Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 212
Filter
1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 605-612, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155767

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Preoperative use of flurbiprofen axetil (FA) is extensively adopted to modulate the effects of analgesia. However, the relationship between FA and sedation agents remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different doses of FA on the median Effective Concentration (EC50) of propofol. Methods Ninety-six patients (ASA I or II, aged 18-65 years) were randomly assigned into one of four groups in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Group A (control group) received 10 mL of Intralipid, and groups B, C and D received 0.5 mg.kg−1, 0.75 mg.kg−1 and 1 mg.kg−1 of FA, respectively, 10 minutes before induction. The depth of anesthesia was measured by the Bispectral Index (BIS). The "up-and-down" method was used to calculate the EC50 of propofol. During the equilibration period, if BIS ≤ 50 (or BIS > 50), the next patient would receive a 0.5 µg.mL−1-lower (or -higher) propofol Target-Controlled Infusion (TCI) concentration. The hemodynamic data were recorded at baseline, 10 minutes after FA administration, after induction, after intubation and 15 minutes after intubation. Results The EC50 of propofol was lower in Group C (2.32 µg.mL−1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.85-2.75) and D (2.39 µg.mL−1, 95% CI 1.91-2.67) than in Group A (2.96 µg.mL−1, 95% CI 2.55-3.33) (p = 0.023, p = 0.048, respectively). There were no significant differences in the EC50 between Group B (2.53 µg.mL−1, 95% CI 2.33-2.71) and Group A (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in Heart Rate (HR) among groups A, B and C. The HR was significantly lower in Group D than in Group A after intubation (66 ± 6 vs. 80 ± 10 bpm, p < 0.01) and 15 minutes after intubation (61 ± 4 vs. 70 ± 8 bpm, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences among the four groups in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) at any time point. The MAP of the four groups was significantly lower after induction, after intubation, and 15 minutes after intubation than at baseline (p < 0.05). Conclusion High-dose FA (0.75 mg.kg−1 or 1 mg.kg−1) reduces the EC50 of propofol, and 1 mg.kg−1 FA reduces the HR for adequate anesthesia in unstimulated patients. Although this result should be investigated in cases of surgical stimulation, we suggest that FA pre-administration may reduce the propofol requirement when the depth of anesthesia is measured by BIS.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A administração pré‐operatória de Flurbiprofeno Axetil (FA) é amplamente usada para a modulação da analgesia. No entanto, a relação entre FA e fármacos sedativos permanece obscura. Neste estudo, nosso objetivo foi investigar os efeitos de diferentes doses de FA na Concentração Efetiva mediana (CE50) do propofol. Métodos Noventa e seis pacientes (ASA I ou II, com idades de 18-65 anos) foram alocados aleatoriamente em quatro grupos na proporção de 1:1:1:1. Dez minutos antes da indução, o Grupo A (grupo controle) recebeu 10 mL de Intralipid, enquanto os grupos B, C e D receberam FA na dose de 0,5 mg.kg‐1; 0,75 mg.kg‐1 e 1 mg.kg‐1, respectivamente. A profundidade da anestesia foi medida pelo Índice Bispectral (BIS). O método up‐and‐down foi usado para calcular a CE50 do propofol. Durante o período de equilíbrio, se o valor do BIS fosse ≤ 50 ou BIS > 50, o próximo paciente tinha a infusão de propofol ajustada para uma concentração alvo‐controlada 0,5 µg.mL‐1 inferior ou superior, respectivamente. Os dados hemodinâmicos foram registrados no início do estudo, 10 minutos após a administração de FA, após a indução, após a intubação e 15 minutos após a intubação. Resultados A CE50 do propofol foi menor no Grupo C (2,32 µg.mL‐1, Intervalo de Confiança de 95% [95% IC] 1,85-2,75) e D (2,39 µg.mL‐1, 95% IC 1,91-2,67) do que no Grupo A (2,96 µg.mL‐1; 95% IC 2,55-3,33) (p = 0,023, p = 0,048, respectivamente). Não houve diferenças significantes na CE50 entre o Grupo B (2,53 µg.mL‐1, 95% IC 2,33-2,71) e o Grupo A (p > 0,05). Não houve diferenças significantes na Frequência Cardíaca (FC) entre os grupos A, B e C. A FC foi significantemente menor no grupo D do que no grupo A após a intubação (66 ± 6 vs. 80 ± 10 bpm, p < 0,01) e 15 minutos após a intubação (61 ± 4 vs. 70 ± 8 bpm, p < 0,01). Não houve diferenças significantes entre os quatro grupos na Pressão Arterial Média (PAM) em qualquer momento. A PAM dos quatro grupos foi significantemente menor após a indução, após a intubação e 15 minutos após a intubação do que na linha de base (p < 0,05). Conclusão FA em altas doses (0,75 mg.kg‐1 ou 1 mg.kg‐1) reduz a CE50 do propofol, e 1 mg.kg‐1 de FA reduz a FC durante níveis adequados de anestesia em pacientes não estimulados. Embora esse resultado deva ser investigado na presença de estimulação cirúrgica, sugerimos que a pré‐administração de FA pode reduzir a necessidade de propofol durante anestesia cuja profundidade seja monitorada pelo BIS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Propofol/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Flurbiprofen/analogs & derivatives , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Anesthesia , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Phospholipids/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Soybean Oil/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Confidence Intervals , Flurbiprofen/administration & dosage , Elective Surgical Procedures , Electroencephalography/drug effects , Emulsions/administration & dosage , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Heart Rate/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid , Middle Aged
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(7): 390-396, July 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137855

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Our objective is to assess the performance of a combined screening test for preeclampsia in the first trimester and the prophylactic use of low-dose aspirin. Methods Prospective study of all women attending our hospital for the first-trimester screening of aneuploidies, between March 2017 and February 2018 (n = 1,297). The exclusion criteria weremultiple pregnancy andmajor fetal abnormalities. Preeclampsia screening was performed with an algorithm that includes maternal characteristics, and biophysical and biochemical biomarkers. High-risk was defined as a risk ≥ 1:50 of earlyonset preeclampsia (before 34 weeks), in which cases low-dose aspirin (150mg at night) was offered to these women from screening until 36 weeks. Results From the 1,272 enrolled participants, the majority were Caucasian (1,051; 82.6%) and multiparous (658, 51.7%). Fifty patients (3.9%) screened high-risk for preeclampsia, and all started a low-dose aspirin regimen, with good compliance (96%). Early-onset preeclampsia was found in 3 pregnant women (0.24%), and total preeclampsia was diagnosed in 25 (2.02%), compared with 28 (0.75%) cases of early preeclampsia (p = 0.0099) and 98 (2.62%) of total preeclampsia (p = 0.2904) before the implementation of screening. Conclusion There was a lower incidence of both, early-onset and total preeclampsia, after the introduction of universal screening and prophylactic use of low-dose aspirin. This reduction was statistically significant in early-onset preeclampsia. The association of a first-trimester combined screening model and aspirin prophylaxis appears to be useful in predicting and reducing the incidence of early-onset preeclampsia, in a routine care setting.


Resumo Objetivo A pré-eclâmpsia é uma causa importante de morbi-mortalidade materna e perinatal. Os objetivos do nosso estudo foram avaliar a implementação do rastreio combinado de pré-eclâmpsia no primeiro trimestre e o uso profilático de aspirina em baixa dose. Métodos Estudo prospetivo das mulheres referenciadas ao nosso hospital para realização do rastreio do primeiro trimestre de aneuploidias, entre março de 2017 e fevereiro de 2018 (n = 1.297). Os critérios de exclusão foram gravidez múltipla e anomalias fetais graves. O algoritmo usado no rastreio da pré-eclâmpsia combina características maternas, e marcadores biofísicos e bioquímicos. Definiu-se alto risco como risco de pré-eclâmpsia precoce (antes das 34 semanas) ≥ 1:50, tendo sido recomendada aspirina em baixa dose (150 mg à noite) desde o rastreio até às 36 semanas. Resultados Das 1.272 participantes, a maioria era caucasiana (1.051; 82,6%) e multípara (658; 51,7%). Cinquenta grávidas (3,9%) foram consideradas de alto risco para pré-eclâmpsia e todas iniciaram aspirina em baixa dose, com boa adesão (96%). Pré-eclampsia precoce foi diagnosticada em 3 grávidas (0,24%), e no total foram diagnosticados 25 casos de pré-eclâmpsia (2,02%), comparativamente com 28 (0,75%) casos de pré-eclampsia precoces (p = 0,0099) e 98 (2,62%) casos totais de préeclâmpsia (p = 0,2904) observados antes da implementação do rastreio. Verificou-se uma menor incidência de pré-eclâmpsia precoce e total após introdução do rastreio universal e uso profilático de aspirina. A redução da pré-eclâmpsia precoce foi estatisticamente significativa. Conclusão A associação de um modelo de rastreio combinado no primeiro trimestre com o uso profilático de aspirina é aparentemente eficaz na redução do risco de préeclâmpsia precoce.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Mass Screening , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy Outcome , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 149-152, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gyrate atrophy is a rare metabolic autosomal recessive disorder caused by ornithine aminotransferase enzyme deficiency that leads to characteristic progressive, degenerative chorioretinal findings. Patients complain mostly of low vision, night blindness, and peripheral vision loss. Posterior subcapsular cataract, myopia, choroid neovascularization, and intraretinal cysts may be accompanying factors related to vision loss. We encountered a patient with vision loss secondary to posterior subcapsular cataract and intraretinal cysts. After treatment with topical brinzolamide and nepafenac (and without any diet mo dification and/or supplementation), we observed 143- and 117-mm macular thickness resolutions with 2 and 1 Snellen lines of visual gain in his right and left eyes, respectively. Also, we detected a novel homozygous mutation in the ornithine aminotransferase gene: c.1253T>C (p.Leu418Pro). Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and/or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs can control macular edema in patients with gyrate atrophy-associated intraretinal cysts. The genetic variants may also be a determinant in the responsiveness to the therapy type.


RESUMO A atrofia girata é um distúrbio autossômico recessivo metabólico raro causado pela deficiência da enzima ornitina ami notransferase, que leva a achados degenerativos coriorretinianos progressivos característicos. Os pacientes queixam-se principalmente de baixa visão, cegueira noturna e perda de vi são periférica. A catarata subcapsular posterior, a miopia, a neovascularização da coróide e os cistos intrarretinianos podem ser fatores associados à perda da visão. Encontramos um paciente com perda de visão secundária à catarata subcapsular posterior e cistos intrarretinianos. Após o tratamento com brinzolamida tópica e nepafenaco (e sem modificação e/ou suplementação da dieta), observamos resoluções de espessura macular de 143 e 117 mm e com 2 e 1 linhas de Snellen de ganho visual nos olhos direito e esquerdo, respectivamente. Além disso, detectamos uma nova mutação homozigótica no gene da ornitina aminotransfera se: c.1253T>C (p.Leu418Pro). Inibidores da anidrase carbônica e/ou drogas anti-inflamatórias não esteróides podem controlar o edema macular em pacientes com cistos intrarretinianos associados à atrofia girata. As variantes genéticas também podem ser determinantes na responsividade ao tipo de terapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Phenylacetates/administration & dosage , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Gyrate Atrophy/genetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Benzeneacetamides/administration & dosage , Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase/genetics , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Thiazines/administration & dosage , Fluorescein Angiography , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Administration, Ophthalmic , Mutation
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200016, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101450

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity, and inflammatory response and oxidative stress play major roles underlying its pathophysiology. Here, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal etanercept administration on oxidative stress and inflammation indicators in the kidney and blood of experimental sepsis-induced rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult Sprague Dawley rats were classified into Control (Group 1), Sepsis (Group 2), Sepsis+Cefazolin (Group 3), and Sepsis+Cefazolin+Etanercept (Group 4) groups. Kidney tissue and serum samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigations and examined for the C reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. RESULTS: The levels of TNF-α, TREM, and MDA in serum and kidney samples were significantly higher in rats from sepsis group than in rats from control group (p < 0.05). Group 3 showed a significant reduction in serum levels of TNF-α, CRP, and TREM as compared with Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α, CRP, TREM, and MDA levels and kidney TNF-α and TREM levels were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α and TREM levels in Group 4 were significantly lower than those in Group 3, and histopathological scores were significantly lower in Group 3 and Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Histopathological scores of Group 4 were significantly lower than those of Group 3 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Etanercept, a TNF-α inhibitor, may ameliorate sepsis-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and histopathological damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Sepsis/pathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Etanercept/administration & dosage , Inflammation/prevention & control , Kidney/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Etanercept/pharmacology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 529-536, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057480

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: There are few data in the literature characterizing the pattern of analgesic use in Latin American countries, including Brazil. Little is known about the undertreatment of pain and its influence on the habit of self-medication with analgesics. The aim of this study is to define the pattern of analgesic use among chronic pain patients and its potential association with self-medication with analgesics. Method: Cross-sectional observational study with an urban population sample. Chronic pain was defined as a pain lasting for at least 90 days. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the institution. Results: 416 subjects were included; 45.7 % (n = 190) had chronic pain, with females (72.3 %; p = 0.04) being the most affected. Self-medication with analgesics is practiced by 78.4% of patients with chronic pain. The most common current analgesic treatment consists of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (dipyrone and acetaminophen). Weak opioids are rarely used and only 2.6% of subjects with chronic pain were taking these analgesics. None of the subjects were taking potent opioids. Conclusions: The practice of self-medication with analgesics is frequent among patients with chronic pain, which may be due to the underprescription of more potent analgesics, such as opioids. It can also be said that, given the data presented, there is no crisis of recreational opioid use in the studied population.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Há poucos dados na literatura que caracterizam o padrão de uso de analgésicos na América Latina e no Brasil. Também se sabe pouco sobre o subtratamento da dor e sua influência no hábito de automedicação analgésica. O objetivo desta pesquisa é definir o padrão de uso de analgésicos entre os portadores de dor crônica (DC) e a sua potencial associação à automedicação analgésica. Método: Estudo observacional transversal com amostra de população urbana. A dor crônica foi definida como aquela presente por pelo menos 90 dias. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa institucional. Resultados: Foram incluídos 416 indivíduos; 45,7% (n = 190) portadores de dor crônica, sendo os do sexo feminino (72,3%; p = 0,04) os mais acometidos. A automedicação analgésica é praticada por 78,4% dos portadores de dor crônica. O tratamento analgésico vigente mais frequente é composto pelos anti-inflamatórios não esteroides (AINES), dipirona e paracetamol. Os opioides fracos são pouco usados e apenas 2,6% dos indivíduos com dor crônica fazem uso desses analgésicos. Nenhum dos indivíduos estava em uso de opioides potentes. Conclusões: A prática de automedicação analgésica é frequente entre os portadores de dor crônica, o que pode ser consequência da pouca prescrição de analgésicos mais potentes, como os opioides. Pode-se também dizer que, pelos dados apresentados, não ocorre uma crise de uso recreativo de opioides na população estudada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Self Medication/statistics & numerical data , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1572-1577, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040171

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia hypobaric (HH) can cause alterations at testicular level, with temperature increase, intrascrotal alteration and deterioration of spermatogenesis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ketoprofen have anti-angiogenic properties, and can decrease testicular abnormalities. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ketoprofen on spermatogenesis of mice exposed to continuous hypobaric hypoxia. 78 Mus musculus CF-1 male mice 3 to 4 months old were used and subjected to HH in chamber at 4200 m. They were divided into 13 groups (G) of 6 animals: 10 with HH cycles (1, 2, 3, 4 and 8, lasting 8.3 days each cycle, two groups each) and 3 in normoxia (Nx). Intraperitoneal ketoprofen 25 mg/kg was administered every 4 days. Euthanasia of these animals was performed at the end of each cycle and in the case the Nx groups at the end of cycles 1, 4 and 8. Percentage of microhematocrit and reticulocytes were measured in blood smears and a morphometric and histopathological analysis of the height of the epithelium, the tubular diameter and the diameter of the tubular lumen was made. It was shown that hematocrit increases continuously up to 8 cycles, while reticulocytes increase up to 3 cycles. Continuous HH decreases the tubular diameter in a sustained manner and proportional to HH cycles, and the height increased only in the groups subjected to 8 cycles. The groups treated with ketoprofen saw a decrease in angiogenesis, presenting some degree of protection at the testicular level.


La hipoxia hipobárica (HH) puede provocar alteraciones a nivel testicular, con aumento de la temperatura, alteración intraescrotal y deterioro de la espermatogénesis. Los antiinflamatorios no esteroidales (AINEs) como el ketoprofeno tienen propiedades antiangiogénicas, pudiendo disminuir las alteraciones testiculares. El objetivo de estudio fue evaluar el efecto del ketoprofeno en la espermatogénesis de ratones expuestos a hipoxia hipobárica continua. Se utilizaron 78 ratones macho Mus musculus CF-1 de 3 a 4 meses de edad y se sometieron a HH en cámara a 4200 m. Se dividieron en 13 grupos (G) de 6 animales: 10 con ciclos de HH (1, 2, 3, 4 y 8, con duración de 8,3 días cada ciclo, dos grupos cada uno) y 3 en normoxia (Nx). Se administró ketoprofeno intraperitoneal 25 mg/kg cada 4 días. La eutanasia de estos animales se realizó al final de cada ciclo y en el caso los grupos Nx al final de los ciclos 1, 4 y 8. Se midió porcentaje de microhematocrito y reticulocitos en frotis de sangre y se hizo un análisis morfométrico e histopatológico de la altura del epitelio, el diámetro tubular y el diámetro de la luz tubular. Se evidenció que el hematocrito aumenta de manera continua hasta los 8 ciclos, en cambio los reticulocitos aumentan hasta los 3 ciclos. La HH continua disminuye el diámetro tubular de forma sostenida y proporcional a los ciclos de HH, y la altura aumentó sólo en los grupos sometidos a 8 ciclos. Los grupos tratados con ketoprofeno se vio una disminución de la angiogénesis, presentando algún grado de protección a nivel testicular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Ketoprofen/pharmacology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Reticulocytes/drug effects , Seminiferous Tubules/drug effects , Testis/injuries , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Ketoprofen/administration & dosage , Hematocrit , Neovascularization, Pathologic
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1316-1326, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038610

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho objetivou comparar o efeito do flunixin meglumine, cetoprofeno e meloxicam no tratamento da dor pós-operatória de ovinos submetidos à implantação de cânula ruminal e orquiectomia. Foram utilizados 32 ovinos, machos, pesando em média 35,5±3,5kg, distribuídos em três grupos: GFlu (flunixin meglumine 1,1mg/kg i.v.), GCet (cetoprofeno 3,0mg/kg i.v.) e GMel (meloxicam 0,5mg/kg i.v.). Exame clínico e coletas de sangue foram realizados no M0 (pré-avaliação), M1 (10 minutos após a pré-avaliação), M2 (início da sutura para fixação da cânula ruminal), M3 (logo após o término da cirurgia) e em duas, 12, 23, 25, 48 e 72 horas após a cirurgia (M2h, M12h, M23h, M25h, M48h e M72h), quando foram avaliados cortisol, glicose, proteína total, albumina, γ-glutamiltransferase (GGT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), creatina quinase (CK), ureia, creatinina e hemograma. Nos M2h, M12h, M23h, M25h e M48h, foi realizada avaliação comportamental. O GFlu apresentou maior concentração de cortisol no M12h e no M48h e maior escore de dor na fístula e no testículo no M12h, quando comparado ao GMel. Os animais do GCet apresentaram menor interação com outros membros da baia no M23h. A ação analgésica do meloxicam foi maior em animais submetidos à implantação de cânula ruminal e orquiectomia, quando comparado ao flunixin meglumine e ao cetoprofeno.(AU)


This study aimed to compare the effect of flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and meloxicam in the treatment of postoperative pain in sheep submitted to ruminal cannulation and orchiectomy. 32 sheep were submitted to implantation of rumen cannula and orchiectomy, divided into three groups: GFlu (Flunixin meglumine 1,1mg/kg i.v.); GCet (Ketoprofen 3,0mg/kg i.v.); GMel (Meloxicam 0,5mg/kg i.v.). Clinical examination and blood samples were performed at M0 (pre-evaluation), M1 (10 minutes after pre-evaluation), M2 (beginning ruminal cannula), M3 (immediately post-surgery), and M2h, M12h, M23h, M25h, M48h and M72h (2h, 12h, 23h, 25h, 48h and 72 hours post-surgery) with the evaluation of cortisol, glucose, total protein, albumin, γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), urea, creatinine and blood count. At M2h, M12h, M23h, M25h and M48h a behavioral evaluation was performed. The GFlu showed higher concentration of cortisol at M12h and M48h and greater pain score related with fistula and testis procedures at M12h when compared to GMel. Animals in the GCet group presented lower interaction with other animals in the same M23h paddock. The analgesia provided by Meloxicam was higher than flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen in animals submitted to placement of ruminal cannula and orchiectomy.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Stress, Physiological , Sheep , Catheterization/veterinary , Orchiectomy/veterinary , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , /therapeutic use , Animal Welfare
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 403-412, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Intrathecal administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is more efficacious for post-operative pain management. Cyclooxygenase inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen, may be effective at lower intrathecal doses than parenteral ones. Preclinical safety regarding possible neurotoxicity associated with the intrathecal (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen was not evaluated. Here we analysed the neurotoxicity of intrathecally administered (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen in rats. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled experimental study was conducted. Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) aged 12-16 weeks were randomly divided into 2 treatments [100 and 800 µg (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen] and control (sterile water) groups. Intrathecal catheters were placed via the atlantoaxial space in anesthetized rats. Pinch-toe tests, motor function evaluations and histopathological examinations of the spinal cord and nerve roots were performed at days 3, 7 and 21. Spinal cord sections were evaluated by light microscopy for the dorsal axonal funiculus vacuolation, axonal myelin loss, neuronal chromatolysis, neuritis, meningeal inflammation, adhesions, and fibrosis. Results Rats in all the groups exhibited normal pinch-toe testing response (score = 0) and normal gait at each observed time (motor function evaluation score = 1). Neurotoxicity was higher with treatments on days 3 and 7 than that on day 21 (2, 3, 0, p = 0.044; 2, 5, 0, p = 0.029, respectively). On day 7, the total scores reflecting neuronal damage were higher in the 800 µg group than those in the 100 µg and Control Groups (5, 3, 0, p = 0.048, respectively). Conclusion Intrathecal (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen caused dose-dependent neurohistopathological changes in rats on days 3 and 7 after injection, suggesting that (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen should not be intrathecally administered.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A administração intratecal de anti-inflamatórios não esteroides é mais eficaz no tratamento da dor pós-operatória. Anti-inflamatórios não esteroides, como o (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno, pode ser eficaz em doses intratecais inferiores às parenterais. A segurança pré-clínica relativa à possível neurotoxicidade associada ao (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno intratecal não foi avaliada. Neste estudo avaliamos a neurotoxicidade do (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno administrado por via intratecal em ratos. Métodos Conduzimos um estudo experimental randomizado e controlado por placebo em ratos Sprague-Dawley (250-300 g) com idades entre 12 e 16 semanas. Eles foram randomicamente divididos em dois grupos de tratamento [100 e 800 µg de (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno] e um de controle (água estéril). Cateteres intratecais foram colocados através do espaço atlantoaxial nos ratos anestesiados. Testes de pinça, avaliações da função motora e exames histopatológicos da medula espinhal e das raízes nervosas foram realizados nos dias 3, 7 e 21 do estudo. Os cortes da medula espinhal foram avaliados por microscopia de luz para vacuolização do funículo axonal dorsal, perda de mielina axonal, cromatólise neuronal, neurite, inflamação, aderências e fibrose das meninges. Resultados Em todos os grupos, os ratos exibiram resposta normal ao teste de pinça (pontuação = 0) e marcha normal em cada tempo observado (escore de avaliação da função motora = 1). A neurotoxicidade foi maior com os tratamentos nos dias 3 e 7 do que no dia 21 (2, 3, 0, p = 0,044; 2, 5, 0, p = 0,029, respectivamente). No dia 7, os escores totais refletindo o dano neuronal foram maiores no grupo com 800 µg que nos grupos com 100 µg e controle (5, 3, 0, p = 0,048, respectivamente). Conclusão A administração intratecal de (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno causou alterações neuro-histopatológicas dose-dependentes em ratos nos dias 3 e 7 após a aplicação e sugerindo que o (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno não deve ser administrado por via intratecal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/toxicity , Ketoprofen/toxicity , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Rats , Time Factors , Injections, Spinal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Ketoprofen/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 259-265, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013414

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Pain management committee established a pain performance improvement plan in 2012. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the trends in analgesic consumption in a tertiary teaching hospital and the associated economic impact. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted between 2011 and 2015. The analysis included: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products non-steroids, opioid analgesics and other analgesics and antipyretics. Data are converted into DDD/100 bed-days to analyze consumption trends. Main outcome measure: assessment of the analgesic consumption after the implementation of a pain performance improvement plan. Results: Overall, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products consumption decreased in 24.8 DDD/100 bed-days (-28.3%), accounting for most of the total analgesic consumption decrease (-13%) and total cost (-44.3%). Opioid consumption increased markedly from 22.3 DDD/100 bed-days in 2011 to 26.5 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015 (+18.9%). In 2011, the most consumed opioid was morphine (8.6 DDD/100 bed-days). However, there was an increasing trend in fentanyl consumption (from 8.1 to 12.1 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015), which resulted in fentanyl replacing morphine from the most consumed opioid in 2015 (12.1 DDD/100 bed-days). In 2015, the group of other analgesics and antipyretics represented 46.2% of the total analgesic consumption. Acetaminophen was the most commonly consumed analgesic drug (53.2 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015) and had the highest total cost, it represented 55.4% of the overall cost in 2015. Conclusion: Opioid consumption showed an increasing trend during the 5 year period, with fentanyl replacing morphine as the most used opioid. In general, analgesics diminished use was due to the decreasing trend of consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products.


Resumo Justificativa: A Comissão para o Manejo da Dor estabeleceu um plano de melhoria no controle da dor em 2012. Objetivo: Avaliar as tendências do consumo de analgésicos em um hospital de ensino terciário e o impacto econômico associado. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, feito entre 2011 e 2015. A análise incluiu: produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides, analgésicos opioides e outros analgésicos e antipiréticos. Os dados foram convertidos em DDD/100 leitos-dia para analisar as tendências de consumo. Principal medida do desfecho: avaliação do consumo de analgésicos após o estabelecimento de um plano de melhoria no controle da dor. Resultados: O consumo total de produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides diminuiu em 24,8 DDD/100 leitos-dia (-28,3%), representando a maior parte da redução total do consumo de analgésicos (-13%) e o custo total (-44,3%). O consumo global de opioides aumentou acentuadamente de 22,3 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2011 para 26,5 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015 (+18,9%). Em 2011, o opioide mais consumido foi a morfina (8,6 DDD/100 leitos-dia). No entanto, houve uma tendência crescente no consumo de fentanil (de 8,1 para 12,1 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015), o que resultou na substituição de morfina por fentanil como o opioide mais consumido em 2015 (12,1 DDD/100 leitos-dia). Em 2015, o grupo dos outros analgésicos e antipiréticos representou 46,2% do consumo total de analgésicos. Acetaminofeno foi o analgésico mais consumido (53,2 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015) e teve o maior custo total, representou 55,4% do custo total em 2015. Conclusão: O consumo de opioides mostrou uma tendência crescente durante o período de cinco anos, fentanil substituiu morfina como o opioide mais usado. Em geral, o uso diminuído de analgésicos foi devido à tendência decrescente do consumo de produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Utilization/trends , Hospitals, Teaching , Morphine/administration & dosage
10.
Clinics ; 74: e722, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide evidence for understanding how to treat osteoarthritis (OA) in our country. Therefore, it was necessary to match information and investigations related to the treatment of the disease from the three main types of specialists involved: physiatrists, orthopedists and rheumatologists. METHODS: The authors acted as a scientific advisory committee. From the initial discussions, a structured questionnaire was developed for use with a group of specialists on OA using the Delphi technique. The questionnaire was sent to 21 experts appointed by the authors, and the results obtained were critically analyzed and validated. RESULTS: The prevalence of OA was 33% in Brazil, corresponding to one-third of the individuals in the reference population, which included individuals over 25 years of age. Another significant finding was that most patients did not receive any form of treatment in the early stages of OA. CONCLUSION: The committee pointed to the need for early intervention and that the available medicinal resources can fulfil this important role, as is the case with SYSADOA treatments. Glucosamine-based medicinal products with or without chondroitin could also fulfill this need for early treatment. The other generated evidence and included investigations were then grouped together and are the subject of this publication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Osteoarthritis/therapy , Delphi Technique , Clinical Competence/standards , Evidence-Based Medicine/standards , Orthopedics/standards , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/standards , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Chondroitin Sulfates/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , Consensus , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glucosamine/therapeutic use
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(12): e201901206, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054688

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effects of prednisolone against sodium diclofenac both with ciprofloxacin compared to artificial tears on the symptoms and signs of acute viral conjunctivitis. Methods Study included 37 patients diagnosed with acute conjunctivitis and distributed by three groups: A (1% prednisolone acetate + ciprofloxacin (0.3%); B (Sodium diclofenac (0.1%) + ciprofloxacin (0.3%) and C (artificial tears + ciprofloxacin (0.3%). Patients received medication 6/6 hours daily. Signs and symptoms (e.g. lacrimation, burning, photophobia, etc.) were scored at baseline and on the first, third, fifth and seventh days and in the end of treatment using a standardized questionnaire and slit lamp anterior segment examination. Results All three groups demonstrated an improvement in the signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis in their follow-up visits. There was no significant difference in symptom and sign scores between Group A and B and B and C in the study visits ( p >0.05). However, the comparison between groups A and C showed a clinical trend (p=0.05) on third evaluation suggesting better clinical action using the corticosteroids. Conclusion The prednisolone acetate was not superior to the use of sodium diclofenac or artificial tears in relieving the signs and symptoms of viral conjunctivitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Prednisolone/analogs & derivatives , Ciprofloxacin/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Conjunctivitis, Viral/drug therapy , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Acute Disease , Analysis of Variance , Interleukins/analysis , Interferon-gamma , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Nitric Oxide Synthase/analysis , Lubricant Eye Drops/administration & dosage
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e7773, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984030

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of ultrasound (US)-mediated phonophoresis alone or in association with diclofenac diethylammonium (DCF) administered topically in animal models of inflammation. A pre-clinical, prospective, and randomized experimental study of quantitative and qualitative nature was carried out. Phonophoresis was performed using a therapeutic ultrasound apparatus in two distinct models of acute inflammation. Edema was induced by an intraplantar injection of carrageenan and measured by plethysmography. The Hargreaves test was used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity and investigate the action of phonophoresis on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. A histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin was used to evaluate tissue repair, and the expression of COX-2 was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. At the peak of inflammatory activity (3 h), treatment with US, US+DCF, and DCF significantly reduced edema formation compared to the control group. Treatment with US+DCF was more effective than treatment with US alone at both analyzed times. In the analysis of the antinociceptive activity, the treatments significantly increased the latency time in response to the thermal stimulus. Histopathological analysis revealed a reduction of the inflammatory infiltrates and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the association was effective in reducing COX-2 expression compared to the control group. The association of DCF with US produced anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in rat models of inflammation, which may be associated with inhibition of COX-2 and TNF-α production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phonophoresis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Random Allocation , Prospective Studies , Administration, Topical , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(3): 188-194, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950446

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of prostaglandin antagonists on blood-retinal barrier breakdown induced by anterior segment intraocular simulated surgery. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to a negative control group, model group, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prophylactic treatment group, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs treatment group, corticosteroid prophylactic treatment group, and corticosteroid treatment group. Four hours and 48h after modeling, the concentrations of PGE1, PGE2, and PGF2 α in the aqueous humor and vitreous body of the rat model were visualized using ELISA. The integrity of the blood-retinal barrier was quantitatively measured using Evan's blue as a tracer. Results: Four hours after modeling, the concentrations of PGE1, PGE2, and PGF2α in the aqueous humor and vitreous body in the negative control group and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prophylactic treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group. The concentrations of PGE1, PGE2, and PGF2α in the aqueous humor and vitreous body in the corticosteroid prophylactic treatment group were higher than those in the negative control group and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prophylactic treatment group. Forty-eight hours after modeling, the concentrations of PGE1, PGE2, and PGF2α in the aqueous humor and vitreous body in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prophylactic treatment group, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs treatment group, corticosteroid prophylactic treatment group, and corticosteroid treatment group were lower than those in the model group, but higher than those in the negative group. Retinal Evan's blue leakage in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prophylactic treatment group was higher than that in the negative control group, and lower than those in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs treatment group, corticosteroid prophylactic treatment group, corticosteroid treatment group, and model group. Retinal Evan's blue leakage in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs treatment group, corticosteroid prophylactic treatment group, and corticosteroid treatment group were lower than those in the model group. Conclusions: This study confirms that prostaglandin antagonists can relieve blood-retinal barrier breakdown in a rat model and that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prophylactic treatment can achieve better efficacy.


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar a eficácia do antagonista de prostaglandinas no rompimento da barreira hemato-retiniana induzida por cirurgia simulada intraocular do segmento anterior. Métodos: Os ratos foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo controle negativo, grupo modelo, grupo de tratamento profilático com drogas anti-inflamatórias não esteroides, grupo de tratamento com anti-inflamatórias não esteroides, grupo de tratamento profilático com corticosteroides e grupo de tratamento com corticosteroides. Quatro e 48h após a modelagem, as concentrações de PGE1, PGE2 e PGF2 α no humor aquoso e no corpo vítreo em modelo em ratos foram detectadas através de Elisa. A integridade da barreira hemato-retiniana foi quantitativamente mensurada utilizando o azul de Evans como marcador. Resultados: Quatro horas após a modelagem, as concentrações de PGE1, PGE2 e PGF2α no humor aquoso e no corpo vítreo no grupo controle negativo e no grupo de tratamento profilático com anti-inflamatórias não esteroides foram significativamente menores do que as do grupo modelo. As concentrações de PGE1, PGE2 e PGF2α no humor aquoso e no corpo vítreo no grupo de tratamento profilático com corticosteroides foram maiores do que as observadas no grupo controle negativo e no grupo de tratamento profilático com anti-inflamatórias não esteroides. 48h após a modelagem, as concentrações de PGE1, PGE2 e PGF2α no humor aquoso e no corpo vítreo no grupo de tratamento profilático com anti-inflamatórias não esteroides, no grupo de tratamento com anti-inflamatórias não esteroides, no grupo de tratamento profilático com corticosteroides e no grupo de tratamento com corticosteroides foram menores do que as observadas no grupo modelo e maiores que as observadas no grupo negativo. O extravasamento retinal de azul de Evans no grupo de tratamento profilático com anti-inflamatórias não esteroides foi maior que no grupo controle negativo e menor que nos grupos de tratamento com anti-inflamatórias não esteroides, de tratamento profilático com corticosteroides, de tratamento com corticosteroides e no grupo modelo. O extravasamento retinal de azul de Evans observado nos grupos de tratamento com anti-inflamatórias não esteroides, de tratamento profilático com corticosteroides e de tratamento com corticosteroides foi inferior ao observado no grupo modelo. Conclusões: Este estudo valida que o antagonista das prostaglandinas pode aliviar a ruptura da barreira hemato-retiniana em um modelo em ratos e que o tratamento profilático com anti-inflamatórias não esteroides pode alcançar melhor eficácia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Aqueous Humor/drug effects , Prostaglandin Antagonists/administration & dosage , Blood-Retinal Barrier/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anterior Eye Segment/surgery , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Case-Control Studies , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Models, Animal
14.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 254-260, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951553

ABSTRACT

Abstract In spite of advances in root canal therapy and better knowledge of pulpal and periapical inflammation, up 40% of endodontic patients report varying degrees of pain. The aim of this present study was to compare the effect of single preoperative dose of ibuprofen or dexamethasone on post-endodontic pain. Sixty volunteers were divided into three groups (n=20 per group): PL, placebo; IB, 400 mg of ibuprofen; and DE, 8 mg of dexamethasone. The primary outcome was the post-endodontic pain intensity measured with a numerical rating scale (4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h). Secondary outcomes included number of anesthetic cartridges used and consumption of rescue medication. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There was no significant difference among groups (p>0.05) considering the pain intensity. Only 37% of IB group patients and 28% of DE group patients used some rescue medication. On the other hand, 74% of PL group patients mentioned the consumption of rescue medication; PL group had a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in comparison with IB and DE groups. The number of anesthetic cartridges used had no statistically significant difference among the groups (p>0.05). Significant differences were not found in the reduction of pain intensity and the number of anesthetic cartridges used. Considering the consumption of rescue medication (secondary outcome), preoperative administration of Ibuprofen or dexamethasone reduces post-endodontic pain and discomfort in comparison with a placebo. Premedication with anti-inflammatory drugs drugs could be contributed to control of the post-endodontic pain, mainly in patients more sensible for pain.


Resumo Apesar dos avanços no tratamento do canal radicular e melhor conhecimento da inflamação pulpar e periapical, 40% dos pacientes submetidos ao tratamento de endodôntico relatam diferentes graus de dor. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o efeito pré-operatório (dose única) de ibuprofeno ou dexametasona na dor pós-endodôntica. Sessenta voluntários foram divididos em três grupos (n=20 por grupo): PL, placebo; IB, 400 mg de ibuprofeno; e DE, 8 mg de dexametasona. O desfecho primário foi a intensidade da dor pós-endodôntica medida com uma escala numérica (4, 8, 12, 24 e 48 h). Os desfechos secundários incluíram o número de tubetes anestésicos utilizados e o consumo de medicação resgate. Os dados foram analisados com os testes ANOVA, qui-quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis. Não houve diferença entre os grupos (p>0,05) considerando a intensidade da dor. Apenas 37% dos pacientes do grupo IB e 28% do grupo DE utilizaram alguma medicação resgate. Por outro lado, 74% dos pacientes do grupo PL mencionaram o consumo de medicação resgate; o grupo PL apresentou diferença significativa (p<0,05) em comparação com os grupos IB e DE. O número de tubetes anestésicos utilizados não apresentou diferença significativa entre os grupos (p>0,05). Não encontramos diferença significativa na redução da intensidade da dor e no número de tubetes anestésicos utilizados. Considerando o consumo de medicação resgate (desfecho secundário), a administração pré-operatória de ibuprofeno ou dexametasona reduz a dor pós-endodôntica e o desconforto em comparação com placebo. A pré-medicação com anti-inflamatórios poderia contribuir para o controle da dor pós-endodôntica, principalmente em pacientes mais sensíveis à dor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Ibuprofen/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Placebos , Premedication , Root Canal Therapy/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(2): 140-149, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951530

ABSTRACT

Abstract In view of the gastrointestinal problems generated by the ketoprofen use, the ketoprofen association with omeprazole is available on the market. However, this association efficacy in acute pain control has not been established. Bilateral extraction of lower third molars in similar positions is currently the most used model for the evaluation and investigation of the efficacy and pharmacological effects of new compounds for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. The randomized and crossover study consisted in evaluating the clinical efficacy of therapy performed by ketoprofen 100 mg (twice daily-b.i.d.) versus ketoprofen 200 mg + omeprazole 20 mg (once daily-q.d.) to pain, swelling and trismus control in the bilateral extraction model of lower third molars in similar positions in two different appointments, in 50 volunteers. Volunteers reported significantly less postoperative pain at various post-operative periods and consumed less rescue analgesic medication (acetaminophen 750 mg) throughout the study when they took the combination of ketoprofen 200 mg + omeprazole 20 mg (q.d.). Following administration of both study drugs, no gastrointestinal adverse reactions were reported by volunteers. Furthermore, the evaluations of the drugs in pain control by the volunteers were significantly favorable to ketoprofen 200 mg + omeprazole 20 mg (q.d.). For swelling and trismus control, the treatments presented similar results. In conclusion, when volunteers took ketoprofen 200 mg + omeprazole 20 mg (q.d.), they reported significantly less postoperative pain at various post-surgical periods and consumed less rescue analgesic medication throughout the study compared with ketoprofen 100 mg (b.i.d).


Resumo Em vista dos problemas gastrointestinais gerados pelo uso do cetoprofeno, a associação do cetoprofeno com o omeprazol está disponível no mercado. No entanto, esta eficácia de associação no controle da dor aguda não foi estabelecida. A extração bilateral de terceiros molares inferiores em posições semelhantes é atualmente o modelo mais utilizado para a avaliação e investigação da eficácia e efeitos farmacológicos de novos compostos para o tratamento da dor aguda pós-operatória. O estudo randomizado e cruzado consistiu na avaliação da eficácia clínica da terapia com cetoprofeno 100 mg (duas vezes ao dia-b.i.d.) versus cetoprofeno 200 mg + omeprazol 20 mg (uma vez ao dia-q.d.) para o controle da dor, do edema e do trismo no modelo bilateral de terceiros molares inferiores em posições semelhantes em duas consultas diferentes, em 50 voluntários. Os voluntários relataram significativamente menos dor pós-operatória em vários períodos pós-operatórios e consumiram menos medicação analgésica de socorro (acetaminofeno 750 mg) durante todo o estudo quando tomaram a combinação de 200 mg de cetoprofeno + 20 mg de omeprazol (q.d.). Após a administração de ambas as drogas do estudo, nenhuma reação adversa gastrointestinal foi relatada pelos voluntários. Além disso, as avaliações das drogas no controle da dor pelos voluntários foram significativamente favoráveis ​​ao cetoprofeno 200 mg + omeprazol 20 mg (q.d.). Para o controle do edema e do trismo, os tratamentos apresentaram resultados semelhantes. Em conclusão, quando os voluntários tomaram 200 mg de cetoprofeno + 20 mg de omeprazol (q.d.), eles relataram significativamente menos dor pós-operatória em vários períodos pós-cirúrgicos e consumiram menos medicação analgésica de socorro durante o estudo comparado com 100 mg de cetoprofeno (b.i.d).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Ketoprofen/therapeutic use , Pain Management/methods , Inflammation/prevention & control , Molar, Third/surgery , Trismus/prevention & control , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Ketoprofen/administration & dosage , Ketoprofen/pharmacokinetics , Cross-Over Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination
17.
Clinics ; 72(12): 729-736, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined periarticular multimodal drug injection and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for an early analgesic effect after total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty. Patient satisfaction and benefits from the treatment were also assessed. METHODS: A total of 110 patients who were scheduled to undergo total knee arthroplasty and 86 patients who were scheduled to undergo total hip arthroplasty were divided into two groups, the study group and the control group. The study group received a periarticular multimodal drug injection during surgery. The control group received an equal volume of normal saline. All patients received an analgesia pump and a moderate dose of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Resting and motion Numeric Rating Scale scores, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, knee or hip joint range of motion, length of postoperative hospital stay, patient satisfaction, total nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug consumption and side effects were recorded. RESULTS: Both study groups exhibited significant improvement in pain Numeric Rating Scale scores during rest and exercise several days after the surgery. The range of joint motion was greater in the study group, and the length of postoperative hospital stay was shorter than that in the control group. Patients in the study group consumed fewer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and reported greater satisfaction with surgery. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative periarticular multimodal drug injection significantly relieved pain after surgery and reduced nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug consumption. These patient had a better postoperative experience, including satisfaction and rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Morphine/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Pain Management , Analgesia , Injections, Intra-Articular
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(4): 279-282, ago. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894479

ABSTRACT

The benefits of the worldwide approval of new drugs for the treatment of acute C1-INH-HAE attacks may still not reach all patients. Identifying the current barriers in the access to medication, as well as conducting a detailed assessment of the progress in this area, is essential to achieve universal treatment. Two hundred and twenty five patients registered in the Argentina Hereditary Angioedema Patient Association (AHAEPA) were randomly selected and invited to participate in a web based questionnaire on accessibility to icatibant and pdC1-INH, self-treatment, delay to treatment, and coverage. The data retrieved was compared to our previous reports in 2008 and 2013. We collected 156/225 answers. One hundred and eighteen (76%) patients have either pdC1-INH (n = 86), icatibant (n = 10) or both (n = 22), while 38 (24%) do not have access to treatment. In 2008, 26% had access while 82% had it in 2013. Thirty-two subjects (22%) self-inject themselves, similar to 29% in 2013, even though between studies, widespread self-injection training activities have taken place. However, considering injections by proxy, home treatment reached 56%. Only half of the patients decide to receive treatment early during the attack. Ninety-nine patients (63%) have full coverage, thirty (19%) have no coverage at all and the rest only obtain partial reimbursement. Twenty-nine families (31%) share a single treatment dose of the medication, better than 36% in 2013. Argentina's C1-INH-HAE patients had a sustained improvement in their access to medication. Efforts should continue to further improve accessibility and optimal management of HAE acute attacks to all patients in the country.


La aprobación mundial de los medicamentos para el ataque agudo del angioedema hereditario (HAE) no beneficia a todos los pacientes. Es necesario conocer las barreras de acceso a la medicación para el tratamiento universal. Doscientos veinticinco pacientes, registrados en la Asociación de Pacientes con Angioedema Hereditario (AHAEPA), fueron encuestados por internet acerca de su accesibilidad al icatibant y al concentrado del inhibidor de C1 (pdC1-INH), a la auto inyección de la medicación, al retraso del tratamiento y a la cobertura del medicamento. Comparamos esta información con la obtenida en nuestros estudios de 2008 y 2013. Recolectamos 156/225 respuestas. Ciento dieciocho (76%) pacientes tienen pdC1-INH (n = 86), icatibant (n = 10) o ambos (n = 22), mientras que 38 (24%) no tienen medicación. En 2008, 26% tenían acceso y en 2013, 82%. Treinta y dos (22%) se autoinyectan la medicación, similar al 29% en 2013. Sumando las aplicaciones por profesionales de la salud o familiares en la casa, el tratamiento fuera de las instituciones médicas alcanza el 56%. Solo la mitad decide tratarse tempranamente. Noventa y nueve (63%) tiene cobertura del 100%, 30 (19%) no tiene ningún tipo de cobertura, y el resto la tiene en forma parcial. Veintinueve familias (31%), solo tienen una dosis de tratamiento para todos, mejor que el 36% en 2013. Los pacientes con C1-INH-HAE han tenido una mejoría sustancial en el acceso a la medicación. Igualmente, los esfuerzos deben continuar para mejorar la accesibilidad y tratamiento óptimo de todos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , Complement Inactivating Agents/administration & dosage , Angioedemas, Hereditary/drug therapy , Argentina , Bradykinin/administration & dosage , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data
19.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(2): 243-251, abr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844606

ABSTRACT

El ductus arterioso permeable sintomático (DAPs) es frecuente en prematuros extremos (PE), siendo importante su cierre para disminuir la repercusión hemodinámica. Para ello se usa indometacina o ibuprofeno con los riesgos subyacentes. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar las complicaciones digestivas y renales en PE tratados por DAPs. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo en PE nacidos entre enero de 2004 y diciembre de 2013. Según diagnóstico se distribuyeron en 3 grupos: sin DAPs, con DAPs tratados con indometacina y con ibuprofeno. Se excluyeron PE con otras complicaciones graves. Se evaluaron complicaciones digestivas y renales graves. Se usó significación estadistica con p ≤ 0,05. RESULTADOS: Se enrolaron 599 PE; 33,1% recibió tratamiento por DAPs, 66,9% no lo requirió. Hubo asociación estadística entre DAPs y menor edad gestacional, depresión neonatal y distrés respiratorio. Del grupo no tratado, el 5% presentó enterocolitis y el 0,25% falla renal; entre los tratados el 2,5% presentó enterocolitis y el 1,0% falla renal. No hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas considerando ambas complicaciones (p = 0,17), sólo enterocolitis (p = 0,11) o sólo falla renal (p = 0,33) entre tratados y no tratados; tampoco las hubo al comparar complicaciones entre tratados con indometacina o ibuprofeno. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados en nuestra población demuestran que el tratamiento médico del DAPs, en ausencia de otras complicaciones clínicas, no representa un mayor riesgo de complicaciones graves digestivas o renales. No se demostraron ventajas entre la indometacina e ibuprofeno.


The symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA) is common in extremely premature infants (EPI). In order to decrease the hemodynamic repercussion and avoid complications it is necessary to close it. Indomethacin or ibuprofen are used for this purpose with its associated risks. OBJECTIVE: Characterize digestive and renal complications in EPI who received indomethacin or ibuprofen as sPDA treatment. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study on EPI between January-2004 and December-2013. Three groups were compared: treated with indomethacin or ibuprofen and a non-treated group. EPI with other serious complications were excluded. The primary outcomes on each group were digestive and/or renal complications. Statistical significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 599 EPI were included, 33.1% with PDA received treatment and 66.9% did not need it. A statistical association was found between sPDA and lower gestational ages, neonatal depression and respiratory distress. In the non-treated group, 5% presented enterocolitis and 0.25% renal failure; on the treated group, 2.5% presented enterocolitis and 1.0% renal failure. No significant differences were found between the treated and non-treated groups in relation to complications considering enterocolitis (p = 0.11) or renal failure (p = 0.33) alone, or combined (p = 0.17). No difference were detected either between those treated with indomethacin or ibuprofen. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that in absence of other clinical complication, medical treatment of sPDA with indomethacin or ibuprofen, do not increase the risk of serious digestive or renal disorders. There were no advantages of using indomethacin or ibuprofen over the other.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Ibuprofen/administration & dosage , Indomethacin/administration & dosage , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Ibuprofen/adverse effects , Indomethacin/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Enterocolitis/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Infant, Extremely Premature
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(10): e5948, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888932

ABSTRACT

Atropine (AT) and dipyrone (Dp) induce a delay of gastric emptying (GE) of liquids in rats by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and activating β2-adrenergic receptors, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with AT and Dp, given alone or in combination, on the effect of hypoglycemia in the liquid GE in rats. Male Wistar adult rats (280-310 g) were pretreated intravenously with AT, Dp, AT plus Dp or their vehicle and then treated 30 min later with iv insulin or its vehicle (n=8-10 animals/group). Thirty min after treatment, GE was evaluated by determining, in awake rats, the percent gastric retention (%GR) of a saline meal labeled with phenol red administered by gavage. The results indicated that insulin induced hypoglycemia in a dose-dependent manner resulting in a significant reduction in %GR of liquid only at the highest dose tested (1 U/kg). Pretreatment with AT significantly increased %GR in the rats treated with 1 U/kg insulin. Surprisingly, after pretreatment with AT, the group treated with the lowest dose of insulin (0.25 U/kg) displayed significantly lower %GR compared to its control (vehicle-treated group), which was not seen in the non-pretreated animals. Pretreatment with Dp alone at the dose of 40 mg/kg induced an increase in %GR in both vehicle and 0.25 U/kg-treated rats. A higher dose of Dp alone (80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the effect of a marked hypoglycemia induced by 1 U/kg of insulin on GE while in combination with AT the effect was completely abolished. The results with AT suggest that moderate hypoglycemia may render the inhibitory mechanisms of GE ineffective while Dp alone and in combination with AT significantly overcame the effect of hypoglycemia on GE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Atropine/pharmacology , Dipyrone/pharmacology , Gastric Emptying/drug effects , Hypoglycemia/physiopathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Atropine/administration & dosage , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Premedication , Rats, Wistar
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL