Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 404
Filter
1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 149-156, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388352

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por VIH es una epidemia global (prevalencia de 0,8%). En Latinoamérica, Chile, Brasil y Uruguay son los países con mayores índices. Entre las más afectadas están la población transgénero (OR 48,8 respecto a la población general). Múltiples factores bio-psico-sociales explican estas cifras. Bajo uso del preservativo, la idea de reafirmación de género, el temor a ser reemplazadas(os) por personas cisgéneros, presencia de comercio sexual, entre otros, influyen en las mayores tasas de infección. Se han implementado medidas de prevención del VIH, pero pocas dirigidas en específico a personas transgénero. La profilaxis preexposición (PreP) parece ser una nueva alternativa de prevención en este grupo, y la integración de las unidades de apoyo en la reafirmación de género con las unidades que entregan PreP, podrían aumentar su adherencia y cobertura. En las personas transgénero con infección por VIH existe baja adherencia a terapia antirretroviral (TARV), en parte por priorización del tratamiento hormonal y miedo a que la TARV altere su proceso de hormonización. Los pocos datos existentes muestran que la hormonización no se afecta con la mayoría de la TARV, pero algunos tratamientos hormonales podrían disminuir las concentraciones plasmáticas y tisulares de ciertos antirretrovirales. Faltan estudios que evalúen la interacción entre antirretrovirales y tratamiento hormonal de reafirmación de género.


Abstract HIV infection is a global epidemic, with a prevalence of 0.8%. In Latin America, Chile, Brazil and Uruguay are the countries with the highest rates. The transgender population is the most affected (OR of 48.8 compared to the general population). Multiple bio-psycho-social factors explain these issues. The low use of condoms for pressure from the partner, the idea of reaffirmation of gender, the fear to be replaced by a cisgender person, the presence of commercial sex, among others, influence the highest rates of infection. HIV prevention measures have been implemented, but few specifically targeted at transgender people. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP) seems to be a new prevention alternative in this group, and the integration of support units in gender reaffirmation with units that deliver PreP could increase their adherence and coverage. In HIV (+) transgender people there is low adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), in part due to the prioritization of hormonal treatment and the fear that ART will alter their hormonalization process. The few data that exist show that hormonalization is not affected by ART, but that some hormonal treatments could lower the levels of certain antiretrovirals. More studies must be done to evaluate the interaction between antiretrovirals and gender affirming hormone therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Transgender Persons , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sex Work
2.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00290620, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355979

ABSTRACT

Resumo: A profilaxia pré-exposição ao HIV (PrEP) tem sido considerada uma estratégia fundamental para o controle da epidemia de HIV/aids, e desde 2018 tem sido objeto de estudo de implementação (Estudo ImPrEP Stakeholders), realizado no Brasil, no México e no Peru. Um componente qualitativo desse estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar os contextos sociais e estruturais que envolvem e organizam a oferta de serviços de PrEP no Brasil, as subjetividades dos atores envolvidos e as diferentes percepções que podem impactar a efetivação dessa estratégia. O presente artigo teve como foco de análise o acesso das populações vulneráveis aos serviços de PrEP, na perspectiva de gestores, profissionais de saúde, lideranças ou ativistas e usuários de PrEP. É um estudo qualitativo com o uso de metodologia compreensiva, realizado em seis capitais brasileiras, em que foram entrevistados 71 atores-chave no período de novembro de 2018 a maio de 2019. A análise foi pautada pelos modelos analíticos sobre acesso propostos por Giovanella & Fleury, McIntyre et al. e Penchansky & Thomas. Os resultados são apresentados com base em três eixos: "percepções sobre prevenção combinada e PrEP"; "disponibilidade e adequação: perfil e estrutura dos serviços no contexto do ImPrEP"; e "aceitabilidade: atitudes e práticas dos profissionais de saúde e usuários".


Abstract: HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been considered a fundamental strategy for controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and since 2018 it has been the object of an implementation study (ImPrEP Stakeholders Study), conducted in Brazil, México, and Peru. A qualitative component of this study was developed with the objective of identifying the social and structural contexts that involve and organize the supply of PrEP services in Brazil, the stakeholders' subjectivities, and the different perceptions that can impact the strategy's implementation. The current article's focus was to analyze access by vulnerable populations to PrEP services from the perspective of managers, health professionals, leaders or activists, and users of PrEP. This was a qualitative study using a comprehensive methodology, conducted in six Brazilian state capitals, interviewing 71 key actors from November 2018 to May 2019. The analysis was based on access analysis models as proposed by Giovanella & Fleury, McIntyre et al. and Penchansky & Thomas. The results are presented along three lines: "perceptions of combined prevention and PrEP", "availability and adequacy: profile and structure of services in the context of ImPrEP", and "acceptability: attitudes and practices of health professionals and users".


Resumen: La profilaxis preexposición al VIH (PrEP) ha sido considerada una estrategia fundamental para el control de la epidemia de VIH/sida y desde 2018 ha sido objeto de estudio de implementación (Estudio ImPrEP Stakeholders), realizado en Brasil, México y Perú. Un componente cualitativo de este estudio se desarrolló con el objetivo de identificar los contextos sociales y estructurales que engloban y organizan la oferta de servicios de PrEP en Brasil, las subjetividades de los actores implicados y las diferentes percepciones que pueden impactar en hacer efectiva esa estrategia. El objetivo de este artículo es el análisis del acceso de las poblaciones vulnerables a los servicios de PrEP, desde la perspectiva de los gestores, profesionales de salud, líderes o activistas y usuarios de la PrEP. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo con uso de metodología comprensiva, realizado en seis capitales brasileñas, en las que fueron entrevistados 71 actores-clave, durante el período de noviembre de 2018 a mayo de 2019. El análisis se pautó mediante modelos analíticos sobre acceso, propuestos por Giovanella & Fleury, McIntyre et al. y Penchansky & Thomas. Los resultados se presentan a partir de tres ejes: "percepciones sobre prevención combinada y PrEP", "disponibilidad y adecuación: perfil y estructura de los servicios en el contexto de la ImPrEP" y "aceptabilidad: actitudes y prácticas de los profesionales de salud y usuarios".


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Brazil , Health Personnel , Vulnerable Populations
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(6): 783-789, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388321

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Se desconoce el grado de supresión viral en pacientes con infección por VIH que inician terapia antirretroviral (TAR) con cargas virales (CV) muy altas. OBJETIVO: Conocer el porcentaje de supresión viral en pacientes con VIH que inician TAR con CV ≥ 500.000 copias/mL a 96 semanas. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes que iniciaron TAR con CV ≥ 500.000 copias/mL, entre los años 2008 y 2018, estratificándose en base a escala logarítmica. Se determinó el porcentaje de supresión viral, y las variables asociadas a este desenlace. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 221 pacientes. La mediana de edad y CV era de 43 años y 6,0 log, respectivamente, estando la mayoría (37%) en estadio C3 al inicio de TAR. El 48,8 y 87,7% de los pacientes logró la supresión viral al año y dos años de seguimiento, respectivamente. Se observó que, a mayor edad, a mayor inmunosupresión, y a mayor CV, mayor el tiempo para lograr la indetectabilidad. Sólo se demostró fracaso virológico en tres pacientes. DISCUSIÓN: Los pacientes con infección por VIH que inician TAR con CV muy altas demoran más tiempo en lograr la supresión viral, lo cual es proporcional a la magnitud de ésta y al grado de inmunosupresión, sin que esto conlleve mayor riesgo de fracaso virológico.


BACKGROUND: The degree of viral suppression in HIV patients who start antiretroviral therapy (ART) with very high viral loads (CV) is unknown. AIM: To know the percentage of viral suppression in HIV patients who start ART with CV ≥ 500,000 copies/mL at 96 weeks. METHOD: Retrospective study. Patients who started ART with a CV ≥ 500,000 copies/mL between 2008 and 2018 were included, stratifying on the basis of a logarithmic scale. The percentage of viral suppression and the variables associated with this outcome were determined. RESULTS: 221 patients were included. The median age and CV were 43 years and 6.0 log, respectively, with the majority (37%) being in stage C3 at the start of ART. 48.8 and 87.7% of the patients achieved viral suppression at one year and two years of follow-up, respectively. It was observed that the older the immunosuppression, and the higher CV, the longer the time to achieve undetectability. Virological failure was only demonstrated in three patients. DISCUSSION: Patients with HIV infection who start ART with very high CVs take longer to achieve viral suppression, which is proportional to the magnitude of this and the degree of immunosuppression, without this entailing a greater risk of virological failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Serologic Tests , Retrospective Studies , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(5): 655-666, oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388299

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Chile enfrenta una reemergencia de la epidemia del VIH concentrada en hombres gay y otros HSH. La profilaxis pre exposición (PrEP) es una intervención biomédica que ha resultado ser efectiva en la prevención del VIH en el grupo de HSH. OBJETIVO: Estimar niveles de aceptabilidad del uso de PrEP en hombres gay y otros HSH participantes en estudio LAMIS 2018 - Chile, identificando características y factores asociados a la aceptabilidad del uso de PrEP. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio basado en datos de LAMIS-2018 Chile, encuesta transversal por internet dirigida a hombres gay, bisexual, trans y otros HSH. La submuestra de este estudio consiste en 3.976 participantes que se auto-reportaron ser VIH negativos o desconocer su estado serológico, quienes respondieron preguntas sociodemográficas, de comportamiento, sobre su aceptabilidad a usar PrEP y otros aspectos relacionados. Se realizó análisis bivariados y regresión logística multivariable para identificar los factores asociados a la aceptabilidad a usar PrEP. RESULTADOS Y DISCUSIÓN: Se identificó que 55,7% de la muestra reportó una alta aceptabilidad a usar la PrEP. La regresión logística multivariable mostró que tener relaciones sexuales sin condón (ORa = 1,67, IC 95% 1,42-1,97) y haber intentado usar PrEP (ORa = 1,99, IC 95% 1,41-1, 62) se asociaron positivamente a la aceptabilidad a usar PrEP mientras que tener una relación con pareja estable, se asoció negativamente. Se identificó una aceptabilidad a usar la PrEP relativamente alta en los participantes. No obstante, se hace necesario considerar intervenciones relacionada a aumentar el conocimiento y promover la demanda de la PrEP. Además, el presente estudio muestra la necesidad de considerar la participación de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil en su implementación, fenómenos emergentes y la pertinencia territorial.


BACKGROUND: Chile is facing a re-emergence of the HIV epidemic, concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical intervention that effectively prevents HIV transmission among MSM. AIM: The study was designed to estimate acceptability of PrEP and identify factors associated with PrEP-related attitudes and behaviors among MSM using LAMIS 2018 - Chile study data. Methods: Data were taken from the LAMIS 2018 - Chile study, a cross-sectional study of gay, bisexual, transgender, and other MSM. Our subsample included 3976 participants with self-reported HIV-negative or unknown status who responded to sociodemographic questions and items related to PrEP. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify factors associated with acceptability of PrEP. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 55.7% of the sample reported high PrEP acceptability. Logistic regression indicated that engaging in sex without a condom (ORa = 1.67, IC 95% 1.42-1.97) and having previously used PrEP (ORa = 1.99, IC 95% 1.41-1.62) were associated with high acceptability to use PrEP, while having a stable partner was associated with low acceptability. The estimate of PrEP acceptability was relatively high among participants. However, interventions to increase awareness and promote demand for PrEP may be beneficial. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the need for non-governmental organizations to participate in such strategies and for measures that address regionally-relevant emerging phenomena.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Chile , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Homosexuality, Male
5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(9): e00143520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345635

ABSTRACT

Immune recovery reflects health conditions. Our goal was to estimate the time it takes to achieve immune recovery and its associated factors, in people living with HIV (PLHIV), after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. A historical cohort study was performed among PLHIV (> 18 years-old) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using data from healthcare databases. Patients initiating ART between 2009-2018, with T-CD4+ lymphocytes and viral load recorded before and after antiretroviral therapy were included. The outcome is achievement of immune recovery, defined as the first T-CD4+ > 500 cells/µL after ART initiation. Explanatory variables were age, gender, place of residence, year of ART initiation, baseline viral load and T-CD4+, viral load status, and adherence to ART at follow-up. Descriptive analysis, cumulative, and person-time incidences of immune recovery were estimated. Median-time to immune recovery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with immune recovery were assessed by Cox regression. Among 26,430 PLHIV, 8,014 (30%) were eligible. Most were male (67%), mean age 38.7 years, resided in non-central region, median-baseline T-CD4+ = 228 cells/µL (< 200 cells/µL = 43%) and viral load median-baseline = 4.7 log10 copies/mL (detectable viral load = 99%). Follow-up time = 15,872 person-years. Cumulative and incidence rate were 58% (95%CI: 57-58) (n = 4,678) and 29.47 cases/100 person-years, respectively. Median-time to immune recovery was of 22.8 months (95%CI: 21.9-24.0). Women living with HIV, younger than 38 years of age, with T-CD4+ baseline > 200 cells/µL, detectable viral load (baseline), antiretroviral therapy-adherence and undetectable viral load (follow-up) were independently associated with immune recovery. Time to immune recovery remains long and depends on early treatment and antiretroviral therapy-adherence.


A recuperação imunológica reflete condições de saúde. Nosso objetivo foi estimar o tempo até a recuperação imunológica e fatores associados em pessoas vivendo com HIV (PVHIV) após de iniciar a terapia antirretroviral (TARV). Foi conduzida uma coorte histórica de PVHIV (> 18 anos) no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, usando bancos de serviços públicos de saúde. Foram incluídos pacientes que iniciaram a TARV entre 2009 e 2018, com linfócitos T-CD4+ e carga viral registrados antes e depois do início da TARV. O desfecho foi a recuperação imunológica, definida como a primeira contagem de T-CD4+ > 500 cel/µL após o início da TARV. As variáveis explanatórias foram idade, sexo, local de residência, ano de início de TARV, carga viral basal, T-CD4+ na linha de base e carga viral e adesão à TARV no seguimento. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva com estimativa de incidência acumulada e taxa de incidência (pessoa-ano). O tempo mediano até a recuperação imunológica foi estimado pelo método Kaplan-Meier. Fatores associados à recuperação imune foram avaliados por meio de regressão de Cox. Entre as 26.430 PVHIV, 8.014 (30%) foram elegíveis. A maioria era do sexo masculino (67%), com média de idade = 38,7 anos, residência em regiões fora da região metropolitana, mediana de T-CD4+ baseline = 228 células/µL (< 200 células/µL = 43%) e mediana de carga viral baseline = 4,7 log10 cópias/mL (carga viral detectável = 99%). Tempo de seguimento = 15.872 pessoas-ano. A incidência acumulativa e a taxa de incidência foram foram 58% (IC95%: 57-58) (n = 4.678) e 29,47 casos/100 pessoas-ano, respectivamente. Tempo mediano até recuperação imune = 22,8 meses (IC95%: 21,9-24,0). Os fatores independentemente associados com recuperação imunológica foram sexo feminino, idade < 38 anos, T-CD4+ basal > 200 células/µL, carga viral detectável (linha de base), adesão à TARV e carga viral indetectável (no seguimento). O tempo até a recuperação imunológica ainda é longo e impactado pelo tratamento precoce e da adesão à TARV.


La recuperación inmunológica refleja condiciones de salud. Nuestra meta fue estimar el tiempo y los factores asociados a la recuperación inmunológica en personas que viven con VIH (PVVIH), tras iniciar una terapia antirretroviral (TAR). Se realizó sobre una cohorte histórica entre PVVIH (> 18 años de edad) en Minas Gerais, Brasil, usando datos de las bases de datos del sistema de salud. Se incluyeron a pacientes que comenzaron una TAR entre 2009-2018, con T-CD4+ linfocitos y carga viral, registrada antes/después de TAR. El resultado fue el logro de recuperación inmunológica, definida como la primera T-CD4+ > 500 células/µL tras la iniciación TAR. Las variables explicatorias fueron: edad, género, lugar de residencia, año de iniciación TAR, base de referencia de carga viral, base de referencia de T-CD4+ y estatus de la carga viral y adherencia al TAR en el seguimiento. Se estimó: análisis descriptivo, acumulativo e incidencias persona-tiempo de recuperación inmunológica. La media de tiempo para la recuperación inmunológica se estimó usando el método Kaplan-Meier. Los factores asociados con la recuperación inmunológica se evaluaron mediante la regresión de Cox. Entre las 26.430 PVVIH, 8.014 (30%) fueron elegibles. La mayoría eran hombres (67%), media de edad = 38,7 años, residentes en una región no central, media de base de referencia T-CD4+ = 228 células/µL (< 200 células/µL = 43%) y carga viral media de base de referencia = 4,7 log10 copias/mL (carga viral detectable = 99%). El tiempo de seguimiento = 15.872 persona-años. La tasa acumulativa y de incidencia fue 58% (95%CI: 57-58) (n = 4.678) y 29,47 casos/100 persona-años, respectivamente. El tiempo de media para la recuperación inmunológica = 22,8 meses (95%CI: 21,9-24,0). Género femenino, PVVIH < 38 años de edad, T-CD4+ base de referencia > 200 células/µL, carga viral detectable (base de referencia), adherencia al TAR e carga viral indetectable (seguimiento) estuvieron independientemente asociadas con la recuperación inmunológica. El tiempo para la recuperación inmunológica sigue siendo largo y depende de un tratamiento temprano y de adherencia a la TAR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880372

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#The survival of HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is determined by a number of factors, including economic, demographic, behavioral, and institutional factors. Understanding the survival time and its trend is crucial to developing policies that will result in changes. The aim of this study was to compare the survival estimates of different subgroups and look into the predictors of HIV/AIDS patient survival.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study of HIV/AIDS patients receiving ART at the University of Gondar teaching hospital was carried out. To compare the survival of various groups, a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors influencing HIV/AIDS patient survival rates.@*RESULTS@#In the current study, 5.91% of the 354 HIV/AIDS patients under ART follow-up were uncensored or died. Age (HR = 1.051) and lack of formal education (HR = 5.032) were associated with lower survival rate, whereas family size of one to two (HR = 0.167), three to four (HR = 0.120), no alcoholic consumption (HR = 0.294), no smoking and chat use (HR = 0.101), baseline weight (HR = 0.920), current weight (HR = 0.928), baseline CD4 cell count (HR = 0.990), baseline hemoglobin (HR = 0.800), and no TB diseases were associated with longer survival rate.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Fewer deaths were reported in a study area due to high patient adherence, compared to previous similar studies. Age, educational status, family size, alcohol consumption, tobacco and chat usage, baseline and current weight, baseline CD4 cell count, baseline hemoglobin, and tuberculosis (TB) diseases were all significant predictors of survival of HIV/AIDS patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Young Adult
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5800, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350699

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the sociodemographic profile of the population undergoing antiretroviral treatment in the state of Paraná, Brazil, to investigate the proportion of people undergoing treatment among all those diagnosed, and to analyze the proportion of patients with suppressed viral load in different regions of the state. Methods: Observational descriptive and analytical study carried out with information referring to the period from January 2018 to January 2019. Data were obtained from the Sistema Informatizado de Monitoramento Clínico das Pessoas Vivendo com HIV/AIDS [Computerized System for Clinical Monitoring of People Living with HIV/AIDS] and Sistema de Controle Logístico de Medicamentos[Drug Supply Control System]. The proportion of people on antiretroviral treatment in the state and the proportion of patients with viral load ≤1,000 copies/mL and ≤50 copies/mL were calculated. The results were compared with the corresponding parameters of the World Health Organization goal 90-90-90. Results: The state of Paraná managed to reach the second and third parameters of the 90-90-90 goal of the World Health Organization. Among those diagnosed, 93.12% were on antiretroviral treatment, and 90.0% of them had a viral load below 50 copies of viral RNA/mL of blood, indicating virologic success. Conclusion: The health policy aimed at the population living with HIV/AIDS, and the health services available in Paraná have been successful in parameters relevant to the control of the epidemic. However, it is necessary to ensure the diagnosis of people infected with HIV in the population.


RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar o perfil sociodemográfico da população em tratamento antirretroviral no estado do Paraná, investigar a proporção de pessoas em tratamento entre todos os diagnosticados e analisar a proporção de pacientes com carga viral suprimida nas diferentes regiões do estado. Métodos: Estudo observacional descritivo e analítico realizado com informações referentes ao período de janeiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema Informatizado de Monitoramento Clínico das Pessoas Vivendo com HIV/AIDS e do Sistema de Controle Logístico de Medicamentos. Foram calculadas as proporções de pessoas em tratamento antirretroviral no estado e de pacientes com carga viral ≤1.000 cópias/mL e ≤50 cópias/mL. Os resultados foram comparados com os parâmetros correspondentes da meta 90-90-90 da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Resultados: O estado do Paraná alcançou o segundo e o terceiro parâmetros da meta 90-90-90 da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Entre os diagnosticados, 93,12% encontravam-se em tratamento antirretroviral, e 90,0% destes apresentavam carga viral abaixo 50 cópias do RNA viral/mL de sangue, indicando sucesso virológico. Conclusão: A política de saúde voltada à população vivendo com HIV/AIDS e os serviços de saúde disponibilizados no Paraná têm obtido êxito em parâmetros relevantes para o controle da epidemia. Entretanto, é necessário assegurar o diagnóstico das pessoas infectadas por HIV na população.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , RNA, Viral , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 550-554, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144249

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Cargas virales (CV) entre 20-200 copias/mL se consideran cargas virales de bajo grado (CVBG). Su implicancia clínica y manejo no han sido definidos. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de CVBG en el riesgo de desarrollo posterior de fallo virológico (FV). Pacientes y Métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes ≥ 18 años, desde enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2019, con infección por VIH-1 con CV< 20 copias/mL, por un mínimo de seis meses y/o en dos muestras consecutivas bajo tratamiento anti-retroviral . Se realizó seguimiento de las CV estrati ficándolas: CV < 20 copias/mL, CVBG (20-50 copias/mL y 51-200 copias/mL) y FV. Mediana de seguimiento 25 meses (IQR 15-31). Resultados: Fueron incluidos 1.416 pacientes con CV < 20 copias/ mL bajo TARV. De ellos, 797 permanecieron con CV< 20 copias/mL durante el seguimiento, 144 presentaron CV entre 20-50 copias/mL, 384 entre 51-200 copias/mL y 91 presentaron FV sin CVBG previa. De los 528 pacientes que tuvieron CVBG, 110 (20,1%) fallaron, riesgo 3,45 veces superior respecto a los que no tuvieron CVBG previa. El riesgo de FV fue 3,27 mayor para aquellos que tuvieron CVBG entre 51-200 copias/mL vs 20-50 copias/mL. Discusión: El estudio permite relacionar la CVBG con el FV posterior, siendo el mayor riesgo CVBG entre 51-200 copias/mL.


Abstract Background: Viral loads (VL) between 20-200 copies/mL are considered low-grade viral loads (LGVL). Its clinical implications and management have not been defined. Aim: To evaluate the impact of LGVL on the risk of subsequent development of virological failure (VF). Methods: Patients ≥ 18 years, with HIV-1 infection who had VL < 20 copies/mL for at least six months and/or in two consecutive samples under antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included, between January 1st, 2009 and December 31, 2019. Follow-up of the VLs was carried out stratifying them in VL < 20 copies/mL, LGVL (20-50 copies/mL and 51-200 copies/mL) and VF. Median follow-up 25 months (IQR 15-31). Results: 1,416 patients were included who reached VL < 20 copies/ml under ART, 797 patients remained with CV < 20 copies/mL during follow-up, 144 patients had VL between 21-50 copies/mL, 384 between 51-200 copies/mL and 91 had VF without previous LGVL. Out of 528 patients who had LGVL, 110 failed, risk 3.45 times higher than those who had no previous LGVL. Risk 3.27 times higher of VF for those who had LGVL between 51-200 copies/mL compared to 20-50 copies/mL. Discussion: The study allows to relate the LGVL with VF. This association was observed more frequently with LGVL between 51-200 copies/mL


Subject(s)
Humans , Viremia/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Treatment Failure , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 290-295, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136208

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The objective of this study was to verify the level of adherence to antiretroviral treatment and its associated factors. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study based on data retrieved from medical records. To achieve this, we used a questionnaire composed of sociodemographic and clinical information recorded from patients aged between thirteen and fifty-nine years who attended a specialized service from 2007 to 2014. The chi-square test was performed to verify the association of the outcome with the categorical variables. Continuous variables were compared through the Student t-test. Thirteen variables were analyzed in the bivariate model, resulting in the selection of the following variables to the multivariate model (p<0.20) age of discovery (p=0.12), age (p=0.14), skin color (p=0.12), level of education (p=0.03), time since HIV diagnosis (p<0.001) and AIDS case (p<0.001). Among the six variables selected for the multivariate model, cases of aids (p<0.001) remained significant. We concluded that having aids decreases the probability of non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment by 92%. These results indicate that symptomatic patients have better adherence to therapy.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os níveis de adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral e os fatores associados a ela. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de delineamento transversal baseado em levantamento de prontuários. Para tanto, foi utilizado um questionário composto de informações sociodemográficas e clínicas de pacientes com idade entre 13 e 59 anos atendidos em um serviço de atendimento especializado nos anos de 2007 a 2014. Foi realizado o teste do Qui-quadrado para verificar a associação do desfecho com as variáveis categóricas. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de "Student" (dois grupos). Treze variáveis foram analisadas no modelo bivariado, sendo selecionadas para o modelo multivariado (p<0,20): idade de descoberta (p=0,12), idade (p=0,14), cor da pele (p=0,12), escolaridade (p=0,03), tempo de diagnóstico do HIV (p<0,001) e caso de aids (p<0,001). Das seis variáveis selecionadas para o modelo multivariado, permaneceu significante o fato de o paciente ter aids (p<0,001). Concluiu-se que ter aids reduz a probabilidade de não adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral em cerca de 92%. Os resultados indicam que o indivíduo que é sintomático adere melhor à terapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Patient Compliance , Medication Adherence/ethnology , Middle Aged
10.
Guatemala; Universidad del Valle de Guatemala. Programa Regional Centroamericano de VIH, MSPAS, CDC, PEPFAR, The University Norht Caroline; mar 2020. 99 p. ilus.
Monography in English | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1147330

ABSTRACT

In a qualitative study with both MSM and TW living with HIV in Guatemala City, Barrington et al (2016) again found that intersecting stigma and discrimination created fear of HIV testing and linkage to HIV care and barriers to knowledge about HIV. Retention-specific determinants included HIV clinic dynamics and limited employment opportunities, which affected economic stability. These multiple levels of factors driving linkage and retention in care and treatment require multi-level, integrated responses (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Sexual Health , Social Support , Medical Informatics Applications , Prospective Studies , Fear/psychology , Social Stigma , Guatemala/epidemiology
11.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4995, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090037

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe antiretroviral treatment regimens prescribed and their compliance with the Clinical Protocol and Therapy Guidelines of the Ministry of Health for the management of HIV infection. Methods Observational and descriptive study. Secondary data of the state of Paraná (Brazil) on drugs, treatment regimens, lines of treatment and number of individuals on treatment, from January to June 2018, were accessed at the Antiretroviral Agents Logistic Control System. Combinations of antiretroviral drugs (treatment regimens) were compared according to the current Clinical Protocol and Therapy Guidelines and non-compliances were classified and quantified. Results In Paraná, 35,127 individuals with HIV were treated with 253 different treatment regimens. Of the prescribed regimens, 19.1% were first-line, 27.4% second-line and 48.5% third-line. Among non-compliances, the most prevalent were absence of association of protease inhibitors and ritonavir (42.8%), low efficacy triple therapy (36.9%), double therapy (26.1%), monotherapy (20.3%), and triple therapy of nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (17.1%). Conclusion Most individuals receiving HIV treatment in the state of Paraná are on treatment regimens established in the current Clinical Protocol and Therapy Guidelines, which contributes to successful therapy. However, associations not provided by the current Clinical Protocol and Therapy Guidelines were identified in the initial treatment lines, which could lead to ineffectiveness, virologic failure and viral resistance.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever esquemas terapêuticos de antirretrovirais prescritos e sua conformidade com o Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas, do Ministério da Saúde, para manejo da infecção pelo HIV. Métodos Estudo observacional e descritivo. Os dados do estado do Paraná sobre medicamentos que compõem os esquemas terapêuticos, linhas de tratamento e número de pessoas em uso destes foram acessados no Sistema de Controle Logístico de Medicamentos Antirretrovirais no período de janeiro a junho de 2018. As combinações de antirretrovirais (esquemas terapêuticos) foram comparadas conforme o Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas vigente, e as inconformidades foram categorizadas e quantificadas. Resultados No Paraná, 35.127 pessoas com HIV foram tratadas com 253 esquemas terapêuticos distintos. Dentre os esquemas prescritos, 19,1% eram de primeira linha, 27,4% de segunda linha e 48,5% de terceira linha. Nas inconformidades, predominaram a não associação entre inibidores da protease e ritonavir (42,8%), terapia tripla de baixa eficiência (36,9%), terapia dupla (26,1%), monoterapia (20,3%) e terapia tripla de inibidores da transcriptase reversa análogos de nucleosídeos (17,1%). Conclusão Maior parte das pessoas em tratamento do HIV no Paraná utilizam esquemas terapêuticos previstos no Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas vigente, o que contribui para o sucesso terapêutico. Entretanto, associações não previstas foram identificadas nas linhas de tratamento iniciais, podendo ocasionar inefetividade, falha virológica e resistência viral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Protocols/standards , Guideline Adherence/standards , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Brazil , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/standards , Drug Therapy, Combination/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data
12.
Medwave ; 20(1): e7767, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087871

ABSTRACT

Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa, a rare manifestation of Kaposi's sarcoma, is a progressive cutaneous hypertrophy caused by chronic non-filarial lymphedema secondary to obstruction of the lymphatic system that can lead to severe disfigurement of parts of the body that have gravity-dependent blood flow, due to edema, fibrosis, and hyperkeratosis, especially lower extremities. Among the various conditions that can induce chronic lymphedema are tumors, trauma, radiotherapy, obesity, hypothyroidism, chronic venous stasis, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumor associated with the presence of human gammaherpesvirus 8 that is predominantly cutaneous, locally aggressive, with metastasis, and is associated with the production of factors that favor inflammation, lymphatic obstruction, and lymphedema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Elephantiasis/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Didanosine/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Elephantiasis/etiology , Elephantiasis/pathology , Alkynes
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878292

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To calculate the number of pregnant women who receive standardized prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services for HIV annually.@*Methods@#HIV-positive pregnant women in six counties of Liangshan Prefecture in 2017 were selected as study subjects. The entire process, from when the subjects first received the PMTCT of HIV services to the end, was divided into four stages, which were further divided into 25 phases. The equivalent coefficient was used to indicate the weight of workload in each phase. Seven experts were invited to score the equivalent coefficient; the number of pregnant women who received standardized services to prevent the transmission of HIV was calculated.@*Results@#A total of 663 HIV-positive pregnant women were registered in six Liangshan Prefecture counties in 2017. This figure was converted into 7,780 person-months devoted to HIV-positive pregnant women, with 260 person-months (3.34%) spent on the first antenatal care, 1,510 person-months (19.41%) during pregnancy, 378 person-months (4.86%) on delivery, and 5,632 person-months (72.39%) on post-partum period. The equivalent coefficient calculation showed that 314 HIV-positive pregnant women received standardized PMTCT services.@*Conclusion@#The number of pregnant women receiving standardized services for the PMTCT of HIV can be calculated accurately using the equivalent method to identify the gap between the level of PMTCT of HIV intervention services needed and the actual workload.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200082, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135226

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure (RF) is the main cause of hospital admission in HIV/AIDS patients. This study assessed comorbidities and laboratory parameters in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF (N = 58) in relation to those without RF (N = 36). Tuberculosis showed a huge relative risk and platelet counts were slightly higher in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF. A flow cytometry assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed lower levels in platelets of these patients in relation to the healthy subjects. However, when stimulated with adrenaline, ROS levels increased in platelets and platelet-derived microparticles of HIV/AIDS inpatients, which may increase the risk of RF during HIV and tuberculosis (HIV-TB) coinfection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , HIV Infections/blood , HIV/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Blood Platelets , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Flow Cytometry
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200360, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143859

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The first Brazilian HIV treatment recommendation was put forward in 1996, resulting in 12 subsequent guidelines. Several changes were made regarding "when" and "how" to begin treatment. The latest guideline recommends immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study aimed to describe the evolution of HIV treatment among people living with HIV (PLHIV) who initiated ART between 2004 and 2018 based on the national guideline recommendations concerning T-CD4+ and VL measurements. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of data of PLHIV aged >18 years, in Minas Gerais who received ART between 2004 and 2018 was conducted. Clinical, therapeutic, and demographic information were obtained from national healthcare databases. The study was divided into four periods: 2004-2007, 2008-2012, 2013-2016, and 2017-2018. Descriptive analyses were performed. RESULTS A total of 60,618 PLHIV initiated ART (67% male and 48% aged 25-39 years), 36% of whom had CD4 counts at ART initiation and 51% documented VL after ART initiation. The median CD4 count ranged from 288 to 373 cells/µL. The median time to ART initiation decreased from 604 to 28 days and was lower among males (p <0.01). The median time from ART initiation to the first VL result decreased from 101 to 62 days over the study period, while the median VL after ART initiation ranged from 2.3 to 1.7 log10 copies/ml. CONCLUSIONS Although our results demonstrated that most recommendations were followed, there seemed to be little impact on CD4 counts and VL testing. This may result in an inadequate evaluation of ART effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200333, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136832

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Achieving viral suppression (VS) in children is challenging despite the exponential increase in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated VS in children >1 year of age and adolescents 5 years after they had begun ART, in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naive children >1 year of age between 1999 and 2016 were eligible. Analysis was stratified by age at ART initiation: 1-5 y, >5-10 y, and >10-19 y. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were assessed on arrival at the clinic, on ART initiation, and at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years after ART initiation. The primary outcome was a viral load <50 copies/mL 5 years after ART initiation. RESULTS: Ultimately, 121 patients were included. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years (SD 3.5), mean CD4% was 17.9 (SD 9.8), and mean viral load was 4.6 log10 copies/ml (SD 0.8). Five years after ART initiation, the overall VS rate was 46.9%. VS by patient age group was as follows: 36.6% for 1-5 y, 53.3% for >5-10 y, and 30% for >10-19 y. Almost all children (90,4%) showed an increase in CD4%+ T cell count. There were no statistically significant predictors for detecting children who do not achieve VS with treatment. VS remained below 65% in all the evaluated periods. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable immunological improvement is seen in children after ART initiation. Further efforts are needed to maintain adequate long-term VS levels and improve the survival of this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , HIV , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
17.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 108, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139469

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and evaluate the factors associated with this outcome in people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a prospective concurrent cohort of 462 individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy at three HIV/AIDS specialized services in Belo Horizonte between 2015 and 2017. The following smoking status were used: current smoker (CS), former smoker (FS) and non-smoker (NS). Multinomial logistic regression was performed with NS as the reference category. RESULTS: Most participants were men (81.4%), young (up to 34 years old; 57.2%) and non-white (75.7%). Of the total number of individuals, 27.7% were CS, 22.9% FS, and 49.4% NS. Most smokers were light smokers (65.1%), consumed up to 10 cigarettes per day and had been smoking for more than 10 years (63.3%), starting on average at 17.2 years of age (SD = 5.1). In the multivariate analysis, higher chances of being CS were associated with: being female, having up to 9 years of schooling, current or prior use of alcohol and illicit drugs (marijuana, cocaine and crack) and presenting signs and/or symptoms of anxiety or depression. Higher chances of being FS were associated with having up to 9 years of schooling and current or prior use of alcohol and illicit drugs (marijuana and crack). CONCLUSIONS: The results show that smoking is highly prevalent among PLHIV, indicating the need for HIV specialized services to prioritize smoking cessation interventions. These interventions should consider the use of alcohol and illicit drugs and be targeted especially to young people, those with low schooling and with signs and/or symptoms of anxiety or depression.


RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do tabagismo e avaliar os fatores a ele associados em pessoas vivendo com HIV (PVHIV). MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo transversal de uma coorte prospectiva concorrente com 462 indivíduos em início de terapia antirretroviral atendidos em três serviços de assistência especializada ao HIV/aids em Belo Horizonte entre 2015 e 2017. Os status de tabagismo utilizados foram: fumante atual (FA), ex-fumante (EF) e não fumante (NF). Realizou-se regressão logística multinomial, sendo NF a categoria de referência. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos participantes eram homens (81,4%), jovens (de até 34 anos; 57,2%) e não brancos (75,7%). Do total de indivíduos, 27,7% eram FA, 22,9% EF, e 49,4% NF. A maioria dos tabagistas eram fumantes leves (65,1%), consumiam até 10 cigarros por dia e fumavam havia mais de 10 anos (63,3%), tendo começado em média aos 17,2 anos de idade (DP = 5,1). Na análise multivariada, maiores chances de ser FA se associaram a: ser do sexo feminino, ter até 9 anos de escolaridade, usar ou já ter usado álcool e drogas ilícitas (maconha, cocaína e crack) e apresentar sinais e/ou sintomas de ansiedade ou depressão. Maiores chances de ser EF se associaram a ter até 9 anos de escolaridade e usar ou já ter usado álcool e drogas e ilícitas (maconha e crack). CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que o tabagismo é altamente prevalente entre PVHIV, indicando a necessidade de os serviços de assistência especializada em HIV priorizarem intervenções a fim de cessá-lo, com abordagem sobre o uso de álcool e drogas ilícitas, especialmente voltadas para pessoas jovens, com baixa escolaridade e com sinais e/ou sintomas de ansiedade ou depressão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Smoking/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
18.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200020, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092600

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: A vinculação é um passo fundamental para o cuidado contínuo da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV/aids), sendo essencial para proporcionar o acesso à terapia antirretroviral, bem como ao cuidado integral. Metodologia: Estudo transversal, com pessoas vivendo com HIV (PVHIV), idade ≥ 18 anos, vinculadas entre janeiro e dezembro de 2015, em um serviço de referência para assistência ambulatorial e hospitalar especializada em HIV/aids em Belo Horizonte (MG). O tempo de vinculação foi definido como o tempo do diagnóstico até a vinculação ao serviço. Considerou-se vinculação oportuna quando esse tempo foi menor ou igual a 90 dias. Os dados foram coletados por meio de prontuários clínicos. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: Entre os 208 pacientes, a maioria era do sexo masculino (77,8%) com idade média de 39 anos. Cerca de 45% apresentaram condições definidoras de aids na vinculação. O tempo de vinculação apresentou média de 138 ± 397 dias, e a vinculação oportuna ocorreu para 76,9% dos pacientes. As variáveis associadas com a vinculação oportuna foram: ter idade ≥ 48 anos (odds ratio - OR = 8,50; IC95% 1,53 - 47,28), estar trabalhando (OR = 3,69; IC95% 1,33 - 10,25) no momento da vinculação e apresentar contagem de linfócitos T CD4 (LT CD4+) ≤ 200 células/mm3 no momento do diagnóstico de HIV (OR = 4,84; IC95% 1,54 - 15,18). Observou-se proporção importante de vinculação oportuna entre as PVHA, porém com diagnóstico tardio. Conclusão: Intervenções devem ser direcionadas para pessoas mais jovens e com maior contagem de LT CD4+, visando uma melhor prestação de cuidados contínuos em HIV.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Linkage is a critical step in the ongoing care of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/aids) infection and is essential for providing access to antiretroviral therapy, as well as comprehensive care. Methodology: Cross-sectional study on people living with HIV (PLHIV), aged ≥ 18 years old, linked between January and December 2015, in a referral service for outpatient and hospital care specialized in HIV/AIDS in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Linkage time was defined as the time from diagnosis to service linkage. Timely care linkage was considered when this time was ≤ 90 days. Data were collected through clinical records. A logistic regression analysis with a confidence interval of 95% (95%CI) was performed. Results: Among 208 patients, most of them were males (77.8%) with a mean age of 39 years. About 45% presented AIDS-defining conditions at the moment of linkage. Linkage time presented a mean of 138 ± 397 days. And timely linkage occurred for 76.9% of the patients. The variables associated with timely care linkage were: age ≥ 48 years (odds ratio - OR = 8.50; 95%CI 1.53 - 47.28), currently working (OR = 3.69; 95%CI 1.33 - 10.25) at the time of linkage, and present CD4+ T lymphocyte count (CD4+ T) ≤ 200 cells/mm3 at the time of HIV diagnosis (OR = 4.84; 95%CI 1.54 - 15.18). There was an important proportion of timely care linkage among PLHIV, but with late diagnosis. Conclusion: Interventions should be targeted at younger people with higher CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, in order to better provide continuous HIV care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Continuity of Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Delayed Diagnosis , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3228, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1058545

ABSTRACT

Objective: to determine the contents that must be included in the usual counseling to improve the adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of HIV patients, according to their different levels of alcohol consumption, and to determine the validity of the Counseling Guide in improving the adherence to ART in patients who consume alcohol using Implementation Science. Method: this is an observational study with formative and validation phases. The formative phase defined the content, approach and structure of the counseling. Validation included focus groups with patients and nurses, trial process by an expert and a pilot test. The criteria evaluated based on Implementation Science were: intervention source, evidence strength and quality, relative advantage, and complexity. The following criteria were also evaluated: usefulness, practicality, acceptability, sustainability, effectiveness; content consistency and congruence; procedural compliance and difficulties, and time spent in counseling. Results: the strength of evidence of the counseling is High-IIA, with strong level of recommendation and presenting usefulness, practicality, acceptability, sustainability and effectiveness. Eight in 11 experts argued that the Guide is clear, consistent and congruent. Initial counseling takes around 24 minutes; and follow-up counseling, 21. The instruments of the Guide present reliability levels between good and high (0.65 ≥ alpha ≤ 0.92). Conclusion: the Counseling Guide is valid to improve the adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients who consume alcohol.


Objetivo: determinar os conteúdos que devem ser incluídos no aconselhamento habitual para melhorar a adesão ao TARV de pacientes com HIV, conforme seus diferentes níveis de consumo de álcool, e determinar a validade do Guia de Aconselhamento para melhorar a adesão ao TARV em pacientes que consomem álcool, usando a Ciência da Implementação. Método: estudo observacional com fase formativa e de validação. A fase formativa permitiu definir o conteúdo, a abordagem e a estrutura do aconselhamento. A validação incluiu grupos focais com pacientes e enfermeiras, processo de julgamento de especialista e teste piloto. Estes foram os critérios avaliados com base na Ciência da Implementação: fonte de intervenção, força e qualidade da evidência, vantagem relativa e complexidade. Foram avaliados ainda: utilidade, praticidade, aceitabilidade, sustentabilidade, efetividade; consistência e congruência do conteúdo; cumprimento, dificuldades do procedimento e tempo empregado no aconselhamento. Resultados: o aconselhamento tem força de evidência Alta -IIA, forte nível de recomendação, apresenta utilidade, praticidade, aceitabilidade, sustentabilidade e efetividade. Oito de 11 especialistas argumentaram que o Guia é claro, consistente e congruente. O aconselhamento de início leva em torno de 24 minutos; e o de acompanhamento, 21. Os instrumentos do Guia têm um nível de confiabilidade entre bom e alto (0,65 ≥ alfa ≤ 0,92). Conclusão: o guia de aconselhamento é válido para melhorar a adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral em pacientes que consomem álcool.


Objetivo: determinar los contenidos necesarios a incluir a la consejería habitual para mejorar la adherencia al TARV de pacientes con VIH según sus diferentes niveles de consumo de alcohol, y determinar la validez de la Guía de Consejería para mejorar la adherencia al TARV en paciente que consumen alcohol usando Ciencia de la Implementación. Método: estudio Observacional con fase formativa y de validación. La fase formativa permitió definir el contenido, enfoque y estructura de la consejería. La validación incluyó grupos focales con pacientes y enfermeras, juicio experto y prueba piloto. Los criterios evaluados en base a la Ciencia de la Implementación fueron: fuente de intervención, fuerza y calidad de la evidencia, ventaja relativa y complejidad. También se evaluó: utilidad, practicidad, aceptabilidad, sostenibilidad, efectividad; consistencia y congruencia del contenido; cumplimiento, dificultades del procedimiento y tiempo empleado en la consejería. Resultados: la consejería tiene fuerza de evidencia Alta -IIA, fuerte nivel de recomendación, presenta utilidad, practicidad, aceptabilidad, sostenibilidad y efectividad. Ocho de 11 expertos, sostuvieron que la Guía es clara, consistente y congruente. La consejería de inicio toma en promedio 24 minutos y 21 minutos la de seguimiento. Los instrumentos de la Guía tienen un nivel de fiabilidad entre bueno y alto (0,65 ≥ alfa ≤ 0,92). Conclusión: la guía de consejería es válida para mejorar la adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes que consumen alcohol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Alcohol Drinking , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Patient Education as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Focus Groups , Counseling , Implementation Science , Nursing Care
20.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3228, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1094029

ABSTRACT

Objective: to determine the contents that must be included in the usual counseling to improve the adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of HIV patients, according to their different levels of alcohol consumption, and to determine the validity of the Counseling Guide in improving the adherence to ART in patients who consume alcohol using Implementation Science. Method: this is an observational study with formative and validation phases. The formative phase defined the content, approach and structure of the counseling. Validation included focus groups with patients and nurses, trial process by an expert and a pilot test. The criteria evaluated based on Implementation Science were: intervention source, evidence strength and quality, relative advantage, and complexity. The following criteria were also evaluated: usefulness, practicality, acceptability, sustainability, effectiveness; content consistency and congruence; procedural compliance and difficulties, and time spent in counseling. Results: the strength of evidence of the counseling is High-IIA, with strong level of recommendation and presenting usefulness, practicality, acceptability, sustainability and effectiveness. Eight in 11 experts argued that the Guide is clear, consistent and congruent. Initial counseling takes around 24 minutes; and follow-up counseling, 21. The instruments of the Guide present reliability levels between good and high (0.65 ≥ alpha ≤ 0.92). Conclusion: the Counseling Guide is valid to improve the adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients who consume alcohol.


Objetivo: determinar os conteúdos que devem ser incluídos no aconselhamento habitual para melhorar a adesão ao TARV de pacientes com HIV, conforme seus diferentes níveis de consumo de álcool, e determinar a validade do Guia de Aconselhamento para melhorar a adesão ao TARV em pacientes que consomem álcool, usando a Ciência da Implementação. Método: estudo observacional com fase formativa e de validação. A fase formativa permitiu definir o conteúdo, a abordagem e a estrutura do aconselhamento. A validação incluiu grupos focais com pacientes e enfermeiras, processo de julgamento de especialista e teste piloto. Estes foram os critérios avaliados com base na Ciência da Implementação: fonte de intervenção, força e qualidade da evidência, vantagem relativa e complexidade. Foram avaliados ainda: utilidade, praticidade, aceitabilidade, sustentabilidade, efetividade; consistência e congruência do conteúdo; cumprimento, dificuldades do procedimento e tempo empregado no aconselhamento. Resultados: o aconselhamento tem força de evidência Alta -IIA, forte nível de recomendação, apresenta utilidade, praticidade, aceitabilidade, sustentabilidade e efetividade. Oito de 11 especialistas argumentaram que o Guia é claro, consistente e congruente. O aconselhamento de início leva em torno de 24 minutos; e o de acompanhamento, 21. Os instrumentos do Guia têm um nível de confiabilidade entre bom e alto (0,65 ≥ alfa ≤ 0,92). Conclusão: o guia de aconselhamento é válido para melhorar a adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral em pacientes que consomem álcool.


Objetivo: determinar los contenidos necesarios a incluir a la consejería habitual para mejorar la adherencia al TARV de pacientes con VIH según sus diferentes niveles de consumo de alcohol, y determinar la validez de la Guía de Consejería para mejorar la adherencia al TARV en paciente que consumen alcohol usando Ciencia de la Implementación. Método: estudio Observacional con fase formativa y de validación. La fase formativa permitió definir el contenido, enfoque y estructura de la consejería. La validación incluyó grupos focales con pacientes y enfermeras, juicio experto y prueba piloto. Los criterios evaluados en base a la Ciencia de la Implementación fueron: fuente de intervención, fuerza y calidad de la evidencia, ventaja relativa y complejidad. También se evaluó: utilidad, practicidad, aceptabilidad, sostenibilidad, efectividad; consistencia y congruencia del contenido; cumplimiento, dificultades del procedimiento y tiempo empleado en la consejería. Resultados: la consejería tiene fuerza de evidencia Alta -IIA, fuerte nivel de recomendación, presenta utilidad, practicidad, aceptabilidad, sostenibilidad y efectividad. Ocho de 11 expertos, sostuvieron que la Guía es clara, consistente y congruente. La consejería de inicio toma en promedio 24 minutos y 21 minutos la de seguimiento. Los instrumentos de la Guía tienen un nivel de fiabilidad entre bueno y alto (0,65 ≥ alfa ≤ 0,92). Conclusión: la guía de consejería es válida para mejorar la adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes que consumen alcohol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Alcohol Drinking , HIV Infections , Reproducibility of Results , Focus Groups , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Counseling , Medication Adherence , Implementation Science , Nursing Care
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL