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J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(supl.1): 24-27, ago. 9, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141502


This study assessed the effect of copolymerization on the microbiota of the oral cavity. The plant extraction was converted into aromatic derivatives, which were added to methyl methacrylate monomer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra showed no negative effects of these additives on the polymerization process. All the assayed derivatives displayed some degree of antibacterial activity.

Humans , Eugenol/analysis , Denture Bases , Microbiota , Resins, Synthetic , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Polymerization , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(7): 1278-1285, July 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976449


A presença de Salmonella spp. em produtos de origem avícola e seus subprodutos se mostra um grande desafio para a produção comercial. Dados de prevalência, dos sorotipos circulantes e do perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Salmonella spp. no Estado do Rio de Janeiro são escassos. Portanto, objetivou-se detectar a presença Salmonella spp. em frangos vivos e carcaças em matadouros do Estados do Rio de Janeiro, identificar os sorotipos e avaliar a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana dessas cepas para fluoroquinolonas e betalactâmicos. Foram coletadas 60 amostras cloacais de frangos vivos e 60 amostras de carcaça de seis matadouros sob Inspeção Estadual (SIE). Os isolados foram sorotipificados e testados frente a oito antimicrobianos: enrofloxacina, ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina, cefalotina, ceftiofur, cefotaxima, amoxicilina/ácido clavulânico e ampicilina pelo método de difusão em disco. Os resultados mostraram uma prevalência de Salmonella spp. de 1,66% (1/60) em amostras de suabe de cloaca e de 26,66% (16/60) em carcaças. Em amostras de suabe de cloaca, somente o sorotipo Senftenberg (1,66%) foi isolado. No total, foram isolados sete sorotipos diferentes nas carcaças: Senftenberg (15%) o mais frequente, seguido por Mbandaka (8,3%), Schwarzengrund (3,3%), Cerro (3,3%), Ohio (3,3%), Minnesota (1,66%) e Tennessee (1,66%). Em relação à susceptibilidade antimicrobiana, 29 (87,87%) isolados foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos testados e 4 (12,12%) isolados foram resistentes a pelo menos três antimicrobianos betalactâmicos ou mais. Não foi observada resistência às fluoroquinolonas. Os resultados encontrados demonstram uma prevalência de Salmonella spp. acima da esperada em matadouros do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, além da presença de vários sorotipos de Salmonella spp. A resistência encontrada para betalactâmicos alerta para a disseminação dessas cepas pela cadeia alimentar.(AU)

The presence of Salmonella spp. in poultry products and their by-products is a major challenge for commercial production. Data about the prevalence, the circulating serotypes and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella spp. strains in the State of Rio de Janeiro are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. in live chickens and carcasses in slaughterhouses of the State of Rio de Janeiro, to identify the serotypes and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of these strains for fluoroquinolones and beta-lactams. Sixty cloacal swabs samples from broiler chickens and sixty samples of carcasses from six slaughterhouses under State Inspection were collected. The isolates were serotyped and resistance was tested to eight antimicrobials: enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin by disc diffusion method. The results showed a prevalence of Salmonella spp. of 1.66% (1/60) in cloacal swabs samples and 26.66% (16/60) in carcasses. In cloacal swabs sample only Senftenberg (1.66%) serotype was isolated. In total, seven different serotypes were obtained from carcasses: Senftenberg (15%), followed by Mbandaka (8.3%), Schwarzengrund (3.3%), Cerro (3.3%), Ohio (3.3%), Minnesota (1.66%) and Tennessee (1.66%). Regarding antimicrobial susceptibility, 29 (87.87%) isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested and 4 (12.12%) isolates were resistant to three or more beta-lactams antimicrobials. No susceptibility to fluoroquinolones was observed. These results showed a prevalence of Salmonella spp. higher than expected in slaughterhouses in the State of Rio de Janeiro, besides the presence of several serotypes of Salmonella spp. The resistance found for beta-lactams alerts to the spread of these strains through the food chain.(AU)

Animals , Poultry/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Disease Susceptibility
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 296-302, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889227


Abstract The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12.5 ± 0.20 mg/g), ethyl acetate (16.5 ± 0.37 mg/g) and n-butanol (8.85 ± 0.11 mg/g), whereas quercetin and chrysin were quantified in chloroform fraction (1.95 ± 0.04 and 1.04 ± 0.01 mg/g), respectively. The most promising results were obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction, which inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 0.42 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 34.37 mg/mL), Paenibacillus apiarus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL) and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL). Considering mycobacterial inhibition, the best results were obtained by chloroform fraction against M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, and M. avium (MIC ranging from 156.25 to 625 µg/mL). This study proves, in part, that the popular use of C. ambrosioides L. can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by various infectious agents.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Chenopodium ambrosioides/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 212-219, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889241


Abstract The evolution of microorganisms resistant to many medicines has become a major challenge for the scientific community around the world. Motivated by the gravity of such a situation, the World Health Organization released a report in 2014 with the aim of providing updated information on this critical scenario. Among the most worrying microorganisms, species from the genus Candida have exhibited a high rate of resistance to antifungal drugs. Therefore, the objective of this review is to show that the use of natural products (extracts or isolated biomolecules), along with conventional antifungal therapy, can be a very promising strategy to overcome microbial multiresistance. Some promising alternatives are essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (mainly composed of terpinen-4-ol, a type of monoterpene), lactoferrin (a peptide isolated from milk) and chitosan (a copolymer from chitin). Such products have great potential to increase antifungal therapy efficacy, mitigate side effects and provide a wide range of action in antifungal therapy.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Chitosan/pharmacology , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Melaleuca/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Chitosan/isolation & purification , Lactoferrin/isolation & purification
AJMB-Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology. 2017; 9 (1): 31-37
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185810


Background: The widespread utilization of antimicrobial compounds has caused emergence of resistant microorganisms in the world. Hence, the research to probe the products with antimicrobial features has led to finding natural habitats and discovering new pharmaceutical products

Methods: In this study, an attempt was made to explore the niche of novel habitat to isolate pyllospheric bacteria from the above ground parts [stems and leaves] of Astragalus obtusifolius, Prosopis juliflora, Xanthium strumarium, and Hippocrepis unisiliqousa to evaluate their antimicrobial features. The inhibitory effects of these strains on the growth of two fungi [Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus], two yeasts [Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans] and six bacteria [Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pyogenes] were tested

Results: In total, 113 bacterial strains were isolated. Twenty five bacterial strains [B-1 to B-25] indicated promising antimicrobial [antibacterial and antifungal] activities against aforementioned pathogens. The identification of the bacterial strains was ascertained by morphological, physiological, biochemical tests and two strains with the strongest antimicrobial activities were further characterized based on 16s rRNA sequencing. These two strains were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that phyllospheric microorganisms are capable of producing some compounds with antimicrobial properties

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Xanthium/microbiology , Prosopis/microbiology , Astragalus Plant/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 1030-1038, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828208


Abstract An actinobacterial strain VL-RK_09 having potential antimicrobial activities was isolated from a mango orchard in Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh (India) and was identified as Arthrobacter kerguelensis. The strain A. kerguelensis VL-RK_09 exhibited a broad spectrum of in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Production of bioactive metabolites by the strain was the highest in modified yeast extract malt extract dextrose broth, as compared to other media tested. Lactose (1%) and peptone (0.5%) were found to be the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for the optimum production of the bioactive metabolites. The maximum production of the bioactive metabolites was detected in the culture medium with an initial pH of 7, in which the strain was incubated for five days at 30 °C under shaking conditions. Screening of secondary metabolites obtained from the culture broth led to the isolation of a compound active against a wide variety of Gram-positive and negative bacteria and fungi. The structure of the first active fraction was elucidated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compound was identified as S,S-dipropyl carbonodithioate. This study is the first report of the occurrence of this compound in the genus Arthrobacter.

Arthrobacter/isolation & purification , Arthrobacter/metabolism , Mangifera/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Salts/metabolism , Temperature , Carbon/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Minerals/metabolism , Nitrogen/metabolism
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 159-166, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775100


Abstract A bioassay-guided fractionation of two samples of Brazilian red propolis (from Igarassu, PE, Brazil, hereinafter propolis 1 and 2) was conducted in order to determine the components responsible for its antimicrobial activity, especially against Candida spp. Samples of both the crude powdered resin and the crude ethanolic extract of propolis from both locations inhibited the growth of all 12 tested Candida strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 256 µg/mL. The hexane, acetate and methanol fractions of propolis 1 also inhibited all strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 128 to 512 µg/mL for the six bacteria tested and from 32 to 1024 µg/mL for the yeasts. Similarly, hexane and acetate fractions of propolis sample 2 inhibited all microorganisms tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 512 µg/mL for bacteria and 32 µg/mL for yeasts. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC and their phenolic profile allowed us to identify and quantitate one phenolic acid and seven flavonoids in the crude ethanolic extract. Formononetin and pinocembrin were the major constituents amongst the identified compounds. Formononetin was detected in all extracts and fractions tested, except for the methanolic fraction of sample 2. The isolated isoflavone formononetin inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 µg/mL for the six bacteria strains tested and 25 µg/mL for the six yeasts. Formononetin also exhibited fungicidal activity against five of the six yeasts tested. Taken together our results demonstrate that the isoflavone formononetin is implicated in the reported antimicrobial activity of red propolis.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Isoflavones/isolation & purification , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Propolis/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Brazil , Bacteria/drug effects , Chemical Fractionation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 96-101, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775130


Abstract One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75 µg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27 µg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18 µg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17 µg/mL and 74.62 µg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms.

Animals , Alternaria/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Endophytes/chemistry , Lactones/isolation & purification , Alternaria/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Bacteria/drug effects , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Lactones/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Magnaporthe/drug effects , Nematoda/drug effects , Plant Roots/microbiology , Salvia/microbiology
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(3): 918-926, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753940


Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are indigenous microorganisms occurring in pork sausages. The utilization of selected autochthonous LAB may improve the safety of meat products. This study aims to enumerate and identify LAB in pork sausage and to characterize their safety properties, such as antimicrobial susceptibility and antibacterial activity. A total of 189 sealed packages of pork sausages were collected in seven municipalities (27 samples in each city) of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Microbiological analyses were performed to enumerate LAB. Two pre-selection criteria were applied to 567 isolates of LAB: catalase activity and tolerance to pH 2. A total of 32 strains of UFLA SAU were selected, characterized phenotypically and identified through 16S rDNA region sequencing. The susceptibility to antimicrobial and antibacterial activities of isolates was evaluated. The LAB count ranged from 3.079 to 8.987 log10 CFU/g. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei were identified in the samples. UFLA SAU 11, 20, 34, 86, 131 and 258 showed a profile of susceptibility to four antimicrobials: erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamycin. In the antibacterial activity test, with exception of UFLA SAU 1, all other strains showed efficiency in inhibiting Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhiand Listeria monocytogenes. In the statistical analysis there was interaction among strains of Lactobacillus against the pathogens tested. L. monocytogenes (P=0.05) was more sensitive to Lactobacillus strains and the highest inhibitory activity against this pathogen was achieved by strains UFLA SAU 135, 226, 238 and 258. Thus, UFLA SAU 11, 20, 34, 86, 131, 135, 226, 238 and 258 possess safety characteristics for application in meat products.

Bactérias ácido-lácticas (BAL) são microrganismos indígenas em linguiças. A utilização de selecionadas BAL autóctones pode melhorar a segurança dos produtos cárneos. Este estudo objetivou enumerar e identificar BAL em linguiças suínas e caracterizar suas propriedades de segurança, como a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e a atividade antibacteriana. Um total de 189 embalagens fechadas de linguiça suína foi adquirido em sete municípios (27 amostras em cada cidade) de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Análises microbiológicas para a enumeração de BAL foram realizadas. Dois critérios de pré-seleção foram aplicados para os 567 isolados de BAL: atividade catalase e tolerância ao pH 2. Um total de 32 estirpes UFLA SAU foi selecionado, caracterizado fenotipicamente e identificado por meio do sequenciamento da região 16S rDNA. A susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos e a atividade antimicrobiana dos isolados foram avaliadas. Nas linguiças, a contagem de BAL variou de 3,079 a 8,987log10 UFC/g. Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus paracasei foram identificados nas amostras. UFLA SAU 11, 20, 34, 86, 131 e 258 apresentaram um perfil de suscetibilidade a quatro antimicrobianos: eritromicina, ampicilina, cloranfenicol e gentamicina. No teste de atividade antibacteriana, com exceção da UFLA SAU 1, todas as outras estirpes mostraram eficiência em inibir Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi e Listeria monocytogenes. Na análise estatística, houve interação entre estirpes de Lactobacillus contra os patógenos testados. L. monocytogenes (P=0,05) foi mais sensível às estirpes de Lactobacillus, e a maior atividade inibitória contra este patógeno foi apresentada por estirpes UFLA SAU 135, 226, 238 e 258. Assim, estirpes UFLA SAU 11, 20, 34, 86, 131, 135, 226, 238 e 258 possuem características de segurança para aplicação em produtos cárneos.

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/classification , Meat Products/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Swine/microbiology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/veterinary
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 139-143, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748240


The present investigations were aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacies of budmunchiamine-A (BUA) of Albizia amara. The activity-guided isolation leaded to isolate the bioactive compound budmunchiamine-A from alkaloid extract of A. amara. The budmunchiamine-A showed significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) values varied from 7.3 to 24.5 mm, 0.95 to 62.5 μg/mL, and 1.9 to 250 μg/mL, respectively. The budmunchiamine-A exhibited moderate antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) value of 400 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and percent inhibition of β-carotene/linoleic acid was 67.8%. The results suggest the possible use of budmunchiamine-A as a molecular entity for drug development in pharmaceutical industry.

Albizzia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 189-194, 05/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748257


This study had analyzed the antibacterial, antifungal and trypanocidal activity of the essential oils from Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke (Canellaceae) and Siparuna guianensis Aublet (Siparunaceae). The essential oils were obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus. Chemical analysis by gas-liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that these essential oils are rich in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Activity against the pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated with the agar cavity diffusion method, while activity on the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium commune was evaluated by the disk diffusion technique. Trypanocidal activity was tested against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, using the Tetrazolium salt (MTT) colorimetric assay. Both essential oils exhibited low inhibitory effect towards bacteria, showing high MIC values (125–500 μg mL−1), with Gram positive bacteria being more susceptible. Better inhibitory effect was obtained for the evaluated fungi, with lower MIC values (7.81–250 μg mL−1), being A. flavus the most susceptible species. Both essential oils presented low trypanocidal activity, with IC50/24 h values of 209.30 μg mL−1 for S. guianensis and 282.93 μg mL−1 for C. dinisii. Thus, the high values observed for the MIC of evaluated bacteria and for IC50/24 h of T. cruzi, suggest that the essential oils have a low inhibitory activity against these microorganisms. In addition, the low MIC values observed for the tested fungi species indicate good inhibitory activity on these microorganisms’s growth.

Magnoliopsida/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(2): 137-140, 02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748875


Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is responsible for various pathological processes in birds and is considered as one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality, associated with economic losses to the poultry industry. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that it is possible to predict antimicrobial resistance of 256 samples (APEC) using 38 different genes responsible for virulence factors, through a computer program of artificial neural networks (ANNs). A second target was to find the relationship between (PI) pathogenicity index and resistance to 14 antibiotics by statistical analysis. The results showed that the RNAs were able to make the correct classification of the behavior of APEC samples with a range from 74.22 to 98.44%, and make it possible to predict antimicrobial resistance. The statistical analysis to assess the relationship between the pathogenic index (PI) and resistance against 14 antibiotics showed that these variables are independent, i.e. peaks in PI can happen without changing the antimicrobial resistance, or the opposite, changing the antimicrobial resistance without a change in PI.

Escherichia coli patogênica (APEC) para as aves é responsável por vários processos patológicos em aves, sendo considerado como uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade, associado com perdas econômicas para a indústria avícola. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi demonstrar que é possível predizer a resistência antimicrobiana de 256 amostras de APEC utilizando 38 genes responsáveis por distintos fatores de virulência, através de um programa computacional de redes neurais artificiais (RNAs). O segundo objetivo foi verificar por análise estatística a relação entre o índice de patogenicidade (IP) e a resistência aos 14 antimicrobianos. Os resultados demostraram que as RNAs foram capazes de realizar a classificação correta do comportamento das amostras APEC com uma amplitude de 74,22 a 98,44%, desta forma tornando possível predizer a resistência antimicrobiana. A análise estatística realizada para verificar a relação entre o IP e a resistência aos antimicrobianos demostrou que estas variáveis são independentes, ou seja, podem haver picos no IP sem alteração na resistência, ou até mesmo o contrário, alteração na resistência antimicrobiana sem mudança no IP.

Animals , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Chickens/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Neural Networks, Computer
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 759-767, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727000


Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Chromobacterium/drug effects , Lippia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Quorum Sensing/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Chromobacterium/metabolism , Chromobacterium/physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Pigments, Biological/analysis , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 423-431, Jun.-Aug. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715441


Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis as obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twentyseven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%), followed by α-humulene (17.3%), piperitenone oxide (8.5%), cis-piperitone oxide (6.0%) and E-β-farnesene (5.9%). The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065±0.008-0.937±0.139mg/mL, 0.468±0.069-3.333±0.527 mg/mL and 0.117±0.0170.338±0.062mg/mL respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity which can be usefulness in the treatment of various infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi.

Plectranthus es un género grande y extenso con una diversidad de usos etnobotánicos. En la medicina tradicional P.mollis se ha utilizado contra las mordeduras de serpiente, como estimulante respiratorio y vasoconstrictor, depresor cardiaco, cura para hemorragias, tratamiento del retraso mental y el reumatismo. Se informó que P. mollis presenta actividad relajante sobre los músculos lisos y esqueléticos, y tiene actividad promotora citotóxica y anti - tumoral, además puede ser utilizado en el tratamiento del cáncer. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar la composición química del aceite esencial de P. mollis para evaluar la eficacia antimicrobiana del aceite. El aceite esencial de las partes aéreas de las flores de P. mollis se obtuvo por hidro - destilación y se analizó por cromatografía de gases equipado con un detector de ionización de llama (GC-FID), y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Se identificaron veintisiete compuestos, que comprenden el 98.6% de los constituyentes totales. El compuesto principal se identificó como fencona (32.3%), seguido de α-humuleno (17.3%), óxido de piperitenona (8.5 %), óxido de cis piperitona (6.0 %) y E-β-farneseno (5.9%). Se encontró que el aceite es rico en monoterpenos oxigenados de tipo constituyentes (52.0%), seguido de hidrocarburos de sesquiterpeno (40.2%), sesquiterpenos oxigenados (4.9%), e hidrocarburos monoterpenos (1.5 %). La actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial de P.mollis se ensayó frente a seis bacterias Gram-negativas y ocho Gram-positivas, y tres hongos, utilizando el método de dilución en tubo. El aceite fue activo contra las bacterias Gram-positivas y Gram-negativas y hongos ensayados, en un intervalo de concentración de 0.065±0.008 a 0.937±0.139mg/ml, 0.468±0.069 a 3.333±0.527mg/ml y 0.117±0.017 a 0.338±0.062mg/ml, respectivamente. El presente estudio reveló que los constituyentes del aceite de alguna manera fueron cualitativamente similares y cuantitativamente diferentes de los informes anteriores de diferentes partes del mundo. Se encontró que la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial de P. mollis puede ser de utilidad en el tratamiento de diversas enfermedades infecciosas causadas por bacterias y hongos.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plectranthus/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry , Plectranthus/classification
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(2): 621-625, Jan.-Apr. 2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709307


Avaliou-se a presença de resíduos antimicrobianos (ceftiofur, estreptomicinas, quinolonas, tetraciclinas, tianfenicol e tilosina) e anti-helmínticos (benzimidazóis, aminobenzimidazóis, levamisol, avermectinas, tiabendazóis, moxidectina e triclabendazóis) em, respectivamente, 70 e 83 amostras de leite cru provenientes de quatro mesorregiões (Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, Central Mineira, Oeste de Minas e Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte) do estado de Minas Gerais. Este estudo demonstrou a presença de quinolonas (2,86por cento), estreptomicinas (2,86por cento) e tetraciclinas (11,43por cento) nas amostras de leite cru analisadas. Ademais, observou-se expressiva porcentagem de amostras de leite cru positivas para os anti-helmínticos amino- benzimidazóis (55,42por cento), levamisol (53,57por cento), avermectinas (60,24por cento), tiabendazóis (67.47por cento), moxidectina (73,49por cento) e triclabendazóis (45,78por cento), e em menor porcentagem os benzimidazóis (6,02por cento). Desta forma, os resultados do presente estudo indicam que os resíduos de antimicrobianos e anti-helmínticos no leite em Minas Gerais devem ser constantemente monitorados pelas autoridades competentes com intuito de oferecer aos consumidores um alimento sem riscos à saúde humana...

Animals , Cattle , Anthelmintics/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Milk/adverse effects , Drug Residues/analysis , Food Contamination/analysis , Veterinary Public Health
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 29(1): 114-119, jan.-mar. 2014.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-99


Introdução: Apesar dos grandes avanços em seu tratamento, infecção de pele com queimadura continua a ser um grande desafio. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os aspectos microbiológicos do primeiro ano de funcionamento de uma unidade de queimadura em um Hospital Universitário. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo. Dados microbiológicos foram coletados e analisados a partir de pacientes internados na Unidade de Queimadura (UTQ) do Hospital São Paulo, Hospital Universitário da Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), entre junho de 2009 e julho de 2010. Resultados: O tempo médio de permanência hospitalar foi de 13,8 dias, com uma taxa de mortalidade de 5,9%. A média da superfície corpórea queimada foi de 10,3%. Avaliou-se 159 culturas de 101 pacientes. Culturas de sangue foram as mais solicitadas (41%). Também foram acessadas 245 culturas de vigilância, coletadas de 75 pacientes. A análise microbiológica revelou um índice de positividade total de 34,5%. Os agentes mais prevalentes foram Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo - CoNS - (33%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%), Acinetobacter spp. (22%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (5%). Conclusão: A avaliação microbiológica do primeiro ano de funcionamento da UTQ da EPM/ UNIFESP revelou que, embora o agente mais prevalente tenha sido a CoNS, bacilos Gram negativos ainda são muito prevalentes, como a Pseudomonas aeruginosa e a Acinetobacter baumannii. Apesar de pouco tempo de operação, observou-se um grande número de microrganismos multirresistentes, que pode ser explicado por longa exposição a agentes antimicrobianos e alta taxa de transferência de outros hospitais.

Introduction: Despite great advances in treatment, burned skin infection remains a major challenge. The aim of this study is to evaluate the microbiological aspects of the first year's operation of a Burn Unit in a University Hospital. Methods: Retrospective study. Microbiological data were collected and analyzed from patients admitted to the Burn Unit of São Paulo Hospital, a University Hospital of the Paulista Medical School (EPM) of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) from June 2009 to July 2010. Results: The average length of stay was 13.8 days with a mortality rate of 5.9%, and median of TBSA was 10.3%. Evaluated 159 cultures from 101 patients. Blood cultures were the most requested (41%). It was also accessed 245 surveillance cultures collected from 75 patients. The microbiological analysis revealed a total positivity rate of 34,5%. The most prevalent agents were Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - CoNS - (33%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%), Acinetobacter spp. (22%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5%). Conclusion: The microbiological evaluation of the first year's activity of EPM/UNIFESP Burn Care Unit revealed that, although the most prevalent agent was CoNS, Gram negative bacilli are still very prevalent, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Despite the short time of operation, was observed large number of multiresistant microorganisms which can be explained by long exposure to antimicrobials and high transfer rate from other hospitals.

Humans , Male , Female , History, 21st Century , Burn Units , Burns , Epidemiology , Biological Specimen Banks , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacterial Infections , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Burn Units/standards , Burn Units/statistics & numerical data , Burns/surgery , Burns/complications , Burns/microbiology , Burns/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology/standards , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Biological Specimen Banks/standards , Evaluation Study , Inpatients , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.2): 10-14, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-721384


PURPOSE: To evaluate the antitumor and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit cultivated in southeastern Brazil. METHODS: Preparation ethanolic extract of the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. Culture of melanoma cells B16-F10 for treatment with ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit to determine cell viability by MTT and determination temporal effect of ethanolic extract fruit on the cell growth B16-F10 for 8 days. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract fruit against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit (10mg/mL) decreased cellular activity and inhibited 45% the rate of cell proliferation of B16-F10 melanoma treated during period studied. The ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit demonstrated antimicrobial activity inhibiting the growth of both microorganisms studied. Staphylococcus aureus was less resistant to ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit than Escherichia coli, 1 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSION: What these results indicate that the ethanolic extract of the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. showed antitumor activity with inhibition of viability and growth of B16-F10 cells and also showed antibacterial activity as induced inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. .

Animals , Mice , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Morinda/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Brazil , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Ethanol , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Fruit/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Melanoma/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Time Factors
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(5): 601-606, maio 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678339


The purpose of this paper was to study the etiology of mastitis, determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and to identify the risk factors associated with infection in dairy cows in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco, Brazil. From the 2,064 milk samples analyzed, 2.6% were associated with cases of clinical mastitis and 28.2% with subclinical mastitis. In the microbiological culture, Staphylococcus spp. (49.1%) and Corynebacterium spp. (35.3%) were the main agents found, followed by Prototheca spp. (4.6%) and Gram negative bacilli (3.6%). In the antimicrobial susceptibility testing, all 218 Staphylococcus spp. were susceptible to rifampicin and the least effective drug was amoxicillin (32.6%). Multidrug resistance to three or more drugs was observed in 65.6% of Staphylococcus spp. The risk factors identified for mastitis were the extensive production system, not providing feed supplements, teat drying process, not disinfecting the teats before and after milking, and inadequate hygiene habits of the milking workers. The presence of multiresistant isolates in bovine milk demonstrates the importance of the choice and appropriate use of antimicrobial agents. Prophylactic and control measures, including teat antisepsis and best practices for achieving hygienic milking should be established in order to prevent new cases of the disease in herds.

Objetivou-se estudar a etiologia da mastite, determinar o perfil de sensibilidade dos Staphylococcus spp. aos antimicrobianos e identificar os fatores de risco associados à infecção em vacas leiteiras nos estados da Bahia e Pernambuco. Das 2.064 amostras de leite analisadas, 2,6% estavam associadas a casos de mastite clínica e 28,2% à mastite subclínica. No exame microbiológico, Staphylococcus spp. (49,1%) e Corynebacterium spp. (35,3%) foram os principais agentes isolados, seguidos de Prototheca spp. (4,6%) e bacilos Gram negativos (3,6%). No teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos, todos os 218 Staphylococcus spp. apresentaram-se sensíveis à rifampicina e a droga menos eficaz foi a amoxicilina (32,6%). A resistência simultânea a três ou mais drogas foi observada em 65,6% dos Staphylococcus spp. Os fatores de risco identificados para a mastite foram o sistema de criação extensivo, não realização de suplementação alimentar, processo de secagem dos tetos, não realização de desinfecção dos tetos antes e após a ordenha e hábitos higiênicos inadequados dos ordenhadores. A presença de isolados multirresistentes no leite bovino demonstra a importância da escolha e da utilização adequada de antimicrobianos. Medidas de controle e profilaxia, incluindo a antissepsia dos tetos e boas práticas para a obtenção de ordenha higiênica devem ser estabelecidas, com o intuito de prevenir novos casos da doença nos rebanhos.

Animals , Cattle , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine/etiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/immunology , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Corynebacterium/isolation & purification , Prototheca/isolation & purification
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136325


Background & objectives: The mechanisms that protect female upper genital tract from ascending infection by microbes present in vagina are only partially understood. It is expected that epithelial cells in mucosal surfaces and their secretions directly interfere with microbial colonization and invasion. This study was aimed to demonstrate the expression of 2 kDa antimicrobial peptide which was identified and purified from female genital tract tissues using chromatographic techniques. Methods: Low molecular weight proteins were isolated from human female reproductive tract tissues obtained from premenopausal women. Antimicrobial activity of these LMW proteins was assessed against different reproductive tract pathogens viz., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Group B streptococcus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Escherechia coli and Candida albicans. The expression of these peptides were also documented in reproductive tract tissues with the help of hyperimmune sera raised against the rabbits. The purified peptide was characterized by N-terminal sequencing. Results: Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that 2 kDa peptide was expressed in the stratified squamous epithelial cells of the ectocervix while it was absent in columnar epithelial cells of upper genital tract. Upregulation of the expression of this peptide was observed in patients of chronic non-specific cervicitis and acute on chronic cervicitis. This purified antimicrobial peptide also showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against different reproductive tract pathogens. Interpretation & conclusions: Considering the emerging bacterial resistance against conventional antibiotics, isolation and understanding of the expression of antimicrobial peptides from female reproductive tissue extracts may provide some leads towards the development of strategies for the treatment of reproductive tract infections.

Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Female , Gardnerella vaginalis/pathogenicity , Gene Expression , Genitalia, Female/chemistry , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/pathogenicity , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/isolation & purification , Rabbits , Reproductive Tract Infections/microbiology , Reproductive Tract Infections/therapy
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2011 Apr-June; 29(2): 93-101
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143790


Indian medicinal plants are now recognized to have great potential for preparing clinically useful drugs that could even be used by allopathic physicians. Traditionally, practitioners of Indian medicine have used plant products in powder, syrup or lotion forms, without identification, quantification and dose regulation, unlike their allopathic counterparts. The present review explores the immense potential of the demonstrated effect of Indian medicinal plants on microbes, viruses and parasites. In the present context, with the available talent in the country like pharmaceutical chemists, microbiologists, biotechnologists and interested allopathic physicians, significant national effort towards identification of an "active principle" of Indian medicinal plants to treat human and animal infections should be a priority.

Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , India , Infections/drug therapy , Infections/veterinary , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry