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Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(3): 139-144, set-dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129451


O naproxeno, assim como outros anti-inflamatórios não esteroides (AINEs), está entre os medicamentos mais prescritos no mundo. O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar o efeito da ingestão de naproxeno em parâmetros neuromusculares e determinar seu efeito no dano muscular por meio do uso do marcador lactato. Metodologicamente, foi conduzido um estudo cruzado randomizado, duplo-cego e controlado por placebo em 11 homens treinados em resistência, que realizaram uma sessão de treinamento de força após ingerir 500 mg de naproxeno e outra sessão de treinamento após ingerir um placebo. Os participantes realizaram três séries de supino horizontal com uma carga de 90% da repetição máxima (1RM) até a falha concêntrica. As variáveis de resultado incluíram número de repetições, carga de trabalho e lactato. Os resultados mostraram que há uma correlação positiva e moderada entre as variáveis somatório de repetições e carga total e entre as variáveis lactato e carga total, no grupo naproxeno. No grupo placebo, a correlação positiva e moderada deu-se entre somatório de repetições e carga total. Na análise magnitude baseada nas interferências, as variáveis se mostraram possíveis para uma probabilidade positiva ou trivial e improvável para uma probabilidade negativa. Concluiu-se no presente estudo que o uso do naproxeno como recurso ergogênico no treinamento de força reduz a percepção de fadiga, mas não tem efeito direto no dano muscular, analisado a partir do marcador lactato, logo não interfere de maneira significativa nos parâmetros neuromusculares analisados.

Naproxen, as other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), features among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of naproxen intake on neuromuscular parameters and determine its effect on muscle damage through the use of the lactate marker. In terms of methodology, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted on 11 resistance-trained men who underwent a strength training session after taking 500 mg of naproxen and another training session after taking a placebo. The participants performed three sets of horizontal bench presses with a load of 90% maximum repetition (1RM) until concentric failure. Result variables included number of repetitions, workload and lactate. The results showed that there is a positive and moderate correlation between the sum of repetition and total load variables and between lactate and total load variables in the naproxen group. In the placebo group, a positive and moderate correlation was observed between sum of repetitions and total load. In the magnitude analysis, based on the interferences, the variables were shown to be possible for a positive or trivial probability and unlikely for a negative probability. It was concluded that the use of naproxen as an ergogenic resource in strength training reduces the perception of fatigue but has no direct effect on muscle damage when analyzed from the lactate marker, therefore it does not significantly interfere in the analyzed neuromuscular parameters.

Humans , Male , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Naproxen/pharmacology , Muscle Fatigue/drug effects , Muscle Strength/drug effects , Neuromuscular Agents/pharmacology , Supination , Double-Blind Method , Resistance Training , Performance-Enhancing Substances/pharmacology , Lactates/blood , Muscles/metabolism
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200016, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101450


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity, and inflammatory response and oxidative stress play major roles underlying its pathophysiology. Here, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal etanercept administration on oxidative stress and inflammation indicators in the kidney and blood of experimental sepsis-induced rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult Sprague Dawley rats were classified into Control (Group 1), Sepsis (Group 2), Sepsis+Cefazolin (Group 3), and Sepsis+Cefazolin+Etanercept (Group 4) groups. Kidney tissue and serum samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigations and examined for the C reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. RESULTS: The levels of TNF-α, TREM, and MDA in serum and kidney samples were significantly higher in rats from sepsis group than in rats from control group (p < 0.05). Group 3 showed a significant reduction in serum levels of TNF-α, CRP, and TREM as compared with Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α, CRP, TREM, and MDA levels and kidney TNF-α and TREM levels were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α and TREM levels in Group 4 were significantly lower than those in Group 3, and histopathological scores were significantly lower in Group 3 and Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Histopathological scores of Group 4 were significantly lower than those of Group 3 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Etanercept, a TNF-α inhibitor, may ameliorate sepsis-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and histopathological damage.

Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Sepsis/pathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Etanercept/administration & dosage , Inflammation/prevention & control , Kidney/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Etanercept/pharmacology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal
Biol. Res ; 53: 31, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124214


BACKGROUND: In modern societies, sleep deprivation is a serious health problem. This problem could be induced by a variety of reasons, including lifestyle habits or neurological disorders. Chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) could have complex biological consequences, such as changes in neural autonomic control, increased oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is an important sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system. CSD can lead to a wide range of neurological consequences in SCG, which mainly supply innervations to circadian system and other structures. As the active component of Curcuma longa, curcumin possesses many therapeutic properties; including neuroprotective. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CSD on the SCG histomorphometrical changes and the protective effect of curcumin in preventing these changes. METHODS: Thirty-six male rats were randomly assigned to the control, curcumin, CSD, CSD + curcumin, grid floor control, and grid floor + curcumin groups. The CSD was induced by a modified multiple platform apparatus for 21 days and animals were sacrificed at the end of CSD or treatment, and their SCGs removed for stereological and TUNEL evaluations and also spatial arrangement of neurons in this structure. RESULTS: Concerning stereological findings, CSD significantly reduced the volume of SCG and its total number of neurons and satellite glial cells in comparison with the control animals ( P < 0.05). Treatment of CSD with curcumin prevented these decreases. Furthermore, TUNEL evaluation showed significant apoptosis in the SCG cells in the CSD group, and treatment with curcumin significantly decreased this apoptosis ( P < 0.01). This decrease in apoptosis was observed in all control groups that received curcumin. CSD also changed the spatial arrangement of ganglionic neurons into a random pattern, whereas treatment with curcumin preserved its regular pattern. CONCLUSIONS: CSD could potentially induce neuronal loss and structural changes including random spatial distribution in the SCG neurons. Deleterious effects of sleep deprivation could be prevented by the oral administration of curcumin. Furthermore, the consumption of curcumin in a healthy person might lead to a reduction of cell death.

Animals , Male , Rats , Sleep Deprivation/pathology , Sleep Deprivation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Superior Cervical Ganglion/drug effects , Curcumin/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(5): 596-599, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136257


SUMMARY AIMS Omentin is an adipokine primarily produced by visceral adipose tissue and its reduced levels have been shown to be associate with worse metabolic outcomes. We aimed to study the effects of preoperative ibuprofen on postoperative omentin levels in rats after surgery. METHODS Forty-eight albino Wistar rats, 6 in each of 8 groups according to the surgical procedure (laparotomy, laparotomy plus ibuprofen (IBU), nephrectomy, nephrectomy plus IBU, hepatectomy, hepatectomy plus IBU, splenectomy and splenectomy plus IBU). The Omentin levels of the groups were postoperatively analyzed. RESULTS The mean omentin was significantly higher in the laparotomy plus IBU group compared to the laparotomy group (p<0.001). Mean Omentin was significantly higher in the hepatectomy plus IBU group compared to the hepatectomy group (p=0.01). Mean Omentin was significantly higher in the nephrectomy plus IBU group compared to the nephrectomy group (p=0.001). CONCLUSION We suggest that preoperative ibuprofen may enhance circulating levels of Omentin, which has beneficial effects in trauma and inflammation settings in subjects that undergo minor or major abdominal surgery.

RESUMO OBJETIVOS A omentina é uma adipocina produzida principalmente pelo tecido adiposo visceral e níveis reduzidos dela foram associados a piores desfechos metabólicos. Nosso objetivo foi estudar os efeitos do uso pré-operatório do ibuprofeno nos níveis pós-operatórios da omentina em ratos. METODOLOGIA Quarenta e oito ratos Wistar albinos foram divididos em 8 grupos (6 em cada), de acordo com o procedimento cirúrgico: laparotomia, laparotomia e ibuprofeno (IBU), nefrectomia, nefrectomia e IBU, hepatectomia, hepatectomia e IBU, esplenectomia, e esplenectomia e IBU. Os níveis de omentina dos grupos foram analisados após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS A omentina média foi significativamente maior no grupo de laparotomia e IBU do que no grupo de laparotomia (p<0,001). A omentina média foi significativamente maior no grupo de hepatectomia e IBU do que no grupo de hepatectomia (p = 0,01). A omentina média foi significativamente maior no grupo de nefrectomia e IBU do que no grupo de nefrectomia (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÃO Sugerimos que o uso pré-operatório de ibuprofeno pode aumentar os níveis circulantes de omentina, que têm efeitos benéficos em um contexto de trauma e inflamação em indivíduos submetidos cirurgia abdominal.

Humans , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Lectins/blood , Splenectomy , Cytokines/blood , Rats, Wistar , Adipokines , Inflammation
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1572-1577, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040171


Hypoxia hypobaric (HH) can cause alterations at testicular level, with temperature increase, intrascrotal alteration and deterioration of spermatogenesis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ketoprofen have anti-angiogenic properties, and can decrease testicular abnormalities. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ketoprofen on spermatogenesis of mice exposed to continuous hypobaric hypoxia. 78 Mus musculus CF-1 male mice 3 to 4 months old were used and subjected to HH in chamber at 4200 m. They were divided into 13 groups (G) of 6 animals: 10 with HH cycles (1, 2, 3, 4 and 8, lasting 8.3 days each cycle, two groups each) and 3 in normoxia (Nx). Intraperitoneal ketoprofen 25 mg/kg was administered every 4 days. Euthanasia of these animals was performed at the end of each cycle and in the case the Nx groups at the end of cycles 1, 4 and 8. Percentage of microhematocrit and reticulocytes were measured in blood smears and a morphometric and histopathological analysis of the height of the epithelium, the tubular diameter and the diameter of the tubular lumen was made. It was shown that hematocrit increases continuously up to 8 cycles, while reticulocytes increase up to 3 cycles. Continuous HH decreases the tubular diameter in a sustained manner and proportional to HH cycles, and the height increased only in the groups subjected to 8 cycles. The groups treated with ketoprofen saw a decrease in angiogenesis, presenting some degree of protection at the testicular level.

La hipoxia hipobárica (HH) puede provocar alteraciones a nivel testicular, con aumento de la temperatura, alteración intraescrotal y deterioro de la espermatogénesis. Los antiinflamatorios no esteroidales (AINEs) como el ketoprofeno tienen propiedades antiangiogénicas, pudiendo disminuir las alteraciones testiculares. El objetivo de estudio fue evaluar el efecto del ketoprofeno en la espermatogénesis de ratones expuestos a hipoxia hipobárica continua. Se utilizaron 78 ratones macho Mus musculus CF-1 de 3 a 4 meses de edad y se sometieron a HH en cámara a 4200 m. Se dividieron en 13 grupos (G) de 6 animales: 10 con ciclos de HH (1, 2, 3, 4 y 8, con duración de 8,3 días cada ciclo, dos grupos cada uno) y 3 en normoxia (Nx). Se administró ketoprofeno intraperitoneal 25 mg/kg cada 4 días. La eutanasia de estos animales se realizó al final de cada ciclo y en el caso los grupos Nx al final de los ciclos 1, 4 y 8. Se midió porcentaje de microhematocrito y reticulocitos en frotis de sangre y se hizo un análisis morfométrico e histopatológico de la altura del epitelio, el diámetro tubular y el diámetro de la luz tubular. Se evidenció que el hematocrito aumenta de manera continua hasta los 8 ciclos, en cambio los reticulocitos aumentan hasta los 3 ciclos. La HH continua disminuye el diámetro tubular de forma sostenida y proporcional a los ciclos de HH, y la altura aumentó sólo en los grupos sometidos a 8 ciclos. Los grupos tratados con ketoprofeno se vio una disminución de la angiogénesis, presentando algún grado de protección a nivel testicular.

Animals , Male , Mice , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Ketoprofen/pharmacology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Reticulocytes/drug effects , Seminiferous Tubules/drug effects , Testis/injuries , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Ketoprofen/administration & dosage , Hematocrit , Neovascularization, Pathologic
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(2): 152-158, abr. 30, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145329


Objective: To evaluate the effects of administering diclofenac and ketoprofen, as well as the effects of environmental oxygen pressure variation on mandibular bone regeneration. Methods: Thirty-six guinea pigs were distributed into two equal groups. Mandibular bone defects were performed on both groups. Group A was monitored under oxygen pressure at altitude (3320msl, 107mm Hg). Group B was monitored at sea level oxygen pressure (150msl, 157mm Hg). Each group was subdivided into 3 equal groups (A1, A2, A3 and B1, B2, B3). Subgroups A1 and B1 were given diclofenac; subgroups A2 and B2 ketoprofen; subgroups A3 and B3 NaCl. Bone regeneration was evaluated histologically on days 15 and 30. Results: After 15 days in the group controlled at sea level, the level of osteoblasts presented by the control subgroup was significantly higher (28.00±2.65) compared to the diclofenac subgroup (16.00±6.25) and to the ketoprofen subgroup (18.00±4.36); (p=0.041). After 15 days in the group controlled at altitude, the level of osteoblasts was significantly higher in the control subgroup (38.00±5.29) compared to the diclofenac subgroup (21.67±6.35) and to the ketoprofen subgroup (19.33±2.52); p=0.007. After 30 days in the group at sea level there was no difference found in the cell counting; p>0.05. After 30 days in the group controlled at altitude, the level of osteoblast was significantly higher in the control subgroup (58.00±4.58) compared to the diclofenac subgroup (34.33±4.73) and the ketoprofen subgroup (34.00±11.14); (p=0.003). Conclusion: The administration of diclofenac and ketoprofen produced lower mandibular bone regeneration, the effect being significantly more negative at sea level.

Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la administración de diclofenaco y ketoprofeno y de la variación de la presión de oxígeno ambiental sobre la regeneración ósea mandibular. Métodos: Participaron 36 cobayos distribuidos en dos grupos iguales. A ambos grupos se les realizaron defectos óseos mandibulares. El Grupo A fue controlado bajo presión de oxígeno en altura (3320msnm, 107mm Hg). El Grupo B fue controlado bajo presión de oxígeno a nivel del mar (150msnm, 157mm Hg). Cada grupo fue dividido en 3 subgrupos iguales (A1, A2, A3 y B1, B2, B3). Los subgrupos A1 y B1 recibieron diclofenaco; A2 y B2, ketoprofeno; A3 y B3, NaCl. La regeneración ósea fue evaluada histológicamente a los 15 y 30 días. Resultados: A nivel del mar, a los 15 días, hubo una significativa mayor cantidad de osteoblastos en el subgrupo control (28,00±2,65) comparado con el subgrupo diclofenaco (16,00±6.25) y ketoprofeno (18,00±4.36); (p=0,041). En altura, a los 15 días, hubo una significativa mayor cantidad de osteblastos en el subgrupo control (38,00±5,29) comparado con el subgrupo diclofenaco (21,67±6,35) y ketoprofeno (19,33±2,52); p=0,007. A nivel del mar, a los 30 días, no se encontró diferencia en el conteo celular; p>0,05. En altura, a los 30 días, se encontró una significativa mayor cantidad de osteoblastos en el subgrupo control (58,00±4,58) comparado con el subgrupo diclofenaco (34,33±4,73) y ketoprofeno (34,00±11,14); (p=0,003). Conclusión: La administración de diclofenaco y ketoprofeno produjeron una menor regeneración ósea mandibular, siendo este efecto significativamente más negativo a nivel del mar.

Animals , Guinea Pigs , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Atmospheric Pressure , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Ketoprofen/therapeutic use , Intervention Studies , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e8103, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974278


Dipyrone (metamizole), acting through its main metabolites 4-methyl-amino-antipyrine and 4-amino-antipyrine, has established analgesic, antipyretic, and spasmolytic pharmacological effects, which are mediated by poorly known mechanisms. In rats, intravenously administered dipyrone delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquids with the participation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibers. This effect seems to be mediated by norepinephrine originating from the sympathetic nervous system but not from the superior celiac-mesenteric ganglion complex, which activates β2-adrenoceptors. In rats, in contrast to nonselective non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs, dipyrone protects the gastric mucosa attenuating the development of gastric ulcers induced by a number of agents. Clinically, it has been demonstrated that dipyrone is effective in the control of colic-like abdominal pain originating from the biliary and intestinal tracts. Since studies in humans and animals have demonstrated the presence of β2-adrenoceptors in biliary tract smooth muscle and β2-adrenoceptor activation has been shown to occur in dipyrone-induced delayed GE, it is likely that this kind of receptors may participate in the reduction of smooth muscle spasm of the sphincter of Oddi induced by dipyrone. There is no evidence that dipyrone may interfere with small bowel and colon motility, and the clinical results of its therapeutic use in intestinal colic appear to be due to its analgesic effect.

Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Ampyrone/pharmacology , Antipyrine/pharmacology , Dipyrone/pharmacology , Gastric Emptying/drug effects , Autonomic Nerve Block , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900406, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001085


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the inflammatory reaction and measure the content of mucins, in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream submit to intervention with mesalazine. Methods: Twenty-four rats were submitted to a left colostomy and a distal mucous fistula and divided into two groups according to euthanasia to be performed two or four weeks. Each group was divided into two subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline or mesalazine at 1.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis and the inflammatory reaction by validated score. Acidic mucins and neutral mucins were determined with the alcian-blue and periodic acid of Schiff techniques, respectively. Sulfomucin and sialomucin were identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue technique. The tissue contents of mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the results establishing the level of significance of 5%. Results: Enemas with mesalazine in colonic segments without fecal stream decreased the inflammation score and increased the tissue content of all subtypes of mucins. The increase of tissue content of neutral, acid and sulfomucin was related to the time of intervention. Conclusion: Mesalazine enemas reduce the inflammatory process and preserve the content of mucins in colonic mucosa devoid of fecal stream.

Animals , Male , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Colon/drug effects , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Enema/methods , Mucins/analysis , Time Factors , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Gastrointestinal Transit , Colostomy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Colitis/pathology , Colitis/prevention & control , Colon/metabolism , Colon/pathology , Oxidative Stress , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Feces , Histocytochemistry , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Mucins/drug effects
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180641, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012519


Abstract Objectives: Infection, inflammation and bone resorption are closely related events in apical periodontitis development. Therefore, we sought to investigate the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) in osteoclastogenesis and bone metabolism signaling in periapical bone tissue after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inoculation into root canals. Methodology: Seventy two C57BL/6 mice had the root canals of the first molars inoculated with a solution containing LPS from E. coli (1.0 mg/mL) and received selective (celecoxib) or non-selective (indomethacin) COX-2 inhibitor. After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days the animals were euthanized and the tissues removed for total RNA extraction. Evaluation of gene expression was performed by qRT-PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-tests (α=0.05). Results: LPS induced expression of mRNA for COX-2 (Ptgs2) and PGE2 receptors (Ptger1, Ptger3 and Ptger4), indicating that cyclooxygenase is involved in periapical response to LPS. A signaling that favours bone resorption was observed because Tnfsf11 (RANKL), Vegfa, Ctsk, Mmp9, Cd36, Icam, Vcam1, Nfkb1 and Sox9 were upregulated in response to LPS. Indomethacin and celecoxib differentially modulated expression of osteoclastogenic and other bone metabolism genes: celecoxib downregulated Igf1r, Ctsk, Mmp9, Cd36, Icam1, Nfkb1, Smad3, Sox9, Csf3, Vcam1 and Itga3 whereas indomethacin inhibited Tgfbr1, Igf1r, Ctsk, Mmp9, Sox9, Cd36 and Icam1. Conclusions: We demonstrated that gene expression for COX-2 and PGE2 receptors was upregulated after LPS inoculation into the root canals. Additionally, early administration of indomethacin and celecoxib (NSAIDs) inhibited osteoclastogenic signaling. The relevance of the cyclooxygenase pathway in apical periodontitis was shown by a wide modulation in the expression of genes involved in both bone catabolism and anabolism.

Animals , Male , Osteogenesis/physiology , Periapical Tissue/drug effects , Periapical Tissue/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/physiology , Dental Pulp Cavity/metabolism , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Time Factors , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Gene Expression , Up-Regulation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/analysis , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Receptors, Prostaglandin E/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/analysis , Celecoxib/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 556-564, July 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949368


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of baicalin on inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress and protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) protein expressions in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats. Methods: Sixty rats were divided into sham operation, model, and low-, medium- and high-dose baicalin group. SAP model was established in later 4 groups. The later 3 groups were injected with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 ml/100 g 5% baicalin injection, respectively. At 12 h, the serum SAP related indexes and inflammatory factors, peripheral blood CD3 and γδT cell percentages, wet/dry ratio and pancreas ascites volume, oxidative stress indexes and PKD1 and NF-κB protein expressions in pancreatic tissue were determined. Results: Compared with model group, in high-dose baicalin group the wet/dry ratio and ascites volume, serum amylase level, phospholipase A2 activity, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 levels, and pancreatic malondialdehyde level and PKD1 and NF-κB protein expression were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and peripheral blood CD3 and γδT cell percentages and pancreatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Baicalin can resist the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress, and down-regulate protein kinase D1 and nuclear factor-kappa B protein expressions, thus exerting the protective effects on severe acute pancreatitis in rats.

Animals , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Protein Kinase C/drug effects , Random Allocation , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-1/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , CD3 Complex/drug effects , CD3 Complex/blood , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Amylases/drug effects , Amylases/blood , Malondialdehyde/metabolism
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2851-2863, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886841


ABSTRACT The present study aimed to perform a systematic literature review to determine if there is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that interferes less within tooth movement. This research was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Articles were searched in eight electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO, Google Scholar, and Open Grey). Only experimental studies on male Wistar rats were selected, which included experiments related to the influence of NSAIDs on orthodontic movement. Studies in animals with pathological conditions, literature review articles, letters to the editor and/or editorials, case reports, abstracts, books, and book chapters were excluded. Each of the steps of this systematic literature review was performed by two examiners independently. Results: the total sample consisted of 505 articles, from which 6 studies were eligible after a qualitative analysis. From the drugs assessed, paracetamol was unanimous for not interfering within orthodontic movement when compared to the control group. However, drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, sodium diclofenac, and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors caused a reduction in tooth movement when compared to the control group. Conclusion: paracetamol could be considered the drug of choice for pain relief because it interferes less within tooth movement.

Animals , Rats , Tooth Movement Techniques/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology , Pain, Procedural/drug therapy , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 105(3): 116-122, sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973106


Una de las principales preocupaciones de los pacientes que van a ser sometidos a un procedimiento odontológico es el dolor que dicho procedimiento pueda ocasionar. Por lotanto, lograr un control eficaz y seguro de ese dolor es una parte esencial de la práctica odontológica diaria. Los fármacos de primera elección para el tratamiento del dolor y el edemason, sin lugar a dudas, los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos(AINEs). Principios activos como el ibuprofeno (y sus congéneres) o sus derivados permiten controlar simultáneamente el dolor y el edema posquirúrgicos de una forma eficaz y segura. En muchas ocasiones, el AINE prescrito para mantener al paciente asintomático o con síntomas tolerables es suficiente. Sin embargo, cuando esto no ocurre, debemos recurrir a otrosfármacos, o realizar asociaciones con fármacos que complementen el efecto analgésico y trabajen logrando un sinergismo de potenciación que incremente el efecto buscado y disminuya los efectos adversos de cada una de las sustancias por separado, utilizando menores dosis. Un ejemplo comprobado de esas asociaciones es la de ibuprofeno con paracetamol. En el presente artículo se sugieren diversas estrategias pre- y posoperatorias para el manejo del dolor de origen inflamatorio, y un protocolo para su tratamiento.

Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Dosage Forms , Analgesics/pharmacology , Analgesics/pharmacokinetics , Analgesics/therapeutic use
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(8): 546-552, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888308


ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin (Cur) has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Ethidium bromide (EB) injections into the central nervous system (CNS) are known to induce local oligodendroglial and astrocytic loss, resulting in primary demyelination and neuroinflammation. Peripheral astrogliosis is seen around the injury site with increased immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of Cur administration on astrocytic response following gliotoxic injury. Wistar rats were injected with EB into the cisterna pontis and treated, or not, with Cur (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route) during the experimental period. Brainstem sections were collected at 15, 21 and 31 days after EB injection and processed for GFAP immunohistochemical staining. Astrocytic reactivity was measured in a computerized system for image analysis. In Cur-treated rats, the GFAP-stained area around the lesion was significantly smaller in all periods after EB injection compared to untreated animals, showing that Cur reduces glial scar development following injury.

RESUMO Estudos recentes têm demonstrado que a curcumina (Cur) possui efeitos antioxidantes, anti-inflamatórios e antifibróticos. Sabe-se que a injeção de brometo de etídio (EB) no sistema nervoso central induz a perda oligodendroglial e astrocitária, resultando em desmielinização primária e neuroinflamação. Astrogliose periférica é observada ao redor da lesão com aumento da imunorreatividade à proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP). A presente investigação objetivou avaliar o efeito da Cur sobre a resposta astrocitária após injúria gliotóxica. Ratos Wistar foram injetados com EB na cisterna basal e tratados ou não com Cur (100 mg/kg/dia, via intraperitoneal) durante o período experimental. Amostras do tronco encefálico foram coletadas aos 15, 21 e 31 dias pós-injeção de EB e processadas para estudo imuno-histoquímico para a GFAP. A reatividade astrocitária foi medida em um sistema computadorizado para análise de imagem. Nos ratos tratados com Cur, a área marcada para GFAP foi significantemente menor em todos os períodos pós-injeção de EB, indicando que a Cur reduz o desenvolvimento da cicatriz glial após injúria.

Animals , Male , Rats , Brain Stem/pathology , Astrocytes/drug effects , Demyelinating Diseases/pathology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Staining and Labeling , Brain Stem/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Astrocytes/pathology , Demyelinating Diseases/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar , Curcumin/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Ethidium , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism
Braz. dent. j ; 28(2): 249-255, mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839133


Abstract This study evaluated the action of ionizing radiation and the possible radioprotective effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam on the bone physiology of rat mandibles by assessing the alveolar socket healing and bone strength. Forty male Wistar rats were divided in 4 groups (n=10): control (CG), irradiated (IG), meloxicam (MG), meloxicam irradiated (MIG). A dose of 0.2 mg/kg meloxicam was administered to MG and MIG. After this, IG and MIG were irradiated with 15 Gy radiation dose in the mandible. Forty days after the above procedures, the mandibular first molars were extracted and the animals were killed after 15 or 30 days (n=5). Micro-computed tomography and bending test were used to evaluate alveolar socket healing and bone strength, respectively. At 15 days, bone volume, bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness were higher in the CG and MG than in the IG and MIG; and trabecular separation was higher in the IG compared with the others. At 30 days, there was a difference only in trabecular separation, which was higher in IG than in CG and MG, and MIG did not differ from the others. Bone strength was lower in IG compared with CG and MG, and MIG did not differ from the others. In conclusion, the ionizing radiation affected the bone physiology of rat mandibles, delaying the alveolar socket healing and reducing the bone strength. Moreover, the meloxicam had a positive effect on the trabecular separation in alveolar socket healing and on the bone strength.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a ação da radiação ionizante e o possível efeito radioprotetor do anti-inflamatório não esteroide meloxicam na fisiologia óssea de mandíbulas de rato por meio da análise da reparação alveolar e da resistência óssea. Quarenta ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 4 grupos (n=10): controle (GC), irradiado (GI), meloxicam (GM), meloxicam irradiado (GMI). Administrou-se uma dose única de 0,2 mg/kg de meloxicam no GM e GMI. Posteriormente, o GI e GMI foram irradiados com dose de 15 Gy na região de mandíbula. Decorridos 40 dias dos procedimentos acima, extraiu-se os primeiros molares inferiores dos animais, que foram mortos após 15 e 30 dias (n=5). Utilizou-se a microtomografia computadorizada e o teste de flexão para avaliação da reparação alveolar e da resistência óssea, respectivamente. Aos 15 dias, o volume ósseo, a fração de volume ósseo e a espessura trabecular foram maiores no GC e GM comparados ao GI e GMI; já a separação trabecular foi maior no GI em relação aos demais. Aos 30 dias, houve diferença apenas na separação trabecular, que foi maior no GI em comparação ao GC e GM, não tendo o GMI diferido dos demais. A resistência óssea no GI foi menor em relação ao GC e GM, não tendo o GMI diferido dos demais. Concluiu-se que a radiação ionizante afetou a fisiologia óssea das mandíbulas de rato, promovendo atraso na reparação alveolar e redução da resistência óssea; além disso, o meloxicam, apresentou efeito positivo na separação trabecular da reparação alveolar e na resistência óssea.

Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Mandible/drug effects , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Thiazines/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , X-Ray Microtomography
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 21(1): 97-102, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882854


Este estudo teve como objetivo revisar a literatura cientffica sobre o use racional dos anti-inflamatOrios nao esteroides na clinica medica-odontolOgica, tendo como primeira opcao a sua escolha nos mais variados processos inflamatOrios que requeiram a sua administragao e que em contrapartida venham a proporcionar menos efeitos adversos sobre o paciente. Material e metodos: Foi consultada a rede BVS de dados tendo como o descritor os Anti-inflamatOrios nao esteroides. Resultados: A literatura relata que ao inibirem a sintese de prostaglandinas e tromboxano, os anti-inflamatOrios nao hormonais (AIN Es), sao os mais utilizados no controle das manifestagoes musculoesqueleticas, sendo amplamente utilizados na Clinica Modica e OdontolOgica para prevenir as reagoes inflamatOrias traurnaticas pOs-cirurgicas. Todavia estes medicamentos podem provocar uma serie de efeitos colaterais quando mal empregados. 0 processo doloroso que acomete as estruturas bucais, geralmente é de origem inflamatOria aguda, obrigando o paciente a buscar um cirurgiao-dentista para tratt-las adequadamente, no entanto o professional deve ter um bom conhecimento sobre as suas indicagoes, contra-indicagoes e efeitos adversos. Sao prescritos preferencialmente os inibidores seletivos da COX-2, sendo portanto os mais indicados, por apresentarem melhor eficacia anti-inflamatOria e sem os efeitos gastrintestinais indesejaveis sao chamados de coxibes, se ligam seletivamente ao local ativo da enzima COX-2 e a bloqueia com mais eflcacia que a COX-1. Conclusao: Nesta revise° pode ser aferido que os COX-2, alem de serem os mais indicados, tem tambern efeito analgesic° e anti-inflamatOrio semelhante aos demais AINE'S, estando portanto indicado como sendo de primeira escolha para o tratamento de pacientes que tem predisposicao a ulceragao e sangramento digestivo. (AU)

This study aimed to review the scientific literature on the rational use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the medical and dental clinics, based on the treatment of inflammatory processes with fewer adverse effects. Material and Methods: Bibliographical searches were carried out in the electronic database BVS using the descriptor "non-steroidal anti-inflammatory". Results: The literature reports that by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxane, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been mostly used in medicine and dentistry for the control of musculoskeletal manifestations to prevent post-surgical traumatic inflammatory reactions. However, these drugs can cause a number of side effects when misused. The painful process that affects the oral structures is usually of acute inflammatory origin, forcing the patient to seek a dentist to properly treat them. Hence, the professional should have a good knowledge of the drug indications, contraindications and side effects. Selective inhibitors of COX-2 are being preferably prescribed as these have better anti-inflammatory effectiveness and no undesirable gastrointestinal effects. These drugs are called coxibs and selectively bind to the active site of the enzyme COX-2, creating a blockage which is more effective than that of COX-1. Conclusion: This review may infer that COX-2 NSADs are most commonly indicated due to their analgesic and anti-inflammatory effectiveness, which is similar to that of other NSAIDs. Thus, this class of drugs is indicated as a first choice for the treatment of patients who are predisposed to ulceration and digestive bleeding. (AU)

Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Inflammation
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(6): e5868, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839308


We aimed to investigate the effect of etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor, on rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and its underlying mechanism. Primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. The model of rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by endothelin, and then treated with different concentrations of etanercept (1, 10, and 50 μM). After treatment, cell counts, viability and cell apoptosis were evaluated. The mRNA levels of myocardial hypertrophy marker genes, including atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-13, were detected by qRT-PCR, and the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax) were measured by western blotting. The protein levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. In the present study, TNF-α level in cardiomyocytes with hypertrophy was significantly enhanced (P<0.05). Compared to the model group, cell number and viability were significantly increased and ratio of apoptotic cells was reduced by etanercept (P<0.05, P<0.01, or P<0.001). In addition, etanercept remarkably reduced the mRNA levels of ANF, MMP-9 and MMP-13, inhibited the expression of Bax, and increased the expression of Bcl-2 compared to the model group (P<0.05). ELISA results further showed that etanercept lowered the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, LIF and CT-1 but not TGF-β1 compared to the model group (P<0.05). Etanercept may protect rat cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines secretion and cell apoptosis.

Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Cardiomegaly/metabolism , Etanercept/pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Animals, Newborn , Apoptosis/drug effects , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism , Cardiomegaly/chemically induced , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(10): e5948, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888932


Atropine (AT) and dipyrone (Dp) induce a delay of gastric emptying (GE) of liquids in rats by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and activating β2-adrenergic receptors, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with AT and Dp, given alone or in combination, on the effect of hypoglycemia in the liquid GE in rats. Male Wistar adult rats (280-310 g) were pretreated intravenously with AT, Dp, AT plus Dp or their vehicle and then treated 30 min later with iv insulin or its vehicle (n=8-10 animals/group). Thirty min after treatment, GE was evaluated by determining, in awake rats, the percent gastric retention (%GR) of a saline meal labeled with phenol red administered by gavage. The results indicated that insulin induced hypoglycemia in a dose-dependent manner resulting in a significant reduction in %GR of liquid only at the highest dose tested (1 U/kg). Pretreatment with AT significantly increased %GR in the rats treated with 1 U/kg insulin. Surprisingly, after pretreatment with AT, the group treated with the lowest dose of insulin (0.25 U/kg) displayed significantly lower %GR compared to its control (vehicle-treated group), which was not seen in the non-pretreated animals. Pretreatment with Dp alone at the dose of 40 mg/kg induced an increase in %GR in both vehicle and 0.25 U/kg-treated rats. A higher dose of Dp alone (80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the effect of a marked hypoglycemia induced by 1 U/kg of insulin on GE while in combination with AT the effect was completely abolished. The results with AT suggest that moderate hypoglycemia may render the inhibitory mechanisms of GE ineffective while Dp alone and in combination with AT significantly overcame the effect of hypoglycemia on GE.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Atropine/pharmacology , Dipyrone/pharmacology , Gastric Emptying/drug effects , Hypoglycemia/physiopathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Atropine/administration & dosage , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Premedication , Rats, Wistar
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6145, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888968


Chronic systemic inflammation and repetitive damage of vascular endothelia by incompatible dialysis system are probable causes of cardiovascular disease in patients on dialysis. The present study aimed to assess in vitro biocompatibility and anti-inflammatory effect of hemodialysis fluid supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA) using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVECs (5×106 cells/mL) were pre-exposed to 1 μg/mL of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and incubated with RA-supplemented hemodialysis fluid (HDF). Cytotoxicity was assessed qualitatively by morphologic assessment and quantitatively by MTT assay. Expressions of proinflammatory mediators were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR and production of NO was quantified. Phosphorylation of AKT and nuclear localization of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were examined using western blotting. Exposure of HUVECs to RA-supplemented HDF had no influence on morphology and viability. Inhibition of proinflammatory mediator production in HUVECs by RA supplementation to HDF was significant in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to RA-supplemented HDF resulted in a decrease in nitric oxide synthase expression and reduction of NO production in LPS-stimulated HUVECs. RA supplementation of HDF suppressed Akt activation in LPS-stimulated HUVECs. In addition, the level of cellular IκB was increased in parallel to a reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB in LPS-induced endothelial cells. Our results suggest that RA-supplemented HDF is biocompatible and significantly suppressed inflammation induced in endothelial cells. In this respect, the use of HDF supplemented with RA could alleviate inflammation and improve long-term treatment of patients with renal failure on dialysis. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the effects.

Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Depsides/pharmacology , Hemodialysis Solutions/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Analysis of Variance , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/drug effects , Formazans , Hemodialysis Solutions/chemistry , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Immunoblotting , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , NF-kappa B/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Phosphorylation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Tetrazolium Salts
Acta cir. bras ; 31(5): 320-326, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783801


ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To compare ileal anastomoses in the immediate postoperative healing period after meloxicam use. METHODS: Forty two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of 21, COX and control group. To COX meloxicam in combination with morphine was given in 3 days period. Control group received only morphine during the same period. Each group was divided into three sub-groups of 7, which were euthanized at 5, 10, and 21 days postoperatively. Comparison was based in histological evaluation of collagen type I and III using sirius red, immunohistochemical through vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9. RESULTS: Healing process in scheduled periods did not show significant differences (p>0.05) between the COX and control groups during any of the periods. CONCLUSION: The use of meloxicam in the postoperative period following ileal anastomosis did not affect healing.

Animals , Male , Thiazines/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ileum/surgery , Postoperative Period , Time Factors , Anastomosis, Surgical , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Models, Animal , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/drug effects , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/metabolism , Ileum/blood supply
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(1): 36-43, Jan.-Mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777120


ABSTRACT Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induces gastric mucosal lesions because of its acidic properties. Ranitidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, has proved beneficial in patients with gastric ulcers. Objective The present study was performed to assess the effect of administering ranitidine in Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, nimesulide) induced gastropathy, and their effect on the histopathology of stomach, kidney and liver. Methods Diclofenac, nimesulide, and ranitidine were administered in doses of 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 14 days, and their effect on gastric volume, acidity, mean ulcer number, and gastric pH. In addition, histopathological examination was also performed on sections of stomach, kidney and liver. Results Following the administration of diclofenac or nimesulide, all the gastric parameters were significantly altered as well as the histopathology of stomach, liver and kidney. In the control group, the renal sections showed normal glomeruli with no thickening of glomerular basement membrane, while in diclofenac alone, nimesulide alone, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, the thickening of glomerular basement membrane was observed. These alterations were observed to be reversed in the ranitidine with diclofenac group. In the sections from the liver, the control group showed anastomosing plates and cords of cuboidal hepatocytes with round well stained nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. In the ranitidine with diclofenac, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, mild dilatation of sinusoids is seen coupled with prominence of central vein. In the diclofenac alone and nimesulide alone groups, the proximal and distal convoluted tubules show mild focal tubular necrosis. In the gastric sections, the control group showed several folds forming villi, and the epithelial lining surface of the mucosa. In the ranitidine with diclofenac, and ranitidine with nimesulide groups, the duodenum showed scattered inflammatory cells composed predominantly of lymphocytes. In diclofenac alone and nimesulide alone group, the sections from the gastric areas showed partial necrosis and mild chronic inflammation respectively. Conclusion The study, therefore, has provided therapeutic rationale towards simultaneous administration of H2 receptor blocker ranitidine with diclofenac to be more beneficial as compared to ranitidine with nimesulide, to minimise the gastric intolerance of diclofenac in long term treatment of inflammatory conditions.

RESUMO Contexto Anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais induzem lesões da mucosa gástrica devido às suas propriedades ácidas. Ranitidina, um antagonista dos receptores H2, revelou-se benéfico em pacientes com úlceras gástricas. Objetivo - O presente estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da administração de ranitidina em gastropatia induzida por anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais (diclofenaco, nimesulida) e seu efeito sobre a histopatologia do estômago, dos rins e fígado. Métodos Diclofenaco, nimesulida e ranitidina foram administradas em doses de 2, 4 e 6 mg/kg, p.o. uma vez diariamente por 14 dias e seu efeito sobre o volume gástrico, acidez, significam o número de úlcera e o pH gástrico. Além disso, o exame histopatológico também foi realizado em seções do estômago, dos rins e fígado. Resultados Após a administração de diclofenaco ou nimesulida, todos os parâmetros gástricos foram significativamente alterados assim como a histopatologia do estômago, fígado e rim. No grupo controle, as seções renais mostraram glomérulos normais sem espessamento da membrana basal glomerular, enquanto em diclofenaco isolado, nimesulida isolado e grupos com ranitidina e nimesulida, foi observado espessamento da membrana basal glomerular. Estas alterações observou-se serem revertidas no grupo ranitidina com diclofenaco. As seções do fígado, o grupo controle mostrou placas e cordões de hepatócitos cuboidais anastomosados com núcleos bem demarcados e citoplasma abundante. Nos grupos ranitidina com diclofenaco e ranitidina com nimesulida, leve dilatação dos sinusoides é vista acoplados com proeminência de veia central. Nos grupos diclofenaco e nimesulida sozinhos, túbulos proximais e distais contorcidos mostram necrose tubular focal leve. Nas secções gástricas, o grupo controle mostrou várias dobras formando vilosidades e a superfície do revestimento epitelial da mucosa. Nos grupos ranitidina com diclofenaco e ranitidina com nimesulida, o duodeno mostrou dispersas células inflamatórias predominantemente compostas por linfócitos. Nos grupos diclofenaco e nimesulida sozinhos, as secções de áreas gástricas mostraram necrose parcial e inflamação crônica moderada respectivamente. Conclusão - O estudo, portanto, forneceu o fundamento terapêutico para administração simultânea de bloqueador de receptor H2 (ranitidina) com diclofenaco, sendo mais benéfica em comparação com ranitidina com nimesulida para minimizar a intolerância gástrica de diclofenaco no tratamento a longo prazo de condições inflamatórias.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Ranitidine/pharmacology , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Diclofenac/pharmacology , Histamine H2 Antagonists/pharmacology , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology