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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22381, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439529


Abstract Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth) are native species from the Amazon Forest that in folk medicine are used to treat several diseases due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This review brings together findings from different studies on the potential neuroprotective effects of acai and guarana, highlighting the importance of the conservation and sustainable exploitation of the Amazon Forest. A bibliographic survey in the PubMed database retrieved indexed articles written in English that focused on the effects of acai and guarana in in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases. In general, treatment with either acai or guarana decreased neuroinflammation, increased antioxidant responses, ameliorated depression, and protected cells from neurotoxicity mediated by aggregated proteins. The results from these studies suggest that flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids found in both acai and guarana have therapeutic potential not only for neurodegenerative diseases, but also for depressive disorders. In addition, acai and guarana show beneficial effects in slowing down the physiological aging process. However, toxicity and efficacy studies are still needed to guide the formulation of herbal medicines from acai and guarana.

Amazonian Ecosystem , Paullinia/adverse effects , Euterpe/adverse effects , Fruit/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Neuroprotective Agents/classification , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 323-342, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396881


Copaifera spp. essential oil (EOC) was extracted by hydrodistillation of Copaifera oleoresin (COR). The EOC was characterized by GC/MS and a novel EOC-loaded nanoemulsion was developed to enhance the EOC solubility and to evaluate its utility as antinflammatory. EOC contain 14 volatile compounds (including ß-caryophyllene: 51.52%) having a required HLB of 11. The Surfactant: EOC: Water ratio of 13:15:75 (%, w:w:w) produced the optimal formulation (particle size: 94.47 nm). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion presented a pseudoplastic/thixotropic behavior with excellent shelf stability for 6 months. The anti-inflammatory effect of the nanoemulsion was more potent than that of the EOC, and statistically equal to diclofenac (50 mg/kg). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion showed no oral acute toxicity (in mice) at 2000 mg/kg; hence, it is considered a nontoxic product. The development of the EOC-loaded nanoemulsion added value to both the COR and the EOC by providinga suitable formulation that could be used as an anti-inflammatory product.

El aceite esencial (EOC) fue extraído por hidrodestilación de oleoresina de Copaifera spp. El EOC fue caracterizado químicamente por GC/MS. Se formuló una nanoemulsión con EOC para mejorar la solubilidad del EOC y evaluar su utilidad como antiinflamatorio. El EOC contiene 14 compuestos volátiles (incluido el ß-cariofileno: 51,52%) con un HLB requerido de 11. La relación Tensioactivo: EOC: Agua de 13:15:75 (%, p:p:p) produjo la formulación óptima (tamaño de partícula: 94,47 nm).. La nanoemulsión cargada con EOC presentó un comportamiento pseudoplástico/tixotrópico con una excelente estabilidad en almacenamiento durante 6 meses. El efecto antiinflamatorio de la nanoemulsión fue más potente que el del EOC y estadísticamente igual al diclofenaco (50 mg/kg). La nanoemulsión cargada con COE no mostró toxicidad aguda oral (en ratones) a 2000 mg/kg; por lo tanto, se considera un producto no tóxico. El desarrollo de la nanoemulsión cargada con EOC agregó valor tanto al COR como al EOC al proporcionar una formulación adecuada que podría usarse como un producto antiinflamatorio.

Animals , Mice , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Rheology , Surface-Active Agents , Temperature , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Emulsions/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 251-260, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385582


SUMMARY: Skeletal muscle injury is an acute inflammatory condition caused by an inflammatory response. To reduce inflammatory cell infiltration and relieve skeletal muscle injury, efficient treatment is urgently needed. Nitric oxide is a free radical molecule reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we showed that NO could inhibit the inflammatory response of C2C12 cells in vitro and protect rat skeletal muscle injury from notexin in vivo. NO synthase inhibitor (L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Este?L-NAME) and NO donor (sodium nitroprusside dehydrate ?SNP) were used to explore the vital role of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in LPS-stimulated C2C12 myoblasts.The expression of IL-18 and IL-1b was upregulated by L-NAME and downregulated by SNP, as indicated by the ELISA results. NO can reduce ASC, Caspase-1, and NLRP3 mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, NO was detected in the rat model. The results of immunohistochemical staining showed that the production of DMD decreased. We conducted qRT-PCR and western blotting to detect the expression of Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2, and TLR4 on day 6 post injury following treatment with L-NAME and SNP. The expression of Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2, and TLR4 was upregulated by L-NAME and significantly reversed by SNP. NO can alleviate C2C12 cell inflammatory responses and protect rat skeletal muscle injury from notexin.

RESUMEN: La lesión del músculo esquelético es una afección inflamatoria aguda causada por una respuesta inflamatoria. Para reducir la infiltración de células inflamatorias y aliviar la lesión del músculo esquelético es necesario un tratamiento eficaz. El óxido nítrico es una molécula de radicales libres que tiene efectos antiinflamatorios. En este estudio, demostramos que el ON podría inhibir la respuesta inflamatoria de las células C2C12 in vitro y proteger la lesión del músculo esquelético de rata de la notexina in vivo. El inhibidor de ON sintasa (L-NG-nitroarginina metil este, L-NAME) y el donante de ON (nitroprusiato de sodio deshidratado, SNP) se utilizaron para explorar el papel vital de los lipopolisacáridos (LPS) en los mioblastos C2C12 estimulados por LPS. La expresión de IL- 18 e IL-1b fue regulada positivamente por L-NAME y regulada negativamente por SNP, como indican los resultados de ELISA. El ON puede reducir los niveles de proteína y ARNm de ASC, Caspasa-1 y NLRP3. Además, se detectó ON en el modelo de rata. Los resultados de la tinción inmunohistoquímica mostraron que disminuyó la producción de DMD. Realizamos qRT-PCR y transferencia Western para detectar la expresión de Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2 y TLR4 el día 6 después de la lesión después del tratamiento con L-NAME y SNP. La expresión de Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2 y TLR4 fue regulada positivamente por L- NAME y significativamente revertida por SNP. El ON puede aliviar las respuestas inflamatorias de las células C2C12 en ratas, y proteger la lesión del músculo esquelético de la notexina.

Animals , Male , Rats , Myoblasts/drug effects , Elapid Venoms/toxicity , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Muscular Diseases/chemically induced , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Cell Survival , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Caspases , Disease Models, Animal , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Inflammation
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240359, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285603


Hymenaea martiana is a species popularly known in Northeastern Brazil as "jatobá" and used in folk medicine to treat pain and inflammation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of H. martiana. In the present study, we carried out an investigation about the effects of the crude ethanolic extract (Hm-EtOH) and the ethyl acetate fraction (Hm-AcOEt) in models of nociception and inflammation in mice. Chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin) and thermal stimuli (hot plate) were used for the evaluation of antinociceptive activity, while for the anti-inflammatory profile paw edema induced by carrageenan was used, along with leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity. The presence of the flavonoid astilbin in the samples was characterized through HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt (100, 200 and 400, i.p.) significantly reduced the number of abdominal contortions and decreased the paw licking time in the formalin test. In the hot plate, the extract increased the latency time of animals. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt inhibited significantly the increase in the edema after the administration of carrageenan. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt inhibited leukocyte migration in the peritonitis test. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt revealed the presence of the flavonoid astilbin in the samples. According to the results of this study, both Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be related with the presence of flavonoid in the extracts. The results reinforce the popular use of this plant.

Hymenaea martiana é uma espécie popularmente conhecida no Nordeste do Brasil como "jatobá" e usada na medicina popular para tratar a dor e a inflamação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antinociceptiva e antiinflamatória de H. martiana. No presente estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos do extrato etanólico bruto (Hm-EtOH) e da fração acetato de etila (Hm-AcOEt) em modelos de nocicepção e inflamação em camundongos. Foram utilizados estímulos químicos (contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético e teste da formalina) e estímulo térmico (teste da placa quente) para avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva, enquanto no perfil anti-inflamatório foi utilizado o teste do edema de pata induzido por carragenina e migração de leucócitos para a cavidade peritoneal. A presença do flavonoide astilbina nas amostras foi caracterizada através de análise por CLAE-DAD-EM. Hm-EtOH e o Hm-AcOEt (100, 200 e 400, i.p.) reduziram significativamente o número de contorções abdominais e diminuíram o tempo de lambida da pata no teste da formalina. No teste da placa quente, houve aumento do tempo de latência dos animais. Hm-EtOH e Hm-AcOEt inibiram significativamente o aumento do edema após a administração de carragenina, bem como inibiram a migração de leucócitos no teste de peritonite. A análise por CLAE-DAD-EM de Hm-EtOH e Hm-AcOEt revelou a presença do flavonoide astilbina nas amostras. De acordo com os resultados deste estudo, tanto Hm-EtOH quanto o Hm-AcOEt possuem atividades antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória, o que pode estar relacionado à presença do flavonoide. Os resultados reforçam o uso popular desta planta.

Animals , Rabbits , Hymenaea , Fabaceae , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Carrageenan , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420479


Abstract Herein the chemical constituents and the anti-pain properties of the essential oil from the stem bark of Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Casuarinaceae) grown in Nigeria were evaluated. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method in an all glass Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The hot plate method was used to determine the anti-nociceptive property whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced and formalin experimental models. The pale-yellow essential oil was obtained in yield of 0.21% (v/w), calculated on a dry weight basis. The main constituents of the essential oil were methyl salicylate (30.4%), a-zingiberene (15.5%), (E)-anethole (9.5%), b-bisabolene (8.6%), b- sesquiphellandrene (6.9%), and ar-curcumene (6.2%). In the anti-nociceptive study, the rate of inhibition increases as the doses of essential oil increases with optimum activity at the 30th and 60th min for all tested doses. The essential oil displayed anti-nociceptive activity independently of reaction time at the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg). The essential oil of C. equisetifolia moderately reduced pain responses in early and late phases of the formalin test. The oil inhibited the paw licking in the neurogenic phase (60-63%) compared to the late phase of the formalin test. The carrageenan- induced oedema model revealed the suppression of inflammatory mediators within the 1st - 3rd h. Thus, C. equisetifolia essential oil displayed both anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities independent of the dose tested. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of C. equisetifolia essential oil are herein reported for the first time

Animals , Male , Rats , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Plant Bark/classification , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Carrageenan/adverse effects , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19238, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374561


Abstract The aim of this work is to study three cultivars of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus): Gauchito, Guri and Oro Verde in terms of their in vitro chemoprevention and anti-inflammatory properties. These cultivars show good productive performance. The phenolic composition of their fresh leaves and edible bracts was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS), showing mainly caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids. Caffeoylquinic acids were quantified and the highest content was found in Gauchito cultivar. In this cultivar, the content of dicaffeoylquinic acids in fresh bracts was six times higher than that in fresh leaves (10064.5 ± 378.3 mg/kg versus 1451.0 ± 209.3 mg/kg respectively). Luteolin flavonoids were detected in leaves. The extracts from fresh bracts and leaves were assessed in their in vitro bioactivity against human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Inhibition of SH-SY5Y cells proliferation by Gauchito and Guri leaf extracts (8 µg/mL) was higher than 50 %. The leaf extracts of the same cultivars showed an inhibitory effect on human interferon IFN-I, decreasing its activity 50% at 40 µg/mL. Interestingly, the bract extracts did not show in vitro bioactivity at these concentrations, nor did the pure compounds chlorogenic acid, cynarin, apigenin and luteolin (at 2 µg/mL). These results suggest that Gauchito and Guri leaf extracts have potential for human neuroblastoma chemoprevention and treatment of inflammatory processes.

Plant Leaves/classification , Chemoprevention , Cynara scolymus/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Phenolic Compounds , Neuroblastoma/pathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929263


A series of 26 novel derivatives have been synthesized through structural modification of gentiopicroside, a lead COX-2 inhibitor. And their in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities have been investigated. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated against NO, PGE2, and IL-6 production in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 stimulated by LPS. Results showed that most compounds had good inhibitory activity. The in vivo inhibitory activities were further tested against xylene-induced mouse ear swelling. Results demonstrated that several compounds were more active than the parent compound gentiopicroside. The inhibition rate of the most active compound P23 (57.26%) was higher than positive control drug celecoxib (46.05%) at dose 0.28 mmol·kg-1. Molecular docking suggested that these compounds might bind to COX-2 and iNOS. Some of them, e.g P7, P14, P16, P21, P23, and P24, had high docking scores in accordance with their potency of the anti-inflammatory activitiy, that downregulation of the inflammatory factors, NO, PGE2, and IL-6, was possibly associated with the suppression of iNOS and COX-2. Therefore, these gentiopicroside derivatives may represent a novel class of COX-2 and iNOS inhibitors.

Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2/chemistry , Dinoprostone , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Iridoid Glucosides , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pyridinolcarbamate
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929238


Diversity-oriented synthesis is aimed to increase the chemical diversity of target natural products for extensive biological activity evaluation. Indole ring is an important functional group in a large number of drugs and other biologically active agents, and indole-containing natural products have been frequently isolated from marine sources in recent years. In this paper, a series of indole-containing marine natural hyrtioreticulin derivatives, including 19 new ones, were designed, synthesized through a key Pictet-Spengler reaction, and evaluated for their inflammation related activity. Compound 13b displayed the most promising activity by inhibiting TNF-α cytokine release with an inhibitory rate of 92% at a concentration of 20 μmol·L-1. A preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis was also discussed. This research may throw light on the discovery of marine indole alkaloid derived anti-inflammatory drug leads.

Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Indole Alkaloids/pharmacology , Porifera , Structure-Activity Relationship
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929054


Marine fungi are important members of the marine microbiome, which have been paid growing attention by scientists in recent years. The secondary metabolites of marine fungi have been reported to contain rich and diverse compounds with novel structures (Chen et al., 2019). Aspergillus terreus, the higher level marine fungus of the Aspergillus genus (family of Trichocomaceae, order of Eurotiales, class of Eurotiomycetes, phylum of Ascomycota), is widely distributed in both sea and land. In our previous study, the coral-derived A. terreus strain C23-3 exhibited potential in producing other biologically active (with antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and anti-inflammatory activity) compounds like arylbutyrolactones, territrems, and isoflavones, and high sensitivity to the chemical regulation of secondary metabolism (Yang et al., 2019, 2020; Nie et al., 2020; Ma et al., 2021). Moreover, we have isolated two different benzaldehydes, including a benzaldehyde with a novel structure, from A. terreus C23-3 which was derived from Pectinia paeonia of Xuwen, Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province, China.

Animals , Mice , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anthozoa/microbiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/chemistry , Benzaldehydes/pharmacology , Signal Transduction
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928081


There are 200-500 species of Potentilla(Rosaceae) worldwide, among which 90 species are widely distributed in China and have a long history of ethnic medicinal use. According to our statistics, a total of 367 compounds have been isolated and identified from plants of this genus, including terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, and phenylpropanoids. The medicinal materials made from these plants mainly have antioxidative, blood sugar-lowering, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, cardiovascular system-protecting, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. This study systematically reviews the research progress on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Potentilla plants to provide a basis for further research and clinical application.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Potentilla
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928015


A new polyketide, coptaspin A(1), along with two known compounds 4-acetyl-3,4-dihydro-6,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylisocoumarin(2), and cytochalasin Z_(12)(3), was isolated from the endophytic fungi Aspergillus sp. ZJ-58, which was isolated from the genuine medicinal plant Coptis chinensis in Chongqing after solid-state fermentation on rice and silica gel, MCI, and HPLC-based separation. Their structures were elucidated by MS, NMR, IR, UV, and ECD. The newly isolated compound 1 showed moderate inhibitory activities against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages with the IC_(50) value of 58.7 μmol·L~(-1), suggesting its potential anti-inflammatory activity.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/chemistry , Coptis chinensis , Plants, Medicinal , Polyketides/pharmacology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928004


Sarcandra glabra, a medicinal plant in family Chloranthaceae, has been taken as an important raw material for multiple Chinese patent drugs due to its diverse indications. Considering the diversified chemical constituents and rich biological activities of S. glabra, numerous phytochemical and pharmacodynamic investigations were conducted to explore the material basis for its medicinal use. It has been found that its main chemical constituents were sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpenoid polymers, phenolic acids, coumarins, and flavonoids. As revealed by pharmacological research, it possesses multiple biological activities like anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, and neuroprotection. Some unreported novel structures, including polymers of lindenane sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene trimers, and adducts of flavonoids and monoterpenes, have been identified from S. glabra in recent years. Moreover, biological studies relating to its anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities have been deepened. This paper reviewed the chemical constituents and bioactivities of S. glabra explored over the past ten years, so as to provide a scientific basis for further development and utilization of this plant.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Seeds
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939912


Five new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (1-5), ascyrones A-E, and four known compounds (6-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum ascyron. All of the isolates containing a bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,9-trione core and a benzoyl group, belonged to type B bicyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (BPAPs). Their structures and absolute configurations were established based on spectroscopic analyses and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. The anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and cytotoxicity activities of compounds 1-4 and 6-9 were evaluated. Compound 6 exhibited obvious anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Compounds 1 and 9 exhibited slight cytotoxicity against Hep3B cells. Meanwhile, compound 1 showed mild neuroprotective activity against corticosterone (CORT)-induced PC12 cell damage at 10 μmol·L-1.

Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Hypericum/chemistry , Molecular Structure , PC12 Cells , Phloroglucinol/pharmacology
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 348-354, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939896


OBJECTIVE@#Salvadora persica (SP) is used as a food additive and is a common ingredient in folk medicine. This study investigates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and beneficial effects of SP against cyclophosphamide (CYP) toxicity in rats.@*METHODS@#In a 10-day study, 32 male rats were equally allocated into 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows: the normal control (NC group), normal rats that only received oral aqueous extract of SP (100 mg/[kg·d]; SP group), animals treated with intraperitoneal CYP injections (30 mg/[kg·d]; CYP group), and the CYP + SP group that concurrently received CYP with SP aqueous extract. Serum samples were collected to measure the liver and renal biochemical profiles, as well as antioxidant and oxidative stress markers and the concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Hepatic and renal tissues were also harvested for histopathology and to measure apoptosis using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling technique, alongside tissue levels of oxidative stress markers.@*RESULTS@#Liver enzymes, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea, as well as serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB increased significantly, whilst total protein, albumin, calcium, IL-10 and AMPK declined in serum of the CYP group relative to the NC group. The hepatorenal concentrations of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and catalase declined markedly in the CYP group, whereas malondialdehyde, protein adducts, and apoptosis index increased compared with the NC group. By contrast, the hepatorenal biochemistry and apoptosis index of the SP group were comparable to the NC group. Interestingly, the CYP + SP group had significant improvements in the liver and renal biochemical parameters, enhanced anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and marked declines in hepatic and renal apoptosis relative to the CYP group. Moreover, all monitored parameters were statistically indistinguishable between the CYP + SP group and the NC group.@*CONCLUSION@#This study suggests that the aqueous extract of SP could be a potential remedy against CYP-induced hepatorenal damage and may act by modulating the AMPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and promoting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.

Animals , Male , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Apoptosis , Biomarkers , Cyclophosphamide , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Liver , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Salvadoraceae/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 598-610, nov. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369781


Lophophytum species are holoparasites that grow on tree roots. The objectives of the work were to explore the chemical composition of the tubers of two Lophophytum species and to analyze the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antilithiatic activity of their extracts using in vitro methods. The chemical composition was determined by histochemical, phytochemical and TLC tests. In addition, the profile of phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-MS. The presence of secondary metabolites of recognized activity was demonstrated. The results of the HPLC-MS/MS allowed the tentative identification of catechin, luteolin and glycosides of eriodictyol, naringenin and luteolin in the extract of Lophophytum leandriand eriodictyol, naringenin, luteolin and their glycosylated derivatives in Lophophytum mirabile. The extracts showed promising antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS and ß-carotene-linoleic acid), anti-inflammatory (inhibition of 5-LOX) and anti-urolytic (by bioautographic TLC) activity. It is noteworthy that these are the first results of the phytochemical composition and biological activity of L. mirabile. However, in vivo studies are required to corroborate these activities.

Las especies de Lophophytumson holoparásitas que crecen en raíces de árboles. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron explorar la composición química del túber de dos especies de Lophophytum y analizar la actividad antioxidante, antiinflamatoria y antilitiásica de sus extractos usando métodos in vitro. La composición química se determinó mediante pruebas histoquímicas, fitoquímicas y por TLC. Además, se determinó el perfil de compuestos fenólicos por HPLC-MS/MS. Se demostró presencia de metabolitos secundarios de reconocida actividad. Los resultados del HPLC-MS/MS permitieron identificar tentativamente catequina, luteolina y glucósidos de eriodictiol, naringenina y luteolina en el extracto de Lophophytum leandriy eriodictiol, naringenina, luteolina y sus derivados glicosilados en Lophophytum mirabile. Los extractos mostraron prometedora actividad antioxidante (DPPH, ABTS y ß-caroteno-ácido linoleico), antiinflammatoria (inhibición de la 5-LOX) y antiurolitiásica (por TLC bioautográfica). Es de destacar que estos son los primeros resultados de composición fitoquímica y actividad biológica de L. mirabile. Sin embargo, se requieren estudios in vivo para corroborar dichas actividades.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Balanophoraceae/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavanones/analysis , Flavones/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 524-535, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369071


Microsechium helleri (Cucurbitaceae) has been used in ethnopharmacological as a lotion to prevent hair loss, diuretic and cathartic, in the region of central Veracruz, Mexico is used as antidiabetic. The antioxidant properties of the hexanic (EHex), chloroformic (ECHCl3) and ethanolic (EEtOH) extracts, were evaluated by 2,2diphenyl-1-pychrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, the Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and the total phenolic content test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in the acute ear edema induced with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) in mouse and the hypoglycemic and cardioprotective effects of the EEtOH were determined in rats. The EEtOH was the most active in the antioxidant potential DPPH test and the ECHCl3 was the best in the FRAP assay and the total polyphenols content. In the anti-inflammatory assay, the ECHCl3 showed the most activity. The EEtOH had the decreased the glucose levels and reduced myocardial damage. The results support the use of this plant in folk medicine in Mexico as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and cardioprotective.

Microsechium helleri (Cucurbitaceae) se utiliza en etnofarmacología como una loción para prevenir la caída del cabello, como diurético y catártico, en la región del centro de Veracruz, México es usado como antidiabético. Las propiedades antioxidantes de los extractos hexánico (EHex), clorofórmico (ECHCl3) y etanólico (EEtOH), se evaluaron mediante la prueba de 2,2difenil-1-psililhidrazilo (DPPH), el poder reductor férrico/poder antioxidante (FRAP) y el contenido fenólico total. El efecto anti-inflamatorio se evaluó en el edema agudo de la oreja inducido con forbol 12-miristato 13-acetato (TPA) en ratones y se determinaron los efectos hipoglucémicos y cardioprotectores del EEtOH en ratas. El EEtOH fue el más activo en la prueba DPPH de potencial antioxidante y el ECHCl3 fue el mejor en el ensayo FRAP y el contenido total de polifenoles. En el ensayo antiinflamatorio, el ECHCl3 mostró la mayor actividad. El EEtOH disminuyó los niveles de glucosa y redujo el daño miocárdico. Los efectos hipoglucémicos y cardioprotector del extracto de EEtOH se determinaron en ratas, donde el extracto disminuyó los niveles de glucosa y redujo el daño miocárdico. Los resultados apoyan el uso de esta planta en la medicina popular en México como antioxidante, anti-inflamatorio, hipoglucemiante y cardioprotector.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cardiotonic Agents/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Mexico , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200179, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153293


HIGHLIGHTS L. duriusculum n-BuOH extract reduces inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo. L. duriusculum n-BuOH extract inhibits NF-κB-dependent transcriptional responses. L. duriusculum n-BuOH extract decreases the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 genes.

Abstract Limonium duriusculum is used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders and has gained attention due to its richness in apigenin. The present investigation was performed to evaluate and confirm its anti-inflammatory properties, in cell lines and animal models. The potential anti-inflammatory properties of n-butanol (n-BuOH) extract of L. duriusculum (BEL) and isolated apigenins were examined on NF-κB transcriptional activity in TNFα- or LPS-stimulated cells, and on in vivo acute inflammatory models (carrageenan induced paw edema and peritonitis). BEL treatment was able to inhibit the activity of an NF-κB reporter gene in HCT116 cells both in the absence and in the presence of exogenous TNFα, used as NF-κB pathway inducer. This anti-inflammatory effect was even more potent compared to Apigenin (APG1) and was confirmed using monocyte-derived THP-1 cells treated with LPS to stimulate NF-κB-dependent transcription of IL-6 and TNFα mRNAs. Apigenin7-O-β-(6''-methylglucuronide) (APG2) was instead inactive both in HCT116 and THP-1 cells. BEL (oral, 200 mg/kg) led to paw swelling inhibition, vascular permeability and peritoneal leukocyte and PN migration diminution. Apigenins (intraperitoneal, APG1, APG2: 20 mg/kg) also evoked a significant anti-edema effect, early vascular permeability and leukocyte influx reduction. Collectively, this study demonstrates for the first time the effectiveness of L. duriusculum to inhibit NF-κB-dependent transcriptional responses in HCT116 and THP-1 cells. In vivo studies also established that L. duriusculum possesses a potential anti-inflammatory effect, confirm its traditional, empirical use, that could be attributed to its richness in apigenin.

Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plumbaginaceae/chemistry , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , THP-1 Cells
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(7): e10520, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249321


Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has brought attention to flap failure in reconstructive surgery. To improve the prognosis of skin transplantation, we performed experimental IRI by surgical obstruction of blood flow and used sodium ferulate (SF) to prevent IRI in rats. After SF treatment, the morphological and histological changes of the skin flaps were observed by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. We also detected the expression levels of COX-1, HO-1, and Ki67 by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify the content of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) in peripheral blood and skin tissue. Compared with the model group, SF treatment significantly improved the recovered flap area (%) and promoted collagen synthesis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was significantly inhibited by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction after SF treatment. Furthermore, SF significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α in peripheral blood, MPO and MDA in the skin tissue, and the increased synthesis of NO. Our results showed the protective effects of SF on IRI after flap transplantation and we believe that the protective effects of SF was closely related to the alleviation of the inflammatory response and the inhibition of the oxidative stress injury.

Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress , Coumaric Acids/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10841, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249329


The present study was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms and effective components of Polygonum hydropiper in ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions. The ethanol extract was purified on an AB-8 macroporous resin column and eluted with 60% ethanol and was then injected into the HPLC system for quantitative analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally pretreated with P. hydropiper extract (PHLE; 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for 5 days and then absolute ethanol was administered to induce gastric mucosal damage. One hour after ethanol ingestion, the rats were euthanized and stomach samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Antioxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory cytokines were quantified. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of proteins. Cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 assays. The proportion of total flavonoids in the final extract of P. hydropiper was 50.05%, which contained three major bioactive flavonoid constituents, including rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. PHLE significantly increased cell viability and effectively protected human gastric epithelial cells-1 against alcohol-induced damage in vitro. PHLE pretreatment attenuated gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner in rats, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with PHLE also reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in gastric tissue by downregulating the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B. PHLE exerted protective effects against gastric injury through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. Flavonoids might be the main effective components of P. hydropiper against gastric mucosal injury.

Animals , Rats , Polygonum , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ethanol/toxicity , Gastric Mucosa , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology