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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 414-416, May 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288554

ABSTRACT

Abstract The diagnosis of genital ulcers remains a challenge in clinical practice. Lipschütz ulcer is a non-sexually transmitted rare and, probably, underdiagnosed condition, characterized by the sudden onset of vulvar edema along with painful necrotic ulcerations. Despite its unknown incidence, this seems to be an uncommon entity, with sparse cases reported in the literature. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl who presented at the emergency department with vulvar ulcers. She denied any sexual intercourse. The investigation excluded sexually transmitted infections, so, knowledge of different etiologies of non-venereal ulcers became essential. The differential diagnoses are extensive and include inflammatory processes, drug reactions, trauma, and malignant tumors. Lipschütz ulcer is a diagnosis of exclusion. With the presentation of this case report, the authors aim to describe the etiology, clinical course, and outcomes of this rare disease, to allow differential diagnosis of genital ulceration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Ulcer/diagnosis , Vulvar Diseases/drug therapy , Dibucaine/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Ulcer/drug therapy , Vulvar Diseases/pathology , Administration, Topical , Treatment Outcome , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Rare Diseases , Diagnosis, Differential , Dibucaine/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage
3.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e162109, mai. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122173

ABSTRACT

This survey evaluated mombin leaves (Spondias mombin L.) decoction efficiency as an antiseptic during post-surgery period on cats submitted to orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy. For this purpose, 45 castrated mongrels cats were divided into three groups, the first group as a positive control using 0.5% chlorhexidine-alcohol solution, the second a negative control group using sterile distilled water and, finally, the test group using mombin leaves decocted with a concentration of 100 mg/mL. All animals, independent of age and sex, had visibly healed in most cases in a similar time. Animals treated with mombin leaves decoction presented a significant reduction of bacterial growth. In addition, the animals treated in the test group had better surgical wound healing. All isolated bacterial strains presented inhibition halo for chlorhexidine and for Spondias mombin L. Thus, the decoction of Spondias mombin L. leaves proved antiseptic efficacy in the surgical wounds of cats submitted to orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy.(AU)


Foi avaliada a eficiência do decocto das folhas de cajá (Spondias mombin L.) como antisséptico no pós-cirúrgico de gatos submetidos à orquiectomia e ovariosalpingohisterectomia. Para tal, foram submetidos à castração 45 gatos sem raça definida, divididos em três grupos. O primeiro grupo como controle positivo com Solução Alcoólica de Clorexidine a 0,5%; segundo grupo controle negativo com água destilada estéril; e o grupo teste com o decocto de cajá à concentração de 100 mg/mL. Todos os animais, independentemente da idade e sexo, tiveram cicatrização visível em tempo similar. Animais tratados com o decocto apresentaram uma redução significativa do crescimento bacteriano. Além disso, observou-se uma melhor cicatrização das feridas cirúrgicas dos animais tratados no grupo teste. Todas as estirpes bacterianas isoladas apresentaram halo de inibição para clorexidine e para Spondias mombin L. Portanto, o decocto das folhas da Spondias mombin L. apresentou eficácia antisséptica nas feridas cirúrgicas de gatos submetidos à orquiectomia e ovariosalpingohisterectomia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Castration/veterinary , Anacardiaceae , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Orchiectomy/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
4.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 33: eAPE20180307, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1100875

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Acompanhar o uso do curativo gel de clorexidina em cateter venoso central de crianças e adultos submetidos ao transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas para verificar a ocorrência de infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter e irritação cutânea na vigência deste curativo. Métodos Estudo observacional e prospectivo, com 25 pacientes com cateter venoso central inserido para realização do transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas. Diariamente avaliou-se as características do curativo, da pele, clínicas do paciente e relacionadas a infecção. Os pacientes foram acompanhados a partir do primeiro dia da inserção do CVC até a sua remoção, até o limite de 45 dias a partir da data de inserção do CVC. Resultados A infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter ocorreu em 28% dos pacientes, houve associação entre neutropenia febril e infecção (p<0,01). A irritação cutânea foi identificada em 24% dos pacientes. Não foi identificada associação entre infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter e a irritação cutânea (p=0,51). Houve associação significativa entre irritação cutânea e suspensão do uso do curativo (p=0,03). As trocas não programadas ocorreram em 50% das trocas identificadas e o principal motivo foi a presença de sangue no curativo (57,8%). Conclusão O uso do curativo gel de clorexidina em pacientes submetidos ao TCTH demonstrou ser uma medida eficaz na redução da ocorrência de infecções relacionadas ao cateter, quando comparado aos dados da literatura. Os casos de ICSRC encontrados foram associados, principalmente, à condição de neutropenia, muito comum nesta população. Os casos de irritação cutânea relacionados ao curativo identificados e a presença de sangue como principal motivo de troca não programada salientam a importância do conhecimento relacionado ao uso do curativo por parte dos enfermeiros assistenciais, a fim de criar protocolos que indiquem o uso e manejo do curativo com segurança.


Resumen Objetivo Hacer un seguimiento del uso del vendaje gel de clorhexidina en catéter venoso central (CVC) en niños y adultos sometidos al trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas (TCMH) para verificar los casos de infección del flujo sanguíneo relacionados con el catéter (IFSRC) y la irritación cutánea durante la validez de este vendaje. Métodos Estudio observacional y prospectivo, con 25 pacientes con catéter venoso central insertado para realizar el trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas. Diariamente se evaluaron las características del vendaje y de la piel, las características clínicas del paciente y las relacionadas con la infección. Los pacientes recibieron un seguimiento a partir del primer día de la inserción del CVC hasta su retirada, con un límite de 45 días a partir de la fecha de inserción del CVC. Resultados La infección del flujo sanguíneo relacionada con el catéter se presentó en el 28% de los pacientes, hubo relación entre neutropenia febril e infección (p<0,01). Se identificó irritación cutánea en el 24% de los pacientes. No se identificó relación entre la infección del flujo sanguíneo relacionada con el catéter y la irritación cutánea (p=0,51). Hubo relación significativa entre la irritación cutánea y la suspensión del uso del vendaje (p=0,03). Los cambios no programados sucedieron en el 50% de los cambios registrados, y el motivo principal fue la presencia de sangre en el vendaje (57,8%). Conclusión El uso del vendaje gel de clorhexidina en pacientes sometidos al TCMH demostró ser una medida eficaz para la reducción de casos de infecciones relacionadas con el catéter, en comparación con los datos de la literatura. Los casos de IFSRC encontrados se relacionaron principalmente con la condición de neutropenia, muy común en esta población. Los casos identificados de irritación cutánea relacionados con el vendaje y la presencia de sangre como principal motivo de cambio no programado resaltan la importancia del conocimiento del uso del vendaje por parte de los enfermeros asistenciales, a fin de crear protocolos que indiquen el uso y manejo seguro del vendaje.


Abstract Objective Monitor the use of chlorhexidine gel dressing in the central venous catheter of children and adults submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to check for catheter-related bloodstream infection and skin irritation while using this dressing. Methods This is a prospective observational study with 25 patients with central venous catheters (CVC) inserted for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Dressing characteristics, skin characteristics, clinical conditions of patients and infection-related characteristics were evaluated daily. Patients were monitored from the first day of CVC insertion until removal, up to 45 days from the CVC insertion date. Results Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) occurred in 28% of all patients, with an association between febrile neutropenia and infection (p<0.01). Skin irritation was identified in 24% of patients. No association was found between catheter-related bloodstream infection and skin irritation (p=0.51). A significant association was observed between skin irritation and dressing removal (p=0.03). Unscheduled dressing changes corresponded to 50% of all dressing changes identified during the study, and the main reason was presence of blood in the dressing (57.8%). Conclusion Using chlorhexidine gel dressing in patients submitted to HSCT proved to be an effective measure to reduce the occurrence of catheter-related infections, when compared to literature data. The cases of CRBSI found in this study were mainly associated with the condition of neutropenia, which is very common in this population. The cases of dressing-related skin irritation and presence of blood as the main reason for unscheduled change highlight the importance of nurses having proper knowledge about how to use this dressing in order to create protocols for safe dressing use and handling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Bandages, Hydrocolloid , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Central Venous Catheters , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(11): 879-888, Nov. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056911

ABSTRACT

Brazil has one of the largest commercial cattle herds in the world, which naturally coexist with an enormous number of parasitic species. Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is among these species, interfering with animal productivity and causing losses to the beef and dairy cattle sector. The use of chemical acaricides in the control of this mite has resulted in the emergence of resistant populations. In this sense, alternative control measures using plants as sources of botanical acaricides have shown to be effective. Eugenia pyriformis Cambess is a Brazilian plant with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity; however, there are no reports on its acaricidal activity in the literature. The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal and larvicidal potential of E. pyriformis leaf essential oil (EO) on southern cattle tick at different stages of the reproductive cycle. E. pyriformis leaves were collected and dried, and had their EO extracted by hydrodistillation (3h) using a modified Clevenger apparatus. Chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and 32 compounds belonging to the sesquiterpene class were identified: hydrocarbons (17.98%) and oxygenated forms (81.96%), with spathulenol (43.65%) and caryophyllene oxide (12.17%) as the most common. The EO was evaluated by the Adult Immersion Test at the concentrations (500.00 to 3.12mg/mL) in which the following parameters were measured: mortality of females (%), hatchability of eggs (%), and product efficiency (%). Larvae were assessed by the Larval Packet Test at concentrations ranging from 25.00 to 0.00004mg/mL. Lethal concentrations (LC) required for killing 50 and 99.9% of adult females and larvae were determined using Probit analysis. LC50 and LC99.9 of EO were 0.06 and 24.60mg/mL and 1,208.80 and 2,538mg/mL for larvae and adult females, respectively. Action of the EO in the free-living cycle of R. (B.) microplus larvae was another parameter assessed. To this end, the larvae were deposited in pots containing Brachiaria decumbens and, after migration to the leaf apex, a solution containing LC99.9 (24.60mg/mL) of the EO was sprayed. After 24h, 72.25% of the larvae had died, indicating stability of the EO when subjected to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanism of action through which the EO killed the larvae and adult females was investigated by the Bioautographic Method, which showed inhibition of 3.15mg/mL of the EO on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. The results found in the present experiment indicate that E. pyriformis essential oil is an alternative in the control of southern cattle tick in the larval (parasitic) and free-living cycle (non-parasitic) stages under field conditions.(AU)


O Brasil dispõe de um dos maiores rebanhos bovinos comerciais do mundo, sendo natural que junto a esse rebanho, coexista uma enorme quantidade de espécies parasitárias; dentre estes o carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus que interfere na produtividade animal, causando prejuízos à pecuária de corte e leite. A utilização de acaricidas químicos no controle deste ácaro tem causado o surgimento de populações resistentes e neste sentido, controles alternativos utilizando plantas como fontes de acaricidas botânicos têm se mostrado eficazes. Eugenia pyriformis Cambess é uma planta brasileira com atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana, entretanto não há relatos da atividade acaricida. O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu na avaliação do potencial acaricida e larvicida do óleo essencial das folhas de E. pyriformis sobre o carrapato bovino nos diferentes estágios do ciclo reprodutivo. As folhas foram coletadas, secas e o OE extraído por hidrodestilação (3 horas) em aparelho Clevenger modificado. A análise química foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM) sendo identificados 32 compostos, pertencentes à classe sesquiterpenos: hidrocarbonetos (17.98%) e oxigenados (81.96%); tendo como majoritários o spathulenol (43,65%) e caryophylene oxide (12,17%). O OE foi avaliado pelo teste de imersão de adultos nas concentrações (500,00 a 3,12mg/mL) onde foram mensurados os parâmetros: mortalidade das fêmeas (%), eclodibilidade dos ovos (%) e eficiência do produto (%). As larvas foram avaliadas pelo teste de imersão larval (Larval Packet Test) nas concentrações que variaram de 25,00 a 0,00004mg/mL. Foram determinadas as concentrações letais (CLs) necessárias para matar 50 e 99,9% das fêmeas adultas e das larvas utilizando a análise de Probitos. As CL50 e CL99,9 do OE foram (0,06 e 24,60mg/mL) para as larvas e (1.208,80 e 2.538mg/mL) para as fêmeas adultas, respectivamente. Outro parâmetro avaliado em nossa pesquisa foi mensurar a ação do OE no ciclo de vida livre das larvas de R.(B.) microplus; onde as larvas foram depositadas em vasos com Brachiaria decumbens e após migração destas para o ápice das folhas, foi aspergido solução contendo a CL99,9 (24,60mg/mL) do OE. Após 24 horas, 72,25% das larvas morreram indicando que houve estabilidade do OE quando submetido a condições de temperatura e umidade não controladas. O mecanismo de ação pelo qual o OE matou as larvas e fêmeas adultas foi investigado pelo método bioautográfico, indicando uma inibição de 3,15mg/mL do óleo essencial sobre a enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE). Os resultados encontrados no presente experimento indicaram que o óleo essencial de E. pyriformis é uma alternativa no controle do carrapato bovino no estágio larval (parasitário) e no ciclo de vida livre (estágio não parasitário) em condições de campo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rhipicephalus , Larvicides , Acaricides , Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 588-595, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042049

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of triclosan-coated suture for the reduction of infection in saphenectomy wounds of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: A total of 508 patients who underwent saphenectomy in CABG surgery were included in a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial from February/2011 to June/2014. Patients were randomized into the triclosan-coated suture group (n= 251) and the conventional non-antibiotic suture group (n=257). Demographic (gender and age), clinical (body mass index, diabetes, and use of analgesics), and intraoperative (cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times) variables and those related to the saphenectomy wound (pain, dehiscence, erythema, infection, necrosis, and hyperthermia) were measured and analyzed. Results: Of the 508 patients who underwent saphenectomy, 69.9% were males and 40.2% were diabetic. Thirty-three (6.5%) patients presented infection: 13 (5.3%) with triclosan and 20 (7.9%) with conventional suture (P=0.281). Among diabetic patients (n=204), triclosan suture was used in 45.1% with four cases of infection; conventional suture was used in 54.9% of them, with 11 cases of infection. Most patients (94.3%) underwent on-pump CABG. Wound pain was observed in 9.9% of patients with triclosan-coated suture and in 17.9% with conventional suture (P=0.011). Wound hyperthermia was found in 1.6% of patients with triclosan-coated suture and in 5.4% of those with conventional suture (P=0.028). Conclusion: Triclosan-coated suture shows lower infection rate in saphenectomy of patients undergoing CABG, although the differences were not statistically significant. Pain and wound hyperthermia were less frequent in patients with triclosan-coated sutures compared with conventional sutures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Polyglactin 910/therapeutic use , Saphenous Vein/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Triclosan/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Suture Techniques , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Time Factors , Body Mass Index , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Complications
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 361-362, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011102

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Perinevic dermatosis neglecta is an underestimated skin condition usually affecting children and adolescents, characterized by the appearance of dirt-like brownish pigmentation around a preexisting nevus and often a matter of concern for parents. We describe the clinical and dermoscopic findings in a case of perinaevic dermatosis neglecta and discuss the possible etiology of this phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Melanoma/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Hyperpigmentation/complications , Dermoscopy , Diagnosis, Differential , Ethanol/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Nevus, Pigmented/complications
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 204-210, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001128

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aims to evaluate tissue healing efficacy in burn patients treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine versus other treatments. This is a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) and PICO strategy, registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) under the number CRD42017081057. The review found 71 studies in MEDLINE/Pubmed, 1 in Clinical Trials, 19 in the Cochrane Library, and 4 in LILACS in five manual searches. Of these, 81 studies were pre-selected. After independent analysis by two reviewers, only 11 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. All studies (n = 11) using alternative treatments to silver sulfadiazine were shown to be superior in the mean time for complete wound healing, with statistically significant differences between experimental and control groups (p <0.00001); mean difference (- 4.26), 95% CI [- 5.96, - 2.56].


Subject(s)
Humans , Silver Sulfadiazine/therapeutic use , Wound Healing/drug effects , Burns/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Silver Sulfadiazine/pharmacology , Time Factors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Hospitalization , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology
9.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 39(1): 90-93, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984640

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Treatment of persistent anal fistula implies a major challenge for surgeons, with risk of additional recurrence and potential continence impairment. We present a non-surgical treatment based on irrigation with silver nitrate 1% solution. Methods: This is a prospective study including patients with persistent anal fistula after surgery, who were treated with silver nitrate 1% solution irrigation from May 2015 to March 2017. Patients with evidence of abscess, presence of >1 external opening and those with bowel inflammatory disease were excluded. 3-5 cc of silver nitrate 1% solution were instilled through a catheter. The procedure was repeated on a weekly basis, conducting a maximum of 7 sessions per patient. Results: 18 patients (13 male, 72.2%) with a median age of 48 years old (IQR 41-55) were treated using silver nitrate 1% solution. A median of 5 sessions per patient was performed (IQR 3-6). The median follow-up period was 18 months (IQR 9-25). After the described period 8 patients' (44.4%) presented complete resolution of the fistula, 2 patients' (11.2%) were classified as partial healing and in 8 patients' (44.4%) the treatment was considered to fail. 6 patients' experienced self-limited pain during instillation, with persistence up to 24 h in 2 of them. Conclusions: Treatment with silver nitrate 1% solution is a minimally invasive procedure, with a favourable safety profile, that can be performed in an outpatients' basis achieving a complete healing rate of 44.4%. Therefore, this method should be considered for the treatment of recurrent or persistent anal fistula.


RESUMO Objetivo: O tratamento da fístula anal persistente é um grande desafio para os cirurgiões, com risco de recorrência adicional e potencial comprometimento da continência. Os autores apresentam um tratamento não cirúrgico baseado na irrigação com solução de nitrato de prata a 1%. Métodos: Este foi um estudo prospectivo incluindo pacientes com fístula anal persistente após a cirurgia que foram tratados com irrigação com solução de nitrato de prata a 1% entre maio de 2015 e março de 2017. Pacientes com evidência de abscesso, presença de mais de uma abertura externa e aqueles com doença inflamatória intestinal foram excluídos. Usando um cateter, instilou-se 3 a 5 cc. de solução de nitrato de prata a 1%. O procedimento foi repetido semanalmente, em um máximo de sete sessões por paciente. Resultados: Um total de 18 pacientes (13 homens, 72,2%) com idade mediana de 48 anos (IQR 41-55) foram tratados com solução de nitrato de prata a 1%. Uma mediana de cinco sessões por paciente foi realizada (IQR 3-6). A mediana do período de acompanhamento foi de 18 meses (IQR 9-25). Após o período descrito, oito pacientes (44,4%) apresentaram resolução completa da fístula, dois pacientes (11,2%) foram classificados como cicatrização parcial e em oito pacientes (44,4%) o tratamento falhou. Seis pacientes apresentaram dor autolimitada durante a instilação, que persistiu por até 24 horas em dois deles. Conclusões: O tratamento com solução de nitrato de prata a 1% é um procedimento minimamente invasivo, com perfil de segurança favorável, que pode ser realizado em regime ambulatorial, atingindo taxa de cura completa de 44,4%. Portanto, este método deve ser considerado para o tratamento da fístula anal recorrente ou persistente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Silver Nitrate/therapeutic use , Rectal Fistula/drug therapy , Therapeutic Irrigation , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180535, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Topical treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis can be affected by bacterial coinfection, hyperkeratosis, and transdermal drug delivery. OBJECTIVE The aim of this work was to evaluate the therapeutic response and safety of the topical, sequential use of antiseptic, keratolytic, and pentamidine isethionate (PMD) creams (3-PACK kit) on CL-infected BALB/c mice. METHODS A 0.5% chlorhexidine solution (CGH), 10% salicylic acid (SA), and 3% or 6% PMD were used as antiseptic, keratolytic, and antileishmanial drugs, respectively. During the first seven days, antiseptic, followed by 10% SA gel and PMD cream, were applied topically. Subsequently, treatment was performed only with the antiseptic and PMD creams. Skin irritation, reduction of lesion size (mm2), and parasitic load were observed until 30 days of treatment were completed. FINDINGS The 3-PACK treatment using 6% PMD induced a complete lesion reduction in 3/6 mice and a partial reduction in 1/6 mice, with no parasites observed. In contrast, CGH and SA alone, along with the vehicle, were not effective (p < 0.05). Moderate to severe erythema was observed at the application site. MAIN CONCLUSION The topical 3-PACK using 6% PMD was 67% effective in the treatment of CL by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Currently, work is ongoing to improve PMD isethionate formulation and to determine a dose-response.


Subject(s)
Pentamidine/therapeutic use , Leishmania braziliensis/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Keratolytic Agents , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 15(2): 2-10, ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994498

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Existen varias curaciones para quemaduras. La sulfadiazina de plata se ha usado por años pero las membranas microporosas son cada vez más preferidas. Objetivos: Comparar la eficiencia de las membrana microporosa (Telfa Clear®) versus sulfadiazina de plata (Platsul®) en menores de 15 años hospitalizados por quemadura. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de 87 pacientes, dividido en 2 grupos comparables en extensión y profundidad de la quemadura, edad y sexo. Durante enero a diciembre 2007 se curaron 52 pacientes con Platsul® y desde enero a octubre 2008 se curaron 35 con Telfa Clear®. Se evalúa tiempos y extensión de reepitelización, porcentaje de injertos, costos, días de hospitalización, número de curaciones, complicaciones, almacenamiento-estabilidad y costos. Estadística no paramétrica para el análisis univariado y regresión logística multivariado en Stata 11.2. Resultados: Los pacientes curados con Platsul® se injertaron más tardíamente y presentan más curaciones. Platsul® es peor evaluado por su almacenamiento-estabilidad y mayores costos. No hay diferencia en la incidencia de infección. Conclusiones: Ambas Técnicas son eficientes en permitir reepitelización, pero Platsul® puede demorar el injerto. La Telfa Clear® es mejor evaluado por el equipo de salud en cuanto a almacenamiento y estabilidad. El menor costo de Telfa Clear® es una ventaja.


Introduction: There are several dressings for burns. Silver sulfadiazine has been used for years but microporous membranes are increasingly preferred. Objectives: To compare the efficiency of microporous membrane (Telfa Clear®) versus silver sulfadiazine (Platsul®) in children younger than 15 years old hospitalized for burns. Patients and Methodology: Retrospective cohort study of 87 patients, divided into 2 comparable groups in extent and depth of the burn, age and sex. During January to December 2007, in 52 patients Platsul® were use and in 35 patients Telfa Clear® were use from January to October 2008. The time and extent of re-epithelialization, percentage of grafts, costs, length of stay, number of dressing change, complications, storage-stability and costs are evaluated. Non-parametric statistics were used for univariate analysis and logistic regression for multivariate analysis en Stata 11.2. Results: Platsul® was associate to a later graft and had a greater number of dressing changes. Platsul® is worst rated for its storage-stability and higher costs. No difference in infection rate was observed. Conclusions: Both techniques are efficient in allowing re-epithelialization, but burns treated with Platsul® were grafted later than when Telfa Clear® was used. Telfa Clear® is best evaluated by the health team in terms of storage and stability. The cost of Telfa Clear® is presented as an advantage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Silver Sulfadiazine/therapeutic use , Bandages , Burns/therapy , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Re-Epithelialization
12.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(4): 134-140, abr. 27, 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120767

ABSTRACT

Objective. to evaluate the clinical effect of a probiotic mouthwash in reducing generalized marginal chronic gingivitis using positive and negative control groups. methodology. four-week study conducted in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, from january to march 2017. participants were healthy, non-smokers with generalized marginal chronic gingivitis; age range 18-45 years. subjects were randomized and divided into three groups: group A: mouthwash based on 0.05 percent cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) (positive control); group B: mouthwash based on probiotics (experimental); group C: placebo mouthwash (negative control). no oral hygiene practices or routines were modified; subjects were followed for 4 weeks. the primary outcome variable of interest was the Löe and Silness gingival index, and the secondary one, the Quigley Heinn plaque index modified by Turesky. results. of the 45 patients included, 19 (42.2 percent) were men and 26 (57.7 percent) women, mean age was 22.8±2.07. each group consisted of 15 subjects; all subjects completed the study. there was no statistically significant reduction in gingival inflammation when comparing the 3 treatment groups (p=0.540) with respect to the gingival index. A comparison was made before and after the treatment and in the 3 groups there was no reduction of the gingival inflammation. plaque reduction was not statistically significant when comparing the 3 groups (p=0.278). however, when doing intra-group comparison, it was found that the patients in group A had a reduction in plaque index (p<0.005), which was not observed in groups B (p=0.1103) and C (p=0.1508). conclusions. the use of a probiotic mouth mouthwash did not reduce gingival inflammation or the accumulation of dentobacterial plaque in a period of 4 weeks. there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Gingivitis/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Periodontal Index , Pilot Projects , Mexico , Mouthwashes/chemistry
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6736, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889017

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the nares of patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery increases the potential risk of surgical site infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has gained recognition as a pathogen that is no longer only just a hospital-acquired pathogen. Patients positive for MRSA are associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality following infection. MRSA is commonly found in the nares, and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) is even more prevalent. Recently, studies have determined that screening for this pathogen prior to surgery and diminishing staphylococcal infections at the surgical site will dramatically reduce surgical site infections. A nasal mupirocin treatment is shown to significantly reduce the colonization of the pathogen. However, this treatment is expensive and is currently not available in China. Thus, in this study, we first sought to determine the prevalence of MSSA/MSRA in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery in northern China, and then, we treated the positive patients with a nasal povidone-iodine swab. Here, we demonstrate a successful reduction in the colonization of S. aureus. We propose that this treatment could serve as a cost-effective means of eradicating this pathogen in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery, which might reduce the rate of surgical site infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , Elective Surgical Procedures/economics , Orthopedic Procedures/economics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Administration, Intranasal , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/economics , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/economics , Nasal Cavity/drug effects
14.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2018. 155 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-912015

ABSTRACT

A infecção de sítio cirúrgico (ISC) é um grande desafio para o paciente, equipe e instituições de saúde. Um fator de risco importante na patogênese das infecções cirúrgicas ortopédicas refere-se à pele do paciente. O banho do paciente com soluções antissépticas, no pré-operatório é recomendado como medida para reduzir o risco de ISC, apesar das controvérsias. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da intervenção de enfermagem, banho pré-operatório, utilizando as soluções de gluconato de clorexidina a 4%, PVP-I degermante a 10% e sabão sem antisséptico, na prevenção de ISC, em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia eletiva de artroplastia do quadril e estimar a frequência de reações alérgicas causadas pelo uso das soluções. Estudo do tipo ensaio clínico, randomizado, controlado, com mascaramento do pesquisador, paciente e estatístico, utilizando dois grupos de intervenção (clorexidina; PVP-I) e um controle (sabão sem antisséptico). A amostra foi composta por 162 pacientes adultos, submetidos à cirurgia eletiva de artroplastia total do quadril, entre agosto/2015 e outubro/2017, sem infecção no local cirúrgico e alergia às soluções e não portadores nasais de Staphylococcus aureus. A randomização foi realizada por um programa de computador. Utilizados os critérios de descontinuidade de tratamento e a análise por intenção de tratar. Cada grupo foi composto por 54 pacientes. Na consulta de enfermagem os pacientes foram orientados pela enfermeira pesquisadora a tomarem dois banhos: na véspera da cirurgia no domicílio e no dia da cirurgia no hospital. O banho no hospital foi realizado por profissional de enfermagem. Para o banho o paciente recebia um envelope pardo fechado contendo o frasco da solução sorteada, quatro esponjas e um manual que orientava sobre o procedimento. O desfecho primário foi ISC e os pacientes foram monitorados até 90 dias de pós-operatório por meio de telefonemas e nas consultas de egressos ambulatorial. O programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), versão 19.0, foi utilizado para análise dos dados. O efeito aos tratamentos foi medido comparando os grupos intervenção e controle por meio da incidência de ISC, risco relativo, redução absoluta de risco. As características clínicas/epidemiológicas/cirúrgicas foram similares entre os pacientes nos três grupos. A incidência de ISC em cada grupo foi 5,5% (3/54) [IC95% 1,2-15,4]. A taxa de infecção superficial foi 4,9% e profunda 0,6%. O tempo médio para o surgimento das infecções foi 19 dias (DP ± 7,4). Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos (p=1,00). Um paciente apresentou reação alérgica com o uso da solução de PVP-I. A taxa de adesão aos dois banhos foi de 99,4% (161/162). Os resultados corroboram recentes revisões sistemáticas que não encontraram diferença nas taxas de infecção cirúrgica quando o banho pré-operatório foi realizado com soluções antissépticas ou sabão. A consulta de enfermagem no pré-operatório pode impactar a taxa de infecção profunda na cirurgia eletiva de artroplastia do quadril. O uso de soluções antissépticas pode ocasionar reações alérgicas na pele do paciente, durante o banho e precisa ser monitorada. É necessário cautela ao recomendar o banho pré-operatório com solução antisséptica como estratégia para reduzir infecção de sítio cirúrgico. A orientação do paciente no pré-operatório de cirurgia eletiva de artroplastia do quadril, quando realizada pelo enfermeiro, pode melhorar a qualidade do cuidado prestado ao paciente cirúrgico. Clinical Trials nº NCTO3001102 (AU)


Surgical site infections (SSI) are a major challenge for the patient, staff, and health institutions. An important risk factor in the pathogenesis of orthopedic surgical infections refers to the patient's skin. The patient's bath with antiseptic solutions in the preoperative period is recommended as measure to reduce the risk of SSI, despite controversies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the nursing intervention, preoperative bath, using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate solutions, 10% PVP-I and non-antiseptic soap in the prevention of SSI in patients submitted to elective hip arthroplasty surgery and the frequency of allergic reactions caused by the use of the solutions. Randomized, controlled clinical trial with masking of the researcher, patient and statistician using two intervention groups (PVP-I, chlorhexidine) and one control (non-antiseptic soap). The sample was consisted of 162 adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement between August/2015 to October/2017, without infection at the surgical site and allergy solutions and non-nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. The randomization was performed by a computer program. The criteria for treatment discontinuity and intention-to-treat analysis were used. Each group consisted of 54 patients. In nursing consultation patients were instructed by the research nurse to take two baths: the day before the surgery at home and the day of the surgery in the hospital. The bath in the hospital was performed by a nursing professional. For the bath the patient received a closed brown envelope containing the bottle of the solution drawn, four sponges, and a manual that guided about the procedure. The primary outcome was ISC and the patients were monitored up to 90 postoperative days by phone calls and outpatients visits. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0, was used for analysis of the data. The effect on treatments was measured by comparing intervention and control group by incidence of ISC, Relative Risk and Absolute Risk Reduction. Clinical/epidemiological/surgical characteristics were similar among the patients of the three groups. The incidence of SSI in each group was 5.5% (3/54) [IC95% 1,2-15,4]. The superficial infection rate was 4.9% and deep 0.6%. The mean time to onset of infection was 19 days (SD ± 7.4). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 1.00). One patient presented an allergic reaction with the use of the PVP-I solution. The rate of adherence to the two baths was 99.4% (161/162). The results of this study corroborate recent systematic reviews that found no difference in surgical infection rates when the preoperative bath was performed with antiseptic solutions or soap. The preoperative nursing consultation may impact the rate of deep infection in elective hip arthroplasty surgery. The use of antiseptic solutions may cause allergic reactions on the patient's skin during bathing and needs to be monitored. Caution is required when recommending the preoperative bath with antiseptic solution as a strategy to reduce surgical site infection. The orientation of the patient in the preoperative period of elective hip arthroplasty surgeries performed by the nurse can improve the quality of care provided to the surgical patient. Clinical Trials nº. NCTO3001102..(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Baths/nursing , Preoperative Care/nursing , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/nursing , Soaps/therapeutic use , Perioperative Nursing , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Academic Dissertation , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use
15.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 85(3/4): 124-127, jul.-dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-970340

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones son la segunda causa de muerte materna en países de bajos ingresos. El ácido acético se conoce en la actualidad como un potente antiséptico de amplio espectro para gran positivos, gran negativos, hongos y protozoos, a través de su acción biocida y su acción biostatica, produciendo coagulación y precipitación de las proteínas, alterando las características de la permeabilidad celular y toxicidad o envenenamiento de los sistemas enzimáticos de las bacterias. Las quemaduras por ácido acético son infrecuentes y va depender para que se produzca injuria de la dilución, concentración, tiempo de exposición. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 25 años, parto por cesárea con infección y dehiscencia del sitio la herida quirúrgica tratada con antibioticos de amplio espectro, sin mejoría. Se manejó con ácido acético, provocando quemadura de segundo grado en borde de herida y pubis Discusion: El riesgo de sufrir quemaduras por ácido acético aumenta dependiendo de la tolerabilidad del paciente, el grado de concentración, dilución y el tiempo de exposición de este agente antiséptico tópico. Conclusión: Aunque las quemaduras por ácido acético son infrecuentes, siempre es necesario tener presente la dilución de la concentración adecuada y el tiempo de exposición al ácido acético, ya que dependiendo de la tolerabilidad cambia el pronóstico y tratamiento


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Burns, Chemical/complications , Acetic Acid , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Cesarean Section/methods
16.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 22(1)ene.-mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1042942

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las hojas de Justicia secunda Vahl. son ampliamente utilizadas en las poblaciones rurales de la costa ecuatoriana. Los pobladores la utilizan con fines medicinales sin que se hayan comprobado las propiedades que se le atribuye. El presente estudio se realizó con los extractos hidroalcohólico, alcohólico y etéreo de las hojas. Objetivos: caracterizar la droga cruda y varios extractos de J. secunda para determinar la presencia de metabolitos o principios activos con potencial medicinal y de esta manera analizar la posible utilidad en la elaboración de productos farmacéuticos. Métodos: se analizaron parámetros físico-químicos de la droga cruda, las hojas se recolectaron en la noche, se secaron hasta peso constante en una estufa a 30 °C ± 1 °C por 5 días y posteriormente se trituraron con un mortero, se pesaron y se obtuvieron los extractos por maceración con diversos solventes orgánicos; como etanol al 90 por ciento, éter dietílico y una solución hidroalcohólica al 50 por ciento v/v como menstruos. En el análisis fitoquímico se utilizaron técnicas cualitativas para la determinación de los principales metabolitos presentes en los extractos así como técnicas gravimétricas para determinación de cenizas totales, sólidos totales y porciento de humedad. Resultados: se constató que el contenido de cenizas totales y la humedad residual halladas en la droga cruda se encuentra dentro de los límites establecidos en la USP 37 para artículos de origen botánico. Además, se comprobó la presencia de alcaloides, cumarinas y glucósidos fenólicos en el extracto hidroalcohólico; taninos, glucósidos fenólicos y triterpenos y/o esteroides en el extracto alcohólico y alcaloides y triterpenos y/o esteroides en el extracto etéreo. Conclusión: la gran variedad de componentes químicos presentes en las hojas de J. secunda, le confieren un alto potencial para su uso medicinal como antiséptico, antiinflamatorio, antioxidante, entre otros(AU)


Introduction: Justicia secunda Vahl. leaves are widely used by rural populations from the Ecuadorian coast for medicinal purposes, but the properties attributed to it have not been verified. A study was conducted of hydroalcoholic, alcoholic and etheric leaf extracts. Objectives: Characterize the crude drug and several extracts of J. secunda to determine the presence of metabolites or active principles with medicinal potential, and analyze their possible usefulness to produce pharmaceutical products. Methods: An analysis was conducted of the physicochemical parameters of the crude drug. The leaves were collected at night and dried to constant weight in a stove at 30 °C ± 1 °C for 5 days. They were then crushed in a mortar and weighed. The extracts were obtained by maceration in various organic solvents, such as 90 percent ethanol, diethyl ether and a 50 percent v/v hydroalcoholic solution. For phytochemical analysis, qualitative techniques were applied to determine the main metabolites present in the extracts. Gravimetric techniques were used for determination of total ashes, total solids and percentage of humidity. Results: It was found that content of total ashes and residual humidity in the crude drug are within the limits established by USP 37 for items of botanical origin. Additionally, alkaloids, coumarins and phenolic glucosides were found to be present in the hydroalcoholic extract; tannins, phenolic glucosides and triterpenes and/or steroids in the alcoholic extract; and alkaloids and triterpenes and/or steroids in the etheric extract. Conclusion: The great variety of chemical components present in the leaves of J. secunda grants them high potential for medicinal use as antiseptic, antiinflammatory and antioxidant, among others(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Sanguinaria , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Colombia
17.
Brasília; CONITEC; mar. 2017. tab, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-837206

ABSTRACT

Contexto:Otite externa aguda é uma inflamação que ocorre na orelha externá-pavilhão e canal auditivos. Essa condição clínica é caracterizada pelo acometimento da pele e do tecido subcutâneo, sendo a infecção bacteriana a principal causa. O paciente com essa doença tem inflamação no local, acompanhada de intensa dor e secreção. Além disso, experimenta dificuldades de audição, que deixam de existir com a cura da condição clínica. São alternativas terapêuticas para pacientes com otite externa aguda a assepsia (remoção de cerume e limpeza local), aplicação tópica de antibióticos, anti-inflamatórios esteroides e anestésicos, além da administração por via oral de analgésicos e antibióticos. Há no Brasil diversas apresentações farmacêuticas registradas para o tratamento da otite externa aguda. Contudo, nenhuma delas integra a Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais - RENAME. Pergunta: Qual alternativa terapêutica é mais eficaz/efetiva e segura para o tratamento de pacientes com otite externa aguda? Evidências científicas: Evidências clínicas: foi realizada revisão sistemática para sintetizar as evidências disponíveis sobre eficácia/efetividade e segurança de alternativas terapêuticas para o tratamento de pacientes com otite externa aguda. Foram incluídos dois estudos que avaliam alternativas terapêuticas disponíveis no Brasil. Um dos estudos aponta que a utilização de ciprofloxacino 2 mg/mL se mostrou mais eficaz em curar a doença em menos tempo que a associação entre polimixina B 10.000 UI, neomicina 3,5 mg/mL, hidrocortisona 10 mg/mL. O outro estudo concluiu que tanto ciprofloxacino 2 mg/mL associado a hidrocortisona 10 mg/mL quanto polimixina B 10.000 UI, neomicina 3,5 mg/mL, hidrocortisona 10 mg/mL são semelhantes em resolver o quadro de dor entre seis e sete dias. Para ampliar a análise, nova seleção de estudos foi feita incluindo a avaliação de medicamentos com equivalentes classes farmacêuticas no Brasil. Foram incluídos doze estudos. Foi notada maior eficácia da utilização de quinolona em relação à associação entre não quinolonas e anti-inflamatório esteroide em relação à cura em sete a dez dias de acompanhamento. Avaliação de custo - efetividade: foi realizada avaliação de custo - efetividade em virtude da diferença na eficácia entre quinolona e a associação entre não quinolonas e anti-inflamatório esteroide. Os preços considerados para as alternativas foram os Preços Fabrica definidos pela Câmara de Regulação do Mercado de Medicamentos ­ CMED. Foi construída árvore de decisão para avaliar o desfecho de cura clínica em sete a dez dias. O custo foi representado pelo valor monetário do medicamento e a efetividade pela cura clínica em sete a dez dias. Avaliação de Impacto Orçamentário: Compreendendo o período entre os anos de 2017 e 2021, foram consideradas as projeções populacionais calculadas pelo IBGE, as taxas de atendimentos de pacientes com otite externa aguda e a cobertura da atenção básica pelo SUS no Brasil. Considerando a perspectiva de financiamento pelo Componente Básico da Assistência Farmacêutica, além do impacto orçamentário total, foram calculados o impacto orçamentário médio por município e por habitante. Discussão: São escassos os estudos sobre alternativas terapêuticas disponíveis no Brasil. A avaliação por classes farmacêuticas deve se dar com cautela, haja vista a pequena quantidade de estudos disponíveis e a heterogeneidade entre eles. Por meio da evidência disponível, pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos atribuídos a cada princípio ativo. Para a seleção de medicamentos antimicrobianos, pode ser importante avaliar, em vez de uma infecção isolada, um conjunto de infecções para verificar os potenciais benefícios e riscos de se optar por um determinado medicamento. Deliberação final: Por recomendar a incorporação da associação entre sulfato de polimixina B 10.000 UI, sulfato de neomicina 3,5 mg/mL, fluocinolona acetonida 0,25 mg/mL e cloridrato de lidocaína 20 mg/mL, apresentada em frasco com 5 mL, para otite externa aguda. Decisão: Incorporar a associação de sulfato de polimixina B 10.000 UI, sulfato de neomicina 3,5 mg/mL, fluocinolona acetonida 0,25 mg/mL e cloridrato de lidocaína 20 mg/mL, apresentada em frasco com 5 mL, para otite externa aguda no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS. Decisão dada pela Portaria SCTIE-MS nº15 publicada no Diário Oficial da União (DOU) nº 58, de 24 de março de 2017.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Otitis Externa/therapy , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(1): 65-70, feb. 2017. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1038349

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones asociadas al cuidado de la salud son un tema de gran importancia en los recién nacidos, teniendo en cuenta su alta carga de morbilidad, mortalidad y secuelas a largo plazo. En prematuros, se ha demostrado que la colonización de la piel y del tracto gastrointestinal sufre variaciones respecto a neonatos a término y sanos, con un riesgo de mayor exposición a microorganismos intrahospitalarios por la mayor probabilidad de ingresar a unidades de cuidado intensivo neonatal por aspectos inherentes a su prematurez. El presente documento revisa la colonización normal, los cambios que se observan con la hospitalización, la prematurez y el potencial papel de la clorhexidina en la prevención de la transmisión de microorganismos resistentes, así como sus efectos secundarios en los neonatos en Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal.


Healthcare-associated infections are a major problem in newborn infants, considering their high morbidity, mortality, and long-term sequelae. In preterm infants, it has been shown that skin and gastrointestinal tract colonization undergoes variations compared to healthy term infants, and that preterm infants are more exposed to nosocomial microorganisms given their higher probability of being admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit where they are cared for. This document reviews normal colonization, the changes observed during hospitalization, prematurity, and the potential role of chlorhexidine in the prevention of resistant microorganism transmission, as well as its side effects in newborn infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Skin/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology
19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e47, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952079

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis effects of two mouthwashes containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), in comparison to negative control mouthwash. One hundred and twenty subjects were randomly assigned to study groups: test (0.075% CPC and 0.28% zinc lactate), positive control (0.07% CPC) and negative control mouthwash without CPC. All volunteers were examined by a calibrated examiner for the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (Turesky modification) and Löe-Silness Gingival Index (GI). Gingival severity was also measured by the percentage of sites with positive gingival bleeding. During six weeks, oral hygiene consisted of brushing twice daily with a toothbrush and toothpaste and rising with their assigned mouthwash. Plaque and gingival parameters were assessed at baseline, after four and six weeks of product use. Statistical analyses were performed separately for plaque and gingival indices, by ANOVA, paired t-test and ANCOVA (α < 0.05). After 4 and 6 weeks, all mouthwashes groups presented statistically significant reductions in plaque and gingival parameters as compared to baseline. In comparison to the positive control, the test group presented additional reductions in dental plaque of 19.8% and 16.8%, after 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. For GI, the additional reductions in the test group were 9.7% and 14.3%, at 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. The test group showed additional reduction of 35.3% and 54.5% in the gingival severity, at week 4 and 6, respectively. It is concluded that the mouthwash containing CPC and zinc lactate presents significant anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis effects as compared to positive and negative control mouthwashes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Cetylpyridinium/therapeutic use , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Gingivitis/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Oral Hygiene , Sodium Fluoride/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Periodontal Index , Dental Plaque Index , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Gingivitis/pathology , Middle Aged
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e21, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839522

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this randomized, single blinded clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of a pre-procedural mouthwash containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), zinc lactate (Zn) and sodium fluoride (F) in the reduction of viable bacteria in oral aerosol after a dental prophylaxis with ultrasonic scaler. Sixty systemically healthy volunteers receiving dental prophylaxis were randomly assigned to one of the following experimental groups (15 per group): (i) rinsing with 0.075% CPC, 0.28% Zn and 0.05% F (CPC+Zn+F), (ii) water or (iii) 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), and (iv) no rinsing. Viable bacteria were collected from different locations in the dental office on enriched TSA plates and anaerobically incubated for 72 hours. The colonies were counted and species were then identified by Checkerboard DNA–DNA Hybridization. The total number of colony-forming units (CFUs) detected in the aerosols from volunteers who rinsed with CPC+Zn+F or CHX was statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower than of those subjects who did not rinse or who rinsed with water. When all locations were considered together, the aerosols from the CPC+Zn+F and CHX groups showed, respectively, 70% and 77% fewer CFUs than those from the No Rinsing group and 61% and 70% than those from the Water group. The mean proportions of bacterial species from the orange complex were statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower in aerosols from the CPC+Zn+F and CHX groups compared with the others two groups. In conclusion, the mouthwash containing CPC+Zn+F, is effective in reducing viable bacteria in oral aerosol after a dental prophylaxis with ultrasonic scaler.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aerosols , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Mouth/microbiology , Cetylpyridinium/therapeutic use , Colony Count, Microbial , DNA Probes , DNA, Bacterial , Lactates/therapeutic use , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Single-Blind Method , Sodium Fluoride/therapeutic use , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Zinc/therapeutic use
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