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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1837-1845, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528786

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The potential anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity of polyphenolic extracts of blueberry and grape was evaluated in a mouse model of lung damage induced by subcutaneous administration of bleomycin. The results of testing the polyphenolic extracts on two different systemic administration variants of bleomycin (intraperitoneal and subcutaneous) were compared. It was found that regardless of the method of bleomycin administration, indirect cross-acute and subacute damage to the pulmonary system was observed. Both patterns exhibited the same prevalence and severity. The administration of polyphenolic extracts of blueberry and grape to mice resulted in a significant decrease in theseverity of acute and subacute patterns of lung damage, suggesting their protective properties for the microcirculatory bed and a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect.


La potencial actividad antiinflamatoria y antifibrótica de los extractos polifenólicos de arándano y uva se evaluó en un modelo de daño pulmonar en ratón inducido por la administración subcutánea de bleomicina. Se compararon los resultados de las pruebas de los extractos polifenólicos en dos variantes diferentes de administración sistémica de bleomicina (intraperitoneal y subcutánea). Se encontró que, independientemente del método de administración de bleomicina, se observaba daño indirecto cruzado, agudo y subagudo al sistema pulmonar. Ambos patrones exhibieron la misma prevalencia y gravedad. La administración de extractos polifenólicos de arándano y uva a ratones dio como resultado una disminución significativa en la gravedad de los patrones agudos y subagudos de daño pulmonar, lo que sugiere sus propiedades protectoras del lecho micro- circulatorio y un efecto antiinflamatorio pronunciado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bleomycin/toxicity , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Polyphenols/administration & dosage , Blueberry Plants/chemistry , Vitis/chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 625-633, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440306

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: One of the reasons for acute kidney damage is renal ischemia. Nevertheless, there are limited protective and therapeutic approaches for this problem. Diacerein is an anti-inflammatory drug characterized by numerous biological activities. We aimed to determine the ameliorative impact of diacerein on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) condition, exploring the underlying mechanisms. Twenty-four male rats were allotted into four groups (n= 6): sham group; Diacerein (DIA) group; I/R group, in which a non-crushing clamp occluded the left renal pedicle for 45 min, and the right kidney was nephrectomized for 5 min before the reperfusion process; I/R + diacerein group, injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg diacerein/kg i.m 30 minutes prior to I/R operation. Ischemia/ reperfusion was found to affect renal function and induce histopathological alterations. The flow cytometry analysis demonstrated an elevated expression of innate and mature dendritic cells in I/R renal tissues. Moreover, upregulation in the expression of the inflammatory genes (TLR4, Myd88, and NLRP3), and overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β), apoptotic (caspase-3) and pyroptotic (caspase-1) markers were observed in I/R-experienced animals. The aforementioned deteriorations were mitigated by pre-I/R diacerein treatment. Diacerein alleviated I/R-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, it could be a promising protective agent against I/R.


La isquemia renal es una de los motivos del daño renal agudo. Sin embargo, los enfoques protectores y terapéuticos para este problema son limitados. La diacereína es un fármaco antiinflamatorio caracterizado por numerosas actividades biológicas. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el impacto de mejora de la diacereína en la condición de lesión por isquemia/ reperfusión renal (I/R), explorando los mecanismos subyacentes. Veinticuatro ratas macho se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos (n= 6): grupo simulado; grupo de diacereína (DIA); grupo I/R, en el que una pinza no aplastante ocluyó el pedículo renal izquierdo durante 45 min, y el riñón derecho fue nefrectomizado durante 5 min antes del proceso de reperfusión; Grupo I/R + diacereína, inyectado por vía intraperitoneal con 50 mg de diacereína/kg i.m. 30 min antes de la operación I/R. Se encontró que la isquemia/ reperfusión afecta la función renal e induce alteraciones histopatológicas. El análisis de citometría de flujo demostró una expresión elevada de células dendríticas innatas y maduras en tejidos renales I/R. Además, se observó una regulación positiva en la expresión de los genes inflamatorios (TLR4, Myd88 y NLRP3) y una sobreexpresión de las citoquinas proinflamatorias (IL-1β), marcadores apoptóticos (caspasa-3) y piroptóticos (caspasa-1) en animales con experiencia en I/R. Los deterioros antes mencionados fueron mitigados por el tratamiento previo a la diacereína I/R. La diacereína alivió la inflamación y la apoptosis inducidas por I/R. Por lo tanto, podría ser un agente protector prometedor contra I/R.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/immunology , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Anthraquinones/immunology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney Diseases/immunology
3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 52 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437572

ABSTRACT

A obesidade está associada ao desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis como hipertensão, resistência insulínica, dislipidemia e esteatose hepática. O consumo de compostos bioativos impacta na manutenção da saúde e na prevenção de risco de desenvolvimento dessas doenças. Entre os compostos bioativos, os monoterpenos são pouco investigados, apesar da literatura demonstrar efeitos promissores desses compostos sobre o metabolismo. O D-limoneno, o principal monoterpeno encontrado na laranja, é caracterizado por possuir efeitos hipolipemiantes, anti-inflamatórios e anti-obesogênicos. Estudos in vitro e in vivo descrevem sua capacidade de promover a ß-oxidação de ácidos graxos em adipócitos e redução da inflamação. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o efeito do D-limoneno no metabolismo e inflamação em um modelo de obesidade induzida por dieta. Para isso, quarenta camundongos machos (C57/Bl6) de 11 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em 4 grupos, sendo que um dos grupos recebeu ração normolipídica e os demais, ração hiperlipídica. O D-limoneno foi suplementado na ração de dois grupos que receberam dieta hiperlipídica nas concentrações de 0,1%, e 0,8%. Considerando-se a ingestão alimentar dos animais, a ração suplementada com 0,1% D-limoneno correspondeu à ingestão de 0,15 g/kg/dia e ração com 0,8% de D-limoneno correspondeu a 1,3 g/kg/dia. Os animais tiveram o peso e a ingestão alimentar monitorados ao longo da intervenção com duração de 7 semanas. Os camundongos que receberam D-limoneno a 0,1% apresentaram menor ganho de peso e de acúmulo de tecido adiposo, comparado com os animais sem suplementação alimentados com a dieta hiperlipídica. Além disso, o D-limoneno promoveu a diminuição da concentração plasmática de marcadores inflamatórios incluindo TNF-α, INF-γ e IL-6 nos animais dos grupos que foram suplementados com D-limoneno. Entretanto, não houve diferença nos marcadores bioquímicos e metabólicos. Uma limitação do estudo foi o fato das complicações metabólicas associadas ao modelo de obesidade não terem sido plenamente estabelecidas, dados o alojamento individual, à curta duração da exposição à ração hiperlipídica e idade dos animais no início da suplementação. Esse fato pode ter dificultado a observação dos efeitos do D-limoneno na reversão dos parâmetros que seriam normalmente deteriorados pelo desenvolvimento da obesidade. Concluímos que o D-limoneno pode interferir no metabolismo energético, com possível efeito anti-obesogênico e anti-inflamatório. Devido às limitações do modelo, são necessários mais estudos para confirmar esses resultados


Obesity is associated with the development of chronic non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. The intake of dietary bioactive compounds is associated with the maintenance of health and the prevention of chronic diseases. Among the group of bioactive compounds, monoterpenes are poorly investigated, in spite of several reports of their promising effects on metabolism. D-limonene is the main monoterpene found in oranges, known for its hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesogenic effects. in vitro and in vivo studies associate D-limonene to increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids in adipocytes and reduced inflammation. This study aimed at investigating the effects of D-limonene on metabolism and inflammation in a diet-induced obesity model. For this purpose, forty male mice (C57/Bl6) were distributed in 4 groups, with one group receiving a normolipidic diet and the others, a high-fat diet. D-limonene was supplemented in the diets of two groups that received high-fat diet at the concentrations of 0.1% and 0.8%. Considering the feed intake, mice receiving D-limonene supplementation at 0.1% ingested in average 0.15 g/kg/day, while the mice receiving the supplemmentation at 0.8%, ingested approximately 1.3 g of D-limonene /kg/day. The animals had their weight and food intake monitored throughout the intervention. Mice that received Dlimonene supplementation at 0.1% showed reduced weight gain and accumulation of adipose tissue compared to the non-supplemented mice fed the high-fat diet. In addition, D-limonene promoted a decrease in hepatic inflammatory markers including TNF-α, INF-γ, and IL-6. However, there was no difference in biochemical and metabolic markers. A limitation of the study was that the metabolic complications associated with the obesity model were not fully established, probably due to the age at the start of the protocol (11 weeks), individual housing and short duration of the exposure to the high-fat feed. This fact may have prevented the observation of the positive effects of D-limonene in reversing parameters that would normally be impaired by the development of obesity. We conclude that D-limonene may interfere in energy metabolism, with a possible anti-obesogenic and anti-inflammatory effect. Due to the limitations of the model, further studies are needed to confirm these findings


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Limonene/adverse effects , Obesity/chemically induced , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Chronic Disease/classification , Citrus sinensis/metabolism , Monoterpenes/analysis , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Inflammation/complications , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 122-128, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385569

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Induction of osteoarthritis (OA) following diabetes is characterized by a sever inflammation of the joints that can lead to disability. The cartilage content of proteoglycans can substantially be reduced, following the induction of diabetes mellitus associated with inflammation as well as knee joint injury, and the antidiabetic drug metformin combined with the anti-inflammatory agent resveratrol can prevent these deleterious effects. Therefore, insulin-independent diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was induced in Albino rats by streptozotocin (STZ) injection (50 mg/kg) after being fed on a high carbohydrate and fat diets for 2 weeks. The protective group of rats which also received a single injection of STZ was treated daily with metformin (Met; 200 mg/kg) and resveratrol (Res; 30 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. Harvested knee joint tissues were prepared for basic histology stain and for proteoglycans staining using light microscopy. Histology images showed in diabetic rats (T2DM) OA development as demonstrated by profound injury to the knee joint and severe decrease of articular cartilage proteoglycans content, which were substantialy protected by Met+Res. Met+Res also significantly (p< 0.0001) decreased diabetes induced glycemia, dyslipidemia, and the inflammatory biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In addition, there was a significant correlation between OA and glycemia, dyslipidemia, and inflammation. Collectively, we demonstrate an association between knee joint damage and biomarkers of glycemia, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in diabetes-induced OA, with metformin plus resveratrol providing protective effects.


RESUMEN: La inducción de osteoartritis (OA) después de la diabetes se caracteriza por una inflamación severa de las articulaciones que puede conducir a la discapacidad. El contenido de cartílago de proteoglicanos se puede reducir sustancialmente, luego de la inducción de diabetes mellitus asociada con inflamación y lesión en la articulación de la rodilla sin embargo, el fármaco antidiabético metformina combinado con el agente antiinflamatorio resveratrol puede prevenir estos efectos nocivos. Por lo tanto, se indujo diabetes insulino dependiente, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (T2DM) en ratas albinas mediante inyección de estreptozotocina (STZ) (50 mg/kg) después de haber sido alimentadas con dietas ricas en carbohidratos y grasas durante 2 semanas. El grupo protector de ratas que también recibió una inyección única de STZ fue tratado diariamente con metformina (Met; 200 mg/kg) y resveratrol (Res; 30 mg/kg) durante 12 semanas. Tejidos de la articulación de la rodilla fueon retirados y teñidos con histología básica y tinción de proteoglicanos usando microscopía óptica. Las imágenes histológicas en ratas diabéticas mostraban (T2DM) desarrollo de OA visualizadas por una lesión profunda en la articulación de la rodilla y una disminución severa del contenido de proteoglicanos del cartílago articular, los cuales estaban sustancialmente protegidos por Met+Res. Met+Res. También disminuyó significativamente (p< 0,0001) la glucemia inducida por la diabetes, la dislipidemia y los biomarcadores inflamatorios, el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), la interleucina-6 (IL-6) y la proteína C reactiva de alta sensibilidad (PCR-hs). Además, hubo una correlación significativa entre la OA y la glucemia, la dislipidemia y la inflamación. En conjunto, demostramos una asociación entre el daño de la articulación de la rodilla y los biomarcadores de glucemia, dislipidemia e inflamación en la OA inducida por diabetes, con metformina más resveratrol que brindan efectos protectores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoarthritis/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage , Proteoglycans/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 62 p. graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378655

ABSTRACT

As Células-Tronco Mesenquimais (CTMs), são células multipotentes, presentes em diversos tecidos, sendo bastante estudada devido sua capacidade imunorregulatória por meio da liberação de fatores solúveis. Fatores estes que atuam sobre as funções de células do sistema imunitário. Simultaneamente, estudos indicam que os compostos flavonoides, em destaque a Delfinidina, presente em alguns frutos e flores, possuem atuação anti-inflamatória e inibitória sobre células do sistema imunitário. Todavia, são escassos os estudos em relação entre a capacidade imunorregulatória da CTM e a influência da Delfinidina, sendo este o objetivo deste estudo. Inicialmente, a Delfinidina 3-O-ß-D-glicosídeo foi escolhido, devido a sua maior estabilidade e a dose de 50 µM foi selecionada após análise por citometria de fluxo que mostrou aumento da fase proliferativa do ciclo celular. Posteriormente ao realizar análise da produção de fatores solúveis pelas CTM, os resultados mostraram aumento da produção de IL-10, TGF-ß e Oxido nítrico pelas CTM tratadas com Delfinidina. Bem como, diminuição da expressão de p-NF-κB/NF-κB pelas CTMs tratadas com Delfinidina, quando avaliadas por Wersten Blot. Adicionalmente, para analisar a Delfinidina sobre os efeitos imunorregulatórios da CTM sob macrófagos (RAW 264.7), célula esta, importante no sistema imune inato. Foram realizadas culturas condicionadas, com posterior análise da produção de fatores solúveis, os resultados mostraram aumento da produção de IL-10, e diminuição da produção de TNF-α, IL-1α e IL-12 pelos macrófagos, nas culturas condicionadas. Assim como, diminuição da expressão do fator p-NF-κB/NF-κB pelos macrófagos nas culturas condicionadas, quando avaliadas por Wersten Blot. Ademais, ao analisar a atividade metabólica dos macrófagos por ensaio de MTT, os resultados mostraram que as culturas condicionadas e a Delfinidina per si foi capaz de diminuir a atividade metabólica, sem alterar os efeitos anti-inflamatórios sobre a célula. Em síntese, a Delfinidina mostrou acentuar a atuação imunorregulatória da CTM sobre a linhagem macrofágica, célula esta, de grande importância para o sistema imune inato


Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells present in various tissues, being widely studied due to their immunoregulatory capacity through the release of soluble factors. These factors act on the functions of cells of the immune system. Simultaneously, studies indicate that flavonoid compounds, especially Delphinidin, present in some fruits and flowers, have anti inflammatory and inhibitory effects on immune system cells. However, there are few studies on the relationship between the immunoregulatory capacity of MSC and the influence of Delphinidin, which is the objective of this study. Initially, Delphinidin 3-O-ß-D-glycoside was chosen due to its greater stability and the 50 µM dose was selected after analysis by flow cytometry which showed an increase in the proliferative phase of the cell cycle. Subsequently, when analyzing the production of soluble factors by MSCs, the results showed an increase in the production of IL-10, TGF-ß and nitric oxide by MSCs treated with Delphinidin. As well as decreased expression of p-NF-κB/NF-κB by MSCs treated with Delphinidin, when evaluated by Wersten Blot. Additionally, to analyze Delphinidin on the immunoregulatory effects of MSC on macrophages (RAW 264.7), this cell is important in the innate immune system. Conditioned cultures were performed, with subsequent analysis of the production of soluble factors, the results showed an increase in the production of IL-10, and a decrease in the production of TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-12 by macrophages, in the conditioned cultures. As well as decreased expression of p-NF-κB/NF-κB factor by macrophages in conditioned cultures, when evaluated by Wersten Blot. Furthermore, when analyzing the metabolic activity of macrophages by MTT assay, the results showed that conditioned cultures and Delphinidin itself was able to decrease the metabolic activity, without altering the anti-inflammatory effects on the cell. In summary, Delphinidin has shown to enhance the immunoregulatory action of MSC on the macrophage lineage, a cell that is of great importance for the innate immune system


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/analysis , Immune System , Transforming Growth Factors , Interleukin-1/adverse effects , Interleukin-10/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/classification , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 97 p. graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416767

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of mortality worldwide, being the ischemic heart disease responsible for 85% of deaths. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the arteries that underlies ischemic forms of CVD and involves the innate and adaptive immune systems, from initial fatty streak formation to atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, which defines the beginning and end stages of disease, respectively. Recent research on the reduction of systemic inflammation in order to treat CVD is controversial, since results show that this reduced inflammation can also increase patient susceptibility to general infection. Therefore, new tissue-targeting strategies are necessary. Docosahexaenoic fatty acid (DHA) is a natural bioactive precursor of pro-resolving oxylipins that can reduce inflammation. Based on these factors, the objective of this study was to develop a nanocapsule containing algae oil as a DHA source and apply anti-PECAM-1 on its surface to drive it to the inflamed endothelium. Initially, a surface-functionalized metal-complex multi-wall nanocapsule containing algae oil in its nucleus (MLNC-DHA-a1) was developed. This nanocapsules presented a mean diameter of 163 ± 5 nm, was spherical in shape, showed 94.80% conjugation efficiency using 200 µg/mL of anti-PECAM-1 on the surface, and did not show significant toxicity toward HUVECs at concentrations from 0.14 to 2.90x1011 nanocapsules/mL. The nanocapsules were also stable for 2 h, sufficient time to allow for clinical applications. In cell viability assays, concentrations of 0.14 to 1.40x1011 nanocapsules/mL did not significantly affect the viability of immortalized murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and U-937 cells after 24, 48, and 72 h of treatment. Finally, macrophages were incubated with 0.75x1011 MLNC-DHA-a1 nanocapsules/mL for 4 h and showed a significant uptake, observed using dark-field hyperspectral microscopy (CytoViva®). Once inside murine macrophages (RAW 264.7), MLNC-DHA-a1 nanocapsules promoted a strong increase in M2 phenotype polarization compared to non-treated control cells. Our results suggest that DHA-enriched algae oil, as part of a lipid core nanocapsules, does not reduce cell viability and improves macrophage phenotype, making it a promising potential therapy for controlling chronic inflammation and healing or stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques


As doenças cardiovasculares (DCVs) são a principal causa de mortalidade no mundo, sendo os eventos isquêmicos responsáveis por 85% das mortes. A aterosclerose é uma inflamação crônica das artérias associada aos eventos isquêmicos das DCVs, na qual o sistema imunológico inato e adaptativo estão envolvidos desde a formação inicial das estrias gordurosas até a ruptura das placas ateroscleróticas. Pesquisas recentes direcionadas à redução da inflamação sistêmica têm mostrado resultados controversos, pois essa abordagem pode aumentar a susceptibilidade do paciente a infecções. Nesse sentido, novas estratégias direcionadas ao tecido lesionado são necessárias. No que se refere a medicamentos anti-inflamatórios ou suplementos alimentares, o ácido docosaexaenóico (DHA) tem sido relatado como um precursor natural de oxilipinas pró- resolutivas. Baseado nesse contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver nanocápsulas contendo óleo de alga como fonte de DHA e vetorizar essas nanopartículas com o anticorpo antiPECAM-1 em sua superfície, visando direcioná-las ao endotélio inflamado. Inicialmente, a nanocápsula multiparede metal-complexa funcionalizada contendo óleo de alga em seu núcleo (MLNC-DHA-a1) foi desenvolvida, apresentando um diâmetro médio de 163 ± 5 nm, formato esférico, onde a eficiência de conjugação do anti-PECAM-1 (200 µg/mL) foi de 94,80% sem toxicidade significativa em HUVECs nas concentrações de 1.14 a 2.9 x 1011 nanocápsulas/mL. As nanocápsulas apresentaram uma estabilidade de 2h, o que representa tempo suficiente para a sua aplicação clínica. A seguir, ensaios de viabilidade celular foram realizados em outras linhagens de células para avaliar a toxicidade das nanocápsulas. As concentrações de 0.14 a 1.40 x 1011 de nanocápsulas/mL não afetaram significativamente a viabilidade celular de macrófagos murinos imortalizados (RAW 264.7) e U-937 após 24, 48 e 72 h de tratamento. Por fim, os macrófagos (RAW 264.7) foram incubados com 0.75 x 1011 MLNC-DHA-a1/mL durante 4 h e apresentam uma captação significativa das nanocápsulas, observada por microscopia hiperespectral de campo escuro (CytoViva®). Uma vez captadas pelos macrófagos murinos imortalizados (RAW 264.7), as nanoformulações MLNC-DHA-a1 promoveram um forte aumento da polarização do fenótipo M2 em comparação com as células controle não tratadas. Nossos resultados sugerem que o óleo de alga rico em DHA presente no núcleo lipídico das nanocápsulas, não reduziu a viabilidade celular e estimulou uma maior polarização de macrófagos para o tipo M2, sendo assim uma terapia potencial para controlar a inflamação crônica e cicatrizar ou estabilizar placas ateroscleróticas


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/classification , Docosahexaenoic Acids/analysis , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Nanocapsules/analysis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/metabolism , Arteries/abnormalities , Causality , Health Strategies , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Nanoparticles , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
7.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(nspe1): e312, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1393874

ABSTRACT

En abril de 2020, durante el pico de la pandemia COVID-19 producida por el coronavirus emergente SARS-CoV-2, en el Reino Unido se comunicaron casos de shock hiperinflamatorio de características similares a la enfermedad de Kawasaki y el síndrome de shock tóxico en un grupo de ocho niños. El Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health lo denominó síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico pediátrico temporalmente asociado con COVID-19 (SIM-C). Actualmente, el SIM-C es una enfermedad infrecuente, solapada con otras entidades, que requiere una alta sospecha clínica para identificarlo oportunamente. El síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico temporal asociado con SARS-CoV-2 pediátrico (PIMST) es una nueva entidad clínica con un amplio espectro de presentación postexposición al virus, inmunomediado con hiperinflamación y activación de una tormenta de citoquinas. Ocurre típicamente entre la segunda y cuarta semana de evolución. Se describen marcadores de inflamación característicamente elevados, como son la ferritina, proteína C reactiva (PCR), velocidad de eritrosedimentación (VES), lactato deshidrogenasa y dímero-D, asociados a neutropenia, linfopenia y anemia. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) define: caso a menores de 19 años con fiebre ≥3 días, marcadores inflamatorios elevados, evidencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y ninguna otra etiología microbiana; con afectación de al menos dos sistemas: dermatológico (rash, conjuntivitis no exudativa, inflamación mucocutánea), hemodinámico (hipotensión, shock), cardíaco (disfunción de miocardio, pericardio, valvular o coronario), hematológico (coagulopatía), digestivo (vómitos, diarrea, dolor abdominal). Considerando la gravedad de esta nueva entidad, es necesario el reconocimiento oportuno y referencia temprana para atención especiaizada y tratamiento oportuno.


Summary: In April 2020, during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the emerging coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, 8 children reported cases of hyperinflammatory toxic shock with characteristics similar to Kawasaki disease and syndrome in the United Kingdom. The Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health has called it pediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) temporally associated with COVID-19. Currently, MIS-C is a rare disease, overlapping with other conditions, which requires a high clinical suspicion for its timely identification. Pediatric SARS-CoV-2-associated temporary multisystem inflammatory syndrome (TMIS-C) is a new clinical entity with a broad spectrum of presentation after exposure to the virus, immune-mediated with hyperinflammation and activation of a cytokine storm. It typically occurs between the 2nd to 4th week of evolution. Characteristically elevated markers of inflammation are described, such as ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lactate dehydrogenase and D-dimer, associated with neutropenia, lymphopenia and anemia. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines it as: a case under 19 years of age with fever ≥ 3 days, elevated inflammatory markers, evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and no other microbial etiology; with involvement of at least 2 systems: dermatological (rash, non-exudative conjunctivitis, mucocutaneous inflammation), hemodynamic (hypotension, shock), cardiac (myocardial, pericardial, valvular, or coronary dysfunction), hematologic (coagulopathy), digestive (vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain) Considering the seriousness of this new entity, timely recognition and early referral for specialized care and timely treatment are key.


No mês de abril de 2020, durante o pico da pandemia de COVID-19 causada pelo emergente coronavírus SARS-CoV-2, 8 casos de crianças com choque hiperinflamatório com características semelhantes à doença e síndrome de Kawasaki foram relatados no Reino Unido. O Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health nomeou-o como síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica pediátrica (MIS) temporariamente associada ao COVID-19. Atualmente, o SIM-C é uma doença rara, sobrepondo-se a outras entidades, o que requer alta suspeição clínica para sua identificação oportuna. A síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica temporária associada ao SARS-CoV-2 pediátrico (SIMT) é uma nova entidade clínica com amplo espectro de apresentação após exposição ao vírus, imunomediada com hiperinflamação e ativação de uma tempestade de citocinas. Geralmente ocorre entre a 2ª a 4ª semana de evolução. São descritos marcadores de inflamação caracteristicamente elevados, como ferritina, proteína C reativa (PCR), velocidade de hemossedimentação (VHS), lactato desidrogenase e D-dímero, associados a neutropenia, linfopenia e anemia. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) a define como: caso de menor de 19 anos com febre ≥ 3 dias, marcadores inflamatórios elevados, evidência de infecção por SARS-CoV-2 e nenhuma outra etiologia microbiana; com envolvimento de pelo menos 2 sistemas: dermatológico (erupção cutânea, conjuntivite não exsudativa, inflamação mucocutânea), hemodinâmica (hipotensão, choque), cardíaca (disfunção miocárdica, pericárdica, valvar ou coronariana), hematológica (coagulopatia), digestiva (vômitos, diarreia, dor abdominal) Considerando a gravidade dessa nova entidade, é necessário o reconhecimento oportuno e encaminhamento precoce para atendimento especializado e tratamento oportuno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Immunoglobulins/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21189, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420458

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease that utilizes nonbiologic and biologic drugs for appropriate disease management. However, high cost, adverse effects, reduced effectiveness, and risk of infection have stimulated the search for safer and more efficacious therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of eucalyptol in an experimental model of arthritis. Mice were administered zymosan or saline intra-articularly. One hour before the zymosan administration, the mice were treated with oral eucalyptol (200-400 mg/kg) and vehicle. Cell influx, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were measured in joint exudates. Joint pain was assessed using paw-pressure tests. Orally administered eucalyptol (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced cell influx, as well as neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, when compared with the control. Eucalyptol at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly reversed joint pain and demonstrated analgesic activity (60%); however, 200 mg/kg failed to alter joint pain. These results indicate that oral eucalyptol promotes anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in mice subjected to zymosan-induced arthritis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Arthritis/chemically induced , Zymosan/pharmacology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Eucalyptol/analysis , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
9.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e200119, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective 5-Hydroxytryptophan is the precursor compound of serotonin biosynthesis. The oral absorption of 5-Hydroxytryptophan is close to 100% and, unlike serotonin, it crosses the blood-brain barrier freely. 5-Hydroxytryptophan has been used as a food supplement for many years to treat anxiety and depression. Recent studies have shown that 5-Hydroxytryptophan suppresses the pro-inflammatory mediators and is effective in some inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis and allergic asthma. However, the role of 5-Hydroxytryptophan supplements on acute peripheral inflammation has not been investigated yet. In this study, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of 5-Hydroxytryptophan was evaluated with a carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in mice. Methods For the investigation of the acute antiinflammatory activity, single oral doses of 5-Hydroxytryptophan (1.5, 5 and 20mg/kg) were given to mice 1.5 hours prior to the carrageenan test. For chronic activity, the same oral doses were administered daily for two weeks prior to the carrageenan test on the 14th day. To induce inflammation, 0.01mL of 2% carrageenan was injected into the paws of mice. Results Supplementation with 5-Hydroxytryptophan significantly reduced inflammation in a dose-independent manner which was irrespective of the duration of exposure (per cent inhibition in acute experiments was 35.4%, 20.9%, 24.0%, and per cent inhibition in chronic experiments was 29.5%, 35.3%, 40.8% for the doses of 1.5, 5, and 20mg/kg, respectively). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate for the first time that 5-HTP supplements have the potential of suppressing the measures of acute peripheral inflammation. It is suggested that, apart from several diseases where serotonin is believed to play an important role, including depression, patients with inflammatory conditions may also benefit from 5-HTP.


RESUMO Objetivo O 5-hidroxitriptofano (5-HTP) é o composto precursor da biossíntese da serotonina. A absorção oral do 5-HTP é próxima a 100% e, ao contrário da serotonina, atravessa a barreira hematoencefálica livremente. O 5-HTP tem sido usado como suplemento alimentar por muitos anos na ansiedade e na depressão. Estudos recentes demonstraram que o 5-HTP suprime os mediadores pró-inflamatórios e é eficaz em algumas doenças inflamatórias, como artrite e asma alérgica. No entanto, o papel dos suplementos de 5-HTP na inflamação periférica aguda ainda não foi investigado. Neste estudo, a atividade anti-inflamatória in vivo do 5-HTP foi avaliada por meio do teste de edema de pata induzido por carragenina em ratos. Métodos Para a atividade aguda, doses orais únicas de 5 -HTP (1,5, 5 e 20 mg/kg) foram dados aos ratos 1,5 horas antes do teste da carragenina. Para a atividade crônica, as mesmas doses orais foram dadas cada dia durante duas semanas antes do teste da carragenina no 14º dia. 0,01ml da carragenina a 2% foi injetado nas patas dos ratos a fim de induzir a inflamação. Resultados A suplementação com 5-HTP reduziu significativamente a inflamação de uma maneira independente da dose, que foi independente da duração da exposição (por cento de inibição em experimentos agudos; 35,4%, 20,9%, 24,0% e por cento de inibição em experimentos crônicos; 29,5%, 35,3%, 40,8% para as doses de 1.5, 5 e 20 mg/kg respectivamente). Conclusão Nossas conclusões demonstram pela primeira vez que os suplementos de 5-HTP têm potencial para suprimir os sintomas de inflamação periférica aguda. É sugerido que, além de várias doenças em que se acredita que a serotonina tem uma função importante, incluindo a depressão, os pacientes com doenças inflamatórias também podem se beneficiar do 5-HTP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Carrageenan , 5-Hydroxytryptophan/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Edema/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06533, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279531

ABSTRACT

Excessive infection and inflammation are the most common complications associated with castration. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FM), meloxicam (MX), or firocoxib (FX) for inflammation control after castration in horses using acute-phase proteins (APP) as markers of inflammation. Thirty healthy, unbroken, mixed-breed horses (body weight 358.62±45.57kg and age 4.99±2.63 years) were randomly (n=10 animals/group) allocated to receive one of three different post-castration anti-inflammatory medicines: Group 1 (FM 1.1mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days); Group 2 (MX 0.6mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days); and Group 3 (FX 0.1mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days). All horses were castrated in standing position, using the open technique. Serum and peritoneal APP concentrations were measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and determined before castration (0), and 3, 5, 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours after castration. The results were submitted to analysis of variance using the SAS statistical program, and means were compared by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p<0.05). Three animals from the MX group developed hyperthermia (with rectal temperatures of 39.8, 39.3 and 38.9°C on day 4, 5 and 6, respectively) and showed local clinical signs of inflammation (inguinal and excessive scrotal edema) and reluctance to walk, as well as a rigid gait of the hind limbs. The same complications were observed in one FX horse. No complications were observed among the FM animals. The castration resulted in significant changes in serum and peritoneal values of total proteins, ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf), albumin (Alb), haptoglobin (Hp) and α1-acid glycoprotein (Gp) in animals of all experimental groups. However, the animals of the MX and FX groups presented more intense acute phase response compared to the animals of the FM group. Changes in the APP were associated with the surgical trauma of castration, but the differences between groups were associated with the ability of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug to control the inflammation. In conclusion, and based on the findings of acute phase proteins, flunixin is more efficient to control the magnitude of inflammation following castration as compared to meloxicam and firocoxib.(AU)


Infecção e inflamação excessivas são as complicações mais comuns associadas à castração. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia do flunixin meglumine (FM), meloxicam (MX) ou firocoxib (FX) no controle da inflamação após a castração em cavalos usando proteínas da fase aguda (APP) como marcadores de inflamação. Trinta equinos saudáveis (358,62±45,57kg; 4,99±2,63 anos) foram em função dos anti-inflamatórios utilizados após as castrações aleatoriamente (n= 10 animais/grupo) alocados em três diferentes grupos: Grupo 1 (FM 1,1mg/kg de peso, IV, sid por 5 dias); Grupo 2 (MX 0,6mg/kg de peso, IV, s.i.d por 5 dias); e Grupo 3 (FX 0,1mg/kg de peso, IV, s.i.d por 5 dias). Todos os cavalos foram castrados em posição quadrupedal, utilizando a técnica aberta. As concentrações de APP sérica e peritoneal foram separadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE) com dodecil-sulfato de sódio (SDS) e determinadas no momento 0 (antes da castração) e com 3, 5, 24, 48, 72, 120 e 168 horas após a castração. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo programa estatístico SAS e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Student-Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). Três animais do grupo MX desenvolveram hipertermia (com temperatura retal de 39,8, 39,3 e 38,9° C nos dias 4, 5 e 6, respectivamente) e mostraram sinais clínicos locais de inflamação (edema inguinal e escrotal excessivo) e relutância em andar, bem como marcha rígida dos membros posteriores. As mesmas complicações foram observadas em um cavalo do FX. Não foram observadas complicações entre os animais do FM. Independente do grupo, a castração resultou em alterações significativas nos valores séricos e peritoneais de proteínas totais, ceruloplasmina (Cp), transferrina (Tf), albumina (Alb), haptoglobina (Hp) e glicoproteína ácida α1 (Gp). No entanto, os animais dos grupos MX e FX apresentaram resposta de fase aguda mais intensa quando comparados aos animais do FM. Alterações na resposta de fase aguda deveram-se ao trauma cirúrgico da castração, mas as diferenças entre os grupos foram associadas à capacidade do anti-inflamatório em controlar a inflamação. Em conclusão, baseado da resposta de fase aguda, o flunixin em comparação com o meloxicam e o firocoxib é mais eficiente no controle da inflamação após a castração em equinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acute-Phase Proteins , Castration , Meloxicam , Horses/surgery , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Body Weight , Orchiectomy
11.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 588-594, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155777

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: In shoulder arthroscopy, on an outpatient basis, the patient needs a good control of the postoperative pain that can be achieved through regional blocks. Perineural dexamethasone may prolong the effect of these blocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of perineural dexamethasone on the prolongation of the sensory block in the postoperative period for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in outpatient setting. Methods: After approval by the Research Ethics Committee and informed consent, patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia and ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block were randomized into Group D - blockade performed with 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 6 mg (1.5 mL) of dexamethasone and Group C - 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 1.5 mL of 0.9% saline. The duration of the sensory block was evaluated in 4 postoperative moments (0, 4, 12 and 24 hours) as well as the need for rescue analgesia, nausea and vomiting incidence, and Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS). Results: Seventy-four patients were recruited and 71 completed the study (Group C, n = 37; Group D, n = 34). Our findings showed a prolongation of the mean time of the sensitive blockade in Group D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min, p < 0.001). It was observed that Group C had a higher mean pain score according to VAS (2.08 ± 1.72 vs. 0.02 ± 0.17, p < 0.001) and a greater number of patients (68.4% vs. 0%, p < 0.001) required rescue analgesia in the first 24 hours. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Perineural dexamethasone significantly prolonged the sensory blockade promoted by levobupivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus block, reduced pain intensity and rescue analgesia needs in the postoperative period.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Na artroscopia de ombro em regime ambulatorial, o paciente necessita de um bom controle da dor pós-operatória, que pode ser conseguido por meio de bloqueios regionais. A dexametasona perineural pode prolongar o efeito desses bloqueios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dexametasona perineural quanto ao prolongamento do bloqueio sensitivo no período pós-operatório para cirurgia artroscópica de ombro em regime ambulatorial. Métodos: Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa e consentimento informado, foram incluídos no estudo pacientes submetidos a cirurgia artroscópica de ombro sob anestesia geral e bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico guiado por ultrassonografia. Eles foram randomizados nos Grupo D - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 6 mg (1,5 mL) de dexametasona, e Grupo C - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 1,5 mL solução salina. A duração do bloqueio sensitivo foi avaliada em quatro momentos pós-operatórios (0, 4, 12 e 24 horas), assim como a necessidade de analgesia de resgate, incidência de náuseas e vômitos e Escala Visual Analógica de Dor (EVA). Resultados: Setenta e quatro pacientes foram randomizados e 71 completaram o estudo (Grupo C, n = 37; Grupo D, n = 34). Observou-se um prolongamento do tempo médio de bloqueio sensitivo no Grupo D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min; p< 0,001). Pacientes do Grupo C apresentaram maior média de escore de dor de acordo com a EVA (2,08 ± 1,72vs. 0,02 ± 0,17; p< 0,001) e um maior número de pacientes solicitou analgesia de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas (68,4%vs.0%; p< 0,001). A incidência de náuseas e vômitos não foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: A dexametasona perineural prolongou significativamente o bloqueio sensitivo da levobupivacaína no bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico, reduziu a intensidade de dor e a necessidade de analgesia de resgate pelo paciente no período pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Saline Solution/administration & dosage , Levobupivacaine , Analgesia , Anesthetics, Local , Middle Aged
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 585-591, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098291

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen (also called paracetamol, or APAP) induced nephrotoxicity is reported after accidental or intentional ingestion of an overdose of the drug. Renal tubular ultrastructural alterations induced by APAP overdose associated with the induction of biomarkers of kidney injury have not been investigated before. Also, we investigated whether the combined polyphenolic anti-inflammatory and antioxidants agents, resveratrol (RES) and quercetin (QUR) can protect against APAP-induced acute kidney injury. The model group of rats received a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg), whereas the protective group of rats was pre-treated for 7 days with combined doses of RES (30 mg/kg) and QUR (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of APAP. All rats were then sacrificed one day post APAP ingestion. Harvested kidney tissues were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) staining and blood samples were assayed for urea, creatinine, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. TEM images and blood chemistry analysis showed that APAP overdose induced kidney damage as demonstrated by substantial alterations to the proximal convoluted tubule ultrastructure, and a significant (p<0.05) increase in urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and malondialdehyde (MDA) blood levels, which were protected by RES+QUR. These findings indicate that APAP induces alterations to the renal tubular ultrastructure, which is inhibited by resveratrol plus quercetin, which also decreases blood levels of kidney injury biomarkers.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la nefrotoxicidad inducida por acetaminofeno (también llamado paracetamol o APAP) después de la ingestión accidental o intencional de una sobredosis de la droga. Las alteraciones ultraestructurales tubulares renales inducidas por sobredosis de APAP asociadas con la inducción de biomarcadores de daño renal no se han investigado. Además, estudiamos si los agentes combinados antiinflamatorios y antioxidantes polifenólicos, el resveratrol (RES) y la quercetina (QUR) pueden proteger contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por APAP. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis única de APAP (2 g / kg), mientras que el grupo protector de ratas se trató previamente durante 7 días con dosis combinadas de RES (30 mg / kg) y QUR (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de APAP. Todas las ratas se sacrificaron un día después de la ingestión de APAP. Los tejidos renales fueron preparados para el análisis a través de la microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET). En las muestras de sangre se determinaron la urea, creatinina y los biomarcadores de inflamación y estrés oxidativo. Las imágenes MET y el análisis químico de la sangre mostraron que la sobredosis de APAP inducía daño renal, como lo demuestran las alteraciones sustanciales en la ultraestructura del túbulo contorneado proximal, y además, de un aumento significativo (p <0,05) de la urea, creatinina, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y niveles sanguíneos de malondialdehído, protegidos por RES + QUR. Estos hallazgos indican que APAP induce alteraciones en la ultraestructura tubular renal, inhibida por el resveratrol más quercetina, que también disminuye los niveles sanguíneos de biomarcadores de daño renal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Quercetin/pharmacology , Urea/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatinine/blood , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Overdose , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 340-342, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130888

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Cutaneous involvement occurs in up to 30% of patients and skin findings are often the initial presenting symptom. The facial atrophic form of sarcoidosis without associated ulceration in adolescents has rarely been described in the literature. We report a case of 13-year-old male patient with a facial atrophic sarcoidosis who was successfully treated with the combination of prednisone and hydroxychloroquine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Sarcoidosis/drug therapy , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Facial Dermatoses/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Biopsy , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Facial Dermatoses/pathology , Granuloma/pathology , Granuloma/drug therapy
14.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(2): 302-311, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127147

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Durante las primeras semanas de 2020 se comenzaron a informar casos de personas con SARS-CoV-2 fuera de China, con un rápido aumento de casos y muertes en todo el mundo. El SARS-CoV-2 es un virus ARN monocatenario positivo, envuelto en una bicapa lipídica derivada de la membrana celular del huésped y constituido por cuatro proteínas estructurales (S, M, E y N), además de una hemaglutinina-esterasa. La unión de la proteína S con el receptor de enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 (ECA2) permite la entrada del virus a la célula huésped y es una potencial diana terapéutica. El 81% de los enfermos hace cuadro leve; el 14%, grave; y el 5% requiere cuidados intensivos. La fiebre es el síntoma más frecuente, seguido de tos y disnea. La mayoría de los pacientes no presentan leucocitosis pero sí linfopenia, con cultivos de esputo que no muestran otros patógenos. En las biopsias de pulmón de pacientes graves el hallazgo más llamativo es el daño alveolar difuso. Radiológicamente se aprecian patrones de vidrio esmerilado y alveolar, siendo las lesiones de predominio basal, subpleural y posterior, con una distribución periférica multifocal, afectando más el lóbulo inferior derecho. Hay una marcada respuesta inflamatoria, que llega hasta la tormenta de citoquinas, en la que el tratamiento antiinflamatorio con terapia de pulso con metilprednisolona estaría indicado. Aunque no existan estudios en gran escala respecto al uso de cloroquina/hidroxicloroquina, debido a la situación mundial se ha autorizado su uso por su efecto anti SARS-CoV-2 y anti-inflamatorio, el cual puede ser potenciado con el uso de azitromicina.


ABSTRACT During the first weeks of 2020, cases of SARS-CoV-2 began to be reported outside of China, with a rapid increase in cases and deaths worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is a positive single-stranded RNA virus, encased in a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell membrane and consists of four structural proteins (S, M, E and N), plus a haemagglutinin-sterase. The binding of the S protein to the ECA2 receptor allows the entry of the virus into the host cell and is a potential therapeutic target. 81% of patients develop mild symptoms, 14% have severe symptoms and 5% require intensive care management. Fever is the most frequent symptom, followed by cough and dyspnea. Most patients do not present leukocytosis, but they do present lymphopenia with sputum cultures that do not show other pathogens. In lung biopsies of severe patients, the most noticeable finding is diffuse alveolar damage. Radiologically, ground glass and alveolar patterns are observed; the lesions being predominantly basal, subpleural, and posterior, with a multifocal peripheral distribution, more affecting the right lower lobe. There is a marked inflammatory response, up to the cytokine storm, in which anti-inflammatory treatment with pulse therapy with methylprednisolone would be indicated. Although there are no large-scale studies regarding the use of chloroquine / hydroxychloroquine, due to the global situation, its use has been authorized for its anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-inflammatory effect, which can be potentiated with the use of azithromycin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Inflammation/virology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 243-250, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131091

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Intrathyroid injection of dexamethasone (IID) was used for decrease the relapse rate of hyperthyroidism in the treatment of Graves' disease (GD), but the mechanism is still unclear. We aimed to explore the effect of IID on T help (Th)1/Th2 cells and their chemokine in patients with GD. Subjects and methods A total of 42 patients with GD who were euthyroidism by methimazole were randomly divided into IID group (n = 20) and control group (n = 22). Thyroid function and associated antibody, Th1/Th2 cells proportion, serum CXCL10 and CCL2 levels, and CXCR3/CCR2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after 3-month IID treatment were tested by chemiluminescence assay, Flow cytometry, ELISA, and real-time PCR, respectively. Thyroid follicular cells were stimulated by IFN-γ and TNF-α and treated with dexamethasone in vitro. CXCL10 and CCL2 levels in supernatant were determined. Results After 3-month therapy, the proportion of Th2 cells and serum CCL2 levels, as well as TPOAb, TRAb levels and thyroid volume decreased in IID group (p < 0.05). However, the proportion of Th1 and CXCL10 levels had no change in IID group and control (p > 0.05). The CXCR3/CCR2 ratio had no change in both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion IID therapy could inhibit peripheral Th2 cells via decreasing CCL2 level in peripheral blood, and this result partly explain the effects of IID therapy on prevention of relapse of GD. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):243-50


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Dexamethasone/analogs & derivatives , Graves Disease/drug therapy , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Secondary Prevention , Middle Aged
16.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(6): 463-470, dic. 28, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224317

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of dexa-methasone as pre-surgical and post-surgical therapy in mandibular third molar surgery. Materials and methods: Randomized clinical trial conducted in 60 patients in need of mandibular third molar extraction, ages ranging from 16 to 35 years old, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital during the period of January-March, 2016. Patients were distributed in two randomized groups: Group A received 4mg dexamethasone intramuscular before the surgery, and Group B received the same medication post-surgery. Facial edema was assessed using the distance between facial points, trismus was evaluated using the interincisal distance, and pain intensity was determined using a Numerical Scale (NS). Results: Facial edema values were lower in Group A at 60 minutes (p=0.002) and after the first (p=0.001) and third days (p=0.009), compared to Group B. Regarding trismus, no significant differences between the groups were found. Regarding pain intensity, the highest point was recorded at 6 hours in both groups; however, no significant differences between the groups were found. Conclusion: Pre-surgical dexamethasone administration produced a significantly greater reduction in facial edema after mandibular third molar surgery.


Objetivo: Comparar la efectividad antiinflamatoria de dexametasona como terapia prequirúrgica y postquirúrgica en la cirugía del tercer molar mandibular. Materiales y métodos: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado que incluyó a 60 pacientes de 16 a 35 años del Servicio de Cirugía Bucal y Maxilofacial del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza con necesidad de exodoncia de tercer molar mandibular durante el periodo de enero a marzo del 2016. Se distribuyeron en dos grupos aleatoriamente: El grupo A recibió prequirúrgicamente 4 mg de dexametasona vía intramuscular y el grupo B recibió la misma medicación postquirúrgicamente. Se evaluó el edema facial, mediante la distancia entre puntos faciales, el trismus mediante la distancia interincisal y la intensidad de dolor mediante la Escala Numérica (EN). Resultados: Los valores del edema facial fueron menores en el grupo A a los 60 minutos (p=0,002), primer (p=0,001) y tercer día (p=0,009) en comparación al grupo B. Respecto al trismus, no se encontró diferencia significativa entre los grupos durante las evaluaciones realizadas. Respecto al dolor, la mayor intensidad se percibió a las 6 horas en ambos grupos; sin embargo, no se encontró diferencia significativa entre los grupos durante todas las evaluaciones realizadas. Conclusión: La administración prequirúrgica de dexametasona produjo una significativa mayor reducción del edema facial posterior a la cirugía del tercer molar mandibular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Molar, Third/surgery , Molar, Third/drug effects , Peru , Postoperative Care , Surgery, Oral , Trismus , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
17.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 76(4): 198-202, jul.-ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089131

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La escabiasis costrosa (EC) es una variante poco común de sarcoptiosis clásica, altamente contagiosa. Las lesiones poseen una elevada concentración del ácaro Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis, lo que conlleva a un cuadro clínico más extenso que en la escabiasis clásica. Se observa principalmente en pacientes con algún tipo de inmunocompromiso y se relaciona con el síndrome de Down. Caso clínico: Se describe una paciente pediátrica con síndrome de Down quien presentó placas escamosas que afectaron la porción distal de los dedos, asociadas con distrofia ungueal e hiperqueratosis subungueal, por lo que se consideró acrodermatitis continua de Hallopeau como diagnóstico diferencial. Se realizó una biopsia tipo punch con lo que se llegó al diagnóstico de EC. La paciente recibió tratamiento sistémico con ivermectina vía oral y tratamiento tópico con crema hidratante y desonida al 0.1%. Mostró mejoría clínica notoria dos semanas después de finalizar el tratamiento. Conclusiones: La EC es una variante prevalente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos y con síndrome de Down que fácilmente puede confundirse con patologías inflamatorias con alteración de la queratinización epidérmica. Este caso se considera una presentación atípica debido a la afección localizada en los dedos de las manos asociada con distrofia ungueal. El estudio histopatológico fue necesario para realizar el diagnóstico y descartar diagnósticos diferenciales.


Abstract Background: Crusted scabies (CS) is an uncommon, highly contagious, variant of classic scabies. Elevated concentrations of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis are found in the skin lesions, which lead to a more exaggerated clinical picture than in classic scabies. This disease is mainly observed in patients with any kind of immunosuppression and relates to Down syndrome. Case report: A pediatric female patient with Down syndrome, who presented a crusty white plaque associated with nail dystrophy and subungual hyperkeratosis affecting the distal portion of the fingers is described. Because of these findings, the diagnosis of acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau was considered. A punch biopsy was performed, attaining the diagnosis of CS. She received systemic treatment with oral ivermectin, topical treatment with emollient cream and desonide 0.1%. Notorious clinical improvement was observed two weeks after finalizing treatment. Conclusions: CS is variant of scabies prevalent in immunocompromised patients and Down syndrome that can be easily confused with inflammatory pathologies with abnormal epidermal keratinization. This case is considered as an atypical presentation of the disease because of local affection of the fingers and nail dystrophy. The histopathological study was necessary to obtain the diagnosis and rule out differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Scabies/diagnosis , Acrodermatitis/diagnosis , Down Syndrome/complications , Sarcoptes scabiei , Scabies/pathology , Scabies/drug therapy , Acrodermatitis/pathology , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Desonide/administration & dosage , Diagnosis, Differential , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antiparasitic Agents/administration & dosage
18.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(supl.1): 28-31, ago. 9, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141503

ABSTRACT

Surgical extraction of impacted lower wisdom teeth is a frequent minor intraoral surgical process. It is regularly linked with aching and postoperative consequences as pain and swelling. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of two methods in reducing swelling and pain subsequent to the removal of impacted wisdom teeth. This randomized study incorporated 20 patients with impacted wisdom teeth of different surgical complexity. Topical hyaluronic acid gel 2g/2ml with aloe vera (Kin®Care) was given to the patients to be applied to the surgical area three times a day, or diclofenac sodium tablet 50mg (Voltaren®) to be taken every eight hours, for one week. Swelling was estimated using a strip gauge technique, and pain with a visual analogue scale. Evaluations were made on day one of surgical treatment and on 72hrs and one week later. Statistically no significant differences were identified regarding the swelling and pain values between the two treatment groups on the third and seventh day after surgery. Hyaluronic acid gel was as efficient as diclofenac tablets in reducing the two parameters. The use of hyaluronic acid may be advantageous in medically compromised patient such as those with hypertension, chronic asthma, gastric ulcers or in those with any contraindications to using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or in pregnant patients to reduce pain and swelling subsequent to impacted wisdom teeth surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative , Tooth Extraction , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Cicatrix/drug therapy , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Molar, Third
19.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 293-295, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012528

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (GN) is more common in elderly people compared to children and the etiology is not completely understood yet. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity occurs in 80% of the patients. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with malaise and mildly elevated creatinine diagnosed as ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis with crescents in 20 of 25 glomeruli (80%). Of these 20 crescents, 12 were cellular, 4 fibrocellular, and 4 globally sclerotic. She did not have purpura, arthritis, or systemic symptoms and she responded well to initial immunosuppressive treatment despite relatively severe histopathology. The patient was given three pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg on alternate days) initially and continued with cyclophosphamide (CYC; 2 mg/kg per day) orally for 3 months with prednisone (1 mg/kg per day). In one month, remission was achieved with normal serum creatinine and prednisone was gradually tapered. The case of this child with a relatively rare pediatric disease emphasizes the importance of early and aggressive immunosuppressive treatment in patients with renal-limited ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic GN even if with a mild clinical presentation. As in our patient, clinical and laboratory findings might not always exactly reflect the severity of renal histopathology and thus kidney biopsy is mandatory in such children to guide the clinical management and predict prognosis.


RESUMO A glomerulonefrite (GN) pauci-imune é mais comum em idosos em comparação com crianças, e a etiologia ainda não é completamente compreendida. A positividade do anticorpo citoplasmático antineutrófilo (ANCA) ocorre em 80% dos pacientes. Relatamos o caso de uma menina de 7 anos de idade que apresentou mal-estar e creatinina discretamente elevada, diagnosticada como glomerulonefrite rapidamente progressiva pauci-imune associada a ANCA com crescentes em 20 dos 25 glomérulos (80%). Destes 20 crescentes, 12 eram celulares, 4 fibrocelulares e 4 globalmente escleróticos. Ela não apresentava púrpura, artrite ou sintomas sistêmicos e respondeu bem ao tratamento imunossupressor inicial, apesar da histopatologia relativamente grave. A paciente recebeu três pulsos de metilprednisolona intravenosa (30 mg/kg em dias alternados) inicialmente e continuou com ciclofosfamida (2 mg/kg por dia) por via oral durante 3 meses com prednisona (1 mg/kg por dia). Em um mês, a remissão foi alcançada com creatinina sérica normal e a prednisona foi gradualmente reduzida. O caso desta criança com uma doença pediátrica relativamente rara enfatiza a importância do tratamento imunossupressor precoce e agressivo em pacientes com GN rapidamente progressiva renal associada à ANCA, mesmo com uma apresentação clínica leve. Como em nossa paciente, os achados clínicos e laboratoriais podem nem sempre refletir exatamente a gravidade da histopatologia renal e, assim, a biópsia renal é obrigatória nessas crianças para orientar a conduta clínica e auxiliar no prognóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/blood , Kidney/pathology , Biopsy , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Creatinine/blood , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Glomerulonephritis/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 259-265, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013414

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Pain management committee established a pain performance improvement plan in 2012. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the trends in analgesic consumption in a tertiary teaching hospital and the associated economic impact. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted between 2011 and 2015. The analysis included: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products non-steroids, opioid analgesics and other analgesics and antipyretics. Data are converted into DDD/100 bed-days to analyze consumption trends. Main outcome measure: assessment of the analgesic consumption after the implementation of a pain performance improvement plan. Results: Overall, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products consumption decreased in 24.8 DDD/100 bed-days (-28.3%), accounting for most of the total analgesic consumption decrease (-13%) and total cost (-44.3%). Opioid consumption increased markedly from 22.3 DDD/100 bed-days in 2011 to 26.5 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015 (+18.9%). In 2011, the most consumed opioid was morphine (8.6 DDD/100 bed-days). However, there was an increasing trend in fentanyl consumption (from 8.1 to 12.1 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015), which resulted in fentanyl replacing morphine from the most consumed opioid in 2015 (12.1 DDD/100 bed-days). In 2015, the group of other analgesics and antipyretics represented 46.2% of the total analgesic consumption. Acetaminophen was the most commonly consumed analgesic drug (53.2 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015) and had the highest total cost, it represented 55.4% of the overall cost in 2015. Conclusion: Opioid consumption showed an increasing trend during the 5 year period, with fentanyl replacing morphine as the most used opioid. In general, analgesics diminished use was due to the decreasing trend of consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products.


Resumo Justificativa: A Comissão para o Manejo da Dor estabeleceu um plano de melhoria no controle da dor em 2012. Objetivo: Avaliar as tendências do consumo de analgésicos em um hospital de ensino terciário e o impacto econômico associado. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, feito entre 2011 e 2015. A análise incluiu: produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides, analgésicos opioides e outros analgésicos e antipiréticos. Os dados foram convertidos em DDD/100 leitos-dia para analisar as tendências de consumo. Principal medida do desfecho: avaliação do consumo de analgésicos após o estabelecimento de um plano de melhoria no controle da dor. Resultados: O consumo total de produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides diminuiu em 24,8 DDD/100 leitos-dia (-28,3%), representando a maior parte da redução total do consumo de analgésicos (-13%) e o custo total (-44,3%). O consumo global de opioides aumentou acentuadamente de 22,3 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2011 para 26,5 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015 (+18,9%). Em 2011, o opioide mais consumido foi a morfina (8,6 DDD/100 leitos-dia). No entanto, houve uma tendência crescente no consumo de fentanil (de 8,1 para 12,1 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015), o que resultou na substituição de morfina por fentanil como o opioide mais consumido em 2015 (12,1 DDD/100 leitos-dia). Em 2015, o grupo dos outros analgésicos e antipiréticos representou 46,2% do consumo total de analgésicos. Acetaminofeno foi o analgésico mais consumido (53,2 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015) e teve o maior custo total, representou 55,4% do custo total em 2015. Conclusão: O consumo de opioides mostrou uma tendência crescente durante o período de cinco anos, fentanil substituiu morfina como o opioide mais usado. Em geral, o uso diminuído de analgésicos foi devido à tendência decrescente do consumo de produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Utilization/trends , Hospitals, Teaching , Morphine/administration & dosage
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