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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 67-74, mar. 2022. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362702

ABSTRACT

La hemorragia del tracto digestivo superior (HTDS) es el sangrado originado por encima del ángulo de Treitz. A pesar del aumento en las estrategias de prevención, del incremento en los tratamientos con Inhibidor de bomba de protones (IBP) y de la intervención endoscópica temprana, esta patología sigue siendo una causa frecuente de consulta a urgencias, con una morbimortalidad no despreciable y alta carga para el sistema de salud. Esta revisión se enfoca en la HTDS de causa diferente a las varices. La principal causante de esta entidad es la enfermedad ácido-péptica, que es consecuencia del gran consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) y de la infección por Helicobacter Pylori. Otras causas son el síndrome de Mallory Weiss, la esofagitis erosiva, las malformaciones arteriovenosas y la malignidad.


Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) refers to any bleeding originating above the angle of Treitz. Despite an increase in prevention strategies, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and early endoscopic intervention, this pathology continues to be an important cause of admission to the emergency department for gastrointestinal causes, having a pretty high morbidity and mortality in addition to a high burden on the health system. This review focuses on non-variceal UGIB. The main cause of this entity being peptic acid disease, due to great consumption of NSAIDs and Helicobacter Pylori infection. Other causes are Mallory Weiss syndrome, erosive esophagitis, arteriovenous malformations, and malignancy.


A hemorragia do trato digestivo superior (HTDS) é o sangrado originado acima do ângulo de Treitz. Apesar do aumento nas estratégias de prevenção, do incremento nos tratamentos com Inibidor da bomba de prótons (IBP) e da intervenção endoscópica precoce, esta patologia segue sendo uma causa frequente de consulta a urgências, com uma morbimortalidade não depreciável e alta carga para o sistema de saúde. Esta revisão se enfoca na HTDS de causa diferente às varizes. A principal causante desta entidade é a doença ácido-péptica, que é consequência do grande consumo de anti-inflamatórios não esteróideos (AINES) e da infecção por HelicobacterPylori. Outras causas são a síndrome de Mallory Weiss, a esofagites erosiva, as malformações arteriovenosas e a malignidade. Palavras-chave: hemorragia gastrointestinal; úlcera péptica; endoscopia gastrointestinal; inibidores da bomba de prótons; medicina geral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Peptic Ulcer , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Helicobacter pylori , Gastrointestinal Tract , Emergency Service, Hospital , Esophagitis , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Mallory-Weiss Syndrome , Neoplasms
2.
Rev. ADM ; 79(1): 38-47, ene.-feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361906

ABSTRACT

Las urgencias odontológicas son, quizá, las razones principales de atención en el consultorio, muchas veces el significado de dolor se encuentra acompañado por inflamación; el uso de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) es común en el ejercicio de la odontología por la excelente respuesta analgésica y antiinflamatoria que tiene, por lo que es importante conocer la fisiopatología de la inflamación y el dolor y cómo actúan los AINES, ya que algunos de estos fármacos tienen respuestas adversas y sitios de acción importantes. Los factores de riesgo por inflamación y dolor nos obligan a conocer la variedad de fármacos que no entran en la clasificación de AINES y que tenemos a disposición, hay más opciones para la elección ante la presencia de inflamación por un factor en particular, cada uno de éstos tienen indicaciones y contraindicaciones que conoceremos, lo cual nos ampliará el conocimiento para dar una prescripción ante la presencia de eventos inflamatorios. Se realizó un estudio detallado de artículos bibliográficos de cada tema, los fármacos más usados en odontología son los AINES, hay poco uso y conocimiento de antiinflamatorios que podemos usar en urgencias, el porcentaje de uso de los AINES derivados del ácido propiónico es alto por la excelente respuesta en pacientes y otras veces por el desconocimiento de más opciones (AU)


Dental emergencies are perhaps the main reasons for care in the office, many times the meaning of pain is accompanied by inflammation, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is common in the practice of dentistry due to the excellent analgesic and anti-inflammatory response it has, important is knowing the pathophysiology of inflammation and pain, how NSAIDs act, some of these drugs have adverse responses and important sites of action, risk factors for inflammation and pain require us to know the variety of drugs that do not enter the classification of NSAIDs and we have at our disposal, there are more options for choosing in the presence of inflammation due to a particular factor, each of these have indications and contraindications that we will know, it expands our knowledge to give a prescription in the presence of inflammatory events. A detailed study of bibliographic articles on each topic was carried out, the drugs most used in dentistry are NSAIDs, there is little use and knowledge of anti-inflammatories that we can use in the emergency room, the percentage of use of NSAIDs derived from propionic acid is high, due to the excellent response in patients and others due to lack of knowledge of more options (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toothache , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Inflammation , Pain/pathology , Pain, Postoperative , Propionates , Prostaglandins/physiology , Statistical Analysis , Drug Interactions , Cyclooxygenase 1/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Narcotics
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18655, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364423

ABSTRACT

Abstract Periodontitis is an oral disease associated with inflammation and pain with swollen and bleeding gums. In the present study, dental pastes containing NSAIDs, namely, diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were prepared to treat periodontitis. Dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were prepared with/without mucoadhesive hydrocolloid polymers such as sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and methyl cellulose (MC) by conventional trituration method. The pH, drug content, viscosity, tube spreadability and tube extrudability of these prepared dental pastes were measured. These dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were characterized by FTIR analyses for drug-excipient compatibility. The in vitro drug releases from these dental pastes in 6.4 pH phosphate buffer solution displayed sustained release over longer period and the drug release rate was found to be decreased when the concentration of mucoadhesive polymer was increased. These dental pastes displayed good adhesion to the oral mucosa revealing more retention time in mouth when tested for ex vivo mucoadhesion using bovine cheek pouch. The stability study results reveal that the DC3 and NC3 dental paste formulations were found stable enough over a longer period in different storage conditions. The present study revealed that the prepared mucoadhesive dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) had good adhesion with the oral mucosa to maintain consistent release of drugs over prolonged time.


Subject(s)
Toothpastes/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/analysis , Mouth , Mouth Mucosa/abnormalities , Periodontitis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Diclofenac/adverse effects , Disease/classification , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Drug Liberation , Gingiva/abnormalities , Inflammation/complications
4.
Más Vita ; 3(4): 33-40, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1355015

ABSTRACT

La gastritis es una enfermedad con una alta morbilidad a nivel mundial, el principal factor de riesgo es la infección por Helicobacter pylori. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, histopatológica y endoscópicas en una población con gastritis crónica. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo, retrospectivo, se incluyeron 49 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta externa del área de gastroenterología, de 18 a 65 años, a quienes se realizó el estudio histopatológico y endoscópico en el Servicio de Gastroenterología en el Hospital General Quevedo, de Los Ríos-Ecuador, durante septiembre 2017 ­ septiembre 2018. Resultados: Se observó predominio del género masculino (65%); en mayores de 40 años (55%), la epigastralgía y la sensación de acidez estomacal, 39% y 35% respectivamente, fueron los síntomas más frecuentes, La positividad para Helicobacter pylori, alcanzó el 86%, y la lesión no erosiva un 73%, existió mayor presencia de la forma no atrófica (84%) sobre la atrófica. Conclusiones: La gastritis crónica predominó en el grupo etario mayor a 40 años y de género masculino, siendo los factores de riesgo de mayor prevalencia la infección por Helicobacter pylori y los asociados al consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, mala alimentación, alcohol y tabaco, los síntomas como epigastralgía y la sensación de acidez estomacal fueron los más frecuentes. El hallazgo endoscópico fue mayor para las formas no erosivas, y de acuerdo a la histopatología la gastritis no atrófica antral moderada fue la más frecuente(AU)


Gastritis is a disease with high morbidity worldwide, the main risk factor is Helicobacter pylori infection. Objective: To describe the clinical, histopathological and endoscopic characteristics in a population with chronic gastritis. Material and methods: An observational, descriptive, retrospective study was carried out, including 49 patients who attended the outpatient consultation of the gastroenterology area, aged 18 to 65 years, who underwent a histopathological and endoscopic study in the Gastroenterology Service at the Quevedo General Hospital, Los Ríos-Ecuador, during September 2017 - September 2018. Results: A predominance of the male gender was observed (65%); In people over 40 years of age (55%), epigastralgia and the sensation of heartburn, 39% and 35% spectively, were the most frequent symptoms, the positivity for Helicobacter pylori, reached 86%, and the non-erosive lesion 73 %, there was a greater presence of the non-atrophic form (84%) over the atrophic one. Conclusions: Chronic gastritis predominated in the age group over 40 years of age and male, the most prevalent risk factors being Helicobacter pylori infection and those associated with the consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, poor diet, alcohol and tobacco. symptoms such as epigastric pain and the sensation of heartburn were the most frequent. The endoscopic finding was greater for non-erosive forms, and according to histopathology, moderate antral non-atrophic gastritis was the most frequent(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Dyspepsia/etiology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Gastritis/physiopathology , Peptic Ulcer , Signs and Symptoms , Biopsy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Acidity , Gastroenterology
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 270-275, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345283

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a widely used therapeutic modality for the pancreaticobiliary tree. However, it is responsible for the highest rates of complications among the endoscopic procedures, especially post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. The preventive methods include mechanical and pharmacological approaches, such as the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of two different strategies using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis, and to clarify the uncertainty about the route of administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the prevention of this complication. METHODS: This was a prospective trial. Two therapeutic groups were compared with a control group that was composed of patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, performed in the same service and by the same team in the period preceding the study (historical series), without the administration of any type of prophylaxis. The first group received 100 mg rectal diclofenac. The second group received 100 mg intravenous ketoprofen. Both groups were compared, separately and jointly, with the control group. RESULTS: Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis occurred in 4.39% (12/273) of the participants. In the group without prophylaxis, the incidence was 6.89% (10/145). Among those who received intravenous ketoprofen, the incidence was 2.56% (2/78). No cases of acute post-procedural pancreatitis were observed in the group that received rectal diclofenac (0/52). Although there was no statistical difference between the therapeutic groups when they were separately analyzed, a statistical difference in the prevention of post-procedural pancreatitis was observed when they were analyzed together (P=0.037). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the prophylaxis of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A colangiopancreatografia retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) é uma modalidade terapêutica amplamente utilizada para vias biliopancreáticas, responsável pelas taxas mais elevadas de complicações entre os procedimentos endoscópicos, especialmente a pancreatite pós-CPRE (PPC). Os métodos preventivos incluem abordagens mecânicas e farmacológicas, entre elas, a utilização de antinflamatórios não esteroidais (AINEs). OBJETIVO: Comparar a eficácia de duas estratégias diferentes utilizando AINEs para a prevenção de PPC. Elucidar o cenário incerto sobre a via de administração do AINEs na prevenção da PPC. MÉTODOS - Ensaio clínico prospectivo. Duas estratégias terapêuticas foram comparadas a um grupo controle, composto por pacientes submetidos a CPRE no mesmo serviço e com a mesma equipe no período anterior ao estudo (série histórica), que não recebeu qualquer tipo de profilaxia. O primeiro grupo experimental recebeu 100 mg de diclofenaco via retal, o segundo grupo recebeu 100 mg de cetoprofeno endovenoso. Ambos os grupos foram comparados separadamente e em associação com o grupo de controle. RESULTADOS: A PPC ocorreu em 4,39% (12/273) dos participantes. No grupo sem profilaxia, esta incidência foi de 6,89% (10/145); entre os que receberam cetoprofeno endovenoso foi de 2,56% (2/78). Não houve casos de pancreatite aguda após o procedimento no grupo que recebeu diclofenaco via retal (0/52). Apesar de não haver diferença estatística entre estes grupos analisados separadamente, quando os dois grupos terapêuticos são analisados em conjunto estes apresentam diferenças estatísticas na prevenção da PPC (P=0,037). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo foi capaz de corroborar a eficácia da utilização de AINEs para a profilaxia de pancreatite pós-CPRE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pancreatitis/prevention & control , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Diclofenac , Prospective Studies
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(9): 1293-1298, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351485

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for radiological hip joint involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: This cross-sectional convey collected the clinical data, laboratory indicators, and radiographic data of patients with AS. Radiographic hip joint involvement was defined as a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Hip Index (BASRI-hip) score ≥2. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the potential risk factors for radiological hip involvement in patients with AS. RESULTS: Based on BASRI-hip score, all enrolled 386 patients with AS were classified as patients involving with radiological hip joint involvement (BASRI-hip ≥2; n=203) and those without it (BASRI-hip ≤1; n=183). Mean age of enrolled patients with AS were 36.7±11.9 years, and 320 (82.9%) patients were male. Mean course of disease was 10.7±8.3 years, and 349 (90.4%) patients were with a positive HLAB27. Multivariate analyses indicated that Juvenile onset (onset age ≤16 years) (odds ratio [OR]=4.159, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.779-9.721, p<0.001), body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2 (OR=1.986, 95%CI 1.187-3.323, p=0.009), continuous nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use (OR=0.351, 95%CI 0.155-0.794, p=0.012), and bone mass below the expected range for age (Z score ≤-2) (OR=2.791, 95%CI 1.456-5.352, p=0.002) were independently associated with radiological hip joint involvement in patients with AS. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors for radiological hip joint involvement were juvenile onset, lower BMI, and bone mass below the expected range for age. Furthermore, continuous NSAID use was the protective factor for radiological hip joint involvement in these population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/complications , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/diagnostic imaging , Hip Joint/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age of Onset , Hip Joint/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S198-S211, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281043

ABSTRACT

La pandemia ocasionada por el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS) en marzo de 2020, afecta a un reducido número de pacientes pediátricos, quienes presentan, en su mayoría, compromiso respiratorio leve y evolución favorable. Sin embargo, en niños previamente sanos, comenzó a observarse un aumento de casos definidos como síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (SIM-C) o similar a Kawasaki (Kawasaki-like) asociado a la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) (KL-C) que evolucionan al shock y requieren internación en la unidad de cuidados intensivos.Los cuadros de SIM-C y los KL-C se caracterizan por fiebre, signos de inflamación, síntomas gastrointestinales y disfunción cardiovascular; las formas graves de presentación tienen mayor incidencia de hipotensión y/o shock. En el laboratorio se observan marcadores de inflamación, hipercoagulabilidad y daño miocárdico. El tratamiento farmacológico de primera línea consiste en la administración de inmunoglobulina por vía intravenosa más ácido acetilsalicílico por vía oral.Se recomienda un abordaje multidisciplinario para un diagnóstico certero y un tratamiento temprano y eficaz para disminuir la morbimortalidad.


The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus declared by the WHO in March 11th 2020, affects a small number of pediatric patients, who mostly present mild respiratory compromise and favorable evolution.However began to be observed in previously healthy children, an increase in cases defined as "Multisystemic Inflammatory Syndrome" (MIS-C) or "Kawasaki-like" post-COVID 19 (KL-C) that evolve to shock and require hospitalization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.MIS-C and KL-C are characterized by fever; signs of inflammation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and cardiovascular dysfunction, associated with sever forms of presentation with higher incidence of hypotension and/or shock. In the laboratory, markers of inflammation, hypercoagulability and myocardial damage are observed. First-line drug treatment consists of intravenous immunoglobulin plus oral acetylsalicylic acid.A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for an accurate diagnosis and an early and effective treatment, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Critical Care , Diagnosis, Differential , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy
9.
Rev. venez. cir. ortop. traumatol ; 53(1): 20-26, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1252895

ABSTRACT

Cuando fracasa el tratamiento conservador en el Estadio I de Disfunción del Tendón Tibial posterior (DTTP), se debe indicar sinovectomía y debridamiento del tendón. En este estudio evaluamos la evolución con 8 años mínimo de seguimiento, de los pacientes con esta patología tratados vía tenoscópica. Este es un estudio retrospectivo de pacientes operados entre el año 2008 y el año 2011. En ese período de tiempo se intervinieron 11 pacientes con esta patología. Sólo 9 de los 11 pacientes operados pudieron ser evaluados. 7 pacientes mejoraron su sintomatología según el VAS y no progresaron a estadio II. En 3 pacientes se evidenció lesión tendinosa durante la tendoscopía y ameritaron reparación a cielo abierto. La sinovectomía tendoscópica del TTP es un procedimiento quirúrgico efectivo para tratar a los pacientes con DTTP Estadio I, rebeldes a tratamiento conservador(AU)


When conservative treatment fails for Stage I Posterior Tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD), synovectomy and tendon debridement is indicated. In this study we evaluate tendoscopic treatment results for this pathology with a minimum of 8 years follow up. This is a retrospective study of patients after tendoscopic surgery performed between 2008 and 2011. 9 of the 11 patients were available for evaluation. 7 improved their symptoms according to VAS scale, and did not progress to stage II. In 3 patients tendon tear was visualized during tendoscopy and needed open repair. PTT tendoscopy is an effective surgical treatment to treat Stage I PTTD, failing to conservative treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Flatfoot , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction/pathology , Tendinopathy , Synovectomy , Ultrasonics , Cryotherapy , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Debridement
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(3): 335-341, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279325

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The predisposing factors for pericarditis recurrence in the pediatric population have not yet been established. This study aimed to define the risk factors for the unfavorable prognosis of pediatric acute pericarditis. Methods This was a retrospective study that included all patients with acute pericarditis treated from 2011 to 2019 at a tertiary referent pediatric center. Results The study included 72 children. Recurrence was observed in 22.2% patients. Independent risk factors for recurrence were: erythrocyte sedimentation rate ≥ 50 mm/h (p = 0.003, OR 186.3), absence of myocarditis (p = 0.05, OR 15.2), C-reactive protein ≥ 125 mg/L (p = 0.04, OR 1.5), and non-idiopathic etiology pericarditis (p = 0.003, OR 1.3). Corticosteroid treatment in acute pericarditis was associated with a higher recurrence rate than treatment with non-steroid anti-inflammatory therapy (p = 0.04). Furthermore, patients treated with colchicine in the primary recurrence had lower recurrence rate and median number of repeated infections than those treated without colchicine (p = 0.04; p = 0.007, respectively). Conclusion Independent risk factors for recurrence are absence of myocarditis, non-idiopathic etiology pericarditis, C-reactive protein ≥ 125 mg/L, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate ≥ 50 mm/h. Acute pericarditis should be treated with non-steroid anti-inflammatory therapy. A combination of colchicine and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs could be recommended as the treatment of choice in recurrent pericarditis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pericarditis/drug therapy , Recurrence , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies
11.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(1): 262, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147578

ABSTRACT

El bloqueo del nervio peri prostático con lidocaína, proporciona un buen alivio del dolor en la realización de la biopsia prostática guiada por ultrasonido, pero el dolor post-procedimiento, puede llegar a ser significativo, la adición del supositorio de diclofenac, podría proporcionar alivio adicional. Se asignaron al azar pacientes en 2 grupos el grupo 1 bloqueo con lidocaína del plexo peri prostático + supositorio de diclofenac sódico y el grupo 2 bloqueo con lidocaína del plexo peri prostático + supositorio de placebo, realizando biopsia doble sextante, el dolor a varios intervalos después del procedimiento se registró en una escala visual análoga (EVA) de 0 a 10. Los 2 grupos fueron similares en cuanto a edad, volumen de próstata, antígeno prostático específico, diagnóstico histopatológico. Los pacientes que recibieron diclofenac tuvieron puntajes de dolor significativamente más bajos que los que recibieron placebo (2 frente a 3,35) p 0,02. La administración rectal de diclofenac antes de la realización de la biopsia de próstata es un procedimiento simple que alivia significativamente el dolor experimentado sin aumento en la morbilidad(AU)


The peri-prostatic nerve block with lidocaine, provides good pain relief in performing ultrasoundguided prostate biopsy, but the postprocedure pain can be significant, the addition of diclofenac suppository, could provide additional relief. Patients were randomly assigned in 2 groups to group 1 blockade with lidocaine of the prostatic peri plexus + suppository of diclofenac sodium and group 2 blockade with lidocaine of the prostatic peri plexus + placebo suppository, performing double sextant biopsy, pain at several intervals after the procedure was recorded on a visual analog scale (EVA) from 0 to 10. Thee 2 groups were similar in terms of age, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, histopathological diagnosis. Patients who received diclofenac had pain scores significantly lower than those who received placebo (2 vs. 3.35) p 0.02. Rectal administration of diclofenac before performing a prostate biopsy is a simple procedure that relieves significantly pain experienced without increased morbidity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Nerve Block/methods , Placebos/therapeutic use , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Administration, Rectal , Prospective Studies , Pain Management/methods , Image-Guided Biopsy , Anesthesia, Local
13.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 4, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152735

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of chronic inflammatory systemic diseases characterized by axial and/or peripheral joints inflammation, as well as extra-articular manifestations. Over some decades, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been the basis for the pharmacological treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). However, the emergence of the immunobiologic agents brought up the discussion about the role of NSAIDs in the management of these patients. The objective of this guideline is to provide recommendations for the use of NSAIDs for the treatment of axSpA. A panel of experts from the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials for 15 predefined questions. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess the quality of evidence and formulate recommendations were used, and at least 70% agreement of the voting panel was needed. Fourteen recommendations for the use of NSAIDs in the treatment of patients with axSpA were elaborated. The purpose of these recommendations is to support clinicians' decision making, without taking out his/her autonomy when prescribing for an individual patient.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Decision Making
14.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(3): 1-8, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281176

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos bioquímicos e histopatológicos da administração de diclofenaco e cetoprofeno na regeneração óssea em modelo de defeito calvarial em ratos. Material e Métodos: A amostra foi composta por 108 ratos Wistar que foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos, aos quais foi realizada osteotomia de 6 mm de diâmetro na calvária. O grupo A (controle) recebeu solução salina; O Grupo B recebeu 2 mg / kg de cetoprofeno e o Grupo C recebeu 2 mg / kg de diclofenaco. Todos os tratamentos foram administrados intraperitonealmente a cada 12 horas durante 3 dias. A regeneração óssea foi avaliada pelas características bioquímicas (fosfatase alcalina e cálcio sérico) e histopatológicas (contagem de osteócitos e células de osteoblastos) aos 15 e 30 dias. Resultados:Na avaliação bioquímica, os níveis de fosfatase alcalina no grupo cetoprofeno foram significativamente menores em comparação com o grupo diclofenaco em 15 e 30 dias (p= 0.015 e p= 0.001; respectivamente). No entanto, os níveis séricos de cálcio não mostraram diferença entre os grupos de estudo aos 15 e 30 dias (p= 0.42 p= 0.81; respectivamente). Na análise histopatológica, a contagem de osteoblastos e osteócitos foi significativamente menor no grupo cetoprofeno em comparação ao grupo diclofenaco aos 15 e 30 dias (p< 0,05). Conclusão: A administração de cetoprofeno tem efeitos bioquímicos e histopatológicos negativos de maior intensidade na regeneração óssea em comparação com a administração de diclofenaco. (AU)


Objective: To evaluate the biochemical and histopathological effects of diclofenac and ketoprofen administration on bone regeneration in a calvarial defect model in rats. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 108 Wistar rats that were randomly distributed in three groups, to which an osteotomy of 6 mm in diameter was performed in the calvaria. Group A (control) was given saline solution; Group B received ketoprofen 2 mg/kg and Group C received diclofenac 2 mg/kg. All treatments were administered intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 3 days. Bone regeneration was evaluated by biochemical (alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium) and histopathological (osteocyte and osteoblast cell count) characteristics at 15 and 30 days. Results: In the biochemical evaluation, alkaline phosphatase levels in the ketoprofen group were significantly lower compared to the diclofenac group at 15 and 30 days (p= 0.015 and p= 0.001; respectively). However, serum calcium levels did not show the difference between the study groups at 15 and 30 days (p= 0.42 and p= 0.81; respectively). In the histopathological analysis, the count of osteoblasts and osteocytes was significantly lower in the ketoprofen group compared to the diclofenac group at 15 and 30 days (p< 0.05). Conclusion: The administration of ketoprofen has negative biochemical and histopathological effects of greater intensity on bone regeneration compared to the administration of diclofenac (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats , Bone Regeneration , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Diclofenac , Ketoprofen
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e011, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1142615

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to describe dental prescriptions of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), opioids, and analgesics dispensed by the Brazilian National Health System (BNHS, SUS in Portuguese) of a Southeastern state from January to December 2017, and to analyze their association with socioeconomic and oral health care services' characteristics at municipal level. Data were collected from the Brazilian Integrated Pharmaceutical Care Management System. Medicines were grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. The total number of Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD per 1,000 inhabitants (inhab.) per year were presented and compared between groups of municipalities. Data analysis used the Classification and Regression Tree model performed with IBM SPSS 25.0. The total number of NSAID, opioids, and analgesics prescriptions was 70,747 and accounted for 354,221.13 DDD. The most frequently prescribed medicine was ibuprofen (n = 24,676; 34.88%). The number of dental practitioners in the BNHS per 1,000 inhab. (p < 0.001), first dental appointment coverage (p = 0.010), oral health teams per 1,000 inhab. (p=0.022), and the proportion of rural population (p = 0.014) were variables positively associated with the number of DDD of NSAID per 1,000 inhab. per year. Bolsa Família program coverage per 1,000 inhab. (p = 0.022) was negatively associated with NSAID prescription. Regarding analgesics, first dental appointment coverage (p=0.002) and Bolsa Família program coverage per 1,000 inhab. (p = 0.012) were positively associated with DDD per 1,000 inhab. per year. In conclusion, dental prescriptions of analgesics and NSAID in the BNHS were associated with socioeconomic and oral health care services' characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions , Dentists , Brazil , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Cities , Professional Role , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
17.
Salud colect ; 17: e3246, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290035

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En abril de 2016, el Instituto Nacional de Servicios Sociales para Jubilados y Pensionados excluyó del subsidio social la cobertura al 100% de 159 fármacos, entre ellos, los antiartrósicos sintomáticos de acción lenta o symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SySADOA), por insuficiente evidencia de beneficio clínico significativo. Evaluamos el efecto de esta medida sobre la utilización de SySADOA y de los antiinflamatorios no esteroides (AINE), no afectados por la medida. Se compararon las dispensas ambulatorias de los SySADOA y los AINE de 2015 a 2017, midiendo unidades dispensadas, precio de venta al público y gasto de bolsillo del beneficiario para cada mes. Luego de la medida, descendieron un 61,6% los envases de SySADOA dispensados y un 63,4% el monto total del precio de venta al público, medido en valores constantes. La dispensa no se reorientó hacia los AINE, que descendieron un 6,1%. Disminuyó tanto la incidencia de nuevos tratamientos (de 6,4 a 3,3 tratamientos por 1.000 beneficiarios por mes) como su continuidad. El gasto de bolsillo de los beneficiarios en SySADOA aumentó un 75,8% (a valores constantes). La desinversión en intervenciones de valor terapéutico cuestionable es una herramienta valiosa para la sustentabilidad de los sistemas de salud.


ABSTRACT In April 2016, the National Institute of Social Services for Retirees and Pensioners discontinued its policy of 100% coverage for 159 drugs (the "social subsidy"), including symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs), due to insufficient evidence of significant clinical benefit. We evaluated the effect of this measure on the use of SYSADOAs as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which were unaffected by this policy change. We compared outpatient dispensations of SYSADOAs and NSAIDs from 2015 to 2017, measuring dispensed units, retail price, and out-of-pocket expenses for beneficiaries each month. After the change in coverage, there was a 61.6% total decrease in SYSADOA units dispensed, and a 63.4% decrease in the final sales price to the public, measured in constant values. Dispensation was not reoriented towards NSAIDs, which fell by 6.1%. The incidence of new treatments decreased (from 6.4 to 3.3 treatments per 1,000 beneficiaries per month), as did their continuity. Beneficiaries' out-of-pocket spending on SYSADOAs increased by 75.8% (at constant values). Disinvestment in interventions with questionable therapeutic value is an important tool in working toward the sustainability of health systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Argentina , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Glucosamine/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1506, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289474

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El paracetamol es uno de los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos con efecto analgésico y antipirético más utilizados a nivel mundial. Pocos estudios se enfocan en esclarecer los mecanismos de acción a nivel cardiovascular. Objetivos: Evaluar la acción del paracetamol sobre la fuerza de contracción de anillos de aorta torácica y sobre la actividad eléctrica y contráctil de corazones aislados y perfundidos de ratas Wistar. Métodos: Se midieron los efectos del paracetamol sobre anillos de aorta de rata denudados de su endotelio vascular. Se estudiaron las acciones del fármaco sobre los corazones aislados y perfundidos de las ratas por el método de Langendorff. Se evaluó la amplitud de la fuerza de contracción cardiaca y los intervalos QT, QTc, QRS y RR del electrocardiograma. Las condiciones (control y presencia de paracetamol) fueron comparadas con una prueba t de Student para muestras pareadas (p < 0,05), previa comprobación de la normalidad de los datos. Resultados: El paracetamol no tuvo efectos sobre el músculo liso vascular de los anillos aórticos ni sobre los intervalos QT, QTc, QRS y RR del electrocardiograma bajo ninguna de las concentraciones empleadas. Por otra parte, mostró efecto inotrópico negativo estadísticamente significativo en los corazones aislados, de forma dependiente de la concentración del fármaco. La IC50 estimada para la inhibición de la fuerza de contracción cardiaca fue de 17,15 ± 5,33 µmol/L. Conclusiones: Las acciones cardiovasculares directas del paracetamol son modestas, lo cual contribuye al buen margen de seguridad para su uso en clínica, en pacientes sin enfermedad cardiovascular(AU)


Introduction: Paracetamol is among the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic drugs most commonly used worldwide. Few studies have focused on clarifying its mechanisms of action on a cardiovascular level. Objectives: Evaluate the action of paracetamol on the force of contraction of thoracic aortic rings and on the electrical and contractile activity of isolated perfused Wistar rat hearts. Methods: Measurements were taken of the effects of paracetamol on rat aortic rings denuded of their vascular endothelium. Analysis was performed of the actions of the drug on the isolated perfused rat hearts using the Langendorff method. Evaluation was conducted of the amplitude of the force of cardiac contraction and of intervals QT, QTc, QRS and RR of the electrocardiogram. The conditions (control and presence of paracetamol) were compared with a paired samples Student's t-test (p < 0.05) upon verification of the normality of the data. Results: Paracetamol had no effects on the vascular smooth muscle of aortic rings or on intervals QT, QTc, QRS and RR of the electrocardiogram at none of the concentrations used. On the other hand, it displayed a statistically significant negative inotropic effect on the isolated hearts dependent on drug concentration. The IC50 estimated for inhibition of the force of cardiac contraction was 17.15 ± 5.33 µmol/L. Conclusions: The direct cardiovascular actions of paracetamol are modest, which contributes to a good safety margin for its clinical use in patients without cardiovascular disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Heart , Acetaminophen/analysis
19.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(2): e002071, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254939

ABSTRACT

Ante un escenario clínico de coxalgia por artrosis de cadera se planteó la necesidad de conocer los tratamientos con-servadores más seguros y efectivos para el manejo del dolor. El tratamiento de la artrosis requiere un enfoque integral e individualizado en función de las preferencias del paciente para lograr el máximo beneficio clínico. Existen numerosas estrategias útiles para el manejo del dolor en pacientes con artrosis de cadera siendo fuertemente recomendados de inicio la actividad física, los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINE) orales y en ciertos casos los corticoides intraarticulares, tramadol o duloxetina, siempre asociado con la actividad física. Los ejercicios más recomendados son los aeróbicos y el Tai Chi o yoga. (AU)


Faced with a clinical scenario of coxalgia due to hip osteoarthritis, the need to know the safest and most effective conservative treatments for pain management arose. The treatment of osteoarthritis requires a comprehensive and individualised approach based on the patient's preferences to achieve maximum clinical benefit. There are numerous useful strategies for pain management in patients with hip osteoarthritis being strongly recommended from the beginning such as physical activity, oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and in certain cases intra-articular corticosteroids, tramadol or duloxetine, always associated with physical activity. The most recommended exercises are aerobics and Tai Chi or yoga. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Osteoarthritis, Hip/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis, Hip/therapy , Conservative Treatment/methods , Pain , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Yoga , Exercise , Osteoarthritis, Hip/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Tai Ji , Pain Management/methods , Duloxetine Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Muscle Rigidity
20.
Vive (El Alto) ; 3(9): 213-228, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252339

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: varios estudios a cargo de la Federación Internacional de Fútbol han identificado el abuso de AINE (Analgésicos Antinflamatorios No Esteroideo) en los futbolistas indicando que casi el 40% de los jugadores del mundial de 2010 tomaron medicamentos para el dolor antes de cada partido. OBJETIVO: identificar el nivel de conocimiento sobre AINE que presentan los futbolistas profesionales de las plantillas de primera división, a través del análisis y realidad de cada equipo. MÉTODO: se aplicaron encuestas validadas por los departamentos médicos de cada club y a través de preguntas abiertas, cerradas y formato de opción múltiple, se determinó que: la edad de los futbolistas profesionales en estudio oscila entre los 15 y 34 años. RESULTADOS: respecto al conocimiento del grupo farmacológico que contrarresta síntomas de dolor, fiebre e inflamación; se determinó que existe gran confusión e ignorancia en relación a la identificación de medicamentos y su conceptualización. Así mismo, respecto a principios activos que tratan dolor, fiebre e inflamación, se notó preferencia por Ibuprofeno, Paracetamol y Diclofenaco. Y que menos del 50% del total de futbolistas reconocen los efectos adversos de los fármacos en estudio. CONCLUSIÓN: existen falencias respecto al conocimiento de medicamentos (AINE), y que debido a la premura con la que requieren volver a las canchas, éstos profesionales del deporte, suelen confiar en personas que no se encuentran capacitados en medicina o en temas farmacológicos.


INTRODUCTION: several studies conducted by the International Football Federation have identified the abuse of NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Analgesics) in soccer players, indicating that almost 40% of the 2010 World Cup players took pain medication before each match. OBJECTIVE: to identify the level of knowledge about NSAIDs presented by professional footballers of the first division squads, through the analysis and reality of each team. METHOD: surveys validated by the medical departments of each club were applied and through open and closed questions and multiple choice format, it was determined that: the age of the professional soccer players in the study ranges between 15 and 34 years. RESULTS: regarding the knowledge of the pharmacological group that counteracts symptoms of pain, fever and inflammation; It was determined that there is great confusion and ignorance in relation to the identification of drugs and their conceptualization. Likewise, with respect to active principles that treat pain, fever and inflammation, a preference was noted for Ibuprofen, Paracetamol and Diclofenac. And that less than 50% of all footballers recognize the adverse effects of the drugs under study. CONCLUSION: there are shortcomings regarding the knowledge of medications (NSAIDs), and that due to the haste with which they need to return to the courts, these sports professionals often trust people who are not trained in medicine or pharmacological issues.


INTRODUÇÃO: vários estudos realizados pela Federação Internacional de Futebol identificaram o uso abusivo de NSAIDs (Analgésicos Antiinflamatórios Não Esteróides) em jogadores de futebol, indicando que quase 40% dos jogadores da Copa do Mundo de 2010 tomavam analgésicos antes de cada partida. OBJETIVO: identificar o nível de conhecimento sobre os AINE apresentado por futebolistas profissionais das equipes da primeira divisão, por meio da análise e da realidade de cada equipe. MÉTODO: foram aplicadas pesquisas validadas pelos departamentos médicos de cada clube e por meio de questões abertas e fechadas e no formato de múltipla escolha, determinou-se que: a idade dos jogadores profissionais de futebol em estudo varia entre 15 e 34 anos. RESULTADOS: quanto ao conhecimento do grupo farmacológico que neutraliza os sintomas de dor, febre e inflamação; Constatou-se que existe grande confusão e desconhecimento em relação à identificação dos medicamentos e sua conceituação. Da mesma forma, no que diz respeito aos princípios ativos que tratam a dor, febre e inflamação, foi observada uma preferência para ibuprofeno, paracetamol e diclofenaco. E que menos de 50% de todos os jogadores de futebol reconhecem os efeitos adversos das drogas em estudo. CONCLUSÃO: há lacunas no conhecimento sobre medicamentos (NSAIDs) e que, devido à pressa com que precisam retornar às quadras, esses profissionais do esporte costumam confiar em pessoas sem formação em medicina ou farmacologia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pain , Soccer , Knowledge , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Ibuprofen , Equipment and Supplies , Fever , Analgesics , Inflammation
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