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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 940-946, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124880

ABSTRACT

Solanum nigrum (SLN), commonly known as African nightshade, is used as a vegetable as well as in the management and treatment of various ailments including gastric ulcers. We analyzed, both grossly and microscopically using H&E, Masson's trichrome and PSA staining methods, the protective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of three Kenyan SLN genotypes namely S. scabrum (SSB), S. sarrachoides (SSR) and S. villosum (SVL) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. There was evidence of gastro-protection by all the three genotypes with the SSB showing the highest ulcer inhibition score (76.37 %) followed by SSR (72.51 %) and SVL (63.30 %). SLN-pretreated rats showed less areas of gastric mucosal surface erosion. Additionally in the pretreated animals, the depth of the ulcers were markedly reduced, reaching only the gastric pit region except in those treated with SVL where the ulcers penetrated slightly more deeply to affect the gastric glands. Compared with controls, the mean microscopic ulcer index decreased 5.07, 3.55 and 2.37-fold in rats pretreated with SSB, SSR and SVL extracts respectively. Results of this work show extracts of the three SLN genotypes to have antiulcerogenic potential but at varied strengths, thus confirming earlier reports that phytoconstituents and hence the efficacy of a medicinal plant may be influenced by genetic factors.


Solanum nigrum (SLN), comúnmente conocida como la solanácea africana, se usa como vegetal, para el tratamiento de diversas dolencias incluyendo las úlceras gástricas. Analizamos de forma macro y microscópica, de forma macroscópica y microscópica, utilizando para ello tinciones de H&E, tricrómico de Masson y PSA los efectos protectores de extractos acuosos de hojas de tres genotipos SLN de Kenia: S. scabrum (SSB), S. sarrachoides (SSR) and S. villosum (SVL) en lesiones gástricas inducidas por etanol en ratas. Hubo evidencia de gastroprotección por parte de los tres genotipos con el SSB mostrando el puntaje más alto de inhibición de la úlcera (76,37 %) seguido de SSR (72,51 %) y SVL (63,30 %). Las ratas tratadas previamente con SLN mostraron menos áreas de erosión de la superficie de la mucosa gástrica. Además, en los animales pretratados, la profundidad de las úlceras se redujo notablemente, llegando solo a la región del fondo gástrico, excepto en aquellos tratados con SVL donde las úlceras penetraron un poco más profundamente para afectar las glándulas gástricas. En comparación con los controles, el índice medio de úlcera microscópica disminuyó 5,07, 3,55 y 2,37 veces en ratas pretratadas con extractos de SSB, SSR y SVL, respectivamente. Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que los extractos de los tres genotipos de SLN tienen potencial antiulcerogénico en diferentes concentraciones, lo que confirma informes anteriores que los fitoconstituyentes y la eficacia de una planta medicinal pueden estar influenciados por factores genéticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Solanum nigrum/chemistry , Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use , Stomach/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Kenya , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 609-618, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949367

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the gastroprotective effect of methanol extract of E. spectabilis and its major component isoorientin. Methods: Effects of isoorientin and methanol extract of E. spectabilis were investigated in indomethacin-induced gastric damage model on rats. Famotidine was used as the standard antiulcer drug. Numerical density of ulcer areas and oxidative status were determined on stomach tissues of rats. Results: All doses of isoorientin and methanol extract decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity and GSH levels in the stomach tissue of rats. When numerical density of ulcer areas were analized, the 500 mg/kg dose of methanol extract (84%) exhibited a similar effect to 20 mg/kg dose of standart drug famotidine (87%). Conclusions: The gastroprotective effects of E. spectabilis and its major constituent isoorientin in rats for the first time. Detailed analyses suggested that potential antioxidant activity of both plant extract and isoorientin mediates the gastroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Luteolin/pharmacology , Methanol/pharmacology , Xanthorrhoeaceae/chemistry , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Stomach Ulcer/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Indomethacin , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glutathione/analysis , Glutathione/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 138-141, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950505

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Extracts obtained from plants and fruits provide a relatively safe and practical alternative for the conventional medicine of gastrointestinal diseases. The specie Eugenia mattosii, popularly known in Brazil as "cerejinha", belongs to Myrtaceae family. Species of this family present pharmacological properties, and can be used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of Eugenia mattosii fruits. METHODS: Phytochemical analysis was carried out by thin layer chromatography and gastroprotective assays were performed using two experimental models: acute ulcer model induced by ethanol/HCl and acute ulcer model induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin). Total lesion area (mm2) and relative lesion area (%) were determined. RESULTS: The results of the phytochemical analysis indicated that the bark and pulp and seeds of E. mattosii present phenolic compounds, terpenes and/or steroids. In gastric ulcer model induced by ethanol was evidenced significant reduction of damaged areas for doses of 50 and 250 mg/ kg of seeds methanol extract, while in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model, all parts of the fruit presented defense capability of the gastric mucosa by reducing lesions at doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that the specie E. mattosii has bioactive compounds that provide gastroprotective activity, presenting possible therapeutic potential.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Extratos obtidos de plantas e frutos fornecem uma alternativa relativamente segura e prática para os remédios convencionais de doenças gastrointestinais. A espécie Eugenia mattosii, popularmente conhecida no Brasil como "cerejinha", pertence à família Myrtaceae. Espécies desta família apresentam propriedades farmacológicas e podem ser utilizadas no tratamento de distúrbios gastrointestinais. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil fitoquímico e avaliar a atividade gastroprotetora dos frutos de Eugenia mattosii. MÉTODOS: A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por cromatografia em camada delgada e dois modelos experimentais foram utilizados para avaliação da atividade gastroprotetora em camundongos: modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por anti-inflamatório não-esteroidal (indometacina) e modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por etanol/HCl. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise fitoquímica indicaram que a casca e polpa e as sementes de E. mattosii apresentam compostos fenólicos, terpenos e/ou esteroides. No modelo de úlcera gástrica induzido pelo etanol, foi evidenciada redução significativa de áreas danificadas para doses de 50 e 250 mg/kg do extrato das sementes, enquanto no modelo de úlcera induzida por indometacina, todas as partes do fruto apresentaram capacidade de defesa da mucosa gástrica ao reduzir as lesões nas doses de 50, 125 e 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que a espécie E. mattosii possui compostos bioativos com atividade gastroprotetora, apresentando possível potencial terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Brazil , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Indomethacin , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1361-1378, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732521

ABSTRACT

Após algumas décadas de batalha, a geriatria e a gerontologia se tornaram as legítimas ciências do envelhecimento. Hoje surge uma contestação a tal condição. Em sua breve história, a medicina antienvelhecimento se afirmou como prática médica que questiona o modo de se endereçar o envelhecimento biológico. Com isso, toda a medicina é questionada. Aqui, exploramos especialmente como essa controvérsia se estrutura em torno dos fundamentos das ciências do envelhecimento. Há bases para esses questionamentos? Como eles foram tratados por aqueles que os receberam? Tendo em vista uma perspectiva sociotécnica, é interessante pensar que, para geriatras e gerontólogos, a necessária crítica à medicina antienvelhecimento também traz uma importante reflexão sobre o modo como as ciências do envelhecimento vêm tratando seu objeto.


After some decades of struggle, geriatrics and gerontology have become the legitimate sciences of aging. Today, their status is being questioned. In its short history, anti-aging medicine has taken root as a medical practice that questions how to address biological aging. In so doing, all medicine is questioned. Here, we explore in particular how this controversy is structured around the founding principles of the sciences of aging. Is there any basis for these questionings? How have they been treated by those who have received them? Taking a socio-technical viewpoint, it is worth considering that for geriatricians and gerontologists, the need to criticize anti-aging medicine also raises some important reflections about how the sciences of aging address their subject.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Malonates/pharmacology , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Ethanol , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Indomethacin , Prostaglandins/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Stomach Ulcer/pathology , Sucralfate/pharmacology
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(9): 544-552, 09/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722131

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of sucralfate on tissue content of neutral and acids mucins in rats with diversion colitis. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were submitted to a proximal right colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. They were divided into two groups according to sacrifice to be performed two or four weeks after intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline, sucralfate at 1.0 g/kg/day or 2.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis and neutral and acid mucins by Periodic Acid Schiff and Alcian Blue techniques, respectively. The contents of mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Student's t paired and ANOVA test were used to compare the contents of both types of mucins among groups, and to verify the variance with time, establishing level of signification of 5% for both (p<0.05). RESULTS: Enemas containing sucralfate improves the inflammation and increases the tissue contents of neutral and acid mucins. The content of neutral mucins does not change with the time or concentration of sucralfate used, while acid mucins increases with concentration and time of intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Sucralfate enemas improve the inflammatory process and increase the tissue content of neutral and acid mucins in colon without fecal stream. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis/drug therapy , Enema/methods , Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis , Mucins/analysis , Sucralfate/therapeutic use , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Colitis/pathology , Colon/drug effects , Colon/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Mucins/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Sucralfate/pharmacology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163316

ABSTRACT

Aims: Barleria prionitis L. (Family Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant found road side in India and whole plant or its various parts like leaves, root, bark, stem and flowers are used traditionally for various treatments like toothache, inflammation, boils, glandular swellings and ulcer. Leaf juice is useful in gastric ulcer. Here, we attempt to prove the use of this plant as gastroprotective agent. Study Design: This study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcer activity of methanol extract obtained from the leaves of Barleria prionitis Linn. Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted at Pharmacology lab of Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University during the period of July 2012 to December 2012. Material and Methods: Antiulcer activity was performed using the protocols of ulcer induced by ethanol and indomethacin at two different doses (250 and 500mg/kg). Parameters like volume of gastric juice, pH, free acidity, total acidity, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) were also determined in ethanol induced ulcer model. Results: The reduction in ulcer index in Barleria prionitis treated animals was found to be statistically significant (P=.05), when compared with control groups in both the models. Significant changes were observed in total acidity only at dose 500mg/kg only and changes were significant in AST, ALT levels at both the doses. Other parameters showed non-significant results. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that the methanolic extract of Barleria prionitis L. possess antiulcer activity. This work supports the traditional use of this plant in treating gastric ulcer.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae , Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Female , Indomethacin/adverse effects , Male , Methanol , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(1): 81-91, ene. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722510

ABSTRACT

Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is used in various traditional systems of medicine, like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. In Unani medicine, Safed Sandal is used to treat gastric ulcers, hence the present study was undertaken to confirm this claim. A limit test as per OECD guidelines was conducted at a dose of 5000 mg/kg to determine the acute toxic dose of Hydro-alcoholic extract from S. album stem (SASE). Two test doses of SASE (250 and 500 mg/kg) were subjected to screening of anti-ulcer activity by three in-vivo models namely – water immersion - restrain stress, ethanol and indomethacin induced gastric ulceration models in albino wistar rats. A proton-pump inhibitor, Omeprazole 10 mg/kg and H2 receptor antagonist, Ranitidine 50 mg/kg were employed as standard drugs. The results revealed an increase in gastric protection as a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in average number of ulcers, severity of ulcers and cumulative ulcer index was observed in the test groups. Histopathological evidences supported the above findings. The observed anti-ulcer effect of SASE at 500 mg/kg was comparable to that of standard drugs used in the experiments indicating significant anti-ulcer potential especially at higher concentration.


Sándalo (Santalum album L.) se utiliza en diversos sistemas de medicina tradicional, como el Ayurveda, Siddha y Unani para tratar una amplia gama de dolencias. En la medicina Unani, Safed Sandal se usa para tratar úlceras gástricas, por lo tanto, el presente estudio se realizó para confirmar esta afirmación. Una prueba de límite según las directrices de la OCDE se llevó a cabo a una dosis de 5000 mg/kg para determinar la dosis tóxica aguda del extracto hidroalcohólico del tallo de S. álbum (SASE). Dos dosis de prueba de SASE (250 y 500 mg/kg) se sometieron al estudio de la actividad anti-úlcera por tres modelos in vivo, a saber: la inmersión en agua – estrés de restricción, y la ulceración gástrica inducida por etanol e indometacina, en ratas Wistar albinas. Un inhibidor de la bomba de protones, omeprazol 10 mg/kg y el antagonista de los receptores H2, ranitidina 50 mg/kg fueron empleados como fármacos estándar. Los resultados revelaron un aumento de la protección gástrica como una disminución significativa (p < 0.001) en el número promedio de úlceras, la gravedad de las úlceras y el índice de úlcera acumulativo se observó en los grupos de prueba. Evidencias histopatológicas apoyaron las conclusiones anteriores. El efecto anti úlcera observado por efecto de SASE a 500 mg/kg fue comparable a la de fármacos estándar utilizados en los experimentos que indican un significativo potencial anti-úlcera, especialmente a mayores concentraciones.


Subject(s)
Rats , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Santalum/chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Hydroalcoholic Solution , Indomethacin , Rats, Wistar
8.
West Indian med. j ; 61(9): 853-860, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-694355

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Gongronema latifolium leaves have been used in folklore medicine to manage diabetes mellitus and alleviate dyspepsia. This study aimed to provide a pharmacological basis to the medicinal use of Gongronema latifolium as an antidiabetic and antiulcerogenic agent in diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Ethanol extract from the leaf (200 mg/kg bodyweight) of Gongronema latifolium was administered to both streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control groups orally for 14 days. Gastric acid secretion was measured and ulcer was induced using ethanol and fourhour pyloric ligation. RESULTS: The mean bodyweight was significantly lower (p < 0.01), while the mean weight of the stomach, liver and small intestine to bodyweight ratio was increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the two diabetic groups compared to control. Extract significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the blood glucose level similar to the nondiabetic control. Basal and stimulated acid secretion in diabetic control rats was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased when compared to control. Extract administration increased the stimulated gastric acid secretion to a level significantly (p < 0.05) higher than control while reduction in gastric secretion by ranitidine was similar compared with control. Gongronema latifolium treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced ulcer scores in both ulcer models and increased mucus weight in the diabetic group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Gongronema latifolium antiulcerative activity is due to its prevention of chemicalinduced stomach injury.


OBJETIVOS: Las hojas de la gongronema latifolium han sido usadas en la medicina tradicional para tratar la diabetes mellitus y aliviar la dispepsia. Este estudio estuvo dirigido a proporcionar una base farmacológica al uso medicinal de la gongronema latifolium como agente antidiabético y antiulcerogénico en la diabetes mellitus. MÉTODOS: El extracto de etanol de la hoja (200 mg/kg peso corporal) de la Gongronema latifolium se administró oralmente durante 14 días a grupos con diabetes inducida por estreptozotocina, y grupos de control. La secreción ácida gástrica fue moderada y la úlcera fue inducida usando etanol, y ligazón pilórica de cuatro horas. RESULTADOS: El peso corporal promedio fue significativamente más bajo (p < 0.01), mientras que el peso promedio del estómago, el hígado y el intestino delgado con respecto a la proporción del peso corporal aumentó significativamente (p < 0.05) en los dos grupos diabéticos comparados con los controles. El extracto redujo significativamente (p < 0.01) el nivel de glucosa de la sangre, de manera similar al control no diabético. La secreción ácida basal y estimulada en las ratas diabéticas control disminuyó significativamente (p < 0.01) en comparación con el control. La administración del extracto aumentó la secreción ácida gástrica estimulada a un nivel significativamente (p < 0.05) superior al control, en tanto que la reducción de secreción gástrica mediante ranitidina fue similar comparada con el control. El tratamiento con Gongronema latifolium redujo significativamente (p < 0.05) las puntuaciones de las úlceras, tanto en los modelos de la úlcera como en el peso de mucosidad aumentado en el grupo diabético. CONCLUSIÓN: Estos resultados sugieren que la actividad antiulcerosa de la Gongronema latifolium se debe a que previene las lesiones de estómago inducidas por medios químicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apocynaceae , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Dyspepsia/physiopathology , Gastric Acid , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Medicine, Traditional , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Plant Leaves , Rats, Wistar , Ranitidine/pharmacology , Secretory Rate/drug effects , Stomach Ulcer/physiopathology , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157373

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to see the effect of two zinc salts i.e zinc sulphate and zinc chloride on gastric ulcers induced by stress, pylorus ligation and aspirin in albino rats. The rats were divided into two main groups (zinc sulphate 30, 60, 90 mg/kg i.p and zinc chloride 10 and 20mg/kg i.p). They were further sub-divided into three sub-groups dependant on ulcer model i.e stress, pylorus ligation and aspirin induced ulcers. It was found that zinc sulphate and zinc chloride had a dose dependant reduction in ulcer index in all three models of gastric ulceration. Also, both the salts had anti acid secretory effect, raised pH of gastric secretion and reduced total acidity significantly. Thus zinc salts prevent gastric ulceration. Probably this effect is mediated by anti acid secretory action.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/adverse effects , Gastric Acid/drug effects , Gastric Acid/metabolism , Peptic Ulcer/chemically induced , Peptic Ulcer/drug therapy , Peptic Ulcer/etiology , Peptic Ulcer/prevention & control , Pylorus/physiology , Rats , Secretory Rate , Zinc Sulfate/therapeutic use
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(4): 1373-1384, Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607443

ABSTRACT

Folk uses and scientific investigations have highlighted the importance of Casearia sylvestris extracts and their relevant bioactive potential. The aim of this work was to review the pharmacological properties of C. sylvestris, emphasizing its anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-ophidian and antitumor potentialities. Ethanolic extracts and essential oil of their leaves have antiulcerogenic activity and reduce gastric volume without altering the stomach pH, which corroborates their consumption on gastrointestinal disorders. Leaf water extracts show phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity that prevents damage effects on the muscular tissue after toxin inoculation. This antiphospholipasic action is probably related to the use as an anti-inflammatory, proposing a pharmacological blockage similar to that obtained with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on arachidonic acid and cyclooxygenase pathways. Bioguided-assay fractionations lead to the identification of secondary metabolites, especially the clerodane diterpenes casearins (A-X) and casearvestrins (A-C), compounds with a remarkable cytotoxic and antitumor action. Therefore, the C. sylvestris shrub holds a known worldwide pharmacological arsenal by its extensive folk utilization, exciting searches for new molecules and a better comprehension about biological properties.


Usos populares e pesquisas científicas têm destacado a importância dos extratos da planta Casearia sylvestris e seu grande potencial bioativo. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se revisar as propriedades farmacológicas de C. sylvestris, enfatizando sua potencialidade antiulcerogênica, antiinflamatória, antiofídica e antitumoral. O extrato etanólico e o óleo essencial das folhas possuem atividade antiulcerogênica promissora, diminuindo o volume gástrico sem alterar o pH estomacal, corroborando sua aplicação contra dores gastrointestinais. Já os extratos aquosos das folhas têm atividade inibitória contra fosfolipase A2 presente em venenos de cobras, atenuando os efeitos lesivos sobre a musculatura esquelética resultantes da inoculação das toxinas. Essa ação antifosfolipásica provavelmente está relacionada ao seu uso como antiinflamatório, sugerindo um bloqueio análogo ao dos fármacos antiinflamatórios não-esteroidais na formação de mediadores oriundos do ácido araquidônico e na ativação da ciclooxigenase. Ensaios de fracionamento bioguiado dos extratos culminaram no isolamento e identificação de inúmeros metabólitos secundários, especialmente os diterpenos clerodânicos casearinas (A-X) e casearvestrinas (AC), compostos que têm surpreendido por sua ação citotóxica e antitumoral. Assim, a planta C. sylvestris apresenta um enorme arsenal farmacológico já mundialmente comprovado por seu vasto uso popular, estimulando pesquisas por novas moléculas e a busca pela compreensão de suas propriedades biológicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Antidotes/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Casearia/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Ulcer Agents/chemistry , Anti-Ulcer Agents/isolation & purification , Antidotes/chemistry , Antidotes/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135607

ABSTRACT

Background & objective: Hedranthera barteri (HB) is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge, laxative and an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-ulcer and antioxidant properties of the dichloromethane fraction of HB root (DMHBR). Methods: Anti-ulcerogenic activity was assessed in cold-restraint (CRU), aspirin (ASP), alcohol (AL), pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats and histamine-induced duodenal ulcer (HST) in guinea pigs. The effect of DMHBR (100 mg/kg) on gastric juice for free and total acidity, peptic activity and mucin secretion, using the pylorus ligated model, were evaluated. The H+, K+-ATPase activity was assayed in gastric microsomes, spectrophotometrically. The in vitro anti-oxidant assays were explored through DPPH, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion scavenging assays. Results: DMHBR reduced the incidence of ulcers in CRU (63.3%), PL (58.5%), ASP (52.7%), HST (75.0%) and AL (53.87%). Also, reductions were observed in the free acidity (49.4%), total acidity (45.8%) and peptic activity (32.9%) with increase in the mucin secretion by 81.6 per cent. DMHBR (60-100 μg/ml) inhibited the H+,K+-ATPase activity with IC50 of 89.64 μg/ml compared with omeprazole (10-50 μg/ml ) with IC50 of 32.26 μg/ml. DMHBR showed antioxidant activity with IC50 values of DPPH (397.69 μg/ml), nitric oxide (475.88 μg/ml), hydroxyl radical (244.22 μg/ml) and superoxide anion radical (285.20 μg/ml). Interpretation & conclusion: DMHBR showed anti-ulcer activity against experimentally-induced peptic ulcer models and exhibited both cytoprotective and anti-secretory property. It exhibited a proton pump inhibition activity and its anti-ulcer properties may be partly ascribed to its antioxidant activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Gastric Juice/drug effects , H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors , Methylene Chloride , Microsomes/metabolism , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135565

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The aetiology of gastric ulcers is not completely understood and continuous use of anti-ulcer agents leads to many side effects. In this study we evaluated the anti-ulcer efficacy of a polyherbal formulation with potent antioxidant activity in aspirin and pyloric ligature induced gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: The efficacy of the polyherbal formulation NR-ANX-C (composed of the extracts from Withania somnifera, Camellia sinensis, Ocimum sanctum, shilajith and triphala) was evaluated in terms of antioxidant potential as assessed in terms of protection from lipid peroxidation and the antiulcer activity as seen by the area of gastric lesions, gastric juice volume, gastric pH, total acidity and total adherent gastric mucus content. Results: In our study, NR-ANX-C (25 and 50 mg/kg) was more efficacious than ranitidine in reducing ulcer index in both the models. At the highest dose tested (50 mg/kg), NR-ANX-C was comparable to omeprazole in preventing ulcer formation in the pyloric ligature model. NR-ANX-C showed a dose- dependent decrease in gastric juice volume and total acidity in both the models. A dose-dependent increase in gastric pH and total adherent gastric mucus was also seen in NR-ANX-C treated groups. The extent of lipid peroxidation was also reduced in the test drug treated groups. Interpretation & conclusion: Based on our findings, we presume that the cytoprotective, anti-secretary and antioxidant properties of NR-ANX-C were responsible for its anti-ulcer activity. These findings suggest the potential for use of NR-ANX-C as an adjuvant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/pharmacology , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Mutant Strains , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Stomach Ulcer/etiology , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
13.
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences-Assiut University. 2010; 33 (2): 169-177
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110799

ABSTRACT

The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of brown propolis was determined by invitro antioxidant assays via 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl [DPPHú] free radical scavenging activity and phosphomolybdenum method. The brown propolis extract had an effective DPPHú scavenging activity at 20-200 micro g/ml concentrations. Moreover, the in-vivo experiments showed that brown propolis extract has a powerful antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity in the liver tissues challenged with CCl4. On the other hand, we found that pretreatment of rats with propolis extract protected gastric tissues against indomethacin-induced gastropathy as demonstrated from reduction in the ulcer index, attenuation of histopathological changes and amelioration of the altered oxidative stress biomarkers like glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels and superoxide dismutase act ivi ty in gastric tissues. In conclusion, total ethanolic extract of brown propolis exposed major anti-oxidant and anti-ulcer activities


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Antioxidants , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Rats
14.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2010; 23 (3): 295-299
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-98174

ABSTRACT

Peptic ulcer is manifested largely due to an alteration in lifestyle and diet. The antiulcer efficacy of the aqueous extract of leaves of Pedalium murex on ethanol induced gastric lesions was investigated in our studies. This has been substantiated by ascertaining the content of total acid, acid volume, total protein, ulcer index and glutathione. Ulceration was induced in 36 hours fasted rats by the administration of 80% ethanol [1ml/kg] orally. The reference standard [famotidine, 3mg/kg] and aqueous extract of leaves of Pedalium murex in doses of 50, 100, 200mg/kg was given to different groups, one hour before the administration of ethanol. Marked gastric mucosal lesions were observed with ethanol. A perceptible elevation in ulcer index, total acidity, acid volume, total protein and diminution of glutathione was observed. Pretreatment with aqueous extract of leaves of Pedalium murex particularly at a dose of 200mg/kg in a single schedule and 100mg/kg for 15 and 30 days treatment annihilated these alterations and elevated the level of glutathione. Therefore the aqueous extract of leaves of Pedalium murex could be regarded as a favorable antiulcerogen which could be attributed to its content of flavonoids and mucilage


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Rats
15.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2009; 22 (4): 384-390
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-102259

ABSTRACT

The ethanolic root extract of Croton zambesicus was investigated for its potential to protect gastric mucosa against ulcers induced by indomethacin, ethanol and reserpine. The anticonvulsant activity of the root extract against pentylene tetrazol[PTZ]- and picrotoxin-induced convulsion in mice was also studied. The extract [27-81mg/kg] produced a significant [P<0.005-0.001] dose-dependent effects against the ulcerogenic effect of differents agents used; indomethacin, ethanol and reserpine. The effect of the extract was lower than that of the standard drug, cimetidine [100mg/kg] in the indomethacin and reserpine-induced ulcer models and higher than that of propranolol [40mg/kg] in ethanol- induced ulcer model. The extract [27-81mg/kg] could not protect mice from convulsion in both PTZ - and picrotoxin- induced convulsion. The root extract significantly [P<0.01-0.001] delayed the onset and latency of convulsion caused by PTZ and picrotoxin. The root extract possesses antiulcer and anticonvulsant properties


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals, Laboratory , Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Central Nervous System Depressants , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Pentylenetetrazole , Reserpine , Indomethacin , Picrotoxin , Phenytoin , Mice , Plants, Medicinal
16.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 19(3): 198-202, jul.-sept. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-511210

ABSTRACT

Background: Drug induced inhibition of acid secretion has been associated to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Smoking is followed by an increase of exhaled and orocecal transit time (OCTT). Aim: To investigate if the use of proton pump inhibitiors (PPI) and smoking can modifie the incidence of SIBO in patients with functional gastrointestinal disease. Patients and Methods: Questionnaires performed before a study for SIBO in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders were analyzed. The use PPI and the smoking habit were recorded. The presence of SIBO and the OCTT was determined by means of the lactulose hydrogen breath test. Results: 437 patients, mean age 45 years (range: 14-93), 337 (77 percent) female, entered in the study SIBO was present in 356 patients, and 81 patients had normal H2 breath test. Both groups had a similar distribution of gender and age. The percentage of SIBO was no different in patients using PPI or presenting smoking habit Conclusions: Use of PPI and smoking habit are not risk factors for the development of SIBO in patients with functional disorders.


Los fármacos que inhiben la secreción gástrica favorecen el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal (SBI), mientras que el habito de fumar puede aumentar los niveles de H2 espirado y el tiempo de transito orocecal (TTOC). Objetivo: Investigar si el uso de inhibidores de la bomba de protones (IBP) y el habito de fumar modifican la incidencia de SBI en pacientes con trastornos digestivos funcionales. Pacientes y Métodos: Se analizaron encuestas de pacientes con patología digestiva funcional previas a un estudio de SBI Se consignaron el uso de IBP Y el hábito tabáquico en los 6 meses que precedieron al examen. La presencia de SBI y el tiempo de transito orocecal (TTOC) se determinaron con el test de hidrógeno en aire espirado con lactulosa. Resultados: 437 pacientes, con edad x 45 años (rango: 14-93),337 (77 por ciento) mujeres. Con SBI 356 pacientes, sin SBI 81 pacientes. Ambos grupos fueron comparables en cuanto a distribución por sexo y edad. El porcentaje de pacientes con SBI no fue diferente en pacientes con antecedente de uso de IBP o con hábito tabaquito. Conclusiones: El antecedente del uso de IBP y el tabaquismo no constituyen un factor de riesgo para SBI en pacientes con patología digestiva funcional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Middle Aged , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria , Nicotine/pharmacology , Breath Tests , Proton Pumps/antagonists & inhibitors , Chile/epidemiology , Hydrogen/analysis , Intestines , Lactulose/administration & dosage , Omeprazole/pharmacology , Time Factors , Gastrointestinal Transit/physiology
17.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2008 Apr-Jun; 52(2): 178-82
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-106232

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to determine the healing of ulcers induced by indomethacin due to antioxidant role of fruit extract of Benincasa hispida (Ashgourd) on ulcers in rats. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in RBC and antral homogenate was determined to measure tissue oxidation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in RBC and antral homogenate, plasma and homogenate vitamin C were estimated as measures of antioxidant defense. On induction of gastric ulcer, there was significant increase in SOD in RBC and homogenate levels and vitamin C in plasma. There was an apparent decrease in ulcer index in animals treated with fruit extract. There was significant decrease in MDA with concomitant decrease in SOD and vitamin C levels in the treated rats when compared to those not treated with fruit extract. Benincasa hispida has been shown to contain certain active principles like terpenes, flavanoid C--glycosides and sterols which have antioxidant effects. These probably inhibit gastric mucosal injury by scavenging the free radicals and repress production of SOD and vitamin C in these rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Cucurbitaceae , Disease Models, Animal , Indomethacin , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Stomach/drug effects , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-65157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lansoprazole, a benzimidazole derivative, is a widely-used proton-pump inhibitor. In addition, it has been reported to have an independent gastroprotective action. Since free radicals and antioxidant mechanisms appear to counter-act tissue-related injury, we studied the effect of lansoprazole on oxidative stress in acid-ethanol gastric injury. As this drug is metabolized in the liver, we also studied its effect on the liver. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group, group I (vehicle treatment) and group II (lansoprazole treatment for eight days). In all the groups, injury was induced by ethanol-HCl administration. The effect of lansoprazole on free-radical generation and various antioxidants, e.g. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase was evaluated in the gastric mucosal and liver homogenates. RESULTS: Ethanol-HCl administration initiated injury as shown by increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both gastric mucosa and liver. There was an increase in SOD and GST activity and a decrease in catalase, glutathione reductase and GSH in the gastric mucosa. In liver, ethanol-HCl administration decreased the activity of SOD, catalase and GSH and increased GST activity. Lansoprazole pretreatment led to decrease in the levels of MDA and increase in SOD, catalase, GSH, glutathione reductase and GST in both the gastric mucosa and liver. CONCLUSIONS: Lansoprazole has a protective action on gastric mucosa and the liver. This protection is mediated by a decrease in oxidative stress and a concomitant in-crease in antioxidants.


Subject(s)
2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Female , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Wistar
19.
Acta gastroenterol. latinoam ; 37(4): 231-237, 2007.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-490740

ABSTRACT

Introduction/aims: We hypothesized that a combination of an effervescent antacid and ranitidine could allow immediate and long-lasting increase intragastric acidity. Our aim was to determine the effect of the combined intake of both, of a low dose ranitidine (OTC) and 5g of antacid on gastric pH. Material and methods: Twenty healthy Helicobacter pylori negative volunteers were enrolled. The study consisted in a fasting 6-hour gastric ph-metric procedure performed in two different periods: baseline (1-hour before drug) and post-drug (5-hours) after oral administration of a single dose of ranitidine (75 mg) plus 5 g of a commercial composed alkaline (sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, sodium carbonate). Results: While two subjects did not complete the pH-metry analysis due to technical reasons, 18 volunteers were finally assessed. Baseline intragastric pH (1.3±0.1) (mean±SD) rose significantly after administration of the drug (mean pH value for the whole period: 5.1±0.3; p<0.00001). The pH increased after administration of the study combination and values higher than pH 3 and pH 4 were reached immediately (median time: 27 sec, range: 0- 189 and 54 sec, range 27-3,600 sec, respectively). Gastric pH was initially maintained above 4 for 23.0±5 minutes. The mean time lapsed with pH<4 during the post-drug period was 96±17 min (32% of the total time). Conclusion: Our study confirms the fast and persistent effect produced by the administration of a combination of antacid salts plus low dose of ranitidine. We suggest that the given combination could be effeceffective, fast and safe for sporadic pyrosis or mild grastroesophageal reflux symptoms.


Introducción/objetivos: la combinación de un antiácido efervescente y ranitidina podría brindar un descenso inmediato y prolongado de la acidez intragástrica. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el efecto de la ingesta conjunta de ambos (75 mg de ranitidina y 5 g de antiácidos) sobre el pH gástrico. Material y métodos: se incluyeron 20 voluntarios sanos, con anticuerpos anti- Helicobacter pylori negativos. Se realizó, en condiciones de ayuno, una pH-metría gástrica de 6 horas en dos períodos: basal (1 hora antes del medicamento) y post-droga (5 horas) luego de la administración oral de una dosis única de ranitidina (75 mg) + 5 g de antiácidos efervescentes (bicarbonato sódico, ácido cítrico, carbonato sódico). Resultados: dado que dos pacientes no completaron el estudio de pH por razones técnicas, se analizaron los resultados de 18 voluntarios. El pH intragástrico basal fue de 1.33±0.12 (promedio ± DS) y se elevó a 5.1±0.3 como promedio de todo el período post-droga (p<0.00001). El incremento de pH fue inmediato; así los valores de pH=3 y pH=4 fueron alcanzados en 27 seg, rango: 0-189 y 54 seg, rango 27- 3.600, respectivamente (mediana, rango). El pH se mantuvo inicialmente por encima de 4 durante 23.0±5 minutos. El tiempo con pH < 4 durante las 5 horas post-droga fue de 96± 17 minutos (32% del tiempo total). Conclusión: nuestro estudio confirma el efecto rápido y persistente determinado por la combinación de sales antiácidas y bajas dosis de ranitidina. De este modo esta asociación podría ser efectiva, rápida y segura frente a pirosis esporádica o síntomas de reflujo gastro-esofágico leve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Antacids/administration & dosage , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Gastric Acid , Ranitidine/administration & dosage , Antacids/pharmacology , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Fasting , Gastric Acidity Determination , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ranitidine/pharmacology , Time Factors
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Jun; 44(6): 474-80
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60257

ABSTRACT

The aqueous extract of Hingwashtak churna was evaluated for gastroprotection in rats using the ibuprofen and ethanol induced ulcer models. Efficacy was assessed by determination of mean ulcer size, ulcer number and ulcer index. Oral administration of the aqueous extract (750 mg/kg) significantly protected against gastric lesions by 84.96% and 91.12% as compared to ranititidine (95.54 and 95.2%) in the ibuprofen and alcohol induced ulcer models respectively. The findings suggest that the significant gastroprotective activity could be mediated by its antioxidant activity which was evaluated by using different antioxidant models of screening.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Alcohols/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Benzothiazoles , Ethanol/pharmacology , Female , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation , Male , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Peptic Ulcer/chemically induced , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sulfonic Acids/chemistry
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