Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 127
Filter
1.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e62, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252015

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives. To map the current evidence on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) administration and identify knowledge gaps in the literature available in this field. Methods. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Epistemonikos, and Health Systems Evidence databases were searched from January 2015 to March 2020 for systematic reviews published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Eighty-three systematic reviews were included, the quality of the reviews was assessed using AMSTAR 2, and data were extracted for all primary outcomes. Perioperative antibiotic administration, the use of first generation cephalosporins, and surgical site infection (SSI) were the most commonly reported for timing of antibiotic administration, drug class, and primary outcome, respectively. Findings showed that, overall, SAP may reduce SSIs compared with a placebo or with no SAP. Results suggested that intraoperative SAP may lower SSI, while postoperative SAP did not show a statistically significant difference. Conclusions. Findings have confirmed the role of SAP in reducing postoperative SSI across various surgeries and do not support the use of antibiotics after surgery to prevent infections. The findings of this scoping review have enhanced the evidence base that can inform decisions regarding the development of global guidelines for the prevention of SSI. However, high-quality systematic reviews and research reflecting diverse populations and settings are needed.


RESUMEN Objetivos. Trazar un mapa de la evidencia actual sobre la administración de profilaxis antibiótica quirúrgica e identificar lagunas de conocimiento en la bibliografía disponible en este campo. Métodos. Se realizaron búsquedas en las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane Library, Epistemonikos y Health Systems Evidence desde enero del 2015 hasta marzo del 2020 para obtener revisiones sistemáticas publicadas en inglés, francés, portugués y español. Resultados. Se incluyeron ochenta y tres revisiones sistemáticas, se evaluó la calidad de las revisiones con AMSTAR 2 y se extrajeron los datos de todos los resultados primarios. Se notificó con mayor frecuencia la administración de antibióticos perioperatorios, el uso de cefalosporinas de primera generación y la infección de sitio quirúrgico en relación con los tiempos de administración de los antibióticos, el tipo de medicamento y el resultado principal, respectivamente. Los resultados demostraron que, en términos generales, la profilaxis antibiótica quirúrgica puede reducir la infección de sitio quirúrgico en comparación con un placebo o la falta de profilaxis. Los resultados sugirieron que la profilaxis antibiótica transoperatoria puede reducir la infección de sitio quirúrgico, si bien la profilaxis antibiótica posoperatoria no mostró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa. Conclusiones. Los resultados confirman la función de la profilaxis antibiótica quirúrgica en la reducción de la infección posoperatoria de sitio quirúrgico en diversas operaciones quirúrgicas y no avalan el uso de antibióticos después de la cirugía para prevenir infecciones. Los resultados de esta revisión exploratoria han contribuido a la base empírica que puede fundamentar decisiones relacionadas con la formulación de directrices mundiales para la prevención de infección de sitio quirúrgico. Sin embargo, se necesitan revisiones sistemáticas e investigación de calidad que representen poblaciones y entornos diversos.


RESUMO Objetivo. Mapear as evidências atuais em administração de antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica e identificar as lacunas de conhecimento na literatura existente nesta área. Métodos. Foram realizadas buscas nos repositórios PubMed, Cochrane Library, Epistemonikos e Health Systems Evidence de janeiro de 2015 a março de 2020, limitadas a revisões sistemáticas publicadas em espanhol, francês, inglês e português. Resultados. Oitenta e três revisões sistemáticas foram incluídas. A qualidade das revisões foi avaliada com o uso do instrumento AMSTAR 2. Foram extraídos dados para todos os desfechos primários. O período perioperatório foi o momento de aplicação da antibioticoprofilaxia mais comumente relatado; cefalosporinas de primeira geração, a classe terapêutica mais comumente utilizada; e infecção do sítio cirúrgico (ISC), o desfecho primário mais comumente descrito. Os achados desta revisão demonstram que, em geral, a antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica pode reduzir a ocorrência de ISC quando comparada ao placebo ou à não realização de antibioticoprofilaxia. Os resultados sugerem que a antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica transoperatória pode reduzir a ocorrência de ISC, embora a profilaxia pós-operatória não tenha demonstrado diferença estatisticamente significativa. Conclusões. Este estudo confirma o papel da antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica em reduzir ISC pós-operatória em diversos procedimentos cirúrgicos, mas não respalda o uso de antibióticos no pós-operatório para prevenir infecções. Os resultados desta revisão de escopo reforçam o corpo de evidências para subsidiar decisões ao se elaborar diretrizes globais para a prevenção de ISC. Porém, são necessárias revisões sistemáticas de alta qualidade e pesquisas em populações e cenários diversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Preoperative Care/methods , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods
2.
Medwave ; 20(11): e8072, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN La cirugía ortognática, al ser un procedimiento quirúrgico invasivo, puede presentar importantes morbilidades postoperatorias para el paciente. Dentro de las complicaciones descritas con mayor frecuencia, está la infección del sitio quirúrgico. En vista de esto, la administración de antibióticos profilácticos previo a este tipo de procedimientos se presenta como una práctica frecuente. Sin embargo, el costo-beneficio del uso de antibióticos, el tipo de antibiótico, la vía de administración, la posología, y el esquema a utilizar no han sido claramente definidos y se presentan como una temática controversial. En este resumen de evidencia, se comparará la utilidad del esquema profiláctico de largo plazo contra el de corto plazo. MÉTODOS Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES Identificamos cinco revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron nueve estudios primarios, de los cuales, todos corresponden a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que dar un esquema profiláctico antibiótico de largo plazo probablemente disminuye el riesgo de infección del sitio quirúrgico y podría aumentar el riesgo de estadía hospitalaria mayor a dos días, pero en este último punto, la certeza de la evidencia es baja.


INTRODUCTION Orthognathic surgery, being an invasive surgical procedure, may present significant postoperative morbidities for the patient. Among the most frequently described complications is surgical site infection. The administration of prophylactic antibiotics prior to this type of procedure is a common practice, however, the cost-benefit of the use of antibiotics, the type of antibiotics, the route of administration, the dosage, and the regimen to be used have not been clearly defined and are still considered a controversial issue. In this summary of evidence, we will compare long-term antibiotic prophylaxis with short-term prophylaxis. METHODS We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS We identified five systematic reviews including nine studies overall, of which all nine were randomized trials. We conclude that administering a long-term prophylactic antibiotic regimen probably decreases the risk of surgical site infection and that it may increase the risk of hospital stay longer than two days, nevertheless, regarding this last point, the certainty of the evidence is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
3.
Buenos Aires; IECS; 22 sept. 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1140944

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO CLÍNICO: La Enfermedad por el Coronavirus 2019 (COVID­19, por su sigla en inglés Coronavirus Disease 2019) es una enfermedad respiratoria de humanos producida por un nuevo coronavirus identificado con la sigla SARS-CoV-2. El 11 de marzo de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaro la COVID-19 como uma pandemia. Desde ese momento hasta este 01 de abril su circulación se ha reportado en 205 países reportándose más de 800.000 casos y la muerte 40.000 personas. El período de incubación de la infección por 2019­nCoV es de 2 a 14 días. La mayor parte de los contagios se producen persona a persona, siendo altamente transmisible. La clínica varía desde casos asintomáticos a cuadros febriles con tos y dificultad respiratoria, neumonía y distrés respiratorio. También puede acompañarse de alteraciones gastrointestinales. En los casos con mal pronóstico, el paciente presenta un importante deterioro respiratorio en 4-8 días. Las imágenes radiológicas muestran generalmente neumonía focal o generalizada semejante al síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo. Los casos graves requieren ingreso hospitalario, siendo mayoritariamente casos primarios en pacientes de edad avanzada y con comorbilidades (diabetes, enfermedad crónica renal, hipertensión, enfermedad cardiaca y enfermedad pulmonar crónica). La tasa de letalidad media de los pacientes ingresados a UTI es cercana al 49%, siendo los valores más elevados en pacientes masculinos de más de 50 años con comorbilidades múltiples. Actualmente el tratamiento de la COVID­19 es sintomático y de sostén no existiendo hasta el momento tratamento farmacológico específico curativo. Los tratamientos que se han propuestos son: inhibidores de la ARN polimerasa dependiente de ARN (remdesivir, favipiramir), inhibidores de la neuraminidasa (oseltamivir), inhibidores de la protease (lopinavir/ritonavir, desulfura, inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2, inhibidores de quinasa (imatinib, baricitinib, ribavirin), inmunomoduladores (plasma de convaleciente, anticuerpos ante receptos IL-6 como tocilizumab y otros (interferón , glucocorticoides , umifenovir, cloroquina, etc.). El efecto de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) sobre la susceptibilidad a las infecciones bacterianas aún no está claro. La coinfección con otros microorganismos como bacterias y hongos es un factor que podría aumentar los síntomas de la enfermedad y la mortalidade. Las características clínicas del compromiso pulmonar por COVID-19 pueden ser difíciles de distinguir de la neumonía bacteriana, por lo que el tratamiento empírico para la neumonía extrahospitalaria podría ser razonable cuando el diagnóstico es incierto. Se postula el uso de antibióticos en pacientes con COVID-19 para la prevención o tratamento temprano de coinfección bacteriana y para el tratamiento de coinfección de neumopatía por COVID-19. TECNOLOGÍA: Los tratamientos antibióticos en pacientes hospitalizados con enfermedades graves suelen iniciarse de forma empírica basándose en datos clínicos, gravedad, uso previo de antibióticos, tiempo ranscurrido entre el ingreso hospitalario y el diagnóstico, la prevalencia de patógenos y patrones de resistência natural y propios de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) o del hospital. Una vez que se ha decidido iniciar el tratamiento, deben considerarse dos principios fundamentales: a) el tratamiento inicial debe buscar ser adecuado y temprano, y b) los antibióticos deben usarse prudentemente para tratar de impedir el desarrollo de resistencia bacteriana.7 En pacientes con cuadro sospechoso de neumonía por COVID-19 se recomienda su uso priorizando la vía oral (cuando sea posible) hasta la confirmación diagnóstica (hisopado nasofaríngeo para prueba PCR de SARS CoV2). Si es confirmado el diagnostico de COVID-19, se debe suspender el antibiótico. Idealmente, en pacientes con neumopatía severa, la antibioticoterapia empírica debe ajustarse según recomendaciones de comité de infecciones de cada institucion. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe es evaluar la evidencia disponible acerca de la eficacia y seguridad de la antibioticoterapia empírica en pacientes con COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas, en buscadores genéricos de internet, y financiadores de salud. Se priorizó la inclusión de revisiones sistemáticas (RS), ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados (ECAs), evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS), evaluaciones económicas, guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y recomendaciones de diferentes organizaciones de salud. CONCLUSIONES: No se encontró evidencia acerca de la eficacia ni la seguridad de la implementación del uso de terapia antibiótica empírica en pacientes con sospecha de COVID-19 o pacientes con síntomas leves y moderados de COVID-19. Las tasas de sobreinfección bacteriana en pacientes con neumopatía severa por COVID-19 proveniente de estudios observacionales son dispares, siendo relativamente bajas en los pacientes más leves y más altas en los graves. Evidencia de muy baja calidad no permite determinar si el uso de antibióticos podría prevenir la mala evolución y/o reducir la mortalidad de los pacientes más graves. Las guías de práctica clínica sobre manejo de infecciones hospitalarias, así como los protocolos gubernamentales, y las recomendaciones de las sociedades científicas sobre el manejo de COVID-19 indican que, en pacientes leves y asintomáticos con sospecha de neumopatía por COVID-19 se debe comenzar con tratamiento antibiótico empírico y luego ajustarse o suspenderlo de acuerdo al resultado de PCR en tiempo real y los resultados de los estudios por imágenes torácicos. En todo paciente con diagnóstico de neumopatía severa, se debe solicitar PCR en tiempo real para diagnóstico de COVID-19 y eventualmente para otras virosis respiratorias, así como realizar cultivos bacterianos e indicar tratamiento antibiótico empírico hasta tener resultados de los test realizados y que luego éste se ajuste o se suspenda, de acuerdo a los gérmenes rescatados en estos cultivos. La elección del esquema antibiótico empíricos debe ajustarse de acuerdo a las sugerencias del comité de infecciones de cada institución y a la caracterización de los gérmenes prevalentes en las unidades de cuidados intensivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Cost-Benefit Analysis
4.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(3): e676, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138938

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La profilaxis antibiótica es controvertida, además que su uso inapropiado expone a los pacientes en riesgo de reacciones adversas y desarrollo de resistencia bacteriana. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que evaluaron le eficacia de la profilaxis antibiótica en la reducción de infecciones posoperatorias luego de la extracción de terceros molares impactados. Métodos: Fueron utilizadas las bases de datos ScienceDirect, Clinical trials.gov y Scopus para ubicar ensayos clínicos. Las variables primarias incluyeron: presencia de infecciones posoperatorias (de la herida y/o alveolitis), reacciones adversas, trismo y dolor. Se realizó un metaanálisis con los estudios homogéneos a través del análisis de efectos aleatorios. El riesgo de sesgo de los ensayos incluidos fue evaluado a través de la guía Cochrane. El riesgo relativo global fue calculado utilizando el enfoque del inverso de la varianza con el método de efectos aleatorios. Resultados: Fueron analizados cualitativamente 14 ensayos clínicos y 9 cuantitativamente. De un total de 874 pacientes, 49 (5,6 por ciento) presentaron infecciones posoperatorias (16/446 para el grupo experimental y 33/428 para el grupo placebo). El metaanálisis arrojó un riesgo relativo global de 0,5 (IC 95 por ciento: 0,27-0,94). El riesgo de sesgo para los estudios que utilizaron solo amoxicilina como medida profiláctica fue de 0,53 (IC 95 por ciento: 0,27-1,03). Las principales reacciones adversas incluyeron: diarreas, reacciones gastrointestinales, fiebre y dolor gástrico. Conclusiones: Los antibióticos sistémicos administrados antes de la cirugía fueron eficaces para reducir las frecuencias de aparición de infecciones posoperatorias luego de la extracción de terceros molares impactados(AU)


Introduction: Antibiotic prophylaxis is controversial, and its inappropriate use exposes patients to the risk of adverse reactions and the development of bacterial resistance. Objective: Carry out a systematic review of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for the reduction of postoperative infections after extraction of impacted third molars. Methods: The search for clinical trials was conducted in the databases ScienceDirect, Clinicaltrials.gov and Scopus. The primary variables considered were presence of postoperative infections (of the wound and/or alveolitis), adverse reactions, trismus and pain. A meta-analysis was made of homogeneous studies applying the random effects model. The risk of bias in the trials included was evaluated using the Cochrane guide. The inverse variance approach and the random effects method were used for estimation of the global relative risk. Results: Fourteen clinical trials were analyzed qualitatively and 9 quantitatively. Of the total 874 patients, 49 (5.6 percent:) developed postoperative infections (16 / 446 for the experimental group and 33 / 428 for the placebo group). The meta-analysis found a global relative risk of 0,5 (CI 95 percent: 0,27-0,94). Bias risk for studies using only amoxicillin as a prophylactic measure was 0,53 (CI 95 percent:: 0,27-1,03). The main adverse reactions were diarrhea, gastrointestinal reactions, fever and abdominal pain. Conclusions: The systemic antibiotics administered before the surgery were effective to reduce the frequency of appearance of postoperative infections after extraction of impacted third molars(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Molar, Third/surgery , Oral Surgical Procedures/methods
5.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(1): 125-142, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099151

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La endocarditis infecciosa es una condición severa que puede presentarse luego de procedimientos odontológicos invasivos, principalmente en pacientes portadores de válvulas cardiacas protésicas y enfermedad cardiaca reumática y congénita. Es importante identificar el nivel de conocimientos de los estudiantes de Odontología para establecer reformas en el plan de estudios de la carrera. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimiento sobre profilaxis antibiótica de endocarditis infecciosa previa a procedimientos odontológicos en estudiantes de último año de Odontología de Lima. Material y métodos: Estudio analítico y transversal, cuya muestra estuvo constituida por 117 estudiantes del último año de la carrera de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), la Universidad Nacional Federico Villareal (UNFV) y la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (UPCH), de Lima, Perú, durante el año 2014. El instrumento de evaluación fue una encuesta de 20 preguntas cerradas sobre epidemiología y etiopatogenia de endocarditis infecciosa e indicación y farmacología de la profilaxis antibiótica previa a procedimientos odontológicos. Los resultados fueron catalogados en 3 niveles: bajo, regular y alto. Resultados: El 53,84 por ciento de los internos presentó un nivel de conocimiento bajo, mientras el 32,47 por ciento un nivel regular y el 13,69 por ciento un nivel alto. El nivel de respuesta promedio fue 10,1 ± 2,95 [IC95 por ciento(9,57-10,65)]. Por universidad, los internos de la UNMSM tuvieron un nivel de conocimiento promedio de 11 ± 2,60 [IC95 por ciento (9,84-12,15)], los de UNFV tuvieron 8,8 ± 3,36 [IC95 por ciento (7,74 - 9,86)] y los de UPCH tuvieron 10,7 ± 2,41 [IC95 por ciento (10,08-11,39)]; p=0,002. Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimiento sobre profilaxis antibiótica de endocarditis infecciosa en estudiantes de último año de Odontología de Lima es predominantemente bajo(AU)


Introduction: Infective endocarditis is a severe condition that can occur after invasive dental procedures, mainly in patients with prosthetic heart valves and rheumatic and congenital heart disease. It is important to identify the level of knowledge of dental students to establish reforms in the curriculum of the career. Objective: To determine the level of knowledge about antibiotic prophylaxis of infective endocarditis prior to dental procedures in last-year dental students of Lima. Material and methods: Analytical and cross-sectional study whose sample was made up of 117 last-year dental students of the National University of San Marcos (UNMSM), the National University Federico Villareal (UNFV) and the Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia (UPCH) from Lima, Peru, during the year 2014. The evaluation instrument was a survey of 20 closed questions on epidemiology and etiopathogenesis of infective endocarditis and indication and pharmacology of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental procedures. The results were cataloged in 3 levels: low, regular and high. Results: The results show that 53,84 percent of the interns presented a low level of knowledge, while 32,47 percent had a regular level and 13,69 percent a high level. The average response level was 10,1 ± 2,95 [95 percent CI (9,57-10,65)]. By university, UNMSM interns had an average level of knowledge of 11 ± 2,60 [95 percent CI (9,84-12,15)], UNFV had 8,8 ± 3,36 [95 percent CI (7,74-9,86)] and those of UPCH had 10,7 ± 2,41 [95 percent CI (10,08-11,39)]; p=0.002. Conclusions: The level of knowledge about antibiotic prophylaxis of infective endocarditis in last- year dental students in Lima is predominantly low(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Students, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Education, Dental/methods , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Peru/epidemiology
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 60-66, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056357

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of cases of NIH category I acute prostatitis developed after transrectal prostate biopsy and clarifiy the risk factors and preventive factors. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 3.479 cases of transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsies performed with different prophylactic antibiotherapy regimens at two different institutions between January 2011 and February 2016. The patients of Group I have received ciprofl oxacin (n=1.523, 500mg twice daily) and the patients of Group II have received ciprofl oxacin plus ornidazole (n=1.956, 500mg twice daily) and cleansing enema combination as prophylactic antibiotherapy. The incidence, clinical features and other related microbiological and clinical data, were evaluated. Results: Mean age was 62.38±7.30 (47-75), and the mean prostate volume was 43.17±15.20 (21-100) mL. Of the 3.479 patients, 39 (1.1%) developed acute prostatitis after the prostate biopsy procedure. Of the 39 cases of acute prostatitis, 28/3.042 occurred after the first biopsy and 11/437 occurred after repeat biopsy (p=0.038). In Group I, 22 of 1.523 (1.4%) patients developed acute prostatitis. In Group II, 17 of 1.959 (0.8%) patients developed acute prostatitis. There was no statistical difference between the two groups according to acute prostatitis rates (X2=2.56, P=0.11). Further, hypertension or DM were not related to the development of acute prostatitis (P=0.76, X2=0.096 and P=0.83, X2=0.046, respectively). Conclusions: Repeat biopsy seems to increase the risk of acute prostatitis, while the use of antibiotics effective for anaerobic pathogens seems not to be essential yet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Ornidazole/administration & dosage , Prostatitis/etiology , Biopsy, Needle/adverse effects , Ciprofloxacin/administration & dosage , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Enema/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Prostate/pathology , Prostatitis/prevention & control , Time Factors , Biopsy, Needle/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Drug Combinations , Middle Aged
7.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(4): e1558, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152631

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Infection of the surgical site is the common complication, with significant rates of morbidity and mortality, representing a considerable economic problem for the health system. Objective: To carry out a narrative review of the literature on surgical site infection and the principles of antibiotic prophylaxis to update the knowledge of its use in surgery. Method: Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar, National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Cochrane and SciELO were used for the research. The keywords used were "anti-bacterial agents"; "antibioticoprophylaxis" AND "surgical wound infection". The inclusion criteria were articles of recent publication, with full texts available and performed in humans. Result: A total of 29 articles were evaluated and selected according to the eligibility criteria. Conclusion: Infection of the surgical site is the most common postoperative complication. The key point of its prevention is the combination of several interventions that aim to reduce risk factors, such as: compliance with the new guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention; the principles of the use of prophylactic antibiotics; factors and risk index of the surgical site; administration time; duration and dosage of antibiotics. These data are available in this article.


RESUMO Introdução: A infecção do sítio cirúrgico é a complicação comum, com taxas significativas de morbimortalidade, representando considerável problema econômico para o sistema de saúde. Objetivo: Realizar revisão narrativa da literatura sobre infecção de sítio cirúrgico e os princípios da antibioticoprofilaxia para atualizar o conhecimento de seu uso em cirurgia. Método: Utilizou-se para a pesquisa a base de dados Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar, National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Cochrane e SciELO. As palavras-chave usadas foram "anti-bacterial agents"; "antibioticoprophylaxis" AND "surgical wound infection". Os critérios de inclusão foram artigos de publicação recente, com textos completos disponíveis e realizados em humanos. Resultado: Um total de 29 artigos foi avaliado e selecionado de acordo com os critérios de elegibilidade. Conclusão: A infecção do sítio cirúrgico é a complicação pós-operatória mais comum. O ponto-chave da sua prevenção consiste na combinação de várias intervenções que visam reduzir os fatores de risco, tais como: a obediência às novas diretrizes do Centro de Controle e Prevenção de Doenças; aos princípios do uso de antibióticos profiláticos; fatores e índice de risco do local cirúrgico; tempo de administração; duração e dosagem dos antibióticos. Esses dados estão disponíveis neste artigo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , Infection Control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5427, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133722

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Methods: This was a descriptive study performed at a public tertiary care university hospital gathering prescription, sociodemographic and hospitalization data of inpatients admitted in 2014 who used antimicrobial drugs. This data were obtained from the hospital electronic database. The antimicrobial data were classified according to the anatomical, therapeutic chemical/defined daily dose per 1,000 inpatients. An exploratory analysis was performed using principal component analysis. Results: A total of 5,182 inpatients were prescribed surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Of the total antimicrobial use, 11.7% were for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. The orthopedic, thoracic and cardiovascular postoperative units, and postoperative intensive care unit comprised more than half of the total surgical antibiotic prophylaxis use (56.3%). The duration of antimicrobial use of these units were 2.2, 2.0, and 1.4 days, respectively. Third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones had the longest use among antimicrobial classes. Conclusion: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis was inadequate in the orthopedic, postoperative intensive care, thoracic and cardiovascular postoperative, gynecology and obstetrics, and otolaryngology units. Therefore, the development and implementation of additional strategies to promote surgical antibiotic stewardship at hospitals are essential.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a utilização de antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo em um hospital universitário de cuidado terciário por meio de coleta de dados de prescrição, sociodemográficos e de hospitalização sobre todos os pacientes internados em 2014 que utilizaram pelo menos um medicamento antimicrobiano. Esses dados foram coletados da base de dados eletrônica do hospital. O consumo de antimicrobianos foi analisado de acordo com a classificação anatômica terapêutica e química/dose diária definida por mil pacientes-dia. Realizou-se uma análise exploratória por meio da análise de componentes principais. Resultados: Um total de 5.182 pacientes internados receberam prescrição de antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica, que corresponde a 11,7% do total de antibióticos utilizados no hospital. As unidades de ortopedia, pós-operatória de cirurgia torácica e cardiovascular e terapia intensiva pós-operatória foram responsáveis pela utilização de mais da metade (56,3%) da antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica. A duração de uso desses antimicrobianos nessas unidades foi 2,2, 2,0 e 2,4 dias, respectivamente. Cefalosporinas de terceira geração e fluoroquinolonas foram as classes de antimicrobianos com tempo de utilização mais longo. Conclusão: A utilização de antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica foi inadequada nas unidades de ortopedia, pós-operatória de cirurgia torácica e cardiovascular, terapia intensiva pós-operatória, ginecologia e obstetrícia e otorrinolarigonlogia. Portanto, são importantes o desenvolvimento e a implantação de estratégias que promovam o uso racional de antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica nos hospitais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Drug Utilization Review , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(4): 494-502, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041352

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the preoperative use of antibiotics in children and adolescents requiring appendectomy. Data source: Integrative review was performed in the MEDLINE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) and Cochrane databases and the PubMed portal, with no time limit. The keywords used were: appendicitis, child, adolescent and antibacterial with Boolean AND. The articles included were published in Portuguese, English or Spanish and whose participants were under 18 years of age. Review articles and guidelines were excluded. The studies were classified according to their level of evidence and 24 papers were selected. Data collection and analysis: Seven randomized clinical trial studies (level of evidence II), eight cohorts (level III), seven retrospective observational studies (level V) and two historical documentary analysis (level IV) were selected. The studies addressed antibiotics used in acute appendicitis in both uncomplicated and complicated cases. Antibiotics initiated in the preoperative period showed a decrease in the rates of surgical wound infections. First-line (empiric) regimens were tested for sensitivity to microorganisms in peritoneal material cultures, however the results were controversial. Broad-spectrum antibiotics have been suggested in some studies because they have good coverage, but in others they have not been recommended because of the risk of developing bacterial resistance. Shorter administration time and earlier change to the oral route reduced hospitalization time. Conclusions: There are several clinical protocols with different antibiotics. However, there is no standardization concerning the type of antibiotic drug, time of use, or route.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o uso de antibióticos em crianças e adolescentes no perioperatório de apendicectomia. Fonte de dados: Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa, nas bases de dados MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) e Cochrane e no portal PubMed, sem limite de tempo. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: apendicite, criança, adolescente e antibacterianos com booleano AND. Os artigos incluídos foram publicados nos idiomas português, inglês ou espanhol e cujos participantes tivessem idade inferior a 18 anos. Os artigos de revisão e diretrizes foram excluídos. A qualidade da evidência foi analisada, e foram selecionados 24 artigos. Síntese dos dados: Sobre os estudos selecionados, sete foram ensaios clínicos randomizados (nível de evidência II), oito coortes (nível III), sete observacionais retrospectivos (nível V) e duas análises documentais históricas (nível IV). Os estudos abordaram antibióticos usados na apendicite aguda em suas formas não complicada e complicada. Os antibióticos iniciados no pré-operatório evidenciaram diminuição nas taxas de infecção da ferida cirúrgica. Os esquemas de primeira linha (empíricos) foram testados em relação à sensibilidade dos microrganismos nas culturas de material peritoneal, no entanto os resultados foram controversos. Sugeriram-se antibióticos de amplo espectro em alguns estudos por apresentar boa cobertura, no entanto em outros eles não foram recomendados, pelo risco de desenvolver resistência bacteriana. O menor tempo de administração e a mudança mais precoce para a via oral reduziram o tempo de internação. Conclusões: Existe um grande número de protocolos clínicos com antibióticos diversos, no entanto não existe padronização em relação ao tipo de antibiótico, tempo de uso nem via.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Preoperative Care/methods , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Treatment Outcome
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 347-353, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002202

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Study design: Retrospective cohort of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) that have been hospitalized for physical-functional rehabilitation purposes. Objectives: To compare the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) after urodynamic study (UDS) in three hospitals that adopted different protocols with regard to the preparation of patients. Setting: Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Between 2014 and 2015, 661 patients from three units of the same hospital network, one of which does not use antimicrobial prophylaxis independently of urine culture results, were evaluated after having undergone UDS. The results were compared in both univariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression). Results: The global rate of UTI after UDS was that of 3.18% (IC 95% 2.1-4.8), with no differences between the units. In the univariate analysis the only variable that was associated with UTI after UDS was that of T6 injuries or above (P = 0.029). The logistic regression has confirmed this result, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.06 (IC 95% 1.01 to 9.26; P = 0.0476). The use of antimicrobial prophylaxis did not alter that risk. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that the use of antimicrobials does not prevent UTI after UDS. Patients with T6 traumatic SCI or above have got three times more chance of developing UTI after UDS if compared to those with a T7 injury or below, independently of the use of antimicrobials. Even in these patients the use of antimicrobials would not be justified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Spinal Cord Injuries/physiopathology , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Bacteriuria/prevention & control , Bacteriuria/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Urodynamics , Brazil/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections , Middle Aged
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20180225, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040292

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the incidence of active tuberculosis and the occurrence of adverse events after isoniazid treatment in patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) who also had chronic inflammatory diseases and were treated with immunobiologic agents in an endemic area in Brazil. Methods: The diagnosis of LTBI was based on anamnesis, clinical examination, chest X-ray, and a tuberculin skin test (TST). Patients received prophylactic treatment (isoniazid for six months) in accordance with the Brazilian guidelines. Results: A total of 101 patients were evaluated between July of 2011 and July of 2015. Of those, 55 (54.46%) were women (mean age, 53.16 ± 1.76 years) and 46 (45.54%) were men (mean age, 45.39 ± 2.13 years). A total of 79 patients (78.22%) were being treated with immunobiologic agents and 22 (21.78%) were being treated with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive agents. In the screening for LTBI, 53 patients (52.48%) had a TST induration ≥ 10 mm. Chest X-ray findings consistent with LTBI were observed in 36 patients (35.64%). Isoniazid preventive therapy was effective in 96 (95.05%) of the 101 patients evaluated. It is of note that 84 (83.17%) of the patients experienced no adverse effects from the use of isoniazid and that 83 (98.81%) of those patients completed the prophylactic treatment (p = 0.002). Active tuberculosis was diagnosed in 5 (6.33%) of the 79 patients treated with immunobiologic agents and in 1 (4.55%) of the 22 patients treated with other immunomodulators/immunosuppressants. Conclusions: A six-month course of isoniazid proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of LTBI, which is essential to reducing the risk of developing active tuberculosis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a incidência de tuberculose ativa e a ocorrência de eventos adversos do tratamento com isoniazida em pacientes diagnosticados com tuberculose latente (TBL), portadores de doenças inflamatórias crônicas e tratados com agentes imunobiológicos em uma área endêmica no Brasil. Métodos: O diagnóstico de TBL foi feito com base em anamnese, exame clínico, radiografia de tórax e teste tuberculínico (TT). O tratamento profilático foi realizado segundo diretrizes brasileiras com isoniazida por seis meses. Resultados: Foram estudados 101 pacientes entre julho de 2011 e julho de 2015. Desses, 55 (54,46%) eram mulheres (média de idade = 53,16 ± 1,76 anos) e 46 (45,54%) eram homens (média de idade = 45,39 ± 2,13 anos), sendo que 79 (78,22%) foram tratados com agentes imunobiológicos e 22 (21,78%) com outros agentes imunomoduladores ou imunossupressores. Na triagem para TBL, 53 pacientes (52,48%) apresentaram TT ≥ 10 mm. A radiografia de tórax alterada por imagens compatíveis com TBL foi observada em 36 pacientes (35,64%). O tratamento profilático com isoniazida mostrou uma eficácia de 95,05% (96/101). É relevante mencionar que 84 (83,17%) dos pacientes não apresentaram nenhum efeito adverso à isoniazida e, desses, 83 (98,81%) completaram o tratamento profilático (p = 0,002). Tuberculose ativa foi diagnosticada em 5 (6,33%) dos 79 pacientes tratados com agentes imunobiológicos e em 1 (4,55%) dos 22 pacientes tratados com outros imunomoduladores/imunossupressores. Conclusões: O uso de isoniazida por seis meses mostrou-se seguro e eficaz no tratamento da TBL nesses pacientes, o que é essencial para reduzir o risco de desenvolvimento de tuberculose ativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Tuberculin Test/methods , Radiography, Thoracic , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Endemic Diseases , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology
12.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(2): 92-94, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950441

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To study the safety parameters associated with intracameral moxifloxacin application five weeks after cataract surgery. Methods: The study was a prospective case series set in a private hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A consecutive sample of 1,016 cataract surgeries was evaluated. The inclusion criteria were patients with indications for cataract surgery, a minimum of 55 years of age, and no history of allergy to quinolones. Patients were prepared for surgery using a 5% povidone solution diluted as a topical antiseptic agent. The operative technique was phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. A 0.3-mL syringe was partially filled with moxifloxacin and 150 µg/0.03 mL of moxifloxacin was administered through the surgical incision at the end of the surgery. Postoperatively, patients were prescribed: (1) 0.5% moxifloxacin eyedrops 5 times daily for 1 week, and (2) 1% prednisolone acetate eyedrops 5 times daily for 1 week, followed by 4 times daily for 1 week and, subsequently, 2 times daily for 3 weeks. The outcomes were incidence of acute endophthalmitis, mean changes from baseline to 5 postoperative weeks in corneal endothelial cell density, corrected distance visual acuity and intraocular pressure. Results: The mean age was 67 ± 5 years, and 56.2% of the patients were female. There were no cases of endophthalmitis. The mean preoperative corrected distance visual acuity was 58 letters ± 10 (SD), and the mean postoperative corrected distance visual acuity was 80 letters ± 4 (SD). The mean change in corneal endothelial cell density was 249 cells/mm (-10.3%). There was almost no difference in intraocular pressure. No study-related adverse events were observed. Conclusion: The results suggest moxifloxacin is a safe option for intracameral use after cataract surgery.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar alguns parâmetros de segurança da moxifloxacino intracameral nas cinco semanas após a cirurgia de catarata. Métodos: O estudo foi uma série de casos prospectivos. O cenário era um hospital privado em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foi considerada uma amostra consecutiva de 1.016 cirurgias de catarata. Os critérios de inclusão foram pacientes com indicação para cirurgia de catarata, com pelo menos 55 anos de idade e sem história de alergia a quinolonas. Os pacientes foram preparados para cirurgia usando uma solução de povidona a 5% diluída como agente anti-séptico tópico. A técnica operatória foi a facoemulsificação com implante de lente intraocular. Uma seringa de 0,3 mL foi parcialmente preenchida com moxifloxacino. Os pacientes receberam 150 µg/0,03 mL de moxifloxacino através da incisão cirúrgica no final da cirurgia. No pós-operatório, os pacientes foram prescritos: (1) moxifloxacino 0,5% 5 vezes ao dia durante 1 semana e (2) colírio de acetato de prednisolona a 1% 5 vezes ao dia durante 1 semana, seguido de 4 vezes ao dia durante 1 semana e, posteriormente, 2 vezes diariamente por 3 semanas. Os desfechos foram a incidência de endoftalmite aguda, variações entre os valores basais e os na 5ª semana pós-operatória referente à densidade celular endotelial corneana, acuidade visual corrigida para longe e pressão intraocular. Resultados: A média da idade foi de 67 ± 5 anos, e 56,2% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino. Não houve casos de endoftalmite. A acuidade visual corrigida para longe préoperatório médio foi de 58 letras ± 10 (SD), e a acuidade visual corrigida para longe pósoperatório médio foi de 80 letras ± 4 (SD). A alteração média na densidade celular endotelial corneana foi de 249 células/mm (10,3%). Não houve diferença na pressão intraocular. Não foram observados eventos adversos relacionados ao estudo. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que o moxifloxacino é uma opção segura para o uso intracameral após a cirurgia de catarata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraocular/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Visual Acuity/physiology , Endophthalmitis/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/adverse effects , Moxifloxacin , Intraocular Pressure/physiology
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6736, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889017

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the nares of patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery increases the potential risk of surgical site infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has gained recognition as a pathogen that is no longer only just a hospital-acquired pathogen. Patients positive for MRSA are associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality following infection. MRSA is commonly found in the nares, and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) is even more prevalent. Recently, studies have determined that screening for this pathogen prior to surgery and diminishing staphylococcal infections at the surgical site will dramatically reduce surgical site infections. A nasal mupirocin treatment is shown to significantly reduce the colonization of the pathogen. However, this treatment is expensive and is currently not available in China. Thus, in this study, we first sought to determine the prevalence of MSSA/MSRA in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery in northern China, and then, we treated the positive patients with a nasal povidone-iodine swab. Here, we demonstrate a successful reduction in the colonization of S. aureus. We propose that this treatment could serve as a cost-effective means of eradicating this pathogen in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery, which might reduce the rate of surgical site infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , Elective Surgical Procedures/economics , Orthopedic Procedures/economics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Administration, Intranasal , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/economics , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/economics , Nasal Cavity/drug effects
14.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(supl.1): S32-S35, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117656

ABSTRACT

The process of evaluation of candidate patients for liver transplantation should include the risk of infectious diseases in order to prevent the drop out of the waiting list due to infections or the occurrence of these in the post-transplant period. Cirrhotic patients in the pre-transplant stage are very ill and usually have severe infections. The most common is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but they can also present urinary infections and pneumonias. Mortality due to infectious causes has been reported up to 40% in patients on the transplant waiting list. The transplanted patients may have a poor immune response to vaccination, so the optimal immunization period is pre-transplant. In the post-transplant period, Gram-negative bacterial infections are one of the main complications. Invasive fungal infections and cytomegalovirus can also have a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Transplanted patients may also have mycobacterial infections in relation to a latent tuberculosis infection. In the following article we present the pre-transplant evaluations, vaccination schemes and antimicrobial prophylaxis that are used in liver transplantation.


El proceso de evaluación de pacientes candidatos para trasplante hepático debe incluir el riesgo de enfermedades infecciosas a fin de prevenir la salida de la lista por infecciones o la ocurrencia de éstas en el período post-trasplante. Los pacientes cirróticos en la etapa pre-trasplante están muy enfermos y suelen presentar infecciones graves. La más común es la peritonitis bacteriana espontánea, pero también pueden presentar infecciones urinarias y neumonías. La mortalidad por causa infecciosa se ha reportado hasta en 40% en pacientes en lista de espera de trasplante. Los pacientes trasplantados pueden tener una pobre respuesta inmune a la vacunación, por lo que el momento óptimo de inmunización es en el período pretrasplante. En el período post-trasplante las infecciones bacterianas por Gram negativos son una de las principales complicaciones. Las infecciones por hongos invasores y el citomegalovirus también pueden tener un alto impacto en morbilidad y mortalidad. Los pacientes trasplantados también pueden presentar infecciones por micobacterias en relación a una infección latente por tuberculosis. En el siguiente artículo se presentan las evaluaciones pre-trasplante, esquemas de vacunación y profilaxis antimicrobiana que se utilizan en trasplante hepático.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , Transplantation Immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Vaccination , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Patient Selection , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Transplantation Conditioning/methods , Hepatitis B/prevention & control
15.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 14(3): 3-13, oct. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-986876

ABSTRACT

La profilaxis con antimicrobianos en cirugía reside en administrar un antibiótico antes de iniciarse la operación y está demostrado que es eficaz para disminuir el riesgo de infección. Sin embargo, es relevante tener en cuenta algunos aspectos muy importantes para asegurar que la indicación de antimicrobianos es la apropiada para cada paciente. En este artículo se hace un recorrido por la historia hasta dar con las bases científicas que apoyan la eficacia de la profilaxis antimicrobiana en cirugía y los lineamientos más reconocidos en la literatura para su uso.


The prophylaxis with antimicrobials in surgery resides in administering an antibiotic before initiating the operation and it is demonstrated that it is effective to diminish the risk of infection. However, it is important to take into account some very important aspects to ensure that the indication of antimicrobials is appropriate for each patient. In this article a journey through history is made to find the scientific basis that supports the efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery and the most recognized guidelinesin the literature for its use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(2): 143-157, Apr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894449

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones del sitio quirúrgico que complican las cirugías ortopédicas con implante prolongan la estadía hospitalaria y aumentan tanto el riesgo de readmisión como el costo de la internación y la mortalidad. Las presentes recomendaciones están dirigidas a: (i) optimizar el cumplimiento de normas y la incorporación de hábitos en cada una de las fases de la cirugía, detectando factores de riesgo para infecciones del sitio quirúrgico potencialmente corregibles o modificables; y (ii) adecuar la profilaxis antibiótica preoperatoria y el cuidado intra y postoperatorio.


Surgical site infections complicating orthopedic implant surgeries prolong hospital stay and increase risk of readmission, hospitalization costs and mortality. These recommendations are aimed at: (i) optimizing compliance and incorporating habits in all surgery phases by detecting risk factors for surgical site infections which are potentially correctable or modifiable; and (ii) optimizing preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis as well as intraoperative and postoperative care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Arthroplasty/adverse effects , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 92-97, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039184

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To describe early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) epidemiology in a public maternity hospital in Brasilia, Brazil. Methods: We defined EOS as a positive blood culture result obtained from infants aged ≤72 hours of life plus treatment with antibiotic therapy for ≥5 days. Incidence was calculated based on the number of cases and total live births (LB). This is a descriptive study comparing the period of 2012-2013 with the period of 2014-September 2015, before and after implementation of antibiotic prophylaxis during labor for group B streptococcus (GBS) prevention, respectively. Results: Overall, 36 infants developed EOS among 21,219 LB (1.7 cases per 1000 LB) and 16 died (case fatality rate of 44%). From 2014, 305 vaginal-rectal swabs were collected from high-risk women and 74 (24%) turned out positive for GBS. After implementation of GBS prevention guidelines, no new cases of GBS were detected, and the EOS incidence was reduced from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.8) to 1.3 (95% CI 0.7-2.3) cases per 1000 LB from 2012-2013 to 2014-September 2015 (p = 0.32). Conclusions: Although the reduction of EOS incidence was not significant, GBS colonization among pregnant women was high, no cases of neonatal GBS have occurred after implementation of prevention guidelines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Neonatal Sepsis/prevention & control , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Streptococcus/drug effects , Vaginal Smears , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Neonatal Sepsis/microbiology , Hospitals, Maternity
18.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 42(4): 543-556, sep.-dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845028

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el uso inadecuado de los antimicrobianos constituye una preocupación mundial. En Ecuador, este problema se agrava porque no se han tomado las medidas pertinentes para controlar la situación. No se realizan programas de vigilancia de infecciones producidas por bacterias resistentes ni control en el uso indiscriminado. Existe poco conocimiento por parte de los servidores de salud y ausencia de comités de infecciones en los hospitales. Objetivo: evaluar la calidad de la prescripción y el costo del tratamiento de la profilaxis antibiótica preopereatoria mediante el seguimiento farmacoterapéutico en pacientes operadas de afecciones ginecológicas. Método: se realiza un estudio retrospectivo, y una evaluación económica, del tipo minimización de costos del tratamiento utilizado. En el hospital Homero Castanier Crespo de la Ciudad de Azogues, Ecuador desde septiembre 2015 hasta marzo 2016. Resultados: la mayoría de las pacientes tenían entre 21 y 40 años de edad. Los principales motivos de cirugía fueron quiste de ovario roto y mioma uterino. Predominaron las cirugías limpias-contaminadas. El antimicrobiano más utilizado fue la cefazolina en dosis única, cada 24, 12 y 8 horas. Aproximadamente en un 20 por ciento de los casos, se realizó cambio de tratamiento injustificadamente. Predominaron los PRM6. La mayoría de las prescripciones resultaron inadecuadas. El costo global por antimicrobianos fue de 503,09 USD. Si la profilaxis se hubiera aplicado adecuadamente, se hubiera ahorrado 435,45 USD. Conclusiones: se sugiere el rediseño del Protocolo de Profilaxis Antibiótica Preoperatoria del Hospital Homero Castanier Crespo(AU)


Introduction: The inappropriate use of antimicrobials is a world concern and in Ecuador, this problem worsens because there are not relevant measures in place to control the situation. Neither surveillance programs of infections caused by resistant bacteria nor control of the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials are implemented. The health professionals´ knowledge is poor about it and the infection commissions are nonexistent in hospitals. Objective: To evaluate the quality of prescription and the cost of treatment of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis through drug therapy follow-up in patients operated on for gynecological problems. Method: A retrospective study and an economic assessment of treatment cost minimization type was carried out in Homero Castanier Crespo¨hospital in Ciudad de Azogues, Ecuador, from September 2015 to March 2016. Results: Most of the patients were 21 to 40 years-old. The main reasons for surgery were ruptured ovarian cyst and uterine myoma. Clean-contaminated surgeries predominated. The most used antimicrobial was cefazoline at a single dose every 8, 12 and 24 hours. Around 20 percent of cases changed their treatment with no justification. PRM6 prevailed. Most of prescriptions were inadequate. The global cost of antimicrobials was 503.09 US dollars. If prophylaxis would have been correctly applied, then 435.45 US dollars had been saved. Conclusions: It is suggested that the preoperative protocol of antibiotic prophylaxis be redesigned in Homero Castanier Crespo(AU)


Subject(s)
Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Retrospective Studies , Ecuador
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(5): 295-303, Oct. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841596

ABSTRACT

La profilaxis con fluorquinolonas ha demostrado utilidad en la prevención de infecciones en pacientes neutropénicos de alto riesgo. Nuestro objetivo fue describir y comparar las características clínicas, microbiológicas, terapéuticas y la evolución en pacientes durante el primer episodio de neutropenia febril, según hubieran o no recibido profilaxis con levofloxacina. Fue un estudio prospectivo observacional, que incluyó los episodios de internados por neutropenia febril, (febrero 1997 a noviembre 2014), y los primeros episodios en un mismo paciente en diferentes internaciones; en total fueron 946 episodios. En 821 el episodio de neutropenia febril fue de alto riesgo, y en 264 (27.9%) se administró profilaxis con levofloxacina. Este grupo estaba compuesto por mayor proporción de neutropenias febriles de alto riesgo (99.2% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.0001) y casos con trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (67.8% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.0001) comparado con los que no recibieron profilaxis, y presentó una frecuencia similar de infecciones clínicamente documentadas pero una menor proporción de infecciones microbiológicamente documentadas (28.8% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.012). Las bacteriemias en el grupo con quimioprofilaxis fueron más frecuentemente causadas por organismos multirresistentes (OMR) (34.5% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.007) y por enterobacterias productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido (19.0% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.0001). En ese grupo con profilaxis la proporción que recibió tratamiento antibiótico empírico adecuado fue menor (69.7% vs. 83.7%, p = 0.009). La evolución fue similar en ambos grupos. Sugerimos que cuando se observe un aumento en la frecuencia de infecciones por OMR en esta población se considere la interrupción de la profilaxis antibiótica con levofloxacina.


Fluorquinolone-prophylaxis has proven useful in preventing infections in high risk neutropenic patients. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics, and outcome of patients in the first episode of febrile neutropenia, comparing those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis with those who didn't. It was a prospective observational study that included all the episodes of inpatients with febrile neutropenia (February 1997- November 2014), also including the first episode in a same patient in different hospitalizations. Of 946 episodes here included, 821 presented high risk febrile neutropenia. A total of 264 cases (27.9%) received levofloxacin prophylaxis. This group consisted of a higher proportion of high risk febrile neutropenia (99.2% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.0001) and patients that had received an hematopoietic stem cell transplant (67.8% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.0001) compared to those who didn't receive prophylaxis. Those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis presented a similar frequency of clinically diagnosed but a lower proportion of microbiologically documented infections (28.8% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.012) than those who didn´t receive prophylaxis. The episodes of bacteremia that occurred in the first group were more frequently caused by multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB) (34.5% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.007) and by extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (19% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.0001). The group that received prophylaxis had a lower proportion of adequate empirical antibiotic treatment (69.7% vs. 83.7%, p = 0.009), with similar outcomes in both groups. We suggest that levofloxacin prophylaxis should be stopped whenever there is a rise in the frequency of MDRB infections in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Febrile Neutropenia/prevention & control , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Febrile Neutropenia/microbiology
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 133(6): 517-520, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770144

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Urinary tract infections are the most common cause of hospital-acquired infections, and the use of indwelling urinary catheters is a predisposing factor for their development. The aims of this study were to estimate the frequency of pre and postoperative bacteriuria, identify the microorganisms involved, count the colony-forming units, determine the antibiotic sensitivity profile and compare the results from pre and postoperative urinalyses among women undergoing gynecological surgery with implantation of a urinary catheter. DESIGN AND SETTING: Non-controlled prospective observational single-cohort epidemiological study carried out at a university hospital. METHODS: Urine samples were collected before and 24 hours after catheterization for urinalysis, culturing and antibiotic sensitivity testing. Pre and postoperative urinalyses were compared using Wilcoxon and McNemar non-parametric tests. RESULTS: Fifty-one women participated in the study. Escherichia coligrew in six preoperative samples (11.8%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae in one (1.9%), but bacterial growth did not occur in any postoperative sample. Urinalysis showed lower number of pus cells in the postoperative urine samples (P < 0.05). There were no differences in red blood cell counts or in the nitrite and leukocyte esterase tests, between the samples. CONCLUSION: Bacteriuria was found in 13.7% of the preoperative samples. Gram-negative bacteria sensitive to most antibiotics were identified. In the postoperative samples, no bacterial growth was observed. Urinalysis only showed significant reduction of leukocyturia in the postoperative period.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: As infecções urinárias são a causa mais comum de infecções hospitalares, e o uso de cateteres de demora é fator predisponente para o seu desenvolvimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar a frequência de bacteriúria pré e pós-operatória, identificar os germes encontrados, a contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos, além de comparar os resultados dos exames de urina pré- e pós-operatórios em mulheres submetidas a cirurgias ginecológicas com cateterismo vesical. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo epidemiológico, observacional, de coorte única, prospectivo, não controlado, realizado em hospital universitário. MÉTODOS: Amostras de urina foram colhidas antes da cateterização e após 24 horas para urinálise, cultura e antibiograma. Os resultados da urinálise no pré- e pós-operatório foram comparados utilizando-se os testes não paramétricos de Wilcoxon e McNemar. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 51 mulheres. Houve crescimento de Escherichia coli em seis amostras pré-operatórias (11,8%) e deKlebsiella pneumoniae em uma (1,9%), mas não houve crescimento bacteriano em nenhuma amostra pós-operatória. A urinálise mostrou menor quantidade de piócitos na amostra de urina pós-cirúrgica (P < 0,05). Não houve diferença quanto ao número de hemácias e às reações para nitrito e leucocitesterase, entre as amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Houve bacteriúria em 13,7% das amostras pré-operatórias, sendo identificadas bactérias Gram-negativas sensíveis à maioria dos antibióticos. Não foi observado crescimento bacteriano nas amostras pós-operatórias. A urinálise mostrou somente redução significativa da leucocitúria no pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Bacteriuria/microbiology , Bacteriuria/prevention & control , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Urinary Catheters/adverse effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross Infection/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Klebsiella/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Postoperative Period , Preoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Urinalysis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL