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1.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202633, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155374

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the use of 0.5% alcoholic chlorhexidine and 70% alcohol in skin antisepsis for neuraxial blocks. Method: this is a non-inferiority randomized clinical trial, with two parallel arms. Seventy patients who were candidates for neuraxial block were randomly allocated to group A (n = 35), in whom antisepsis was performed with 0.5% alcoholic chlorhexidine, or to group B (n = 35), in whom we used 70% hydrated ethyl alcohol. Swabs were harvested for culture at three times: before antisepsis, two minutes after application of the antiseptic, and immediately after puncture. The samples were sown in three culture media and the number of colony forming units (CFU) per cm² was counted. Results: there was no difference between the groups regarding age, sex, body mass index, time to perform the block or type of block. There were no differences between groups in the CFU/cm² counts before antisepsis. There was less bacterial growth in group B two minutes after application of the antiseptic (p = 0.048), but there was no difference between the groups regarding the number of CFU/cm² at the end of the puncture. Conclusion: 70% alcohol was more effective in reducing the number of CFU/cm² after two minutes, and there was no difference between the two groups regarding skin colonization at the end of the procedure. These results suggest that 70% alcohol may be an option for skin antisepsis before neuraxial blocks. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02833376.


RESUMO Objetivo: comparar o uso de solução alcoólica de clorexidina 0,5% e de álcool 70% na antissepsia da pele para bloqueios do neuroeixo. Método: ensaio clínico randomizado de não inferioridade, com dois braços paralelos. Foram selecionados 70 pacientes candidatos à bloqueio do neuroeixo, randomicamente alocados para o grupo A (n=35), em que a antissepsia foi realizada com clorexidina alcoólica 0,5%, ou para o grupo B (n=35), em que se utilizou álcool etílico hidratado 70%. Foram coletadas, com swab, amostras para cultura em três momentos: antes da antissepsia, dois minutos após aplicação do antisséptico, e imediatamente após a punção. As amostras foram semeadas em três meios de cultura e foi contabilizado o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) por cm². Resultados: não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à idade, ao sexo, ao índice de massa corporal, ao tempo para realização do bloqueio ou tipo de bloqueio. Também não houve diferenças entre os grupos na contagem de UFC/cm² antes da antissepsia. Constatou-se menor crescimento bacteriano no grupo B dois minutos após aplicação do antisséptico (p=0,048), mas não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto ao número de UFC/cm² ao final da punção. Conclusão: o álcool 70% mostrou-se mais efetivo em reduzir o número de UFC/cm² após dois minutos, e não houve diferença entre os dois grupos quanto à colonização da pele ao final do procedimento. Esses resultados sugerem que o álcool 70% pode ser opção para antissepsia da pele antes de bloqueios do neuroeixo. Registro ensaio clínico: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02833376.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin/microbiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Antisepsis/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthesia, Spinal , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(Suppl 2): 124-129, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136399

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY An alarming fact was revealed by recent publications concerning disinfectants: chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for disinfecting surfaces contaminated by the new coronavirus. This is a finding that requires immediate disclosure since this substance is widely used for the disinfection of hands and forearms of surgeons and auxiliaries and in the antisepsis of patients in minimally invasive procedures commonly performed in hospital environments. The objective of this study is to compare the different disinfectants used for disinfection on several surfaces, in a review of worldwide works. Scientific studies were researched in the BVS (Virtual Health Library), PubMed, Medline, and ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency) databases. The following agents were studied: alcohol 62-71%, hydrogen peroxide 0.5%, sodium hypochlorite 0.1%, benzalkonium chloride 0.05-0.2%, povidone-iodine 10%, and chlorhexidine digluconate 0.02%, on metal, aluminum, wood, paper, glass, plastic, PVC, silicone, latex (gloves), disposable gowns, ceramic, and Teflon surfaces. Studies have shown that chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for inactivating some coronavirus subtypes, suggesting that it is also ineffective to the new coronavirus.


RESUMO Um dado alarmante revelado por publicações a respeito dos agentes desinfetantes: o digluconato de clorexidina é ineficaz para desinfecção de superfícies contaminadas por coronavírus. Trata-se de uma constatação que reclama imediata divulgação, uma vez que essa substância é amplamente usada para degermação de mãos e antebraços dos cirurgiões e auxiliares e na antissepsia dos pacientes, em procedimentos minimamente invasivos, comumente em ambientes hospitalares. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os diferentes desinfetantes usados para desinfecção em diversas superfícies em revisão de trabalhos mundiais. Foram pesquisados trabalhos científicos na BVS (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde), PubMed, Medline e Anvisa (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Foram estudados os seguintes agentes: álcool 62-71%, peróxido de hidrogênio 0,5%, hipoclorito de sódio 0,1%, cloreto de benzancônio 0,05-0,2%, iodo povidina 10% e digluconato de clorexidina 0,02%, em superfícies de metal, alumínio, madeira, papel, vidro, plástico, PVC, silicone, látex (luvas), avental descartável, cerâmica e teflon. Os estudos demonstraram que o digluconato de clorexidina é ineficaz para a inativação de alguns subtipos de coronavírus, sugerindo que também seja ineficaz contra o novo coronavírus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Disinfection , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 204-210, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001128

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aims to evaluate tissue healing efficacy in burn patients treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine versus other treatments. This is a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) and PICO strategy, registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) under the number CRD42017081057. The review found 71 studies in MEDLINE/Pubmed, 1 in Clinical Trials, 19 in the Cochrane Library, and 4 in LILACS in five manual searches. Of these, 81 studies were pre-selected. After independent analysis by two reviewers, only 11 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. All studies (n = 11) using alternative treatments to silver sulfadiazine were shown to be superior in the mean time for complete wound healing, with statistically significant differences between experimental and control groups (p <0.00001); mean difference (- 4.26), 95% CI [- 5.96, - 2.56].


Subject(s)
Humans , Silver Sulfadiazine/therapeutic use , Wound Healing/drug effects , Burns/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Silver Sulfadiazine/pharmacology , Time Factors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Hospitalization , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(4): 354-358, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974160

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial effect of a bioadhesive chitosan-based oral membrane with chlorhexidine for local treatment of infections in the oral tissues. Five oral membranes of different compositions were tested: 5% chitosan (G1); 5% chitosan ± 0.2% chlorhexidine (G2), 5% chitosan ± 0.6% chlorhexidine (G3), 5% chitosan ± 1.0% chlorhexidine (G4), and 5% chitosan ± 2.0% chlorhexidine (G5). Also, five gel types were tested according to the following compositions: 5% chitosan gel (G6), 0.2% chlorhexidine gel (G7), 2.0% chlorhexidine gel (G8), 5% chitosan gel ± 0.2% chlorhexidine gel (G9), and 5% chitosan gel ± 2.0% chlorhexidine gel (G10). The antimicrobial action of the samples was tested against Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans through antibiogram by measuring the inhibition halos. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). The 2.0% chlorhexidine membrane (G5) and the disks containing 2.0% chlorhexidine gel (G8) showed the greatest inhibition halos for both microorganisms, with statistically significant difference when compared to others tested groups (p=0.008) only for Candida albicans inhibitions results. All the other formulations of membranes and gels showed inhibition halos, but without statistically significant difference. The bioadhesive chitosan-based oral membrane with 2% chlorhexidine and 2% chlorhexidine gel were the most effective in inhibiting the tested microorganisms.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro o efeito antimicrobiano de uma bandagem oral bioadesiva de quitosana com clorexidina para o tratamento de infecções dos tecidos orais. Cinco bandagens de diferentes composições foram testadas: Quitosana 5% (G1); Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 0,2% (G2), Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 0,6% (G3), Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 1,0% (G4) e Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 2,0% (G5). Foram testados também 5 tipos de géis nas seguintes composições: Gel de Quitosana 5% (G6), Gel de clorexidina a 0,2% (G7), Gel de clorexidina a 2,0% (G8), Gel de Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 0,2% (G9) e Gel de Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 2,0% (G10). A ação antimicrobiana das amostras foi testada contra Candida albicans e Streptococcus mutans por meio do antibiograma, medindo o halo de inibição. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis e ANOVA a um critério seguido pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05). A membrana com 2,0% de clorexidina (G5) e os discos contendo gel com 2,0% de clorexidina (G8) apresentaram os maiores halos de inibição para os dois microrganismos, com diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação aos demais grupos testados (p=0,008) apenas nos resultados de inibição de C. albicans. Todas as outras formulações de membranas e géis apresentaram halo de inibição, mas sem diferença estatisticamente significativa. A bandagem oral bioadesiva de quitosana com gel de 2% de clorexidina foi a mais efetiva em inibir os microrganismos testados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Gels , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Candida albicans/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage
5.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; s.n; 2018. 62 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-964018

ABSTRACT

O objetivo principal do presente estudo, considerando a importância do controle do biofilme, foi avaliar in situ a ação antimicrobiana e análise elementar da incorporação de diacetato de clorexidina(CHX) em resinas acrílicas a base de PMMA. Além disso, avaliar ex vivo o mecanismo de lixiviação da clorexidina por até 14 dias. Primeiramente, foram recrutados 32 indivíduos para utilização de dispositivos acrílicos intraorais palatinos por 24 horas contendo 6 corpos de prova(CPs), sendo subdivididos em 2 grupos: com clorexidina (1%) e sem CHX. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada por meio de contagem de colônias de microorganismos totais e Estreptococos do grupo mutans. Então, os grupos foram avaliados estatisticamente pelo teste de wilcoxon. A análise estatística aplicada foi o teste de Wilcoxon. No segundo teste, foi feita a análise elementar dos CPs(n=10) por meio das médias das intensidade dos elementos, antes e após o uso do dispositivo, por meio da fluorescência de raio X. Ao final, foi avaliado ex vivo a liberação de clorexidina cumulativa, em meio fechado contendo saliva dos indivíduos(n=5) por até 14 dias, através da ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN). As análises estatísticas da RMN, foram avaliadas pelo programa AMIX e metaboloanalyst. Os resultados mostraram, que para atividade antimicrobiana não houve diferença estatística (p>0,05) entre os grupos. Foi detectado a presença da molécula de clorexidina, antes e após a inserção dos CPs com CHX na cavidade bucal. Já para liberação de clorexidina, foi detectada a droga ao longo de 14 dias em meio fechado para a grupo teste, com liberação maior nas primeiras 24 horas. Conclui-se que, foi comprovada a presença do fármaco na resina acrílica após 24 horas em meio bucal, e seu mecanismo de lixiviação no meio fechado por até 14 dias. Porém, não foram encontrados resultados que confirmem a presença de um potencial antimicrobiano do fármaco, nas concentrações utilizadas nos corpos de prova in situ em 24 horas.


The main objective of the present study, considering the importance of biofilm control, was to evaluate in situ the antimicrobial action and elemental composition of the incorporation of chlorhexidine diacetate (CHX) in acrylic resins based on PMMA. In addition, ex vivo evaluation of the chlorhexidine release mechanism to 14 days. Firstly, 32 individuals were recruited for 24-hour palatal intraoral acrylic devices containing 6 test specimens (SPs), divided into 2 groups: with chlorhexidine (1%) and without CHX. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by colonies count of total microorganisms and streptococci mutans group. Then, the groups were statistically evaluated by the wilcoxon test. The statistical analysis applied was the Wilcoxon test. In the second test, elemental analysis of the SPs (n = 10) was done by means of the means intensity of the elements, before and after the use of the device, by X-ray fluorescence. At the end, the release was evaluated ex vivo of cumulative chlorhexidine in a becker containing saliva of the individuals (n = 5) for 14 days, through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The NMR analyzes were evaluated by AMIX and metaboloanalyst. The results showed that for antimicrobial activity there was no statistical difference (p> 0.05) between the groups. The presence of the chlorhexidine molecule was detected before and after the insertion of SPs with CHX in the oral cavity. As for chlorhexidine release, the drug was detected over 14 days in a closed medium for the test group, with a greater release in the first 24 hours. It was concluded that the presence of the drug in the acrylic resin after 24 hours in oral cavity was verified, and its release mechanism in the closed local for 14 days. However, no results were found to confirm the presence of an antimicrobial potential of the drug at the concentrations used in the in situ test specimens in 24 hours


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Acrylic Resins , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fluorescence
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e7, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889497

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the action of paramonochlorophenol associated with Furacin followed by calcium hydroxide (CH) dressing in the control of inflammatory root resorption in cases of immediate tooth replantation with delayed endodontic treatment. A total of 28 incisors of 3 male dogs were extracted and replanted after 15 minutes, and randomly divided into 3 groups: Group I (n = 8) - endodontic treatment was performed before the extraction and replantation; Group II (n = 10) - endodontic treatment was performed 30 days after replantation and the root canal was filled with CH dressing; Group III (n = 10) - endodontic treatment was performed 30 days after replantation and root canals received temporary medication of paramonochlorophenol-Furacin followed by CH dressing. The animals were euthanized 90 days after replantation. The histomorphological events analyzed at the epithelial reattachment site were the intensity and extent of acute and chronic inflammatory processes, periodontal ligament (PDL) organization, the intensity and extent of acute and chronic inflammatory processes in the PDL space, root resorption, bone tissue, and ankylosis. Data were submitted to the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test for group comparison (α = 5%). In Groups I, II and III the periodontal ligament was regenerated and most of the resorption areas were repaired by newly formed cementum. The depth and extent of root resorption were significantly higher in Group II than in Group III. The use of paramonochlorophenol-furacin followed by CH dressing was more effective in controlling inflammatory root resorption after immediate tooth replantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dogs , Root Resorption/prevention & control , Tooth Replantation/methods , Chlorophenols/pharmacology , Tooth, Nonvital/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Nitrofurazone/pharmacology , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Periodontal Ligament/pathology , Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Root Resorption/pathology , Time Factors , Tooth Root/drug effects , Tooth Root/pathology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Tooth, Nonvital/pathology , Medical Illustration
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(5): 541-550, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893660

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Addition of chlorhexidine has enhanced the antimicrobial effect of glass ionomer cement (GIC) indicated to Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART); however, the impact of this mixture on the properties of these materials and on the longevity of restorations must be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of incorporating chlorhexidine (CHX) in the in vitro biological and chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and in vivo clinical/ microbiological follow-up of the ART with GIC containing or not CHX. Material and Methods: For in vitro studies, groups were divided into GIC, GIC with 1.25% CHX, and GIC with 2.5% CHX. Antimicrobial activity of GIC was analyzed using agar diffusion and anti-biofilm assays. Cytotoxic effects, compressive tensile strength, microhardness and fluoride (F) release were also evaluated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 36 children that received ART either with GIC or GIC with CHX. Saliva and biofilm were collected for mutans streptococci (MS) counts and the survival rate of restorations was checked after 7 days, 3 months and one year after ART. ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/ Mann-Whitney tests were performed for in vitro tests and in vivo microbiological analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank tests were applied to estimate survival percentages of restorations (p<0.05). Results: Incorporation of 1.25% and 2.5% CHX improved the antimicrobial/anti-biofilm activity of GIC, without affecting F release and mechanical characteristics, but 2.5% CHX was cytotoxic. Survival rate of restorations using GIC with 1.25% CHX was similar to GIC. A significant reduction of MS levels was observed for KM+CHX group in children saliva and biofilm 7 days after treatment. Conclusions: The incorporation of 1.25% CHX increased the in vitro antimicrobial activity, without changing chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and odontoblast-like cell viability. This combination improved the in vivo short-term microbiological effect without affecting clinical performance of ART restorations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms/growth & development , Biofilms/drug effects , Compressive Strength , Fluorides/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Lactobacillus acidophilus/growth & development , Lactobacillus acidophilus/drug effects , Odontoblasts/drug effects
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 1140-1146, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893106

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine dentin treatment on shear bond strength (SBS) of adhesive systems after different storages. The work included 144 third molars that had their dentin exposed and were divided in 6 groups: G1 (ASB+CHX: Adper Scotchbond 1XT + chlorhexidine 2 % prior Primer); G2(ASB); G3 (APP+CHX: Adper Prompt L-Pop + CHX); G4(APP); G5 (SBU+CHX: Single Bond Universal + CHX); and G6(SBU). Resin build-up was performed and teeth were subdivided regarding storage times (n=8): 72 h, 3 and 6 months. Next, SBS test was performed. At 72 hours, all equivalent groups (same adhesive system, different dentin treatment) showed no significant difference in SBS (P.05). Self-etch adhesive groups (with or without CHX) presented lower SBS compared to other systems (P.05). After 3 and 6 months, all CHX-treated groups presented significantly higher SBS compared to equivalent non-treated groups (P.05). For both storage times, Single Bond Universal presented the highest SBS values within the same dentin treatment (P.05), while Adper Scotchbond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop were not significantly different among them, also within the same dentin treatments [3 months (with CHX: P=.966; without: P=.958) and 6 months (with CHX: P =.887; without: P=.990)]. CHX Dentin disinfection is indicated for all classes of adhesives studied.


Este estudio evaluó el efecto del tratamiento de la dentina con clorhexidina sobre la resistencia al cizallamiento (SBS) de sistemas adhesivos después de diferentes almacenamientos. Se removió el esmalte oclusal a 144 terceros molares y se dejó su dentina media expuesta, posteriormente se dividieron al azar en 6 grupos: G1 (ASB + CHX: Adper Scotchbond 1XT + clorhexidina 2 % antes del Primer); G2 (ASB); G3 (APP + CHX: L-Pop + CHX de Adper); G4 (APP); G5 (SBU + CHX: Single Bond Universal + CHX); y G6 (SBU). Se realizó la aplicación de la resina compuesta y se subdividieron los grupos con respecto a los tiempos de almacenamiento (n = 8): 72h, 3 y 6 meses. A continuación, se realizó la prueba SBS. A las 72 horas, todos los grupos equivalentes (el mismo sistema adhesivo, diferentes tratamientos de dentina) no mostraron diferencias significativas en los valores de SBS (P.05). Los grupos de adhesivo de auto-grabado (con o sin CHX) presentaron valores de SBS más bajos en comparación con otros sistemas (P.05). Después de 3 y 6 meses, todos los grupos tratados con CHX presentaron valores de SBS significativamente mayores en comparación con los grupos no tratados equivalentes (P.05). Para ambos tiempos de almacenamiento, Single Bond Universal presentó los valores de SBS más altos dentro del mismo tratamiento dentinario (P.05), mientras que el Adper Scotchbond y el Adper Prompt-L-Pop no fueron significativamente diferentes entre ellos, también dentro de los mismos tratamientos dentinarios 3 meses (con CHX: P = .966, sin: P = .958) y 6 meses (con CHX: P = .887; sin: P = .990). La desinfección de la dentina con CHX está indicada para todas las clases de adhesivos estudiados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dentin , Dental Materials/chemistry , Materials Testing , Shear Strength , Tensile Strength , Time Factors
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 75-79, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842827

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the susceptibilities of oral candidiasis-derived Candida albicans, fluconazole-resistant (FR) Candida dubliniensis, and fluconazole-susceptible (FS) C. dubliniensis to synthetic antiseptics [chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and triclosan (TRC)] and natural compounds (carvacrol, eugenol and thymol). METHODS: Susceptibility tests were performed based on the M27-A3 reference method. The fluconazole-resistant C. dubliniensis strains were obtained after prolonged in vitro exposure to increasing fluconazole concentrations. The geometric mean values for minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Fluconazole-susceptible C. dubliniensis was more sensitive to CPC and TRC than FR C. dubliniensis and C. albicans were. However, eugenol and thymol were more active against FR C. dubliniensis. The fungicidal activities of CHX and TRC were similar for the three groups, and FR C. dubliniensis and C. albicans had similar sensitivities to CPC. CONCLUSIONS: The resistance of C. dubliniensis to fluconazole affects its sensitivity the synthetic antiseptics and natural compounds that were tested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Thymol/pharmacology , Triclosan/pharmacology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candida albicans/drug effects , Eugenol/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 27-34, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839179

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial and the anti-biofilm activities of Lactobacillus plantarum extract (LPE) against a panel of oral Staphylococcus aureus (n = 9) and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The in vitro ability of LPE to modulate bacterial resistance to tetracycline, benzalchonium chloride, and chlorhexidine were tested also. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimal bactericidal concentrations of Lactobacillus plantarum extract, tetracycline, benzalchonium chloride and clohrhexidine were determined in absence and in presence of a sub-MIC doses of LPE (1/2 MIC). In addition, the LPE potential to inhibit biofilm formation was assessed by microtiter plate and atomic force microscopy assays. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS v. 17.0 software using Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. These tests were used to assess inter-group difference (p < 0.05). Results: Our results revealed that LPE exhibited a significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against the tested strains. A synergistic effect of LPEs and drug susceptibility was observed with a 2–8-fold reduction. Conclusion: LPE may be considered to have resistance-modifying activity. A more detailed investigation is necessary to determine the active compound responsible for therapeutic and disinfectant modulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mouth/microbiology , Reference Values , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force/methods , Biofilms/drug effects , Lactobacillus plantarum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e32, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839525

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent years, different chlorhexidine formulations have been tested, including an alcohol-free alternative, but the effect of this solution on early biofilm formation is not clear. A crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of two chlorhexidine solutions against supra- and subgingival biofilm formation (NCT#02656251). Thirty-five participants were randomized and asked to rinse twice daily with 15 ml of an alcohol-containing 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, an alcohol-free 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, or placebo. The study was conducted in three experimental periods of 4 days each, with a 10-day washout between the periods. All the experimental periods followed the same protocol, except that the solutions were switched. Biofilm distribution was evaluated every 24 hours by the Plaque-Free Zone Index, during 96 hours. Adverse events were self-reported and sensory evaluation was performed using a hedonic scale. Compared to the placebo, the chlorhexidine solutions resulted in a significantly higher number of surfaces free of plaque over 96 hours (p < 0.01), and were able to prevent subgingival biofilm formation (p < 0.01). The alcohol-free chlorhexidine solution was associated with a lower incidence of adverse events, compared with alcohol-containing chlorhexidine (p < 0.05); it also received better sensory evaluation and acceptance by trial participants, compared with the alcohol-containing chlorhexidine (p = 0.007), and had a similar inhibitory effect on the formation of supra- and subgingival biofilms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biofilms/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Cross-Over Studies , Dental Plaque Index , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/microbiology , Taste , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e89, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952126

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and its main compound (citral) against primary dental colonizers and caries-related species. Chemical characterization of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and the main compound was determined. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations were determined by broth microdilution assay for streptococci and lactobacilli reference, and for clinical strains. The effect of the essential oil on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation/disruption was investigated. Negative (without treatment) and positive controls (chlorhexidine) were used. The effect of citral on preformed biofilm was also tested using the same methodology. Monospecies and microcosm biofilms were tested. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (α=0.05). Cytotoxicity of the essential oil to human keratinocytes was performed by MTT assay. GC/MS demonstrated one major component (citral). The essential oil showed an inhibitory effect on all tested bacterial species, including S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Essential oil of C. citratus (10X MIC) reduced the number of viable cells of lactobacilli and streptococci biofilms (p < 0.05). The essential oil inhibited adhesion of caries-related polymicrobial biofilm to dental enamel (p < 0.01). Citral significantly reduced the number of viable cells of streptococci biofilm (p < 0.001). The essential oil showed low cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes. Based on these findings, this study can contribute to the development of new formulations for products like mouthwash, against dental biofilms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Streptococcus/growth & development , Streptococcus/drug effects , Time Factors , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Actinomyces/growth & development , Actinomyces/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Lactobacillus acidophilus/growth & development , Lactobacillus acidophilus/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(6): 575-581, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841149

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The antimicrobial effect of ultrasonic agitation of calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes in infected bovine dentin and their penetrability were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and microbiological culture. Material and Methods Fifty-two bovine teeth were infected with Enterococcus faecalis using a new contamination protocol; then they received CH paste and were divided into groups with or without ultrasound. Ultrasonic agitation was conducted for 1 min with a plain point insert. After 15 d, the CLSM analyzed the viable and dead bacteria with Live and Dead assay. The dentinal wall debris was collected by burs, and the colony forming units (CFU/mL) were counted. The penetrability of the paste inside dentinal tubules was tested using the B-rodamine dye. Results The calcium hydroxide paste showed better results with the use of ultrasonic agitation (p<0.05). Conclusion The ultrasonic agitation of CH paste increased its antimicrobial action and was responsible for intradentinal penetration with the fulfilment of the tubules.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Dentin/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Microscopy, Confocal , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Microbial Viability/drug effects
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e125, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951959

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHBM), and octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) on cariogenic microorganisms by using their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). CHX, PHBM, and OCT were diluted in distilled water to the final test concentrations. Using the in-tube dilution method, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Actinomyces viscosus were cultivated on blood agar and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) at 37°C for 48 h. They were read using a spectrophotometer to detect MIC. To determine MBC, samples in the range of the turbidity threshold after 24 h were transferred onto blood agar and evaluated for growth after 24 h. Different MICs and MBCs were observed in all disinfectants against each microorganism. The lowest MIC and MBC against S. mutans (60 mg/L) were obtained from PHBM. The lowest values against L. rhamnosus (15 mg/L, 30 mg/L), A. viscosus (30 mg/L), and L. acidophilus (15 mg/L, 30 mg/L) were determined by OCT. PHBM and OCT have the potential to be replaced with CHX because they were effective against cariogenic microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Pyridines/pharmacology , Biguanides/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Spectrophotometry , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Agar , Dental Caries/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/growth & development
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e30, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952070

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oral rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants is a way to restore esthetics and masticatory function in edentulous patients, but bacterial colonization around the implants may lead to mucositis or peri-implantitis and consequent implant loss. Peri-implantitis is the main complication of oral rehabilitation with dental implants and, therefore, it is necessary to take into account the potential effects of antiseptics such as chlorhexidine (CHX), chloramine T (CHT), triclosan (TRI), and essential oils (EO) on bacterial adhesion and on biofilm formation. To assess the action of these substances, we used the microcosm technique, in which the oral environment and periodontal conditions are simulated in vitro on titanium discs with different surface treatments (smooth surface - SS, acid-etched smooth surface - AESS, sand-blasted surface - SBS, and sand-blasted and acid-etched surface - SBAES). Roughness measurements yielded the following results: SS: 0.47 µm, AESS: 0.43 µm, SB: 0.79 µm, and SBAES: 0.72 µm. There was statistical difference only between SBS and AESS. There was no statistical difference among antiseptic treatments. However, EO and CHT showed lower bacterial counts compared with the saline solution treatment (control group). Thus, the current gold standard (CHX) did not outperform CHT and EO, which were efficient in reducing the biofilm biomass compared with saline solution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Titanium/chemistry , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Saliva/microbiology , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Tosyl Compounds/pharmacology , Tosyl Compounds/chemistry , Triclosan/pharmacology , Triclosan/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chloramines/pharmacology , Chloramines/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , Bacterial Load , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/chemistry , Mouthwashes/chemistry
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(6): 637-642, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-769824

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to control denture biofilm. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated Candida sp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Denture Cleansers/pharmacology , Denture, Complete/microbiology , Ricinus/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candida/isolation & purification , Castor Oil/pharmacology , Colony Count, Microbial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Statistics, Nonparametric , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Time Factors
18.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 4(4): 255-262, ago.2015. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779227

ABSTRACT

To compare the efficacy of 3 intracanal cleaning protocols used before cementation of prosthetic posts. Material and Methods: 40 anterior teeth received endodontic treatment in hand, using lateral condensation technique. After two weeks, gutta-percha was appropriately removed from the teeth to get the necessary space to install a post. Then, teeth were randomly divided into groups; root surface was treated with chlorhexidine (CHX) activated by ultrasound (US) (group I), with chlorhexidine activated by sonic instrumentation (S) (group II), chlorhexidine without activation (group III) and without treatment (group IV). All teeth were fractured longitudinally getting 2 sections. The middle third of the root canal was microphotographed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the contaminated surface was measured using detritus with ImageJ 1.47. It was analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis-test using GraphPad Prism 5.01. Results: The median percentage of contaminated area of Group I was 20.06 percent, Group II, 19.3 percent; Group III, 36.05 percent; and Group IV, 56.45 percent. Conclusion: There are significant differences among different intracanal cleaning protocols in the removal efficiency of detritus from the root canal, being the activated protocols the most effective ones...


Comparar la eficacia de 3 protocolos de limpieza intraconducto utilizados previo a la cementación de pernos protésicos. Materiales y métodos: A 40 dientes anteriores se les realizó un tratamiento endodóntico en mano, mediante la técnica de condensación lateral. Luego de dos semanas, se realizó la desobturación de los mismos retirando la cantidad de gutapercha que otorgue el espacio necesario para alojar un poste. A continuación, los dientes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en grupos; superficie radicular tratada con clorhexidina (CHX) activado con ultrasonido (US) (grupo I), con clorhexidina activado con instrumental sónico (S) (grupo II), con clorhexidina sin activación (grupo III) y sin ningún tratamiento (grupo IV). Todos los dientes se fracturaron longitudinalmente obteniendo 2 secciones. Se microfotografió el tercio medio del conducto radicular con microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB) y se midió la superficie contaminada con detritus usando ImageJ 1.47. Se analizó con test Kruskall-Wallis usando GraphPad-Prism 5.01. Resultados: La mediana del porcentaje de área contaminada del Grupo I fue 20,06 por ciento, Grupo II de 19,3 por ciento, Grupo III de 36,05 por ciento y Grupo IV de 56,45 por ciento. Conclusión: Existen diferencias significativas entre los distintos protocolos de limpieza intraconducto en la eficacia de eliminación de detritus del conducto radicular, siendo los protocolos activados más eficientes...


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Smear Layer , Ultrasonics
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 76-81, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744299

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare visual outcomes, corneal astigmatism, and keratometric readings in patients with keratoconus who underwent intrastromal corneal ring implantation (ICRSI) alone with those who underwent ICRSI combined with ultraviolet A riboflavin-mediated corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). Methods: Pre- and post-operative best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), spherical error, cylindrical error, and mean keratometry were retrospectively compared over a period of 2 years in patients with keratoconus who underwent only ICRSI (group 1) versus those in patients who underwent combined ICRSI-CXL (group 2). Results: Thirty-two eyes of 31 patients were evaluated. CXL was performed in 10 cases (31%), and there were no complications or need for ring repositioning. BCDVA improved from 0.54 to 0.18 in the group 1 and from 0.56 to 0.17 in the group 2. Spherical and cylindrical errors and mean keratometry values significantly decreased in both groups. No patient postoperatively had visual acuity (VA) of less than 20/60 on refraction, and 78% exhibited VA better than or equal to 20/40 with spectacles (72% of group 1 and 90% of group 2). Improvement in the spherical equivalent (SE) value was observed in the group 1 (from -5.89 ± 3.37 preoperatively to -2.65 ± 2.65 postoperatively; p<0.05) and group 2 (from -6.91 ± 1.93 preoperatively to -2.11 ± 3.01 postoperatively; p<0.05). Conclusion: Both techniques can be considered safe and effective in improving VA and refractive SE values, in decreasing the curvature of the cone apex in the topographical analysis, and in decreasing corrected diopters postoperatively in patients with keratoconus. .


Objetivo: Comparar os resultados visuais, astigmatismo corneano e ceratometria em pacientes com ceratocone submetidos a implante de anel corneano intraestromal (ICRSI) e quando em combinação com radiação ultravioleta associado ao crosslinking do colágeno corneano mediada pela riboflavina (CXL). Métodos: Comparou-se retrospectivamente pacientes com ceratocone submetidos somente a implante de anel corneano intraestromal (grupo 1) versus o mesmo procedimento associado ao crosslinking em um período de 2 anos. Avaliou-se acuidade visual com correção, equivalente esférico, ápice do cone na topografia e adaptação com lentes de contato pré e pós operatórios. Resultados: O estudo avaliou 32 olhos de 31 pacientes. Em 10 casos (31%) foi realizado crosslinking corneano, não havendo complicações ou necessidade de reposicionamento do anel. Acuidade visual corrigida pré e pós-operatória, componentes esférico e cilíndrico da refração e valores de ceratometria media diminuíram significativamente em ambos os grupos. Após o implante, nenhum paciente apresentou acuidade visual pior que 20/60 e 78% apresentaram acuidade corrigida melhor ou igual a 20/40 (72% do grupo 1 e 90% do grupo 2). Observou-se diminuição no valor do equivalente esférico no grupo 1 (de -5,89 ± 3,37 pré-operatório para -2,65 ± 2,65 pós-operatório; p<0,05) e no grupo 2 (de -6,91 ± 1,93 pré-operatório para -2,11 ± 3,01 pós-operatório; p<0,05). Conclusão: Ambas as técnicas podem ser consideradas seguras e eficazes na melhora da acuidade visual e equivalente esférico, diminuição do ápice de curvatura do cone na análise topográfica e na redução de dioptrias a serem corrigidas no pós-operatório de pacientes com ceratocone. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohols/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Enterococcus/drug effects , Hand Disinfection , Colony Count, Microbial , Hand/microbiology , Infection Control , Vancomycin Resistance
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-6, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777177

ABSTRACT

The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% castor oil solutions against specific microorganisms, by counting Colony Forming Units (CFU) of clinically important bacteria and Candida species. Acrylic resin specimens (n = 320; Lucitone 550) were obtained from square metal matrices (10 x 10 x 2 mm), sterilized by microwave (650W, for 6 minutes) and contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalisand Candida glabrata. The specimens were immersed for 20 minutes in one of the following hygiene solutions (n = 10/each): A – 0.25% Sodium hypochlorite; B – 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite; C – 10% Castor oil solution; and D (Control) – saline. Adhered cells were suspended and inoculated into a selective solid medium (37ºC for 24 h). The Student’s t-test (α = 0.05) was performed to compare log10(CFU+1)/mL between Groups C and D. The results showed that sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.5%) completely eliminated all detectable microorganisms. The castor oil solution eliminatedB. subtilisand reduced counts for other strains. Differences between C and D were significant (p < 0.05) for all species except for E. faecalis. Both sodium hypochlorite solutions (0.25% and 0.5%) were effective in eliminating all microorganisms evaluated, and may be useful as cleaning solutions for complete dentures. The castor oil solution provided moderate efficacy and performed differently on the tested species, with the strongest effect on B. subtilis and with non-significant action on E. faecalis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Castor Oil/pharmacology , Denture Cleansers/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Colony Count, Microbial , Dentures/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results
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