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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 566-576, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1102643


This paper reports for the first time volatile compounds, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from the leaves of Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) growing in Nigeria. The essential oil was hydro-distilled and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan induced rat paw edema while the anti-nociceptive test was based on hot plate model. The hydro-distillation afforded 0.41% (dry weight basis) of light green oil. Forty compounds representing 99.8% were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were limonene (34.7%), sabinene (21.2%) and citronellal (9.7%). The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oils statically inhibited edema development (p<0.001) at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg independent of time of exposure. However, the 100 mg/kg Waltheria indica essential oils (WIEO) displayed a relatively low inhibition (p<0.01-p>0.5) which declines as exposure time increases. The anti-inflammatory activities shows a steady rate and non-dose dependent activity (p<0.001) up to the 3rd h of inflammation study. Conversely, a sharp reduction at the rate of p<0.5, 0.1 and 0.01 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg WIEO doses respectively. Overall, the results presented sustain and establish the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and justifies the need for further evaluation and development of the essential oils from this plant.

Este artículo informa por primera vez de compuestos volátiles, actividades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias de aceites esenciales de las hojas de Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) que crecen en Nigeria. El aceite esencial fue hidro-destilado y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases-detección de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases junto con análisis de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). La actividad antiinflamatoria se evaluó en el edema de pata de rata inducido por carragenano, mientras que la prueba antinociceptiva se basó en el modelo de placa caliente. La destilación hidráulica proporcionó 0,41% (en peso seco) de aceite verde claro. Cuarenta compuestos que representan el 99.8% fueron identificados en el aceite. Los principales componentes del aceite fueron el limoneno (34,7%), el sabineno (21,2%) y el citronelal (9,7%). La propiedad anti-nociceptiva de los aceites esenciales inhibió estáticamente el desarrollo del edema (p<0.001) a una dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg independientemente del tiempo de exposición. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales de Waltheria indica de 100 mg/kg (WIEO) mostraron una inhibición relativamente baja (p<0.01-p>0.5) que disminuye a medida que aumenta el tiempo de exposición. Las actividades antiinflamatorias muestran una tasa constante y una actividad no dependiente de la dosis (p<0.001) hasta la tercera hora del estudio de inflamación. Por el contrario, una fuerte reducción a una tasa de p<0.5, 0.1 y 0.01 para las dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg/kg de WIEO respectivamente. En general, los resultados presentados sostienen y establecen las propiedades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias y justifican la necesidad de una mayor evaluación y desarrollo de los aceites esenciales de esta planta.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Malvaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Temperature , Carrageenan/toxicity , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Analgesics/pharmacology , Inflammation/chemically induced
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901104, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1054677


Abstract Purpose: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (Ml/R) injury is a leading cause of damage in cardiac tissues, with high rates of mortality and disability. Biochanin A (BCA) is a main constituent of Trifolium pratense L. This study was intended to explore the effect of BCA on Ml/R injury and explore the potential mechanism. Methods: In vivo MI/R injury was established by transient coronary ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC) was used to measure myocardial infarct size. ELISA assay was employed to evaluate the levels of myocardial enzyme and inflammatory cytokines. Western blot assay was conducted to detect related protein levels in myocardial tissues. Results: BCA significantly ameliorated myocardial infarction area, reduced the release of myocardial enzyme levels including aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). It also decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and TNF-α) in serum of Ml/R rats. Further mechanism studies demonstrated that BCA inhibited inflammatory reaction through blocking TLR4/NF-kB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. Conclusion: The present study is the first evidence demonstrating that BCA attenuated Ml/R injury through suppressing TLR4/NF-kB/NLRP3 signaling pathway-mediated anti-inflammation pathway.

Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Genistein/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/drug effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Cytokines/blood , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatine Kinase/blood , Lactate Dehydrogenases/blood , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(5): 419-427, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1039115


Objective: To evaluate whether an animal model of mania induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) has an inflammatory profile and whether immune activation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has a cumulative effect on subsequent stimuli in this model. We also evaluated the action of lithium (Li) on inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to an animal model of mania. After the open-field test, they were given LPS to induce systemic immune activation. Subsequently, the animals' blood was collected, and their serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) were measured. Results: LDX induced hyperactivity in the animals, but no inflammatory marker levels increased except brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Li had no effect on serum BDNF levels but prevented iNOS levels from increasing in animals subjected to immune activation. Conclusion: Although Li prevented an LPS-induced increase in serum iNOS levels, its potential anti-inflammatory effects in this animal model of mania were conflicting.

Animals , Male , Bipolar Disorder/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate , Lithium/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Nerve Growth Factors/drug effects , Time Factors , Bipolar Disorder/physiopathology , Bipolar Disorder/chemically induced , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Cytokines/blood , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/blood , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/blood , Locomotion/drug effects
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 945-953, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-973475


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of oxymatrine on periodontitis in rats and related mechanism. Methods: Ninety SD rats were divided into control, model, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg oxymatrine and tinidazole groups. The periodontitis model was established in later 5 groups. The 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg oxymatrine groups were intragastrically administrated with 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg oxymatrine, respectively. The tinidazole group was intragastrically administrated with 100 mg/kg tinidazole. The treatment duration was 4 weeks. The tooth mobility, gingival and plaque indexes, serum inflammatory factor levels and gingival tissue matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) protein levels were detected. Results: After treatment, compared with model group, in 40 mg/kg oxymatrine group the rat general conditions were obviously improved, the tooth mobility, gingival index and plaque index were significantly decreased (P<0.05), the serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2 levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05), the MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the TIMP-2 protein level was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusions: Oxymatrine can alleviate the experimental periodontitis in rats. The mechanism may be related to its inhibiting inflammatory factor secretion and regulating MMPs/TIMP protein expression.

Animals , Male , Female , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Quinolizines/pharmacology , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinases/drug effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Periodontitis/metabolism , Reference Values , Tinidazole , Dinoprostone/blood , Random Allocation , Dental Plaque Index , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinases/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Gingiva/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 1000-1015, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-973480


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects and mechanisms of andiroba-based emulsion (ABE) topical treatment on full-thickness cutaneous wounds in rats. Methods: The wounds were harvested on days 3, 7, 15, and 20 post-surgery. Wound contraction rate, quantitative immunohistochemistry [macrophages, myofibroblasts, capillaries, collagens (col) I and III, transforming growth factor β3β (TGFβ3)], and tensile strength were assessed. Results: Treated wounds were smaller, contracted earlier and had increased angiogenesis, fewer CD68+ and M2 macrophages on days 7 and 15, but higher on day 20. Myofibroblasts appeared on days 3 to 7 in untreated wounds and on days 7 to 15 in treated wounds. TGFβ3 levels were higher in the treated wounds, less dense collagen fibers, lower col I/III ratios and a higher tensile strength. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the important anti-inflammatory role of treatment and the associated modulation of macrophages, myofibroblasts, and TGFβ3 levels. Collagen fibers in the treated wounds were more organized and less dense, similar to unwounded skin, which likely contributed to the higher tensile strength.

Animals , Male , Skin/drug effects , Wound Healing/drug effects , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Meliaceae/chemistry , Transforming Growth Factor beta3/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Skin/pathology , Administration, Cutaneous , Immunohistochemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type III/analysis , Emulsions , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta3/analysis , Myofibroblasts/drug effects
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 555-565, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1007333


Species of Polygala genus have been used for the treatment of inflamation and pain in Turkish traditional medicine. The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of P. anatolica. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The methanol extracts prepared from the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were found to be active in carrageenan- and PGE2-induced paw edema models and in Whittle method. Methanolic extract of the aerial part inhibited serotonin-induced hind paw edema, while the root extract did not exert inhibitory effect in the same model. In addition, Fr. B and C obtained from the methanol extract of P. anatolica aerial parts showed significant anti- inflammatory activity. Morover, the analgesic effect of the methanol extracts prepared from the roots and aerial parts and Fr.B and Fr.C were found to be statistically significant without inducing ulceration. The methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts of the plant and its saponoside and flavonoid fractions showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the trials.

Las especies del género Polygala se han utilizado para el tratamiento de la inflamación y el dolor en la medicina tradicional turca. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar las actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas de P. anatolica. Se investigaron los extractos de n-hexano, acetato de etilo y metanol de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica por sus efectos antiinflamatorios y analgésicos. Los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica se encontraron activos en modelos de edema de pata inducidos por carragenina y PGE2 por el método de Whittle. El extracto metanólico de la parte aérea inhibió el edema de la pata trasera inducido por serotonina, mientras que el extracto de raíz no ejerció un efecto inhibidor en el mismo modelo. En suma, la fracción B y C obtenidos a partir del extracto metanólico de partes aéreas de P. anatolica mostraron actividad antiinflamatoria significativa. Además, el efecto analgésico de los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las raíces y las partes aéreas y la fracción B y C resultaron ser estadísticamente significativas sin inducir la ulceración. El extracto de metanol obtenido de las partes aéreas de la planta y sus fracciones de saponósidos y flavonoides mostraron actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas en los ensayos.

Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polygala , Edema/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Plant Roots/chemistry , Methanol/pharmacology , Edema/chemically induced , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(6): 491-498, June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-949359


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the possible role of IL-4 signaling pathway in vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Methods: The mouse model of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy and interleukin (IL)-4 knockout mice were utilized to investigate the possible role of IL-4 signaling pathway in vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Vincristine induced increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation was measured by von Frey hair test 7 and 14 days after intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 mg/kg vincristine in mice. Relative expression levels of cytokines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. STAT6 expression following vincristine treatment was assessed with western blotting. Results: We discovered that IL-4/STAT6 signaling was down-regulated in vincristine-treated mice. Deletion of IL-4 in mice increased the sensitivity to mechanical allodynia. IL-4 knockout mice also produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β and TNF-α. Notably, co-administration of exogenous recombination IL-4 significantly prevented vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia. Conclusion: Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 protects rodent model from vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy via the stimulation of IL-4/STAT6 signaling and inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Animals , Male , Vincristine/adverse effects , Interleukin-4/pharmacology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/prevention & control , STAT6 Transcription Factor/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/adverse effects , Time Factors , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Mice, Knockout , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents , Disease Models, Animal , STAT6 Transcription Factor/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hyperalgesia/chemically induced , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 362-374, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-886283


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the prophylactic and therapeutical effects of sildenafil in a model of acute radiation proctitis (ARP). Methods: All experimental procedures of this study was examined by histopathological, immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic analysis. Results: Our histopathological evaluations indicated significant increases in lesion severity, cryptic apsis, cryptitis, cryptic distortion, reactive atypia and infiltration depth of the control (proctitis) group. While the prophylaxis group and the treatment group had significantly lower scores. High-dose group showed similar results as prophylaxis group. Histopathological findings of the prophylaxis group was more significant than the treatment group. Immunoreactivities of IL-1β, FGF-2, TNF- α and HIF-1α increased in the control group especially in the epithelial and cryptic regions. On the contrary, sildenafil application caused significant decreases of inflammatory markers in all treatment groups, specifically better results in the prophylaxis group. Conclusion: The sildenafil has anti-inflammatory effects on ARP, as well as protective effects against ARP and the protective effect of sildenafil surpasses its therapeutic effect histopathologically.

Animals , Proctitis/etiology , Proctitis/drug therapy , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/drug therapy , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Proctitis/pathology , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/pathology , Rectum/pathology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 189-193, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-893209


RESUMEN: El propóleos es un producto resinoso complejo producido por las abejas Apis mellifera, el cual posee diversas actividades biológicas como inmunomodulador, antiinflamatorio, anticancerígeno, antiviral, antibacteriano, antioxidante, entre otros. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue realizar una evaluación in vivo de las propiedades antiinflamatorias de un extracto de propóleos chileno, sobre el modelo de edema auricular inducido por 13-acetato-12-O-tetradecanoilforbol (TPA) en pabellón auricular de ratón, para posterior evaluación y análisis histológico. El extracto de propóleos chileno (EEP) utilizado se obtuvo a partir de un macerado etanólico, rotaevaporado y liofilizado. Se observó que el EEP disminuyó el edema y el infiltrado inflamatorio de forma significativa. Estos resultados sugieren que el extracto etanólico de propóleos chileno posee potenciales efectos antiinflamatorios o moduladores del sistema inmunológico en edema auricular.

SUMMARY: Propolis is a complex resinous product produced by bees Apis mellifera, which has a number of biological activities such as an immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, among others. The purpose of the following study was to perform an in vivo evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of a Chilean propolis extract, on the model of atrial edema induced 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13- acetate (TPA) in the mouse auricular pavilion, for later evaluation and histological analysis. The Chilean propolis extract (EPP) used was obtained from an ethanolic, rotaevaporated and lyophilized macerate. It was observed that the EPP significantly decreased edema and inflammatory infiltrate. These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Chilean propolis possesses potential anti-inflammatory or modulatory effects of the immune system in atrial edema.

Animals , Mice , Propolis/pharmacology , Edema/drug therapy , Ear Auricle/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Propolis/chemistry , Ear Auricle/pathology , Polyphenols/analysis
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 185-196, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-886265


Abstract Purpose: To analyzed the healing effect of the powdered shell of the Megalobulimus lopesi snail on wounds of diabetic rats, since in non-diabetic rats the powdered shell presented healing potential. Methods: Seventy-two Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were divided into three groups: Control group (GC.diab), no therapeutic intervention on the wound; Vehicle's Control group, topical via, in diabetic rats (GCvt.diab): Powder Shell Group (PC) applied topically (GPCvt.diab): Experimental group was administered topically shortly after wound dressing and once a day during the experimental period (3, 7, 14 and 21 days) the composition containing the powdered shell of the snail. The following variables related to the healing potential were analyzed: macroscopic one, where the capacity of reduction of the wound area was evaluated; histological analysis in HE, angiogenic activity, morphometric analysis (re-epithelization), leukocyte inflammatory infiltrate; leukocyte count and also differentiation in peripheral blood. Results: The topical application in wounds of diabetic rats presented healing activity, accelerating wound closure, stimulating angiogenesis and being pro-inflammatory in the early and anti-inflammatory stages in the final times of the healing process. Conclusion: The topical administration of the powdered shell on wounds of diabetic patients becomes a therapeutic option of low cost, with ease in the administration and access as well.

Animals , Male , Rats , Snails , Tissue Extracts/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Animal Shells/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Powders , Tissue Extracts/administration & dosage , Administration, Topical , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Re-Epithelialization , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(4): e1861, 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-956565


RESUMO Objetivo: estudar a eficácia e segurança do uso de acetato de triancinolona subconjuntival isolado ou em associação à mitomicina C como modulador da cicatrização de trabeculectomias em coelhos. Métodos: trinta coelhos machos, albinos, raça Nova Zelândia foram submetidos à trabeculectomia bilateralmente. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais com 15 olhos por grupo: controle, mitomicina C, acetato de triancinolona e acetato de triancinolona + mitomicina C. Tonometria de aplanação e análise clínica da bolha através do Sistema de Graduação de Moorfields foram obtidas no pós-operatório. Para a avaliação da cicatrização, procedeu-se à análise quantitativa do infiltrado inflamatório (polimorfonucleares) através da coloração Hematoxilina & Eosina e da proliferação vascular por imuno-histoquímica. Resultados: foi observada em todos os grupos diminuição significativa da pressão intraocular pós-operatória em relação à pré-operatória (p<0,001). Contudo, não houve diferença entre os grupos (p=0,186). O grupo acetato de triancinolona + mitomicina C apresentou melhores índices na altura máxima da bolha e na vascularização da área central da bolha (p=0,001); além disso, houve menor resposta inflamatória (p=0,001) e menor proliferação vascular (p=0,001) na fase intermediária do estudo em relação às monoterapias. Conclusão: a associação da mitomicina C ao acetato de triancinolona resultou numa ação sinérgica entre esses agentes, com bolhas mais amplas e difusas e menor infiltrado inflamatório e menor proliferação vascular em estágio intermediário do acompanhamento neste modelo animal.

ABSTRACT Objective: to study the efficacy and safety of the use of subconjunctival triamcinolone acetate alone or in combination with mitomycin C as a modulator of trabeculectomy healing in rabbits. Methods: we submitted thirty male, albino, New Zealand rabbits to bilateral trabeculectomy. We divided the animals into four experimental groups with 15 eyes per group: control, mitomycin C, triamcinolone acetate and triamcinolone acetate + mitomycin C. We performed aplanation tonometry and clinical analysis of the bleb through the Moorfields Graduation System in the postoperative period. For the evaluation of healing, we carried out the quantitative analysis of the inflammatory infiltrate (polymorphonuclear) through Hematoxylin & Eosin staining, and vascular proliferation, through immunohistochemistry. Results: we observed a significant decrease in postoperative intraocular pressure in all groups compared with the preoperative pressure (p<0.001). However, there was no difference between groups (p=0.186). The triamcinolone + mitomycin C acetate group presented better indices as for the maximum bleb height and vascularization of the bleb central area (p=0.001); in addition, there was a lower inflammatory response (p=0.001) and lower vascular proliferation (p=0.001) in the intermediate phase of the study compared with the monotherapies. Conclusion: the combination of mitomycin C and triamcinolone acetate resulted in a synergistic action between these agents, with broader and more diffuse blebs, less inflammatory infiltrate and less vascular proliferation in the intermediate stages of follow-up in this animal model.

Animals , Male , Wound Healing/drug effects , Triamcinolone/pharmacology , Glaucoma/surgery , Mitomycin/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Postoperative Care , Rabbits , Triamcinolone/administration & dosage , Trabeculectomy/rehabilitation , Blister/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Mitomycin/administration & dosage , Conjunctiva/drug effects , Conjunctiva/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Intraocular Pressure/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Neutrophils
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(9): e180171, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-955120


BACKGROUND The anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties of curcumin (Cur), a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, are increasingly considered to have beneficial effects on the progression of Chagas heart disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of oral therapy with Cur on T. cruzi-mediated cardiovasculopathy in acutely infected mice and analyse the in vitro response of parasite-infected human microvascular endothelial cells treated with this phytochemical. METHODS Inflammation of heart vessels from Cur-treated and untreated infected mice were analysed by histology, with benznidazole (Bz) as the reference compound. Parasitaemia was monitored by the direct method. Capillary permeability was visualised by Evans-blue assay. Myocardial ET-1, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA expressions were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Microvascular endothelial HMEC-1 cells were infected in vitro with or without addition of Cur or Bz. Induction of the Ca2+/NFAT pathway was assessed by fluorometry, immunoblotting, and reporter assay. FINDINGS Oral Cur therapy of recently infected mice reduced inflammatory cell infiltration of myocardial arteries without lowering parasite levels. Compared to that of the phosphate-buffered saline-receiving group, hearts from Cur-treated mice showed significantly decreased vessel inflammation scores (p < 0.001), vascular permeabilities (p < 0.001), and levels of IL-6/TNF-α (p < 0.01) and ET-1 (p < 0.05) mRNA. Moreover, Cur significantly (p < 0.05 for transcript; p < 0.01 for peptide) downregulated ET-1 secretion from infected HMEC-1 cells. Remarkably, Cur addition significantly (p < 0.05 at 27.0 μM) interfered with T. cruzi-dependent activation of the Ca2+/NFATc1 signalling pathway that promotes generation of inflammatory agents in HMEC-1 cells. CONCLUSIONS Oral treatment with Cur dampens cardiovasculopathy in acute Chagas mice. Cur impairs the Ca2+/NFATc1-regulated release of ET-1 from T. cruzi-infected vascular endothelium. These findings identify new perspectives for exploring the potential of Cur-based interventions to ameliorate Chagas heart disease.

Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , NFATC Transcription Factors/analysis , Blotting, Western , Acute Disease/rehabilitation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(5): 515-522, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-893656


Abstract Hypersensitivity, local irritative and cytotoxic effects are known for the chemical components of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum contained in dental materials. However, there is no intimate data in dentistry using the whole extracts of these plants and introducing new ones. Salvia triloba is a well-known anti-inflammatory plant that correspondingly could be used in several dental traumas. Objectives: We aimed to show and compare the effect of S. aromaticum, C. zeylanicum, and S. triloba extracts on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses. Material and Methods: Using xCELLigence, a real time monitoring system, we obtained a growth curve of DPSCs with different concentrations of the Extracts. A dose of 10 μg/mL was the most efficient concentration for vitality. Osteogenic differentiation and anti-inflammatory activities were determined by using an ELISA Kit to detect early and late markers of differentiation. Results: The level of osteonectin (ON, early osteogenic marker) decreased, which indicated that the osteogenic differentiation may be accelerated with addition of extracts. However, the level of osteocalcin (OCN, late osteogenic marker and sign of calcium granulation) differed among the extracts, in which S. aromaticum presented the highest value, followed by S. triloba and C. zeylanicum. Surprisingly, the determined calcium granules were reduced in S. aromaticum and S. triloba. In response to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), S. triloba-treated DPSCs showed the most reduced level of IL-6 cytokine level. We suggest C. zeylanicum as a promising osteogenic inducer and S. triloba as a potent anti-inflammatory agent, which could be used safely in biocomposite or scaffold fabrications for dentistry. Conclusions: Because calcium granule formation and cell viability play a critical role in hard tissue formation, S. aromaticum in dentistry should be strictly controlled, and the mechanism leading to reduced calcium granule formation should be identified.

Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Dental Pulp/cytology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Syzygium/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Antigens, Differentiation/analysis , Calcium/analysis , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/analysis , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Osteonectin/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
Acta cir. bras ; 32(8): 648-661, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-886225


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the inflammatory and redox responses to teduglutide on an animal model of laparotomy and intestinal anastomosis. Methods: Wistar rats (n=62) were allocated into four groups: "Ileal Resection and Anastomosis" vs. "Laparotomy", each one split into "Postoperative Teduglutide Administration" vs. "No Treatment"; and euthanized at the third or the seventh day. Ileal and blood samples were recovered at the baseline and at the euthanasia. Flow cytometry was used to study the inflammatory response (IL-1α, MCP-1, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-4 levels), oxidative stress (cytosolic peroxides, mitochondrial reactive species, intracellular glutathione and mitochondrial membrane potential) and cellular viability and death (annexin V/propidium iodide double staining). Results: Postoperative teduglutide treatment was associated with higher cellular viability index and lower early apoptosis ratio at the seventh day; higher cytosolic peroxides level at the third day and mitochondrial overgeneration of reactive species at the seventh day; higher tissue concentration of IL-4 and lower local pro-to-anti-inflammatory cytokines ratio at the seventh day. Conclusion: Those findings suggest an intestinal pro-oxidative and anti-inflammatory influence of teduglutide on the peri-operative context with a potential interference in the intestinal anastomotic healing.

Animals , Male , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Peptides/pharmacology , Ileum/surgery , Ileum/drug effects , Ileum/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Wound Healing/drug effects , Anastomosis, Surgical , Random Allocation , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Cytokines/blood , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Flow Cytometry , Ileum/metabolism , Laparotomy
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 723-732, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-893046


Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin (IL)-6, are prominent mediators of inflammation and have been confirmed to be elevated in at least a subgroup of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, the effects of Silymarin (SLM) on the expression TNF-a, IL-6, CRP and symptoms of PCOS were studied. In this research, PCOS was induced by injection of Estradiol Valerate. PCOS rats were divided into control and experimental groups received intraperitoneal injection SLM extract daily. After syndrome induction, ovaries were collected for histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Serum IL-6 was detected by the ELISA kit. The results indicated the significant reduction in inflammatory markers and significant changes follicular layers thickness in the treatment group as compared with control. It can be concluded that having anti-inflammatory substances, Silymarin is effective in symptoms of this syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

El factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a) y la interleucina (IL) -6 son mediadores prominentes de la inflamación y se ha confirmado que están elevados en al menos un subgrupo de mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP). En este estudio se estudiaron los efectos de Silymarin (SLM) en la expresión TNF-a, IL-6, PCR y síntomas de SOP. El SOP fue inducido por inyección de valerato de estradiol. Las ratas SOP se dividieron en grupos control y los grupos experimentales recibieron diariamente un extracto de SLM por inyección intraperitoneal. Después de la inducción del síndrome, los ovarios se analizaron mediante histología e inmunohistoquímica. Se detectó IL-6 en suero mediante el kit ELISA. Los resultados indicaron una reducción significativa en los marcadores inflamatorios y cambios significativos en el espesor de las capas foliculares en el grupo de tratamiento en comparación con el control. Se puede concluir que con sustancias anti-inflamatorias, Silymarin es eficaz en los síntomas de este síndrome y el síndrome metabólico.

Animals , Female , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism , Silymarin/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(2): 186-191, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-891383


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the action of vanillin (Vanilla planifolia) on the morphology of tibialis anterior and soleus muscles after peripheral nerve injury. Methods Wistar rats were divided into four groups, with seven animals each: Control Group, Vanillin Group, Injury Group, and Injury + Vanillin Group. The Injury Group and the Injury + Vanillin Group animals were submitted to nerve injury by compression of the sciatic nerve; the Vanillin Group and Injury + Vanillin Group, were treated daily with oral doses of vanillin (150mg/kg) from the 3rd to the 21st day after induction of nerve injury. At the end of the experiment, the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy and submitted to morphological analysis. Results The nerve compression promoted morphological changes, typical of denervation, and the treatment with vanillin was responsible for different responses in the studied muscles. For the tibialis anterior, there was an increase in the number of satellite cells, central nuclei and fiber atrophy, as well as fascicular disorganization. In the soleus, only increased vascularization was observed, with no exacerbation of the morphological alterations in the fibers. Conclusion The treatment with vanillin promoted increase in intramuscular vascularization for the muscles studied, with pro-inflammatory potential for tibialis anterior, but not for soleus muscle.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a ação da vanilina (Vanilla planifolia) sobre a morfologia dos músculos tibial anterior e sóleo após lesão nervosa periférica. Métodos Ratos Wistar foram divididos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada, sendo Grupo Controle, Grupo Vanilina, Grupo Lesão e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina. Os animais dos Grupos Lesão e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina foram submetidos à lesão nervosa por meio da compressão do nervo isquiático, e os Grupos Vanilina e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina foram tratados diariamente com doses orais de vanilina (150mg/kg) do 3o ao 21o dia após a indução da lesão nervosa. Ao término do experimento, os músculos tibial anterior e sóleo foram dissecados e seguiram o processamento de rotina em microscopia de luz, para posterior análise morfológica. Resultados A compressão nervosa promoveu alterações morfológicas características de denervação, sendo que o tratamento com vanilina foi responsável por respostas distintas nos músculos estudados. Para o tibial anterior, houve aumento do número de células satélites, núcleos centrais e atrofia das fibras, bem como desorganização fascicular. Já no sóleo, houve apenas aumento da vascularização, sem exacerbação das alterações morfológicas nas fibras. Conclusão O tratamento com vanilina promoveu o aumento da vascularização intramuscular para os músculos estudados, com potencial pró-inflamatório para o tibial anterior, o que não ocorreu no músculo sóleo.

Humans , Animals , Male , Benzaldehydes/pharmacology , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Connective Tissue/drug effects , Sciatic Neuropathy/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/drug effects , Connective Tissue/pathology , Sciatic Neuropathy/rehabilitation , Models, Animal
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(3): 319-328, mayo 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-882011


This study was aimed to investigate whether the a lipid extract from Acrocomia crispa fruits (D-005) inhibits COX and 5-LOX enzyme activities in vitro. This study demonstrates that D-005 inhibits markedly and in a dose dependent manner COX-2 and 5-LOX activities. The dual inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX supports further research on the potential anti-inflammatory effect of D-005.

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si el extracto lipídico de los frutos de Acrocomia crispa (D-005) inhibe in vitro las actividades de las enzimas COX y 5-LOX. Este estudio demuestra que el D-005 inhibe marcadamente y de manera dosis dependiente las actividades de la COX-2 y 5-LOX. La inhibición dual de la COX-2 y 5-LOX soportan futuras investigaciones sobre el potencial efecto anti-inflamatorio del D-005.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Arecaceae/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fruit , In Vitro Techniques , Rats, Wistar
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(2): 121-129, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-841187


Abstract Natural compounds capable of modulating the host response have received considerable attention, and herbal products are suggested as adjunctive agents in periodontal disease treatment. Objective This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on periodontitis. Material and Methods Ligature induced periodontitis was created in 40 rats and they were assigned to four equal groups. One group was fed laboratory diet (group A) while three groups received GSE additionally. Silk ligatures were placed around the cervical area of the mandibular first molars for four weeks to induce periodontitis. The GSE groups were reallocated regarding GSE consumption as: for two weeks before ligation (group B; totally eight weeks), from ligation to two weeks after removal of the ligature (group C; totally six weeks), and for two weeks from ligature removal (group D; totally two weeks). Sections were assessed histologically and immunohistochemically. Inflammatory cell number (ICN), connective tissue attachment level (CAL), osteoclast density (OD), IL-10 and TGF-β stainings in gingival epithelium (GE), connective tissue (GC), and periodontal ligament (PL) were used as the study parameters. Results Lower ICN, higher CAL, and lower OD were observed in the GSE groups (p<0.05). IL-10 was more intensive in the GSE groups and in the GEs (p<0.05). Group B showed the highest IL-10 for PL (p<0.05). TGF-ß was higher in the GEs of all groups (p<0.017). Conclusions The results suggest anti-inflammatory activities of GSE, but further investigations are needed for clarification of these activities.

Animals , Male , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Grape Seed Extract/pharmacology , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Gingiva/pathology , Grape Seed Extract/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-10/analysis , Periodontitis/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Treatment Outcome
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(4): e5714, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-839285


Inflammation of cartilage is a primary symptom for knee-joint osteoarthritis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to play an important role in the articular cartilage destruction related to osteoarthritis. Naringenin is a plant-derived flavonoid known for its anti-inflammatory properties. We studied the effect of naringenin on the transcriptional expression, secretion and enzymatic activity of MMP-3 in vivo in the murine monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) osteoarthritis model. The assessment of pain behavior was also performed in the MIA rats. The destruction of knee-joint tissues was analyzed microscopically. Moreover, the effect of naringenin was also studied in vitro in IL-1β activated articular chondrocytes. The transcriptional expression of MMP-3, MMP-1, MMP-13, thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-4) and ADAMTS-5 was also studied in primary cultured chondrocytes of rats. Naringenin caused significant reduction in pain behavior and showed marked improvement in the tissue morphology of MIA rats. Moreover, a significant inhibition of MMP-3 expression in MIA rats was observed upon treatment with naringenin. In the in vitro tests, naringenin caused a significant reduction in the transcriptional expression, secretion and enzymatic activity of the studied degradative enzymes. The NF-κB pathway was also found to be inhibited upon treatment with naringenin in vitro. Overall, the study suggests that naringenin alleviated pain and regulated the production of matrix-metalloproteinases via regulation of NF-κB pathway. Thus, naringenin could be a potent therapeutic option for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Animals , Male , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Arthralgia/enzymology , Chondrocytes/enzymology , Flavanones/pharmacology , Knee Joint/enzymology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/biosynthesis , Osteoarthritis, Knee/enzymology , Arthralgia/drug therapy , Blotting, Western , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Knee Joint/pathology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/analysis , NF-kappa B/analysis , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/analysis , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/drug effects , Osteoarthritis, Knee/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis, Knee/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(8): e5163, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-888986


Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Asteraceae) is a plant commonly known as arnica-do-campo and belongs to the native flora of the Brazilian Cerrado. The alcoholic extract of the plant has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine, but the biological mechanism of action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated the composition of P. brasiliensis aqueous extract and its effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. The extracts were prepared by sequential maceration of P. brasiliensis leaves in ethanol, ethyl acetate, and water. Extract cytotoxicity was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis and necrosis were measured by staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The ethanolic (ETA) and acetate (ACE) extracts showed cytotoxic effects. The aqueous extract (AQU) was not cytotoxic. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin and treated with AQU (100 μg/mL) showed reduced interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression. AQU also inhibited lymphocyte proliferative response after nonspecific stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The aqueous extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry. Quinic acid and its derivatives 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as well as the flavonoids luteolin and luteolin dihexoside, were detected. All these compounds are known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that P. brasiliensis aqueous extract can inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and proliferative response of lymphocytes. These effects may be related to the presence of chemical substances with anti-inflammatory actions previously reported in scientific literature.

Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/drug effects , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Time Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism