sobre prevenção combinada e PrEP"; "disponibilidade e adequação: perfil e estrutura dos serviços no contexto do ImPrEP"; e "aceitabilidade: atitudes e práticas dos profissionais de saúde e usuários".


Abstract: HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been considered a fundamental strategy for controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and since 2018 it has been the object of an implementation study (ImPrEP Stakeholders Study), conducted in Brazil, México, and Peru. A qualitative component of this study was developed with the objective of identifying the social and structural contexts that involve and organize the supply of PrEP services in Brazil, the stakeholders' subjectivities, and the different perceptions that can impact the strategy's implementation. The current article's focus was to analyze access by vulnerable populations to PrEP services from the perspective of managers, health professionals, leaders or activists, and users of PrEP. This was a qualitative study using a comprehensive methodology, conducted in six Brazilian state capitals, interviewing 71 key actors from November 2018 to May 2019. The analysis was based on access analysis models as proposed by Giovanella & Fleury, McIntyre et al. and Penchansky & Thomas. The results are presented along three lines: "perceptions of combined prevention and PrEP", "availability and adequacy: profile and structure of services in the context of ImPrEP", and "acceptability: attitudes and practices of health professionals and users".


Resumen: La profilaxis preexposición al VIH (PrEP) ha sido considerada una estrategia fundamental para el control de la epidemia de VIH/sida y desde 2018 ha sido objeto de estudio de implementación (Estudio ImPrEP Stakeholders), realizado en Brasil, México y Perú. Un componente cualitativo de este estudio se desarrolló con el objetivo de identificar los contextos sociales y estructurales que engloban y organizan la oferta de servicios de PrEP en Brasil, las subjetividades de los actores implicados y las diferentes percepciones que pueden impactar en hacer efectiva esa estrategia. El objetivo de este artículo es el análisis del acceso de las poblaciones vulnerables a los servicios de PrEP, desde la perspectiva de los gestores, profesionales de salud, líderes o activistas y usuarios de la PrEP. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo con uso de metodología comprensiva, realizado en seis capitales brasileñas, en las que fueron entrevistados 71 actores-clave, durante el período de noviembre de 2018 a mayo de 2019. El análisis se pautó mediante modelos analíticos sobre acceso, propuestos por Giovanella & Fleury, McIntyre et al. y Penchansky & Thomas. Los resultados se presentan a partir de tres ejes: "percepciones sobre prevención combinada y PrEP", "disponibilidad y adecuación: perfil y estructura de los servicios en el contexto de la ImPrEP" y "aceptabilidad: actitudes y prácticas de los profesionales de salud y usuarios".


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Brazil , Health Personnel , Vulnerable Populations
2.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 62(1): 34-38, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342663

ABSTRACT

Presentamos el primer reporte de caso en paciente adulto con virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH + ) con fractura por fragilidad en fémur proximal asociada al uso de terapia antirretroviral (TARV) con fumarato de disoproxilo de tenofovir (FDT) en Chile. Actualmente, los pacientes diagnosticados con VIH inician tratamiento precoz con TARV, lo que implica mayor cantidad de años de exposición a los fármacos de la terapia. El tiempo de exposición acumulado al FDT se ha asociado a disminución de la densidad mineral ósea y falla renal progresiva, pudiendo el paciente desarrollar síndrome de Fanconi adquirido y osteomalacia, con riesgo aumentado de fractura. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 44 años, VIH+ , evaluado en urgencia tras caída a nivel que resultó en fractura patológica del fémur proximal. Los exámenes de ingreso destacaron hipocalemia, hipocalcemia, hipofosfatemia e hipovitaminosis D. Se realizó manejo multidisciplinario, con suspensión del FDT, un cambio en la TARV, y suplementación con calcio y carga de vitamina D. Se realizó reducción cerrada y fijación con clavo cefalomedular largo, que evolucionó favorablemente con rehabilitación motora precoz; el paciente recuperó su funcionalidad previa, y se observó consolidación ósea a las 12 semanas. La aparición de dolor osteomuscular en pacientes VIH+ en TARV debe levantar alta sospecha clínica de efecto adverso a medicamento; el seguimiento de estos pacientes debe incluir el control seriado de la función renal y de los niveles séricos de calcio y fósforo. La búsqueda y sospecha de estas complicaciones permitiría una intervención precoz, mejorando la condición de los pacientes y previniendo fracturas patológicas.


We present the first case report of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adult patient with a fragility fracture of the proximal femur associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in Chile. Currently, patients diagnosed with HIV start ART early, resulting in more years of exposure to these drugs. The accumulated exposure time to TDF has been associated with a decreased bone mineral density and progressive renal failure, potentially leading to acquired Fanconi syndrome, osteomalacia, and an increased risk of fracture. We present a case of a 44-year-old, HIV-positive man assessed at the emergency room after a fall from standing height which resulted in a proximal femoral pathological fracture. Laboratory findings at admission revealed hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypovitaminosis D. Multidisciplinary management was performed, with TDF discontinuation, ART change, and supplementation with calcium and vitamin D. Closed reduction and fixation with a long cephalomedullary nail was successful, with early motor rehabilitation, functional recovery, and bone consolidation at 12 weeks. Musculoskeletal pain in HIV-positive patients on ART must raise the clinical suspicion of an adverse drug effect; the follow-up of these subjects must include serial monitoring of renal function and serum calcium and phosphorus levels. Screening and suspicion of such complications would enable an early intervention, improving the patients' condition and preventing pathological fractures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Femoral Fractures/chemically induced , Femoral Fractures/therapy , Tenofovir/adverse effects , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Bone Nails , Calcium/therapeutic use , Closed Fracture Reduction , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/instrumentation
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2850-2856, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms after efavirenz (EFV) treatment in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) could persist and impact their quality of life. We assessed the impact of EFV-based regimen replacement with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF), which is considered an alternative option for subjects who do not tolerate EFV. Most specifically, we assessed the safety and the efficacy of E/C/F/TAF and its effects on the participants' neuropsychiatric toxicity symptoms in a real-life setting.@*METHODS@#A prospective cohort study was conducted among virologic suppressed HIV-positive participants receiving EFV-based regimens with ongoing CNS toxicity ≥ grade 2. The participants were switched to single-pill combination regimens E/C/F/TAF and followed up for 48 weeks. The neuropsychiatric toxicity symptoms were measured using a CNS side effects questionnaire, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants experiencing grade 2 or higher CNS toxicity after EFV switch off at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Secondary endpoints included virologic and immunological responses and the effect on fasting lipids at week 48 after switch.@*RESULTS@#One hundred ninety-six participants (96.9% men, median age: 37.5 years, median: 3.7 years on prior EFV-containing regimens) were included in the study. Significant improvements in anxiety and sleep disturbance symptoms were observed at 12, 24, and 48 weeks after switching to E/C/F/TAF (P < 0.05). No significant change in depression symptom scores was observed. At 48 weeks after switch, HIV viral load <50 copies/mL was maintained in all of the participants, median fasting lipid levels were moderately increased (total cholesterol [TC]: 8.2 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]: 8.5 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]: 2.9 mg/dL, and triglyceride (TG): 1.6 mg/dL, and the TC:HDL-C ratio remained stable.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The single-pill combination regimens E/C/F/TAF is safe and well tolerated. This study reveals that switching from EFV to E/C/F/TAF significantly reduces neuropsychiatric toxicity symptoms in people living with HIV with grade 2 or higher CNS complaints.


Subject(s)
Adenine/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine , Alkynes , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Benzoxazines , Central Nervous System , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes , Drug Combinations , Emtricitabine/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Quinolones , Tenofovir/analogs & derivatives
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880372

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#The survival of HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is determined by a number of factors, including economic, demographic, behavioral, and institutional factors. Understanding the survival time and its trend is crucial to developing policies that will result in changes. The aim of this study was to compare the survival estimates of different subgroups and look into the predictors of HIV/AIDS patient survival.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study of HIV/AIDS patients receiving ART at the University of Gondar teaching hospital was carried out. To compare the survival of various groups, a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors influencing HIV/AIDS patient survival rates.@*RESULTS@#In the current study, 5.91% of the 354 HIV/AIDS patients under ART follow-up were uncensored or died. Age (HR = 1.051) and lack of formal education (HR = 5.032) were associated with lower survival rate, whereas family size of one to two (HR = 0.167), three to four (HR = 0.120), no alcoholic consumption (HR = 0.294), no smoking and chat use (HR = 0.101), baseline weight (HR = 0.920), current weight (HR = 0.928), baseline CD4 cell count (HR = 0.990), baseline hemoglobin (HR = 0.800), and no TB diseases were associated with longer survival rate.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Fewer deaths were reported in a study area due to high patient adherence, compared to previous similar studies. Age, educational status, family size, alcohol consumption, tobacco and chat usage, baseline and current weight, baseline CD4 cell count, baseline hemoglobin, and tuberculosis (TB) diseases were all significant predictors of survival of HIV/AIDS patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Young Adult
5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(9): e00143520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345635

ABSTRACT

Immune recovery reflects health conditions. Our goal was to estimate the time it takes to achieve immune recovery and its associated factors, in people living with HIV (PLHIV), after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. A historical cohort study was performed among PLHIV (> 18 years-old) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using data from healthcare databases. Patients initiating ART between 2009-2018, with T-CD4+ lymphocytes and viral load recorded before and after antiretroviral therapy were included. The outcome is achievement of immune recovery, defined as the first T-CD4+ > 500 cells/µL after ART initiation. Explanatory variables were age, gender, place of residence, year of ART initiation, baseline viral load and T-CD4+, viral load status, and adherence to ART at follow-up. Descriptive analysis, cumulative, and person-time incidences of immune recovery were estimated. Median-time to immune recovery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with immune recovery were assessed by Cox regression. Among 26,430 PLHIV, 8,014 (30%) were eligible. Most were male (67%), mean age 38.7 years, resided in non-central region, median-baseline T-CD4+ = 228 cells/µL (< 200 cells/µL = 43%) and viral load median-baseline = 4.7 log10 copies/mL (detectable viral load = 99%). Follow-up time = 15,872 person-years. Cumulative and incidence rate were 58% (95%CI: 57-58) (n = 4,678) and 29.47 cases/100 person-years, respectively. Median-time to immune recovery was of 22.8 months (95%CI: 21.9-24.0). Women living with HIV, younger than 38 years of age, with T-CD4+ baseline > 200 cells/µL, detectable viral load (baseline), antiretroviral therapy-adherence and undetectable viral load (follow-up) were independently associated with immune recovery. Time to immune recovery remains long and depends on early treatment and antiretroviral therapy-adherence.


A recuperação imunológica reflete condições de saúde. Nosso objetivo foi estimar o tempo até a recuperação imunológica e fatores associados em pessoas vivendo com HIV (PVHIV) após de iniciar a terapia antirretroviral (TARV). Foi conduzida uma coorte histórica de PVHIV (> 18 anos) no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, usando bancos de serviços públicos de saúde. Foram incluídos pacientes que iniciaram a TARV entre 2009 e 2018, com linfócitos T-CD4+ e carga viral registrados antes e depois do início da TARV. O desfecho foi a recuperação imunológica, definida como a primeira contagem de T-CD4+ > 500 cel/µL após o início da TARV. As variáveis explanatórias foram idade, sexo, local de residência, ano de início de TARV, carga viral basal, T-CD4+ na linha de base e carga viral e adesão à TARV no seguimento. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva com estimativa de incidência acumulada e taxa de incidência (pessoa-ano). O tempo mediano até a recuperação imunológica foi estimado pelo método Kaplan-Meier. Fatores associados à recuperação imune foram avaliados por meio de regressão de Cox. Entre as 26.430 PVHIV, 8.014 (30%) foram elegíveis. A maioria era do sexo masculino (67%), com média de idade = 38,7 anos, residência em regiões fora da região metropolitana, mediana de T-CD4+ baseline = 228 células/µL (< 200 células/µL = 43%) e mediana de carga viral baseline = 4,7 log10 cópias/mL (carga viral detectável = 99%). Tempo de seguimento = 15.872 pessoas-ano. A incidência acumulativa e a taxa de incidência foram foram 58% (IC95%: 57-58) (n = 4.678) e 29,47 casos/100 pessoas-ano, respectivamente. Tempo mediano até recuperação imune = 22,8 meses (IC95%: 21,9-24,0). Os fatores independentemente associados com recuperação imunológica foram sexo feminino, idade < 38 anos, T-CD4+ basal > 200 células/µL, carga viral detectável (linha de base), adesão à TARV e carga viral indetectável (no seguimento). O tempo até a recuperação imunológica ainda é longo e impactado pelo tratamento precoce e da adesão à TARV.


La recuperación inmunológica refleja condiciones de salud. Nuestra meta fue estimar el tiempo y los factores asociados a la recuperación inmunológica en personas que viven con VIH (PVVIH), tras iniciar una terapia antirretroviral (TAR). Se realizó sobre una cohorte histórica entre PVVIH (> 18 años de edad) en Minas Gerais, Brasil, usando datos de las bases de datos del sistema de salud. Se incluyeron a pacientes que comenzaron una TAR entre 2009-2018, con T-CD4+ linfocitos y carga viral, registrada antes/después de TAR. El resultado fue el logro de recuperación inmunológica, definida como la primera T-CD4+ > 500 células/µL tras la iniciación TAR. Las variables explicatorias fueron: edad, género, lugar de residencia, año de iniciación TAR, base de referencia de carga viral, base de referencia de T-CD4+ y estatus de la carga viral y adherencia al TAR en el seguimiento. Se estimó: análisis descriptivo, acumulativo e incidencias persona-tiempo de recuperación inmunológica. La media de tiempo para la recuperación inmunológica se estimó usando el método Kaplan-Meier. Los factores asociados con la recuperación inmunológica se evaluaron mediante la regresión de Cox. Entre las 26.430 PVVIH, 8.014 (30%) fueron elegibles. La mayoría eran hombres (67%), media de edad = 38,7 años, residentes en una región no central, media de base de referencia T-CD4+ = 228 células/µL (< 200 células/µL = 43%) y carga viral media de base de referencia = 4,7 log10 copias/mL (carga viral detectable = 99%). El tiempo de seguimiento = 15.872 persona-años. La tasa acumulativa y de incidencia fue 58% (95%CI: 57-58) (n = 4.678) y 29,47 casos/100 persona-años, respectivamente. El tiempo de media para la recuperación inmunológica = 22,8 meses (95%CI: 21,9-24,0). Género femenino, PVVIH < 38 años de edad, T-CD4+ base de referencia > 200 células/µL, carga viral detectable (base de referencia), adherencia al TAR e carga viral indetectable (seguimiento) estuvieron independientemente asociadas con la recuperación inmunológica. El tiempo para la recuperación inmunológica sigue siendo largo y depende de un tratamiento temprano y de adherencia a la TAR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 550-554, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144249

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Cargas virales (CV) entre 20-200 copias/mL se consideran cargas virales de bajo grado (CVBG). Su implicancia clínica y manejo no han sido definidos. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de CVBG en el riesgo de desarrollo posterior de fallo virológico (FV). Pacientes y Métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes ≥ 18 años, desde enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2019, con infección por VIH-1 con CV< 20 copias/mL, por un mínimo de seis meses y/o en dos muestras consecutivas bajo tratamiento anti-retroviral . Se realizó seguimiento de las CV estrati ficándolas: CV < 20 copias/mL, CVBG (20-50 copias/mL y 51-200 copias/mL) y FV. Mediana de seguimiento 25 meses (IQR 15-31). Resultados: Fueron incluidos 1.416 pacientes con CV < 20 copias/ mL bajo TARV. De ellos, 797 permanecieron con CV< 20 copias/mL durante el seguimiento, 144 presentaron CV entre 20-50 copias/mL, 384 entre 51-200 copias/mL y 91 presentaron FV sin CVBG previa. De los 528 pacientes que tuvieron CVBG, 110 (20,1%) fallaron, riesgo 3,45 veces superior respecto a los que no tuvieron CVBG previa. El riesgo de FV fue 3,27 mayor para aquellos que tuvieron CVBG entre 51-200 copias/mL vs 20-50 copias/mL. Discusión: El estudio permite relacionar la CVBG con el FV posterior, siendo el mayor riesgo CVBG entre 51-200 copias/mL.


Abstract Background: Viral loads (VL) between 20-200 copies/mL are considered low-grade viral loads (LGVL). Its clinical implications and management have not been defined. Aim: To evaluate the impact of LGVL on the risk of subsequent development of virological failure (VF). Methods: Patients ≥ 18 years, with HIV-1 infection who had VL < 20 copies/mL for at least six months and/or in two consecutive samples under antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included, between January 1st, 2009 and December 31, 2019. Follow-up of the VLs was carried out stratifying them in VL < 20 copies/mL, LGVL (20-50 copies/mL and 51-200 copies/mL) and VF. Median follow-up 25 months (IQR 15-31). Results: 1,416 patients were included who reached VL < 20 copies/ml under ART, 797 patients remained with CV < 20 copies/mL during follow-up, 144 patients had VL between 21-50 copies/mL, 384 between 51-200 copies/mL and 91 had VF without previous LGVL. Out of 528 patients who had LGVL, 110 failed, risk 3.45 times higher than those who had no previous LGVL. Risk 3.27 times higher of VF for those who had LGVL between 51-200 copies/mL compared to 20-50 copies/mL. Discussion: The study allows to relate the LGVL with VF. This association was observed more frequently with LGVL between 51-200 copies/mL


Subject(s)
Humans , Viremia/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Treatment Failure , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
7.
Guatemala; Universidad del Valle de Guatemala. Programa Regional Centroamericano de VIH, MSPAS, CDC, PEPFAR, The University Norht Caroline; mar 2020. 99 p. ilus.
Monography in English | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1147330

ABSTRACT

In a qualitative study with both MSM and TW living with HIV in Guatemala City, Barrington et al (2016) again found that intersecting stigma and discrimination created fear of HIV testing and linkage to HIV care and barriers to knowledge about HIV. Retention-specific determinants included HIV clinic dynamics and limited employment opportunities, which affected economic stability. These multiple levels of factors driving linkage and retention in care and treatment require multi-level, integrated responses (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Sexual Health , Social Support , Medical Informatics Applications , Prospective Studies , Fear/psychology , Social Stigma , Guatemala/epidemiology
8.
Homeopatia Méx ; 89(720): 26-36, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1147662

ABSTRACT

El cáncer es una de las principales causas de mortalidad. Algunos experimentos recientes con preparaciones altamente diluidas han mostrado efectos anticáncer en modelos in vitro e in vivo. Este principio fundamental de la Homeopatía sugiere que las sustancias capaces de ocasionar ciertas enfermedades podrían tener la capacidad de alterar el mismo mal si se utiliza dicha sustancia de forma ultra diluida y potenciada. Esta hipótesis llevó a examinar a ciertos carcinógenos por su potencial eficacia anticáncer. La prueba de sulfurodamina B resulta útil para determinar la citotoxicidad en estudios basados en células para evaluar agentes anticancerosos. En el protocolo estuvieron involucradas la preparación de diluciones homeopáticas, incubación de células con diluciones homeopáticas, unión de SRB y la medición de absorbancia. Las células fueron tratadas con potencias 30C de: nosode de VIH, nosode de hepatitis C, Carcinosinum, nosode de cáncer y etanol, así como un control positivo (adriamicina). Las preparaciones fueron evaluadas en cultivos de células: HeLa, HepG2, A549, MCF, 7 T 24, Jurkat, SCC 40 y también HL-60. La actividad anticáncer de las preparaciones homeopáticas se han medido mediante porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento, y todas mostraron actividad anticáncer en celulas HeLa, HepG2, A 549, T 24 y HL-60. El Carcinosinum mostró actividad anticáncer en las células SCC 40, mientras que el nosode de Hepatitis C, el Carcinosinum y el nosode de cáncer fueron efectivos contra los cultivos de células de cáncer de mama MCF-7. Sin embargo, ninguna de las preparaciones mostró actividad alguna contra los cultivos de célula de leucemia. A manera de conclusión, preparaciones altamente diluidas y potencializadas han demostrado efectos anticáncer y citotóxicos en cultivos celulares, lo cual sustenta el razonamiento del principio homeopático fundamental de la Ley de los Semejantes, y trazando el camino para ampliar su aplicación en los servicios de salud.(AU)


Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. The recent experiments with highdiluted preparations have shown anticancer effects in in vitro and vivo models. The fundamental principle of homeopathy suggests that the substances capable of producing certain diseases may have a capacity to alter the same disease if used in the ultra-dilute-potentized form. This hypothesis led certain carcinogens for examining their potential anti-cancer efficacy. Sulforhodamine B assay is useful in determining the cytotoxicity in cell-based studies in evaluating anticancer agents. The protocol involved preparation of homeopathy dilutions, incubation of cells with homeopathy dilutions, SRB binding, and measurement of absorbance. Cells were treated with 30 potencies of HIV nosode, Hepatitis C nosode, Carcinosin, Cancer nosode, and Ethanol along with positive control (Adriamycin). The preparations were tested in HeLa, HepG2, A549, MCF 7, T 24, Jurkat, SCC 40, and HL-60 cell-lines. The homeopathic preparations have shown the anticancer activity measured as percentage growth inhibition. All the homeopathy preparations studied, exhibited anticancer activity on HeLa, HepG2, A 549, T 24, and HL-60 cells. Carcinosin showed the anticancer activity on the SCC 40 cells. Hepatitis C nosode, Carcinosin, and Cancer nosode have shown the anticancer activity on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. None of the preparations exhibited anticancer activity on Human Leukemia Cell Line. High-dilution, potentized preparations of certain carcinogens have demonstrated anti-cancer, cytotoxic effects in the cell-line model, supporting the rationale of the fundamental homeopathic principle the Law of Similars, opening windows to its wider applications in healthcare. (AU)


Subject(s)
High Potencies , Law of Similars , Nosodes (Homeopathy) , Neoplasms , Anti-HIV Agents , Hepatitis C, Chronic
9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 290-295, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136208

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The objective of this study was to verify the level of adherence to antiretroviral treatment and its associated factors. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study based on data retrieved from medical records. To achieve this, we used a questionnaire composed of sociodemographic and clinical information recorded from patients aged between thirteen and fifty-nine years who attended a specialized service from 2007 to 2014. The chi-square test was performed to verify the association of the outcome with the categorical variables. Continuous variables were compared through the Student t-test. Thirteen variables were analyzed in the bivariate model, resulting in the selection of the following variables to the multivariate model (p<0.20) age of discovery (p=0.12), age (p=0.14), skin color (p=0.12), level of education (p=0.03), time since HIV diagnosis (p<0.001) and AIDS case (p<0.001). Among the six variables selected for the multivariate model, cases of aids (p<0.001) remained significant. We concluded that having aids decreases the probability of non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment by 92%. These results indicate that symptomatic patients have better adherence to therapy.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os níveis de adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral e os fatores associados a ela. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de delineamento transversal baseado em levantamento de prontuários. Para tanto, foi utilizado um questionário composto de informações sociodemográficas e clínicas de pacientes com idade entre 13 e 59 anos atendidos em um serviço de atendimento especializado nos anos de 2007 a 2014. Foi realizado o teste do Qui-quadrado para verificar a associação do desfecho com as variáveis categóricas. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de "Student" (dois grupos). Treze variáveis foram analisadas no modelo bivariado, sendo selecionadas para o modelo multivariado (p<0,20): idade de descoberta (p=0,12), idade (p=0,14), cor da pele (p=0,12), escolaridade (p=0,03), tempo de diagnóstico do HIV (p<0,001) e caso de aids (p<0,001). Das seis variáveis selecionadas para o modelo multivariado, permaneceu significante o fato de o paciente ter aids (p<0,001). Concluiu-se que ter aids reduz a probabilidade de não adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral em cerca de 92%. Os resultados indicam que o indivíduo que é sintomático adere melhor à terapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Patient Compliance , Medication Adherence/ethnology , Middle Aged
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 65-72, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the outcome of patients with HIV infection, providing virological control and reducing mortality. However, there are several reasons as to why patients may discontinue their antiretroviral therapy, with adverse events being one of the main reasons reported in the literature. This is a case-control nested in a cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS, conducted to identify the incidence of ART modification due to adverse events and the associated factors, in two referral services in Recife, Brazil, between 2011 and 2014. Of the modifications occurred in the first year of ART, 25.7% were driven by adverse events. The median time elapsed between initiating ART and the first modification due to adverse events was 70.5 days (95% CI: 26-161 days). The main adverse events were dermatological, neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal. Dermatological events were the earliest to appear after initiating ART. Efavirenz was the most prescribed and most modified drug during the study period. The group of participants who used zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz had a 2-fold greater chance (adjusted OR: 2.16 95% CI: 1.28-3.65) of switching ART due to adverse events when compared to the group that used tenofovir with lamivudine and efavirenz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Time Factors , Brazil , Zidovudine/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Lamivudine/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Benzoxazines/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Tenofovir/adverse effects
11.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3228, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1058545

ABSTRACT

Objective: to determine the contents that must be included in the usual counseling to improve the adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of HIV patients, according to their different levels of alcohol consumption, and to determine the validity of the Counseling Guide in improving the adherence to ART in patients who consume alcohol using Implementation Science. Method: this is an observational study with formative and validation phases. The formative phase defined the content, approach and structure of the counseling. Validation included focus groups with patients and nurses, trial process by an expert and a pilot test. The criteria evaluated based on Implementation Science were: intervention source, evidence strength and quality, relative advantage, and complexity. The following criteria were also evaluated: usefulness, practicality, acceptability, sustainability, effectiveness; content consistency and congruence; procedural compliance and difficulties, and time spent in counseling. Results: the strength of evidence of the counseling is High-IIA, with strong level of recommendation and presenting usefulness, practicality, acceptability, sustainability and effectiveness. Eight in 11 experts argued that the Guide is clear, consistent and congruent. Initial counseling takes around 24 minutes; and follow-up counseling, 21. The instruments of the Guide present reliability levels between good and high (0.65 ≥ alpha ≤ 0.92). Conclusion: the Counseling Guide is valid to improve the adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients who consume alcohol.


Objetivo: determinar os conteúdos que devem ser incluídos no aconselhamento habitual para melhorar a adesão ao TARV de pacientes com HIV, conforme seus diferentes níveis de consumo de álcool, e determinar a validade do Guia de Aconselhamento para melhorar a adesão ao TARV em pacientes que consomem álcool, usando a Ciência da Implementação. Método: estudo observacional com fase formativa e de validação. A fase formativa permitiu definir o conteúdo, a abordagem e a estrutura do aconselhamento. A validação incluiu grupos focais com pacientes e enfermeiras, processo de julgamento de especialista e teste piloto. Estes foram os critérios avaliados com base na Ciência da Implementação: fonte de intervenção, força e qualidade da evidência, vantagem relativa e complexidade. Foram avaliados ainda: utilidade, praticidade, aceitabilidade, sustentabilidade, efetividade; consistência e congruência do conteúdo; cumprimento, dificuldades do procedimento e tempo empregado no aconselhamento. Resultados: o aconselhamento tem força de evidência Alta -IIA, forte nível de recomendação, apresenta utilidade, praticidade, aceitabilidade, sustentabilidade e efetividade. Oito de 11 especialistas argumentaram que o Guia é claro, consistente e congruente. O aconselhamento de início leva em torno de 24 minutos; e o de acompanhamento, 21. Os instrumentos do Guia têm um nível de confiabilidade entre bom e alto (0,65 ≥ alfa ≤ 0,92). Conclusão: o guia de aconselhamento é válido para melhorar a adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral em pacientes que consomem álcool.


Objetivo: determinar los contenidos necesarios a incluir a la consejería habitual para mejorar la adherencia al TARV de pacientes con VIH según sus diferentes niveles de consumo de alcohol, y determinar la validez de la Guía de Consejería para mejorar la adherencia al TARV en paciente que consumen alcohol usando Ciencia de la Implementación. Método: estudio Observacional con fase formativa y de validación. La fase formativa permitió definir el contenido, enfoque y estructura de la consejería. La validación incluyó grupos focales con pacientes y enfermeras, juicio experto y prueba piloto. Los criterios evaluados en base a la Ciencia de la Implementación fueron: fuente de intervención, fuerza y calidad de la evidencia, ventaja relativa y complejidad. También se evaluó: utilidad, practicidad, aceptabilidad, sostenibilidad, efectividad; consistencia y congruencia del contenido; cumplimiento, dificultades del procedimiento y tiempo empleado en la consejería. Resultados: la consejería tiene fuerza de evidencia Alta -IIA, fuerte nivel de recomendación, presenta utilidad, practicidad, aceptabilidad, sostenibilidad y efectividad. Ocho de 11 expertos, sostuvieron que la Guía es clara, consistente y congruente. La consejería de inicio toma en promedio 24 minutos y 21 minutos la de seguimiento. Los instrumentos de la Guía tienen un nivel de fiabilidad entre bueno y alto (0,65 ≥ alfa ≤ 0,92). Conclusión: la guía de consejería es válida para mejorar la adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes que consumen alcohol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Alcohol Drinking , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Patient Education as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Focus Groups , Counseling , Implementation Science , Nursing Care
12.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3228, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1094029

ABSTRACT

Objective: to determine the contents that must be included in the usual counseling to improve the adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of HIV patients, according to their different levels of alcohol consumption, and to determine the validity of the Counseling Guide in improving the adherence to ART in patients who consume alcohol using Implementation Science. Method: this is an observational study with formative and validation phases. The formative phase defined the content, approach and structure of the counseling. Validation included focus groups with patients and nurses, trial process by an expert and a pilot test. The criteria evaluated based on Implementation Science were: intervention source, evidence strength and quality, relative advantage, and complexity. The following criteria were also evaluated: usefulness, practicality, acceptability, sustainability, effectiveness; content consistency and congruence; procedural compliance and difficulties, and time spent in counseling. Results: the strength of evidence of the counseling is High-IIA, with strong level of recommendation and presenting usefulness, practicality, acceptability, sustainability and effectiveness. Eight in 11 experts argued that the Guide is clear, consistent and congruent. Initial counseling takes around 24 minutes; and follow-up counseling, 21. The instruments of the Guide present reliability levels between good and high (0.65 ≥ alpha ≤ 0.92). Conclusion: the Counseling Guide is valid to improve the adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients who consume alcohol.


Objetivo: determinar os conteúdos que devem ser incluídos no aconselhamento habitual para melhorar a adesão ao TARV de pacientes com HIV, conforme seus diferentes níveis de consumo de álcool, e determinar a validade do Guia de Aconselhamento para melhorar a adesão ao TARV em pacientes que consomem álcool, usando a Ciência da Implementação. Método: estudo observacional com fase formativa e de validação. A fase formativa permitiu definir o conteúdo, a abordagem e a estrutura do aconselhamento. A validação incluiu grupos focais com pacientes e enfermeiras, processo de julgamento de especialista e teste piloto. Estes foram os critérios avaliados com base na Ciência da Implementação: fonte de intervenção, força e qualidade da evidência, vantagem relativa e complexidade. Foram avaliados ainda: utilidade, praticidade, aceitabilidade, sustentabilidade, efetividade; consistência e congruência do conteúdo; cumprimento, dificuldades do procedimento e tempo empregado no aconselhamento. Resultados: o aconselhamento tem força de evidência Alta -IIA, forte nível de recomendação, apresenta utilidade, praticidade, aceitabilidade, sustentabilidade e efetividade. Oito de 11 especialistas argumentaram que o Guia é claro, consistente e congruente. O aconselhamento de início leva em torno de 24 minutos; e o de acompanhamento, 21. Os instrumentos do Guia têm um nível de confiabilidade entre bom e alto (0,65 ≥ alfa ≤ 0,92). Conclusão: o guia de aconselhamento é válido para melhorar a adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral em pacientes que consomem álcool.


Objetivo: determinar los contenidos necesarios a incluir a la consejería habitual para mejorar la adherencia al TARV de pacientes con VIH según sus diferentes niveles de consumo de alcohol, y determinar la validez de la Guía de Consejería para mejorar la adherencia al TARV en paciente que consumen alcohol usando Ciencia de la Implementación. Método: estudio Observacional con fase formativa y de validación. La fase formativa permitió definir el contenido, enfoque y estructura de la consejería. La validación incluyó grupos focales con pacientes y enfermeras, juicio experto y prueba piloto. Los criterios evaluados en base a la Ciencia de la Implementación fueron: fuente de intervención, fuerza y calidad de la evidencia, ventaja relativa y complejidad. También se evaluó: utilidad, practicidad, aceptabilidad, sostenibilidad, efectividad; consistencia y congruencia del contenido; cumplimiento, dificultades del procedimiento y tiempo empleado en la consejería. Resultados: la consejería tiene fuerza de evidencia Alta -IIA, fuerte nivel de recomendación, presenta utilidad, practicidad, aceptabilidad, sostenibilidad y efectividad. Ocho de 11 expertos, sostuvieron que la Guía es clara, consistente y congruente. La consejería de inicio toma en promedio 24 minutos y 21 minutos la de seguimiento. Los instrumentos de la Guía tienen un nivel de fiabilidad entre bueno y alto (0,65 ≥ alfa ≤ 0,92). Conclusión: la guía de consejería es válida para mejorar la adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes que consumen alcohol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Alcohol Drinking , HIV Infections , Reproducibility of Results , Focus Groups , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Counseling , Medication Adherence , Implementation Science , Nursing Care
13.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200020, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092600

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: A vinculação é um passo fundamental para o cuidado contínuo da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV/aids), sendo essencial para proporcionar o acesso à terapia antirretroviral, bem como ao cuidado integral. Metodologia: Estudo transversal, com pessoas vivendo com HIV (PVHIV), idade ≥ 18 anos, vinculadas entre janeiro e dezembro de 2015, em um serviço de referência para assistência ambulatorial e hospitalar especializada em HIV/aids em Belo Horizonte (MG). O tempo de vinculação foi definido como o tempo do diagnóstico até a vinculação ao serviço. Considerou-se vinculação oportuna quando esse tempo foi menor ou igual a 90 dias. Os dados foram coletados por meio de prontuários clínicos. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: Entre os 208 pacientes, a maioria era do sexo masculino (77,8%) com idade média de 39 anos. Cerca de 45% apresentaram condições definidoras de aids na vinculação. O tempo de vinculação apresentou média de 138 ± 397 dias, e a vinculação oportuna ocorreu para 76,9% dos pacientes. As variáveis associadas com a vinculação oportuna foram: ter idade ≥ 48 anos (odds ratio - OR = 8,50; IC95% 1,53 - 47,28), estar trabalhando (OR = 3,69; IC95% 1,33 - 10,25) no momento da vinculação e apresentar contagem de linfócitos T CD4 (LT CD4+) ≤ 200 células/mm3 no momento do diagnóstico de HIV (OR = 4,84; IC95% 1,54 - 15,18). Observou-se proporção importante de vinculação oportuna entre as PVHA, porém com diagnóstico tardio. Conclusão: Intervenções devem ser direcionadas para pessoas mais jovens e com maior contagem de LT CD4+, visando uma melhor prestação de cuidados contínuos em HIV.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Linkage is a critical step in the ongoing care of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/aids) infection and is essential for providing access to antiretroviral therapy, as well as comprehensive care. Methodology: Cross-sectional study on people living with HIV (PLHIV), aged ≥ 18 years old, linked between January and December 2015, in a referral service for outpatient and hospital care specialized in HIV/AIDS in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Linkage time was defined as the time from diagnosis to service linkage. Timely care linkage was considered when this time was ≤ 90 days. Data were collected through clinical records. A logistic regression analysis with a confidence interval of 95% (95%CI) was performed. Results: Among 208 patients, most of them were males (77.8%) with a mean age of 39 years. About 45% presented AIDS-defining conditions at the moment of linkage. Linkage time presented a mean of 138 ± 397 days. And timely linkage occurred for 76.9% of the patients. The variables associated with timely care linkage were: age ≥ 48 years (odds ratio - OR = 8.50; 95%CI 1.53 - 47.28), currently working (OR = 3.69; 95%CI 1.33 - 10.25) at the time of linkage, and present CD4+ T lymphocyte count (CD4+ T) ≤ 200 cells/mm3 at the time of HIV diagnosis (OR = 4.84; 95%CI 1.54 - 15.18). There was an important proportion of timely care linkage among PLHIV, but with late diagnosis. Conclusion: Interventions should be targeted at younger people with higher CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, in order to better provide continuous HIV care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Continuity of Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Delayed Diagnosis , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s75-s81, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057102

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The scenario of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been undergoing changes in recent years, both in relation to the understanding of HIV infection and regarding the treatments available. As a result, the disease, which before was associated with high morbidity and mortality, is now seen as a chronic disease that can be controlled, regarding both transmission and symptoms. However, even when the virus replication is well controlled, the infected patient remains at high risk of developing renal involvement, either by acute kidney injury not associated with HIV, nephrotoxicity due to antiretroviral drugs, chronic diseases associated with increased survival, or glomerular disease associated to HIV. This review will cover the main aspects of kidney failure associated with HIV.


RESUMO O panorama da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) vem sofrendo alterações nos últimos anos, tanto em relação ao entendimento da infecção pelo HIV quanto aos tratamentos disponíveis. Como resultado, a doença, que antes estava associada a alta morbimortalidade, é agora considerada uma doença crônica que pode ser controlada, tanto em relação à transmissão quanto aos sintomas. No entanto, mesmo quando a replicação viral é bem controlada, o paciente infectado tem um alto risco de desenvolver complicações renais, seja através de lesão renal aguda não relacionada ao HIV, por nefrotoxicidade causada por drogas antirretrovirais, por doenças crônicas associadas com o aumento da sobrevida ou por doença glomerular associada ao HIV. Esta revisão abordará os principais aspectos da insuficiência renal associada ao HIV.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Risk Factors , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/pathology , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Tenofovir/adverse effects , Atazanavir Sulfate/adverse effects , Kidney/pathology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200360, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143859

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The first Brazilian HIV treatment recommendation was put forward in 1996, resulting in 12 subsequent guidelines. Several changes were made regarding "when" and "how" to begin treatment. The latest guideline recommends immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study aimed to describe the evolution of HIV treatment among people living with HIV (PLHIV) who initiated ART between 2004 and 2018 based on the national guideline recommendations concerning T-CD4+ and VL measurements. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of data of PLHIV aged >18 years, in Minas Gerais who received ART between 2004 and 2018 was conducted. Clinical, therapeutic, and demographic information were obtained from national healthcare databases. The study was divided into four periods: 2004-2007, 2008-2012, 2013-2016, and 2017-2018. Descriptive analyses were performed. RESULTS A total of 60,618 PLHIV initiated ART (67% male and 48% aged 25-39 years), 36% of whom had CD4 counts at ART initiation and 51% documented VL after ART initiation. The median CD4 count ranged from 288 to 373 cells/µL. The median time to ART initiation decreased from 604 to 28 days and was lower among males (p <0.01). The median time from ART initiation to the first VL result decreased from 101 to 62 days over the study period, while the median VL after ART initiation ranged from 2.3 to 1.7 log10 copies/ml. CONCLUSIONS Although our results demonstrated that most recommendations were followed, there seemed to be little impact on CD4 counts and VL testing. This may result in an inadequate evaluation of ART effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200333, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136832

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Achieving viral suppression (VS) in children is challenging despite the exponential increase in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated VS in children >1 year of age and adolescents 5 years after they had begun ART, in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naive children >1 year of age between 1999 and 2016 were eligible. Analysis was stratified by age at ART initiation: 1-5 y, >5-10 y, and >10-19 y. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were assessed on arrival at the clinic, on ART initiation, and at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years after ART initiation. The primary outcome was a viral load <50 copies/mL 5 years after ART initiation. RESULTS: Ultimately, 121 patients were included. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years (SD 3.5), mean CD4% was 17.9 (SD 9.8), and mean viral load was 4.6 log10 copies/ml (SD 0.8). Five years after ART initiation, the overall VS rate was 46.9%. VS by patient age group was as follows: 36.6% for 1-5 y, 53.3% for >5-10 y, and 30% for >10-19 y. Almost all children (90,4%) showed an increase in CD4%+ T cell count. There were no statistically significant predictors for detecting children who do not achieve VS with treatment. VS remained below 65% in all the evaluated periods. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable immunological improvement is seen in children after ART initiation. Further efforts are needed to maintain adequate long-term VS levels and improve the survival of this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , HIV , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878292

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To calculate the number of pregnant women who receive standardized prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services for HIV annually.@*Methods@#HIV-positive pregnant women in six counties of Liangshan Prefecture in 2017 were selected as study subjects. The entire process, from when the subjects first received the PMTCT of HIV services to the end, was divided into four stages, which were further divided into 25 phases. The equivalent coefficient was used to indicate the weight of workload in each phase. Seven experts were invited to score the equivalent coefficient; the number of pregnant women who received standardized services to prevent the transmission of HIV was calculated.@*Results@#A total of 663 HIV-positive pregnant women were registered in six Liangshan Prefecture counties in 2017. This figure was converted into 7,780 person-months devoted to HIV-positive pregnant women, with 260 person-months (3.34%) spent on the first antenatal care, 1,510 person-months (19.41%) during pregnancy, 378 person-months (4.86%) on delivery, and 5,632 person-months (72.39%) on post-partum period. The equivalent coefficient calculation showed that 314 HIV-positive pregnant women received standardized PMTCT services.@*Conclusion@#The number of pregnant women receiving standardized services for the PMTCT of HIV can be calculated accurately using the equivalent method to identify the gap between the level of PMTCT of HIV intervention services needed and the actual workload.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2808-2815, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lipid abnormalities are prevalent among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) and contribute to increasing risk of cardiovascular events. This study aims to investigate the incidence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors in PLWH after receiving different first-line free antiretroviral regimens.@*METHODS@#PLWH who sought care at the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen from January 2014 to December 2018 were included, and the baseline characteristics and clinical data during the follow-up were collected, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The risk factors of dyslipidemia after antiretroviral therapy were analyzed with the generalized estimating equation model.@*RESULTS@#Among the 7623 PLWH included, the mean levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C were 4.23 ± 0.85 mmol/L, 1.27 ± 0.29 mmol/L and 2.54 ± 0.65 mmol/L, respectively, and the median TG was 1.17 (IQR: 0.85-1.68) mmol/L. Compared with that in PLWH receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) + lamivudine (3TC) + ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), zidovudine (AZT) + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV), and AZT + 3TC + LPV/r, the incidence of dyslipidemia was lower in PLWH receiving TDF + 3TC + EFV. In multivariate analysis, we found that the risks of elevations of TG, TC, and LDL-C were higher with TDF + 3TC + LPV/r (TG: odds ratio [OR] = 2.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.55-3.11, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.14-1.35, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12, P = 0.041), AZT + 3TC + EFV (TG: OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.28-1.55, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.31-1.56, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.12-1.25, P < 0.001), and AZT + 3TC + LPV/r (TG: OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 2.65-3.59, P < 0.001; TC: OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.96-2.94, P < 0.001; LDL: OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.37-1.69, P < 0.001) than with TDF + 3TC + EFV, while treatment with TDF + 3TC + LPV/r was less likely to restore HDL-C levels compared with TDF + 3TC + EFV (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97, P < 0.001). In addition to antiretroviral regimens, antiretroviral therapy duration, older age, overweight, obesity and other traditional factors were also important risk factors for dyslipidemia.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of dyslipidemia varies with different antiretroviral regimens, with TDF + 3TC + EFV having lower risk for dyslipidemia than the other first-line free antiretroviral regimens in China.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , HIV , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Lipids , Risk Factors
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2919-2927, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Albuvirtide is a once-weekly injectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 fusion inhibitor. We present interim data for a phase 3 trial assessing the safety and efficacy of albuvirtide plus lopinavir-ritonavir in HIV-1-infected adults already treated with antiretroviral drugs.@*METHODS@#We carried out a 48-week, randomized, controlled, open-label non-inferiority trial at 12 sites in China. Adults on the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended first-line treatment for >6 months with a plasma viral load >1000 copies/mL were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive albuvirtide (once weekly) plus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ABT group) or the WHO-recommended second-line treatment (NRTI group). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a plasma viral load below 50 copies/mL at 48 weeks. Non-inferiority was prespecified with a margin of 12%.@*RESULTS@#At the time of analysis, week 24 data were available for 83 and 92 patients, and week 48 data were available for 46 and 50 patients in the albuvirtide and NRTI groups, respectively. At 48 weeks, 80.4% of patients in the ABT group and 66.0% of those in the NRTI group had HIV-1 RNA levels below 50 copies/mL, meeting the criteria for non-inferiority. For the per-protocol population, the superiority of albuvirtide over NRTI was demonstrated. The frequency of grade 3 to 4 adverse events was similar in the two groups; the most common adverse events were diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infections, and grade 3 to 4 increases in triglyceride concentration. Renal function was significantly more impaired at 12 weeks in the patients of the NRTI group who received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate than in those of the ABT group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The TALENT study is the first phase 3 trial of an injectable long-acting HIV drug. This interim analysis indicates that once-weekly albuvirtide in combination with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir is well tolerated and non-inferior to the WHO-recommended second-line regimen in patients with first-line treatment failure.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02369965; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry No. ChiCTR-TRC-14004276; http://www.chictr.org.cn/enindex.aspx.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , China , Drug Therapy, Combination , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Maleimides , Peptides , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200082, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135226

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure (RF) is the main cause of hospital admission in HIV/AIDS patients. This study assessed comorbidities and laboratory parameters in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF (N = 58) in relation to those without RF (N = 36). Tuberculosis showed a huge relative risk and platelet counts were slightly higher in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF. A flow cytometry assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed lower levels in platelets of these patients in relation to the healthy subjects. However, when stimulated with adrenaline, ROS levels increased in platelets and platelet-derived microparticles of HIV/AIDS inpatients, which may increase the risk of RF during HIV and tuberculosis (HIV-TB) coinfection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , HIV Infections/blood , HIV/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Blood Platelets , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Flow Cytometry
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