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2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06533, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279531

ABSTRACT

Excessive infection and inflammation are the most common complications associated with castration. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FM), meloxicam (MX), or firocoxib (FX) for inflammation control after castration in horses using acute-phase proteins (APP) as markers of inflammation. Thirty healthy, unbroken, mixed-breed horses (body weight 358.62±45.57kg and age 4.99±2.63 years) were randomly (n=10 animals/group) allocated to receive one of three different post-castration anti-inflammatory medicines: Group 1 (FM 1.1mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days); Group 2 (MX 0.6mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days); and Group 3 (FX 0.1mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days). All horses were castrated in standing position, using the open technique. Serum and peritoneal APP concentrations were measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and determined before castration (0), and 3, 5, 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours after castration. The results were submitted to analysis of variance using the SAS statistical program, and means were compared by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p<0.05). Three animals from the MX group developed hyperthermia (with rectal temperatures of 39.8, 39.3 and 38.9°C on day 4, 5 and 6, respectively) and showed local clinical signs of inflammation (inguinal and excessive scrotal edema) and reluctance to walk, as well as a rigid gait of the hind limbs. The same complications were observed in one FX horse. No complications were observed among the FM animals. The castration resulted in significant changes in serum and peritoneal values of total proteins, ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf), albumin (Alb), haptoglobin (Hp) and α1-acid glycoprotein (Gp) in animals of all experimental groups. However, the animals of the MX and FX groups presented more intense acute phase response compared to the animals of the FM group. Changes in the APP were associated with the surgical trauma of castration, but the differences between groups were associated with the ability of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug to control the inflammation. In conclusion, and based on the findings of acute phase proteins, flunixin is more efficient to control the magnitude of inflammation following castration as compared to meloxicam and firocoxib.(AU)


Infecção e inflamação excessivas são as complicações mais comuns associadas à castração. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia do flunixin meglumine (FM), meloxicam (MX) ou firocoxib (FX) no controle da inflamação após a castração em cavalos usando proteínas da fase aguda (APP) como marcadores de inflamação. Trinta equinos saudáveis (358,62±45,57kg; 4,99±2,63 anos) foram em função dos anti-inflamatórios utilizados após as castrações aleatoriamente (n= 10 animais/grupo) alocados em três diferentes grupos: Grupo 1 (FM 1,1mg/kg de peso, IV, sid por 5 dias); Grupo 2 (MX 0,6mg/kg de peso, IV, s.i.d por 5 dias); e Grupo 3 (FX 0,1mg/kg de peso, IV, s.i.d por 5 dias). Todos os cavalos foram castrados em posição quadrupedal, utilizando a técnica aberta. As concentrações de APP sérica e peritoneal foram separadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE) com dodecil-sulfato de sódio (SDS) e determinadas no momento 0 (antes da castração) e com 3, 5, 24, 48, 72, 120 e 168 horas após a castração. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo programa estatístico SAS e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Student-Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). Três animais do grupo MX desenvolveram hipertermia (com temperatura retal de 39,8, 39,3 e 38,9° C nos dias 4, 5 e 6, respectivamente) e mostraram sinais clínicos locais de inflamação (edema inguinal e escrotal excessivo) e relutância em andar, bem como marcha rígida dos membros posteriores. As mesmas complicações foram observadas em um cavalo do FX. Não foram observadas complicações entre os animais do FM. Independente do grupo, a castração resultou em alterações significativas nos valores séricos e peritoneais de proteínas totais, ceruloplasmina (Cp), transferrina (Tf), albumina (Alb), haptoglobina (Hp) e glicoproteína ácida α1 (Gp). No entanto, os animais dos grupos MX e FX apresentaram resposta de fase aguda mais intensa quando comparados aos animais do FM. Alterações na resposta de fase aguda deveram-se ao trauma cirúrgico da castração, mas as diferenças entre os grupos foram associadas à capacidade do anti-inflamatório em controlar a inflamação. Em conclusão, baseado da resposta de fase aguda, o flunixin em comparação com o meloxicam e o firocoxib é mais eficiente no controle da inflamação após a castração em equinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acute-Phase Proteins , Castration , Meloxicam , Horses/surgery , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Body Weight , Orchiectomy
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 588-594, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155777

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: In shoulder arthroscopy, on an outpatient basis, the patient needs a good control of the postoperative pain that can be achieved through regional blocks. Perineural dexamethasone may prolong the effect of these blocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of perineural dexamethasone on the prolongation of the sensory block in the postoperative period for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in outpatient setting. Methods: After approval by the Research Ethics Committee and informed consent, patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia and ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block were randomized into Group D - blockade performed with 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 6 mg (1.5 mL) of dexamethasone and Group C - 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 1.5 mL of 0.9% saline. The duration of the sensory block was evaluated in 4 postoperative moments (0, 4, 12 and 24 hours) as well as the need for rescue analgesia, nausea and vomiting incidence, and Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS). Results: Seventy-four patients were recruited and 71 completed the study (Group C, n = 37; Group D, n = 34). Our findings showed a prolongation of the mean time of the sensitive blockade in Group D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min, p < 0.001). It was observed that Group C had a higher mean pain score according to VAS (2.08 ± 1.72 vs. 0.02 ± 0.17, p < 0.001) and a greater number of patients (68.4% vs. 0%, p < 0.001) required rescue analgesia in the first 24 hours. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Perineural dexamethasone significantly prolonged the sensory blockade promoted by levobupivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus block, reduced pain intensity and rescue analgesia needs in the postoperative period.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Na artroscopia de ombro em regime ambulatorial, o paciente necessita de um bom controle da dor pós-operatória, que pode ser conseguido por meio de bloqueios regionais. A dexametasona perineural pode prolongar o efeito desses bloqueios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dexametasona perineural quanto ao prolongamento do bloqueio sensitivo no período pós-operatório para cirurgia artroscópica de ombro em regime ambulatorial. Métodos: Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa e consentimento informado, foram incluídos no estudo pacientes submetidos a cirurgia artroscópica de ombro sob anestesia geral e bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico guiado por ultrassonografia. Eles foram randomizados nos Grupo D - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 6 mg (1,5 mL) de dexametasona, e Grupo C - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 1,5 mL solução salina. A duração do bloqueio sensitivo foi avaliada em quatro momentos pós-operatórios (0, 4, 12 e 24 horas), assim como a necessidade de analgesia de resgate, incidência de náuseas e vômitos e Escala Visual Analógica de Dor (EVA). Resultados: Setenta e quatro pacientes foram randomizados e 71 completaram o estudo (Grupo C, n = 37; Grupo D, n = 34). Observou-se um prolongamento do tempo médio de bloqueio sensitivo no Grupo D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min; p< 0,001). Pacientes do Grupo C apresentaram maior média de escore de dor de acordo com a EVA (2,08 ± 1,72vs. 0,02 ± 0,17; p< 0,001) e um maior número de pacientes solicitou analgesia de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas (68,4%vs.0%; p< 0,001). A incidência de náuseas e vômitos não foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: A dexametasona perineural prolongou significativamente o bloqueio sensitivo da levobupivacaína no bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico, reduziu a intensidade de dor e a necessidade de analgesia de resgate pelo paciente no período pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Saline Solution/administration & dosage , Levobupivacaine , Analgesia , Anesthetics, Local , Middle Aged
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 585-591, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098291

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen (also called paracetamol, or APAP) induced nephrotoxicity is reported after accidental or intentional ingestion of an overdose of the drug. Renal tubular ultrastructural alterations induced by APAP overdose associated with the induction of biomarkers of kidney injury have not been investigated before. Also, we investigated whether the combined polyphenolic anti-inflammatory and antioxidants agents, resveratrol (RES) and quercetin (QUR) can protect against APAP-induced acute kidney injury. The model group of rats received a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg), whereas the protective group of rats was pre-treated for 7 days with combined doses of RES (30 mg/kg) and QUR (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of APAP. All rats were then sacrificed one day post APAP ingestion. Harvested kidney tissues were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) staining and blood samples were assayed for urea, creatinine, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. TEM images and blood chemistry analysis showed that APAP overdose induced kidney damage as demonstrated by substantial alterations to the proximal convoluted tubule ultrastructure, and a significant (p<0.05) increase in urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and malondialdehyde (MDA) blood levels, which were protected by RES+QUR. These findings indicate that APAP induces alterations to the renal tubular ultrastructure, which is inhibited by resveratrol plus quercetin, which also decreases blood levels of kidney injury biomarkers.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la nefrotoxicidad inducida por acetaminofeno (también llamado paracetamol o APAP) después de la ingestión accidental o intencional de una sobredosis de la droga. Las alteraciones ultraestructurales tubulares renales inducidas por sobredosis de APAP asociadas con la inducción de biomarcadores de daño renal no se han investigado. Además, estudiamos si los agentes combinados antiinflamatorios y antioxidantes polifenólicos, el resveratrol (RES) y la quercetina (QUR) pueden proteger contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por APAP. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis única de APAP (2 g / kg), mientras que el grupo protector de ratas se trató previamente durante 7 días con dosis combinadas de RES (30 mg / kg) y QUR (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de APAP. Todas las ratas se sacrificaron un día después de la ingestión de APAP. Los tejidos renales fueron preparados para el análisis a través de la microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET). En las muestras de sangre se determinaron la urea, creatinina y los biomarcadores de inflamación y estrés oxidativo. Las imágenes MET y el análisis químico de la sangre mostraron que la sobredosis de APAP inducía daño renal, como lo demuestran las alteraciones sustanciales en la ultraestructura del túbulo contorneado proximal, y además, de un aumento significativo (p <0,05) de la urea, creatinina, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y niveles sanguíneos de malondialdehído, protegidos por RES + QUR. Estos hallazgos indican que APAP induce alteraciones en la ultraestructura tubular renal, inhibida por el resveratrol más quercetina, que también disminuye los niveles sanguíneos de biomarcadores de daño renal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Quercetin/pharmacology , Urea/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatinine/blood , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Overdose , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 340-342, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130888

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Cutaneous involvement occurs in up to 30% of patients and skin findings are often the initial presenting symptom. The facial atrophic form of sarcoidosis without associated ulceration in adolescents has rarely been described in the literature. We report a case of 13-year-old male patient with a facial atrophic sarcoidosis who was successfully treated with the combination of prednisone and hydroxychloroquine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Sarcoidosis/drug therapy , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Facial Dermatoses/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Biopsy , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Facial Dermatoses/pathology , Granuloma/pathology , Granuloma/drug therapy
6.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(6): 463-470, dic. 28, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224317

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of dexa-methasone as pre-surgical and post-surgical therapy in mandibular third molar surgery. Materials and methods: Randomized clinical trial conducted in 60 patients in need of mandibular third molar extraction, ages ranging from 16 to 35 years old, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital during the period of January-March, 2016. Patients were distributed in two randomized groups: Group A received 4mg dexamethasone intramuscular before the surgery, and Group B received the same medication post-surgery. Facial edema was assessed using the distance between facial points, trismus was evaluated using the interincisal distance, and pain intensity was determined using a Numerical Scale (NS). Results: Facial edema values were lower in Group A at 60 minutes (p=0.002) and after the first (p=0.001) and third days (p=0.009), compared to Group B. Regarding trismus, no significant differences between the groups were found. Regarding pain intensity, the highest point was recorded at 6 hours in both groups; however, no significant differences between the groups were found. Conclusion: Pre-surgical dexamethasone administration produced a significantly greater reduction in facial edema after mandibular third molar surgery.


Objetivo: Comparar la efectividad antiinflamatoria de dexametasona como terapia prequirúrgica y postquirúrgica en la cirugía del tercer molar mandibular. Materiales y métodos: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado que incluyó a 60 pacientes de 16 a 35 años del Servicio de Cirugía Bucal y Maxilofacial del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza con necesidad de exodoncia de tercer molar mandibular durante el periodo de enero a marzo del 2016. Se distribuyeron en dos grupos aleatoriamente: El grupo A recibió prequirúrgicamente 4 mg de dexametasona vía intramuscular y el grupo B recibió la misma medicación postquirúrgicamente. Se evaluó el edema facial, mediante la distancia entre puntos faciales, el trismus mediante la distancia interincisal y la intensidad de dolor mediante la Escala Numérica (EN). Resultados: Los valores del edema facial fueron menores en el grupo A a los 60 minutos (p=0,002), primer (p=0,001) y tercer día (p=0,009) en comparación al grupo B. Respecto al trismus, no se encontró diferencia significativa entre los grupos durante las evaluaciones realizadas. Respecto al dolor, la mayor intensidad se percibió a las 6 horas en ambos grupos; sin embargo, no se encontró diferencia significativa entre los grupos durante todas las evaluaciones realizadas. Conclusión: La administración prequirúrgica de dexametasona produjo una significativa mayor reducción del edema facial posterior a la cirugía del tercer molar mandibular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Molar, Third/surgery , Molar, Third/drug effects , Peru , Postoperative Care , Surgery, Oral , Trismus , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
7.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(supl.1): 28-31, ago. 9, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141503

ABSTRACT

Surgical extraction of impacted lower wisdom teeth is a frequent minor intraoral surgical process. It is regularly linked with aching and postoperative consequences as pain and swelling. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of two methods in reducing swelling and pain subsequent to the removal of impacted wisdom teeth. This randomized study incorporated 20 patients with impacted wisdom teeth of different surgical complexity. Topical hyaluronic acid gel 2g/2ml with aloe vera (Kin®Care) was given to the patients to be applied to the surgical area three times a day, or diclofenac sodium tablet 50mg (Voltaren®) to be taken every eight hours, for one week. Swelling was estimated using a strip gauge technique, and pain with a visual analogue scale. Evaluations were made on day one of surgical treatment and on 72hrs and one week later. Statistically no significant differences were identified regarding the swelling and pain values between the two treatment groups on the third and seventh day after surgery. Hyaluronic acid gel was as efficient as diclofenac tablets in reducing the two parameters. The use of hyaluronic acid may be advantageous in medically compromised patient such as those with hypertension, chronic asthma, gastric ulcers or in those with any contraindications to using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or in pregnant patients to reduce pain and swelling subsequent to impacted wisdom teeth surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative , Tooth Extraction , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Cicatrix/drug therapy , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Molar, Third
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 293-295, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012528

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (GN) is more common in elderly people compared to children and the etiology is not completely understood yet. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity occurs in 80% of the patients. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with malaise and mildly elevated creatinine diagnosed as ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis with crescents in 20 of 25 glomeruli (80%). Of these 20 crescents, 12 were cellular, 4 fibrocellular, and 4 globally sclerotic. She did not have purpura, arthritis, or systemic symptoms and she responded well to initial immunosuppressive treatment despite relatively severe histopathology. The patient was given three pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg on alternate days) initially and continued with cyclophosphamide (CYC; 2 mg/kg per day) orally for 3 months with prednisone (1 mg/kg per day). In one month, remission was achieved with normal serum creatinine and prednisone was gradually tapered. The case of this child with a relatively rare pediatric disease emphasizes the importance of early and aggressive immunosuppressive treatment in patients with renal-limited ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic GN even if with a mild clinical presentation. As in our patient, clinical and laboratory findings might not always exactly reflect the severity of renal histopathology and thus kidney biopsy is mandatory in such children to guide the clinical management and predict prognosis.


RESUMO A glomerulonefrite (GN) pauci-imune é mais comum em idosos em comparação com crianças, e a etiologia ainda não é completamente compreendida. A positividade do anticorpo citoplasmático antineutrófilo (ANCA) ocorre em 80% dos pacientes. Relatamos o caso de uma menina de 7 anos de idade que apresentou mal-estar e creatinina discretamente elevada, diagnosticada como glomerulonefrite rapidamente progressiva pauci-imune associada a ANCA com crescentes em 20 dos 25 glomérulos (80%). Destes 20 crescentes, 12 eram celulares, 4 fibrocelulares e 4 globalmente escleróticos. Ela não apresentava púrpura, artrite ou sintomas sistêmicos e respondeu bem ao tratamento imunossupressor inicial, apesar da histopatologia relativamente grave. A paciente recebeu três pulsos de metilprednisolona intravenosa (30 mg/kg em dias alternados) inicialmente e continuou com ciclofosfamida (2 mg/kg por dia) por via oral durante 3 meses com prednisona (1 mg/kg por dia). Em um mês, a remissão foi alcançada com creatinina sérica normal e a prednisona foi gradualmente reduzida. O caso desta criança com uma doença pediátrica relativamente rara enfatiza a importância do tratamento imunossupressor precoce e agressivo em pacientes com GN rapidamente progressiva renal associada à ANCA, mesmo com uma apresentação clínica leve. Como em nossa paciente, os achados clínicos e laboratoriais podem nem sempre refletir exatamente a gravidade da histopatologia renal e, assim, a biópsia renal é obrigatória nessas crianças para orientar a conduta clínica e auxiliar no prognóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/blood , Kidney/pathology , Biopsy , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Creatinine/blood , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Glomerulonephritis/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 259-265, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013414

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Pain management committee established a pain performance improvement plan in 2012. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the trends in analgesic consumption in a tertiary teaching hospital and the associated economic impact. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted between 2011 and 2015. The analysis included: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products non-steroids, opioid analgesics and other analgesics and antipyretics. Data are converted into DDD/100 bed-days to analyze consumption trends. Main outcome measure: assessment of the analgesic consumption after the implementation of a pain performance improvement plan. Results: Overall, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products consumption decreased in 24.8 DDD/100 bed-days (-28.3%), accounting for most of the total analgesic consumption decrease (-13%) and total cost (-44.3%). Opioid consumption increased markedly from 22.3 DDD/100 bed-days in 2011 to 26.5 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015 (+18.9%). In 2011, the most consumed opioid was morphine (8.6 DDD/100 bed-days). However, there was an increasing trend in fentanyl consumption (from 8.1 to 12.1 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015), which resulted in fentanyl replacing morphine from the most consumed opioid in 2015 (12.1 DDD/100 bed-days). In 2015, the group of other analgesics and antipyretics represented 46.2% of the total analgesic consumption. Acetaminophen was the most commonly consumed analgesic drug (53.2 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015) and had the highest total cost, it represented 55.4% of the overall cost in 2015. Conclusion: Opioid consumption showed an increasing trend during the 5 year period, with fentanyl replacing morphine as the most used opioid. In general, analgesics diminished use was due to the decreasing trend of consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products.


Resumo Justificativa: A Comissão para o Manejo da Dor estabeleceu um plano de melhoria no controle da dor em 2012. Objetivo: Avaliar as tendências do consumo de analgésicos em um hospital de ensino terciário e o impacto econômico associado. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, feito entre 2011 e 2015. A análise incluiu: produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides, analgésicos opioides e outros analgésicos e antipiréticos. Os dados foram convertidos em DDD/100 leitos-dia para analisar as tendências de consumo. Principal medida do desfecho: avaliação do consumo de analgésicos após o estabelecimento de um plano de melhoria no controle da dor. Resultados: O consumo total de produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides diminuiu em 24,8 DDD/100 leitos-dia (-28,3%), representando a maior parte da redução total do consumo de analgésicos (-13%) e o custo total (-44,3%). O consumo global de opioides aumentou acentuadamente de 22,3 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2011 para 26,5 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015 (+18,9%). Em 2011, o opioide mais consumido foi a morfina (8,6 DDD/100 leitos-dia). No entanto, houve uma tendência crescente no consumo de fentanil (de 8,1 para 12,1 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015), o que resultou na substituição de morfina por fentanil como o opioide mais consumido em 2015 (12,1 DDD/100 leitos-dia). Em 2015, o grupo dos outros analgésicos e antipiréticos representou 46,2% do consumo total de analgésicos. Acetaminofeno foi o analgésico mais consumido (53,2 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015) e teve o maior custo total, representou 55,4% do custo total em 2015. Conclusão: O consumo de opioides mostrou uma tendência crescente durante o período de cinco anos, fentanil substituiu morfina como o opioide mais usado. Em geral, o uso diminuído de analgésicos foi devido à tendência decrescente do consumo de produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Utilization/trends , Hospitals, Teaching , Morphine/administration & dosage
10.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 233-235, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A 21-year-old man presented with visual acuity of 20/200 in both eyes. The fundus picture, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography revealed severe bilateral acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy and serous macular detachments. We treated the patient with triamcinolone acetonide, an intravitreal injection (4 mg/0.1 mL) in one eye and a posterior subtenon injection (40 mg/1 mL) in the other eye. Within 2 weeks the visual acuity was 20/80 in both eyes. At the 8-week follow-up visit his vision was 20/63 bilaterally. One year later the vision remained 20/63 in both eyes. In this patient, the triamcinolone acetonide injections, whether administered intravitreally or via the posterior subtenon route, achieved similar anatomic and functional recovery results.


RESUMO Um homem de 21 anos apresentou acuidade visual de 20/200 em ambos os olhos. O quadro de fundo de olho, angiofluoresceinografia e a tomografia de coerência óptica revelaram epiteliopatia pigmentar placóide multifocal posterior aguda e descolamento macular seroso. Tratamos o paciente com triancinolona acetonida, uma injeção intravítrea (4 mg/0,1 ml) em um olho e uma injeção subtenoniana posterior (40 mg/1 ml) no outro olho. Após 2 semanas, a acuidade visual foi de 20/80 em ambos os olhos. Na visita de acompanhamento de 8 semanas, sua visão foi de 20/63 bilateralmente. Um ano depois, a visão permaneceu 20/63 em ambos os olhos. Neste paciente, as injeções de triancinolona, administradas por via intravítrea ou por via subtenoniana posterior, obtiveram resultados semelhantes na recuperação anatômica e funcional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Triamcinolone Acetonide/administration & dosage , Tenon Capsule , Intravitreal Injections/methods , White Dot Syndromes/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Fluorescein Angiography , Visual Acuity , Treatment Outcome , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , White Dot Syndromes/pathology , White Dot Syndromes/diagnostic imaging
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(5): 1895-1902, Mai. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001814

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study purposes to determine the prevalence of potential and clinical relevant Drug-Drug-Interactions (pDDIs) in institutionalized older adults and to identify the pertinent factors associated. We conduct an observational, multicenter and cross-sectional study during the last quarter of 2010. We selected a sample of 275 subjects (aged ≥ 65 years) from 10 nursing homes of Murcia (Spain) by a two-stage complex sampling. pDDIs were identified using the College of Pharmacists Database. We only considered pDDIs of clinical relevance, and thereafter the relevant factors were identified through uni-level and multi-level regression analyses. A total of 210 pDDIs were identified, 120 of which were considered clinically relevant (57.1%), affecting a total of 70 elderly (25.8%). Eight pharmacological groups made up 70.2% of the clinically relevant pDDIs. More clinically relevant DDIs were found in people suffering several pathologies (OR = 2.3; 95%CI = 1.4-4.5), and also in people who take ten or more drugs daily (OR = 9.6; 95%CI = 4.8-19.1), and people who take anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 3.9; 95%CI = 1.4-10.4). This study reveals that clinically relevant pDDIs are very common in institutionalized elderly people, and that caregivers should aim at improving their practice in order to reduce the prevalence of this phenomenon.


Resumo Este estudo pretende identificar a prevalência de interações medicamentosas potenciais (IMP) em idosos institucionalizados e seus fatores associados. Realizamos um estudo observacional, multicêntrico e transversal, durante o último trimestre de 2010. Selecionamos uma amostra de 275 sujeitos (≥ 65 anos) de 10 instituições para idosos de Murcia (Espanha) mediante amostragem aleatória complexa em duas etapas. As IMP foram identificadas usando a base de dados do College of Pharmacists. Estimamos a prevalência de IMP de relevância clínica e analisamos os fatores associados com análise de regressão uni e multinível. Identificamos 210 IMP, das quais 120 foram consideradas clinicamente relevantes (57,1%) e afetaram 70 idosos (25,8%). Oito grupos farmacológicos constituíram 70,2% das IMP clinicamente relevantes. A prevalência de IMP esteve associada à multimorbidade (OR = 2,3; IC 95% = 1,4-4,5) e tomar dez ou mais medicamentos diariamente (OR = 9,6; IC95% = 4,8-19,1) e uso de medicamentos anti-inflamatórios (OR = 3,9; IC 95% = 1,4-10,4). Este estudo revela que as IMP clinicamente relevantes são muito comuns em idosos institucionalizados e que os serviços devem melhorar seus processos para reduzir a prevalência deste fenômeno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Interactions , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Spain , Cross-Sectional Studies , Polypharmacy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 113-120, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective There is controversy regarding cognitive function in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This study is aimed at the assessment of cognitive functions in children with CAH, and their relation to hydrocortisone (HC) therapy and testosterone levels. Subjects and methods Thirty children with CAH due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency were compared with twenty age- and sex-matched healthy controls. HC daily and cumulative doses were calculated, the socioeconomic standard was assessed, and free testosterone was measured. Cognitive function assessment was performed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale - Revised for Children and Adults (WISC), the Benton Visual Retention Test, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results The mean age (SD) of patients was 10.22 (3.17) years [11 males (36.7%), 19 females (63.3%)]. Mean (SD) HC dose was 15.78 (4.36) mg/m 2 /day. Mean (SD) cumulative HC dose 44,689. 9 (26,892.02) mg. Patients had significantly lower scores in all domains of the WISC test, performed significantly worse in some components of the Benton Visual Retention Test, as well as in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was no significant difference in cognitive performance when patients were subdivided according to daily HC dose (< 10, 10 - 15, > 15 mg/m 2 /day). A positive correlation existed between cumulative HC dose and worse results of the Benton test. No correlation existed between free testosterone and any of the three tests. Conclusion Patients with CAH are at risk of some cognitive impairment. Hydrocortisone therapy may be implicated. This study highlights the need to assess cognitive functions in CAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Cognition/drug effects , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/psychology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , Testosterone/blood , Visual Perception/drug effects , Wechsler Scales , Hydrocortisone/pharmacology , Case-Control Studies , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/metabolism , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Neuropsychological Tests
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 145-151, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002413

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Anemia is a frequent multifactorial complication of CKD seen in patients on dialysis derived mainly from impaired erythropoietin (EPO) production. A less common cause of anemia in individuals with CKD is pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) secondary to the production of anti-EPO antibodies. Objective: This paper aimed two describe two cases of PRCA secondary to the production of anti-EPO antibodies including choice of treatment, patient progression, and a literature review. Materials: This study included the cases of two patients with CKD on hemodialysis with severe anemia in need of specific investigation and management. Results: Patient 1 with CKD secondary to hypertension treated with EPO for 7 months showed persistent decreases in hemoglobin (Hb) levels despite the subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of EPO; the patient required recurring blood transfusions. Workup and imaging tests were negative for the main causes of anemia in individuals with CKD on dialysis. Patient 2 with CKD secondary to adult polycystic kidney disease had been taking EPO for 2 years. The patient developed severe abrupt anemia the month he was started on HD, and required recurring transfusions to treat the symptoms of anemia. Workup and imaging findings were inconclusive. Specific laboratory tests confirmed the patients had anti-EPO antibodies. After six months of immunosuppressant therapy (corticosteroids + cyclosporine) the patients were stable with Hb > 9.0 g/dl. Conclusion: PRCA is a rare condition among patients on dialysis treated with rhEPO and should be considered as a possible cause of refractory anemia. Treating patients with PRCA may be challenging, since the specific management and diagnostic procedures needed in this condition are not always readily available.


RESUMO Introdução: Anemia é complicação frequente da Doença Renal Crônica (DRC) em pacientes dialíticos. Apresenta caráter multifatorial principalmente pela insuficiente produção de eritropoietina (EPO). Situação rara causadora de anemia na DRC é Aplasia Pura de Células Vermelhas (APCV), em decorrência da produção de anticorpos anti-EPO. Objetivo: Descrever 2 casos de APCV com formação de anticorpos anti-EPO, sua abordagem clínica, evolução e revisão de literatura. Métodos: Dois pacientes em hemodiálise que desenvolveram anemia grave, necessitando investigação e manejo específico. Resultados: Paciente nº 1: feminina, 75 anos, DRC secundária à hipertensão arterial. Após 7 meses com EPO desenvolveu queda persistente em valores de hemoglobina (Hb) mesmo com incremento em doses EPO SC, necessitando transfusões de sangue recorrentes. Extensa investigação laboratorial e de imagem resultou negativa para principais causas de anemia. Paciente nº 2: masculino, 66 anos, DRC secundária à DRPA, há 2 anos em uso de EPO. No mês de entrada em HD desenvolveu anemia severa, também exigindo transfusões recorrentes para tratamento da anemia sintomática. Extensa investigação laboratorial e por imagem, sem chegar a uma conclusão definitiva. Em ambos os casos a presença de anticorpos anti-EPO foi confirmada por exames laboratoriais específicos. Terapia imunossupressora resultou em estabilização do quadro e Hb > 9,0 g/dl em ambos os pacientes, 6 meses após início do tratamento. Conclusão: APCV é condição rara entre pacientes dialíticos que recebem EPOHuR e deve ser lembrada como causa de anemia refratária. Seu manejo específico e diagnóstico laboratorial nem sempre acessível, tornando desafiadora a condução dos casos para o nefrologista.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Erythropoietin/immunology , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure/etiology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/drug therapy , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Erythropoietin/biosynthesis , Erythropoietin/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(6): e8273, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001536

ABSTRACT

Excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia-like phenotypes, and fetal growth restriction. Anti-inflammation might be an effective therapy. The aim of this research was to investigate whether Uncaria rhynchophylla alkaloid extract (URE), a highly safe anti-inflammation constituent of the herb, can inhibit inflammation and improve clinical characteristics of preeclampsia in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preeclampsia rat model. The rat model was established by daily administration of LPS (1 μg/kg body weight per day) from gestational day (GD) 14 to 19. Different doses of URE (35, 70, and 140 mg/kg body weight per day) were administered from GD 14 to GD 19. The effects of URE on proteinuria, maternal hypertension, pregnancy outcomes, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in serum and placenta were measured. High-dose URE (HURE) treatment decreased LPS-induced mean 24-h proteinuria and systolic blood pressure, and increased fetal weight, placental weight, and the number of live pups (P<0.05). Moreover, increased serum and placental levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ in the LPS-treated group were obviously inhibited after HURE administration (P<0.01). URE improved preeclampsia symptoms and mitigated inflammatory responses in the LPS-induced preeclampsia rat model, which suggests that the anti-inflammation effect of URE might be an alternative therapy for preeclampsia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Uncaria/chemistry , Inflammation/prevention & control , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Pre-Eclampsia/chemically induced , Lipopolysaccharides , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal
15.
Medwave ; 19(11): e7739, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049167

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN El edema macular es una complicación frecuente de la oclusión de la vena central de la retina que clínicamente provoca deterioro de la agudeza visual. Los tratamientos más utilizados son el implante de dexametasona y los fármacos anti factor del crecimiento endotelial vascular, destacando aflibercept dentro de estos. Sin embargo, no existe consenso acerca de qué tratamiento constituye la mejor alternativa. MÉTODOS Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un meta análisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES Identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron cuatro estudios primarios, todos ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que no es posible establecer si aflibercept es superior a dexametasona en términos de mejora de agudeza visual y seguridad, debido a que la certeza de la evidencia existente ha sido evaluada como muy baja.


INTRODUCTION Macular edema is a frequent complication of central retinal vein occlusion that might lead to deterioration of visual acuity. The most commonly used treatments are dexamethasone implant and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs, being aflibercept one of the most commonly used them. However, there is no consensus about which treatment constitute the best alternative. METHODS We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS We identified two systematic reviews that included four primary studies overall, all randomized trials. We concluded that it is not possible to establish whether aflibercept is superior to dexamethasone in terms of improvement of visual acuity and safety, because the certainty of the existing evidence has been evaluated as very low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/administration & dosage , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Macular Edema/etiology , Databases, Factual , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e7773, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984030

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of ultrasound (US)-mediated phonophoresis alone or in association with diclofenac diethylammonium (DCF) administered topically in animal models of inflammation. A pre-clinical, prospective, and randomized experimental study of quantitative and qualitative nature was carried out. Phonophoresis was performed using a therapeutic ultrasound apparatus in two distinct models of acute inflammation. Edema was induced by an intraplantar injection of carrageenan and measured by plethysmography. The Hargreaves test was used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity and investigate the action of phonophoresis on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. A histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin was used to evaluate tissue repair, and the expression of COX-2 was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. At the peak of inflammatory activity (3 h), treatment with US, US+DCF, and DCF significantly reduced edema formation compared to the control group. Treatment with US+DCF was more effective than treatment with US alone at both analyzed times. In the analysis of the antinociceptive activity, the treatments significantly increased the latency time in response to the thermal stimulus. Histopathological analysis revealed a reduction of the inflammatory infiltrates and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the association was effective in reducing COX-2 expression compared to the control group. The association of DCF with US produced anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in rat models of inflammation, which may be associated with inhibition of COX-2 and TNF-α production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phonophoresis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Random Allocation , Prospective Studies , Administration, Topical , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 954-963, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973477

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: The effect of a prophylactic oleuropein-rich diet before anesthesia accompanied by the widely-used steroid-based neuromuscular drug rocuronium on mast cell activation was investigated in the study. Methods: 14 rabbits used in the study. The rabbits in the oleuropein group were given oleuropein-rich extract added to the animals' water at doses of 20 mg/kg oleuropein for 15 days orally. After 15 days, all rabbits in the two groups were given general anesthesia with rocuronium of 1 mg/kg. After 1 day, animals were sacrificed and the liver tissue sections stained with H&E, toluidine blue and tryptase for immunohistochemical study. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between ALT, AST and albumin averages of the oleuropein and control groups (p> 0.05). The tryptase average of the control group was higher than the tryptase average of the oleuropein group and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.003). The T. blue average in the oleuropein group was higher than the control group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.482). Conclusions: Rocuronium adverse effects, like hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, may limit routine use of this substance. The use of oleuropein reduced the number of inflammatory cells and prevented degranulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/adverse effects , Iridoids/administration & dosage , Rocuronium/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Mast Cells/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Random Allocation , Cell Degranulation/drug effects , Cell Aggregation/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Diet Therapy/methods , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Mast Cells/pathology
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 555-565, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007333

ABSTRACT

Species of Polygala genus have been used for the treatment of inflamation and pain in Turkish traditional medicine. The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of P. anatolica. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The methanol extracts prepared from the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were found to be active in carrageenan- and PGE2-induced paw edema models and in Whittle method. Methanolic extract of the aerial part inhibited serotonin-induced hind paw edema, while the root extract did not exert inhibitory effect in the same model. In addition, Fr. B and C obtained from the methanol extract of P. anatolica aerial parts showed significant anti- inflammatory activity. Morover, the analgesic effect of the methanol extracts prepared from the roots and aerial parts and Fr.B and Fr.C were found to be statistically significant without inducing ulceration. The methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts of the plant and its saponoside and flavonoid fractions showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the trials.


Las especies del género Polygala se han utilizado para el tratamiento de la inflamación y el dolor en la medicina tradicional turca. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar las actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas de P. anatolica. Se investigaron los extractos de n-hexano, acetato de etilo y metanol de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica por sus efectos antiinflamatorios y analgésicos. Los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica se encontraron activos en modelos de edema de pata inducidos por carragenina y PGE2 por el método de Whittle. El extracto metanólico de la parte aérea inhibió el edema de la pata trasera inducido por serotonina, mientras que el extracto de raíz no ejerció un efecto inhibidor en el mismo modelo. En suma, la fracción B y C obtenidos a partir del extracto metanólico de partes aéreas de P. anatolica mostraron actividad antiinflamatoria significativa. Además, el efecto analgésico de los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las raíces y las partes aéreas y la fracción B y C resultaron ser estadísticamente significativas sin inducir la ulceración. El extracto de metanol obtenido de las partes aéreas de la planta y sus fracciones de saponósidos y flavonoides mostraron actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas en los ensayos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polygala , Edema/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Plant Roots/chemistry , Methanol/pharmacology , Edema/chemically induced , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(4): 522-528, ago. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950045

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La albúmina modificada por la isquemia puede aumentar en el asma (IMA), estrés oxidativo y la inflamación. El objetivo fue evaluar las concentraciones de IMA en niños asmáticos durante períodos asintomáticos y de exacerbación. Población y métodos. Niños asmáticos y sanos en seguimiento (grupo de referencia). La gravedad de la exacerbación se evaluó mediante la Iniciativa global para el asma (GINA) y la puntuación del índice pulmonar modificado (MPIS). Se usaron pruebas intraepidérmicas y de proteína C reactiva para medir las concentraciones séricas de IMA durante la exacerbación y 4 semanas después del tratamiento. Resultados. Participaron 26 pacientes y 26 controles. Las concentraciones medias de IMA durante la exacerbación (0,45 ± 0,12 ABSU) y durante el período de estabilidad (0,41 ± 0,14 ABSU) fueron mayores que en los niños sanos (0,32 ± 0,08 ABSU): p= 0,001 y p= 0,005, respectivamente. No hubo diferencias en IMA al agrupar a los pacientes por tratamiento antiinflamatorio, infección de las vías respiratorias altas previa a la exacerbación, concentraciones de PCR o sensibilidad a las pruebas intraepidérmicas. Las concentraciones fueron más elevadas en los pacientes con exacerbación grave que leve/moderada (p= 0,009). La correlación entre IMA y la gravedad de la exacerbación (r: 0,498; p= 0,010) fue positiva. Conclusiones. Los niños asmáticos presentaron concentraciones de IMA más elevadas que el grupo de referencia, tanto en el período de estabilidad como durante la exacerbación. Hubo una relación positiva entre las concentraciones de IMA y la gravedad de la exacerbación.


Introduction: Hypoxia may occur in the severe exacerbations of asthma. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) may increase in ischemia, in addition to oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim was to evaluate IMA levels in children during the asthma exacerbation and the asymptomatic period. Populations and methods: Children with asthma who were followed up in our clinic were included and healthy children were selected as the control group. The severity of exacerbation was evaluated with Global Initiative for Asthma and Modified Pulmonary Index Score. Serum IMA levels were measured at the time of exacerbation and 4 weeks after treatment during asymptomatic period. Skin prick test and C reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured. Results: A total of 26 patients and 26 controls were included. Mean IMA level was 0.45+0.12 absorbance units -ABSU- during asthma exacerbation and 0.32+0.08 ABSU in the control group (p=0.001). Mean IMA levels (0.41+0.14 ABSU) during the stable period were higher than the control group (p=0.005). There was no difference in terms of IMA levels when patients were grouped according to anti-inflammatory treatment, upper respiratory tract infection before exacerbation, CRP levels or sensitivity of skin prick tests. However, IMA levels were higher in patients with severe asthma exacerbation (p=0.009) in comparison with mild/moderate exacerbation. Positive correlation was observed between IMA levels and severity of exacerbation (r: 0.498, p=0.010). Conclusions: Asthmatic children had higher IMA levels than the control group, both in stable and exacerbated asthma. There was a positive relationship between IMA levels and severity of asthma exacerbation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Asthma/physiopathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Asthma/drug therapy , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Skin Tests/methods , Biomarkers/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(4): 323-329, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950469

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the response to sub-Tenon's triamcinolone injection in patients with uveitis. Methods: We studied 28 eyes with macular edema associated with controlled uveitis. We administered sub-Tenon's injection of triamcinolone and followed the patients for 180 days to analyze the positive effects (improvement of macular edema and visual acuity) and monitor the possible adverse effects. This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Results: We observed improvement in macular edema in 86% of patients. The mean central macular thickness at each time point of assessment was 432.22, 298.80, 286.37, 267.49, 253.87, and 253.49 mm at baseline (before sub-Tenon's injection of triamcinolone), 15 days after the procedure, at 30 days, at 60 days, at 90 days, and at 180 days, respectively. The mean reduction in retinal thickness was 30.8%, 33.7%, 38.11%, 41.2%, and 41.35% at 15, 30, 60, 90, and 180 days of follow-up, respectively. Visual acuity also improved in 85.7% of patients, with a mean improvement of 1.36, 1.93, 2.23, 2.26, and 2.30 lines gained on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart at 15, 30, 60, 90, and 180 days of follow-up, respectively. No statistically significant increases in intraocular pressure and conjunctival abnormalities were caused by the procedure, and no other adverse effects were observed. Overall, the results of this study were similar to those described in the literature. Conclusions: Sub-Tenon's injection of triamcinolone provides reduced macular thickness and improvement in visual acuity with no significant adverse effects and is therefore an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of sequelae of uveitis.


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar os efeitos da injeção subtenoniana de triancinolona em pacientes com uveítes. Métodos: Foram incluídos na avaliação 28 olhos com edema macular associado à uveíte. Esses pacientes foram submetidos à injeção subtenoniana de triancinolona e acompanhados ao longo de 180 dias, para analisar os efeitos em relação à melhora do edema macular, da acuidade visual e acompanhamento de possíveis efeitos adversos. Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo, realizado no Serviço de Oftalmologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Resultados: Foi verificada melhora do edema macular em 86% dos pacientes, sendo uma redução média da espessura retiniana de 30,8% aos 15 dias, 33,7% aos 30 dias, 38,11% aos 60 dias, 41,2% aos 90 dias e 41,35% aos 180 dias de seguimento. Também foi observado melhora da acuidade visual em 85,7% dos pacientes e ganho de linhas na tabela de acuidade visual, sendo 1,36 linhas aos 15 dias de seguimento, 1,93 linhas aos 30 dias, 2,23 linhas aos 60 dias, 2,26 linhas aos 90 dias e 2,30 linhas aos 180 dias. Não houve significância estatística em relação ao aumento da pressão intraocular e às alterações conjuntivais causadas pelo procedimento, sem detecção de qualquer outro efeito colateral. Foi concluído que os resultados encontrados nesse estudo são similares aos descritos na literatura. Conclusões: A injeção subtenoniana de triancinolona é um procedimento eficaz e seguro para o tratamento das sequelas por quadros de uveítes, proporcionando redução da espessura macular e melhora da acuidade visual, sem relação com efeitos adversos significativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Uveitis/drug therapy , Triamcinolone Acetonide/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Uveitis/complications , Visual Acuity , Macular Edema/etiology , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Intravitreal Injections , Intraocular Pressure
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