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Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e1679, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347521


La desproporcional y alta frecuencia de órdenes médicas de anticuerpos frente al citoplasma del neutrófilo (ANCA, por sus siglas en inglés) dirigidas a nuestros laboratorios clínicos evidencia el sobreuso de la prueba de ANCA. El uso indiscriminado de esta aumenta los gastos sin beneficio de salud. El laboratorio clínico es el eslabón de la cadena diagnóstica que más siente el uso excesivo de las solicitudes de ANCA, básicamente porque genera resultados falsos positivos que comprometen la utilidad clínica de la prueba, además de recargar innecesariamente el trabajo diario del laboratorio. La prueba de ANCA es una herramienta diagnóstica muy útil para las vasculitis sistémicas primarias, pero su valor en situaciones no vasculíticas así como en otras condiciones inflamatorias y en enfermedades infecciosas o tumorales, no ha sido demostrado.1,2 El descubrimiento de los ANCA cambió...(AU)

Humans , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Systemic Vasculitis , Fluorescence
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 198-207, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287271


Abstract ANCA-associated vasculitis is a heterogeneous group of rare autoimmune conditions of unknown cause. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors were analyzed in 47 patients: 20 (42.5%) with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, 17 (36.2%) with microscopic polyangiitis, 6 (12.8%) with renal-limited vasculitis, and 4 (8.5%) with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Mean age at diagnosis was 53.5 ± 16.5 years and the median of BVAS (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score) was 14 (4-42). The most frequent clinical manifesta tions were: general in 44 (93.6%), renal in 30 (63.8%) and respiratory in 28 (59.6%). All received corticosteroids at the beginning of treatment. Intravenous cyclophosphamide was associated in 20 (42.5%) and oral route in 14 (29.8%); azathioprine in 3 (6.4%) and rituximab in 2 (4.2%). At a median follow-up of 35.5 months (range 0.14- 234), 21 relapses were recorded in 14 patients. Overall mortality was 3.5 deaths per 100 patient-year in the whole group. Those over 55 years old, the presence of alveolar hemorrhage, those with FFS (Five Factor Score) of 2, and patients with MPA had poor prognosis. Renal involvement, ANCA pattern and BVAS were not associated to a poorer prognosis.

Resumen Las vasculitis asociadas a ANCA son un grupo heterogéneo de entidades autoinmunes, poco frecuentes, de etiología desconocida. Analizamos las características clínicas y factores pronóstico en 47 pacientes: 20 (42.5%) granulomatosis con poliangeítis, 17 (36.2%) poliangeítis microscópica, 6 (12.8%) vasculitis limitada al riñón y 4 (8.5%) granulomatosis eosinofílica con poliangeítis. La edad promedio al diagnóstico fue 53.5 ± 16.5 años y la mediana de BVAS (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score) 14 (4-42). Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron: generales en 44 (93.6%), renales 30 (63.8%) y respiratorias en 28 (59.6%). Todos recibieron corticoides al inicio del tratamiento. Se asoció ciclofosfamida endovenosa en 20 (42.5%) y oral en 14 (29.8%); azatioprina en 3 (6.4%) y rituximab en 2 (4.2%). En una mediana de seguimiento de 35.5 meses (rango 0.14-234), se registraron 21 recaídas en 14 pacientes. La mortalidad fue 3.5 por cien pacientes-año en todo el grupo. Los mayores de 55 años, con presencia de hemorragia alveolar, FFS (Five Factor Score) de 2, y los casos con poliangeítis microscópica tuvieron peor pronóstico. El compromiso renal, el patrón de ANCA y el BVAS no se asociaron a peor pronóstico.

Humans , Middle Aged , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/diagnosis , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/drug therapy , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/epidemiology , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Prognosis , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Microscopic Polyangiitis
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 240-242, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248742


Abstract Small vessel vasculitis with anti-proteinase antibodies 3 is an atypical clinical presentation of tuberculosis. The authors present the case of a 47-year-old male patient, with palpable purpura and palmoplantar hemorrhagic blisters, with subsequent dissemination. He presented severe pulmonary symptoms with cavitation, fever, hemoptysis, and high levels of anti-proteinase 3. Histopathological assessment of the skin revealed small vessel vasculitis; pulmonary histopathology showed granulomas with caseation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was positive for alcohol-acid-fast bacilli. In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, the presence of autoantibodies in a patient with vasculitis, fever, and pulmonary cavitation requires investigation of infectious causes.

Vasculitis/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Vascular , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Myeloblastin , Hemoptysis/diagnosis , Hemoptysis/etiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
Clinics ; 76: e2228, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153999


OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), antiproteinase-3 and antimyeloperoxidase, in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) with or without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD+ or IBD-) and in different types of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Additionally, to verify the agreement between ANCA patterns by indirect immunofluorescence and their antigenic specificities by ELISA. METHODS: For this study, 249 patients were enrolled (42 PSC/IBD+; 33 PSC/IBD-; 31 AIH type-1; 30 AIH type-2; 31 AIH type-3; 52 primary biliary cirrhosis; 30 healthy controls) whose serum samples were tested for ANCA autoantibodies. RESULTS: There were fewer female subjects in the PSC/IBD- group (p=0.034). Atypical perinuclear-ANCA was detected more frequently in PSC/IBD+ patients than in PSC/IBD- patients (p=0.005), and was significantly more frequent in type-1 (p<0.001) and type-3 AIH (p=0.012) than in type-2 AIH. Proteinase-3-ANCA was detected in 25 samples (only one with cytoplasmic-ANCA pattern), and more frequently in PSC/IBD+ than in PSC/IBD- patients (p=0.025). Myeloperoxidase-ANCA was identified in eight samples (none with the perinuclear-ANCA pattern). Among the 62 reactive samples for atypical perinuclear-ANCA, 13 had antigenic specific reactions for proteinase-3 and myeloperoxidase. CONCLUSIONS: PSC/IBD+ differed from PSC/IBD- in terms of sex and proteinase 3-ANCA and atypical perinuclear-ANCA reactivity, the latter of which was more frequently detected in type-1 and type-3 AIH than in type-2 AIH. There was no agreement between ANCA patterns and antigenic specificities in IBD and autoimmune liver diseases, which reinforces the need for proteinase-3 and myeloperoxidase antibody testing.

Humans , Male , Female , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Autoantibodies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879809


OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinicopathological features of children with lupus nephritis (LN) with positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the children who were diagnosed with LN in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2003 to December 2019. According to the results of serum ANCA, they were divided into two groups: ANCA-positive group (@*RESULTS@#Compared with the ANCA-negative group, the ANCA-positive group had a significant reduction in leukocytes and a significant increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with ANCA-positive LN tend to have more severe renal pathological injury, which is not exactly parallel with clinical manifestations, suggesting that timely renal biopsy is of great importance.

Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Child , Creatinine , Humans , Kidney , Lupus Nephritis , Retrospective Studies
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 755-761, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139368


Background: Cumulative survival in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (VAA) is 88 and 78% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Despite this, mortality continues to be 2.7 times higher than the general population. Differences in the clinical profile of VAA in different ethnicities have been observed. Aim: To identify factors at the time of diagnosis, associated with mortality at one year of follow-up and to describe the clinical characteristics of these patients. Material and Methods: We identified in local databases and reviewed clinical records of patients with VAA with at least one year of follow up in a clinical hospital. Demographic and laboratory parameters and clinical activity scores were analyzed. Results: Of 103 patients with VAA identified, 65 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Their age ranged from 45 to 63 years and 56% were women. Thirty-five patients (54%) were diagnosed as granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) and 30 patients (46%) with Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA). The frequency of renal disease was 53% and pulmonary involvement occurred in 72%. At one year of follow-up 11 patients died resulting in a mortality of 17%. Seven patients died within three months after diagnosis. MPO ANCA were more common than PR3 ANCA. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of ophthalmological involvement, lung kidney syndrome and a Five Factor Score (FFS) of 1 or more were independent factors associated with mortality at one year. Conclusions: In these patients, pulmonary manifestations predominate. Lung kidney syndrome, ophthalmological involvement and a FFS score ≥ 1 were associated with mortality.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Retrospective Studies , Peroxidase , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Myeloblastin
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(supl.1): e836, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280393


La poliangeítis microscópica se define como una enfermedad autoinmune, multisistémica, de rara incidencia, asociada a anticuerpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos. Se caracteriza por presentar vasculitis necrotizante de pequeños vasos, no granulomatosa y ausencia de depósito de inmunocomplejos, que afecta predominantemente el tejido renal, pulmonar y cutáneo. Se presenta un paciente masculino, 49 años, sin antecedentes patológicos. Presenta cuadro clínico de 30 días de evolución con tos seca de tipo irritativa, que evoluciona a tos productiva, hemoptisis, disnea de moderado esfuerzo, astenia y edema con fóvea en zonas en declive. Tenía anemia grave y los estudios imagenológicos de tórax evidenciaron infiltrados difusos con aspecto de vidrio deslustrado. Se inició terapia inmunosupresora con metilprednisolona y ciclofosfamida y profilaxis antibiótica. Se obtuvo una disminución en el puntaje de la escala de actividad vasculítica y la posterior remisión; sin embargo, debido al daño tisular renal, no hubo mejoría en la tasa de filtrado glomerular, por lo que el paciente se mantiene en terapia de sustitución renal permanente. Es trascendental el conocimiento de las manifestaciones clínicas, procedimiento diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta enfermedad, ya que, a pesar de su rara incidencia, posee una llamativa morbimortalidad que puede modificarse significativamente con un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos(AU)

Microscopic Polyangiitis is defined as an autoimmune, multisystemic, low prevalence disease, associated to antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. Characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of small vessels, with no granulomatous inflammation and absence of immune complex deposits, predominantly affecting renal, pulmonary and cutaneous tissue. 49-year old male patient with no past medical history. Refers symptomatology that started thirty days ago, characterized by dry cough, that evolves to productive cough, hemoptysis, exertional dyspnea, asthenia and pitting edema. Laboratory tests show severe anemia, glomerular filtration rate of 6.9 ml/min/1.73m2, hematuria, proteinuria, positive presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies, additional thoracic imaging shows ground glass opacities consolidations. Immunosuppressive therapy is started with Methylprednisolone and Cyclophosphamide along with antibiotic prophylaxis, resulting in a decrease in the vasculitis activity score with subsequent remission; however due to renal tissue damage, there is no improvement in the glomerular filtration rate and the patient continues receiving renal replacement therapy. Due to its striking morbidity and mortality, we consider of great importance the knowledge of its clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures and treatment, in order to obtain a positive impact on the patient's quality of life and survival rate(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Hemoptysis , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Anemia
Rev. chil. reumatol ; 36(3): 101-108, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282548


La paquimeningitis hipertrófica (PH), es una manifestación poco frecuente de la vasculitis asociada a anticuerpos anti-citoplasma de neutrófilo (ANCA). La literatura describe compromiso de sistema nervioso central (SNC) en 2-8% de los casos en pacientes con vasculitis pauciinmune. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con antecedente de vasculitis anti-mieloperoxidasa (MPO) con un mes de evolución de cefalea hemicraneana izquierda. La resonancia magnética cerebral contrastada evidencia marcado engrosamiento y realce meníngeo dural en el hemicráneo izquierdo, predominante en el tentorio y la fosa posterior. Se descartaron causas infecciosas por lo que se llegó a la conclusión de compromiso meníngeo asociado a vasculitis. Se inició manejo inmunosupresor con mejoría del cuadro clínico. La rápida identificación y manejo de esta entidad puede cambiar su pronóstico sombrío. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura para brindar una herramienta para la toma de decisiones para los médicos que se enfrentan a esta entidad.

Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (PH) is a rare manifestation of vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA). The literature describes central nervous system (CNS) involvement in 2-8% of cases in patients with pauciimmune vasculitis. We present the case of a patient with a history of anti-Myeloperoxidase (MPO) vasculitis with a 1-month history of left-sided headache. Contrast brain magnetic resonance was performed with evidence of marked thickening and dural meningeal enhancement in the left hemicranium, predominantly in the region of the tentorium and posterior fossa. Infectious causes were ruled out and the meningeal compromise associated with vasculitis was concluded. Immunosuppressive management was started with improvement of the clinical picture. Rapid identification and management of this entity can change its bleak outlook. A systematic review of the literature was carried out in order to provide a decision-making tool for physicians facing this entity.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vasculitis/immunology , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/immunology , Meningitis/etiology , Vasculitis/complications , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Meningitis/diagnostic imaging
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828632


OBJECTIVE@#To study the value of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) in assessing the severity of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) in children.@*METHODS@#A prospective analysis was performed on 59 children who were diagnosed with BO from June 2009 to October 2014. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA and proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA in serum. According to the results of ELISA, the children were divided into three groups: double-negative ANCA (n=22), single-positive ANCA (n=17), and double-positive ANCA (n=20). The three groups were compared in terms of the scores of BO risk factors, clinical symptoms, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and lung pathology on admission, as well as the changes in the expression level of ANCA and the scores of clinical symptoms and chest HRCT over time.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the double-negative ANCA group, the double-positive ANCA group had a significantly higher score of BO risk factors (P0.05). The single-positive ANCA and double-positive ANCA groups still had a significantly higher score of clinical symptoms than the double-negative ANCA group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The expression level of ANCA is correlated with the severity of BO in children and thus has certain clinical significance in disease evaluation.

Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Bronchiolitis Obliterans , Child , Humans , Myeloblastin , Peroxidase , Prospective Studies
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5132, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056070


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence methods for the detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in a routine clinical laboratory setting. Methods A total of 227 samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with antigen specificity for antiproteinase 3 and antimyeloperoxidase. The proportions of positive samples were compared by McNemar hypotheses and agreement was described by Cohen's Kappa coefficient. Results The agreement of the tests was 96.5%, and the Kappa coefficient obtained was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.50-0.90; p<0.001). Considering indirect immunofluorescence as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 0.62 and the specificity was 0.99, with diagnostic accuracy in 96% of cases. Some samples were negative in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and positive in indirect immunofluorescence. This situation occurred in all immunofluorescence patterns, but particularly in atypical patterns. Two samples with antiproteinase 3 positivity were considered negative in indirect immunofluorescence. Conclusion The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay had high specificity but lower sensitivity. The performance of indirect immunofluorescence increases diagnostic sensitivity, while the search for antiproteinase 3 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay may also add diagnostic power.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o desempenho das metodologias de ensaio imunoenzimático e imunofluorescência indireta para a detecção de anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos em um contexto de laboratório clínico de rotina. Métodos Foram testadas 227 amostras pelas metodologias de imunofluorescência indireta e ensaio imunoenzimático com especificidades para anticorpos antiproteinase-3 e antimieloperoxidase. As proporções de amostras positivas foram comparadas por hipóteses de McNemar, e a concordância foi descrita pelo coeficiente Kappa de Cohen. Resultados A concordância dos testes foi 96,5%, e o coeficiente Kappa obtido foi 0,70 (IC95%: 0,50-0,90; p<0,001). Utilizando a imunofluorescência indireta como padrão-ouro, a sensibilidade do ensaio imunoenzimático foi de 0,62 e a especificidade, 0,99, com acurácia diagnóstica em 96% dos casos. Algumas amostras apresentaram resultados negativos por ensaio imunoenzimático e positivos por imunofluorescência. Isso ocorreu em amostras com vários padrões de fluorescência, mas particularmente nos casos com padrões atípicos. Duas amostras com positividade antiproteinase 3 foram consideradas negativas por imunofluorescência. Conclusão Os métodos de ensaio imunoenzimático tiveram alta especificidade, mas sensibilidade inferior. A realização da imunofluorescência indireta aumenta a sensibilidade diagnóstica, ao mesmo tempo que a pesquisa de antiproteinase 3 por ensaio imunoenzimático também pode agregar poder diagnóstico.

Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(5): 636-641, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039280


Abstract Introduction: The side effects of antithyroid drugs are well known. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is a severe adverse reaction. Most studies evaluating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies related to antithyroid drugs have been carried out with patients treated with propylthiouracil, but less information is available for methimazole. Furthermore, most studies that investigated antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies related to antithyroid drugs were conducted on Asian populations. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-positive vasculitis in an adult population of Brazilian patients treated with methimazole. Methods: This was a prospective study. We evaluated patients ≥18 years with Graves' disease who have been using methimazole for at least 6 months (Group A, n = 36); with Grave's disease who had been previously treated with methimazole but no longer used this medication for at least 6 months (Group B, n = 33), and with nodular disease who have been using methimazole for at least 6 months (Group C, n = 13). Results: ANCA were detected in 17 patients (20.7%). Four patients (4.9%) had a strong antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-positive test. The frequency of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies was similar in the groups. When Groups A and B were pooled and compared to Group C to evaluate the influence of Grave's disease, and when Groups A and C were pooled and compared to Group B to evaluate the influence of methimazole discontinuation, no difference was found in the frequency of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. No difference was observed in sex, age, etiology of hyperthyroidism, anti-TSH receptor antibodies, dose or time of methimazole use between patients with versus without antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. The titers of these antibodies were not correlated with the dose or time of methimazole use. None of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-positive patient had clinical event that could potentially result from vasculitis. Conclusion: This clinical study of a Brazilian population shows a considerable frequency of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients treated with methimazole but the clinical repercussion of these findings remains undefined.

Resumo Introdução: Os efeitos adversos de drogas antitireoidianas são conhecidos. Vasculite associada a anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos é uma reação adversa grave. A maioria dos estudos que avaliam anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos relacionado a drogas antitireoidianas envolveu pacientes tratados com propiltiouracil, entretanto menos informação se encontra disponível para o metimazol. Além disso, a maioria dos estudos que investigaram anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos relacionado a drogas antitireoidianas foi conduzida em populações asiáticas. Objetivo: Avaliar a frequência de anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos e vasculite anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos-positivo em uma população adulta de pacientes brasileiros tratados com metimazol. Método: Este foi um estudo prospectivo. Avaliamos pacientes ≥ 18 anos com doença de Graves com o uso de metimazol há pelo menos seis meses (Grupo A, n = 36); com doença de Graves previamente tratados com metimazol, mas que não usaram esse medicamento por pelo menos seis meses (Grupo B, n = 33) e com doença nodular em uso de metimazol há pelo menos seis meses (Grupo C, n = 13). Resultado: Anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos foram detectados em 17 pacientes (20,7%). Quatro pacientes (4,9%) tinham anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos fortemente positivos. A frequência de anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos foi semelhante nos grupos. Quando os Grupos A e B foram somados e comparados ao Grupo C para avaliar a influência da doença de Graves, e quando os Grupos A e C foram somados e comparados ao Grupo B para avaliar a influência da interrupção do metimazol, não foi encontrada diferença na frequência de anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos. Não houve diferença em relação a sexo, idade, etiologia do hipertireoidismo, anticorpos antirreceptor de TSH, dose ou tempo de uso de metimazol entre pacientes com e sem anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos. Os títulos desses anticorpos não se correlacionaram com dose ou tempo de uso de metimazol. Nenhum paciente anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos-positivo apresentou evento clínico resultante de vasculite. Conclusão: Este estudo clínico de uma população brasileira apresenta frequência considerável de anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos em pacientes tratados com metimazol, mas a repercussão clínica desse achado permanece indefinida.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antithyroid Agents/adverse effects , Graves Disease/drug therapy , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/immunology , Brazil , Graves Disease/immunology , Prospective Studies , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/chemically induced , Methimazole/adverse effects
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 293-295, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012528


ABSTRACT Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (GN) is more common in elderly people compared to children and the etiology is not completely understood yet. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity occurs in 80% of the patients. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with malaise and mildly elevated creatinine diagnosed as ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis with crescents in 20 of 25 glomeruli (80%). Of these 20 crescents, 12 were cellular, 4 fibrocellular, and 4 globally sclerotic. She did not have purpura, arthritis, or systemic symptoms and she responded well to initial immunosuppressive treatment despite relatively severe histopathology. The patient was given three pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg on alternate days) initially and continued with cyclophosphamide (CYC; 2 mg/kg per day) orally for 3 months with prednisone (1 mg/kg per day). In one month, remission was achieved with normal serum creatinine and prednisone was gradually tapered. The case of this child with a relatively rare pediatric disease emphasizes the importance of early and aggressive immunosuppressive treatment in patients with renal-limited ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic GN even if with a mild clinical presentation. As in our patient, clinical and laboratory findings might not always exactly reflect the severity of renal histopathology and thus kidney biopsy is mandatory in such children to guide the clinical management and predict prognosis.

RESUMO A glomerulonefrite (GN) pauci-imune é mais comum em idosos em comparação com crianças, e a etiologia ainda não é completamente compreendida. A positividade do anticorpo citoplasmático antineutrófilo (ANCA) ocorre em 80% dos pacientes. Relatamos o caso de uma menina de 7 anos de idade que apresentou mal-estar e creatinina discretamente elevada, diagnosticada como glomerulonefrite rapidamente progressiva pauci-imune associada a ANCA com crescentes em 20 dos 25 glomérulos (80%). Destes 20 crescentes, 12 eram celulares, 4 fibrocelulares e 4 globalmente escleróticos. Ela não apresentava púrpura, artrite ou sintomas sistêmicos e respondeu bem ao tratamento imunossupressor inicial, apesar da histopatologia relativamente grave. A paciente recebeu três pulsos de metilprednisolona intravenosa (30 mg/kg em dias alternados) inicialmente e continuou com ciclofosfamida (2 mg/kg por dia) por via oral durante 3 meses com prednisona (1 mg/kg por dia). Em um mês, a remissão foi alcançada com creatinina sérica normal e a prednisona foi gradualmente reduzida. O caso desta criança com uma doença pediátrica relativamente rara enfatiza a importância do tratamento imunossupressor precoce e agressivo em pacientes com GN rapidamente progressiva renal associada à ANCA, mesmo com uma apresentação clínica leve. Como em nossa paciente, os achados clínicos e laboratoriais podem nem sempre refletir exatamente a gravidade da histopatologia renal e, assim, a biópsia renal é obrigatória nessas crianças para orientar a conduta clínica e auxiliar no prognóstico.

Humans , Child , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/blood , Kidney/pathology , Biopsy , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Creatinine/blood , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Glomerulonephritis/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 55-64, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002418


ABSTRACT Background and objectives: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis is a small vessel vasculitis with insufficient epidemiologic estimates in the United States. We aimed to determine demographic and clinical features of ANCA associated vasculitis patients presenting to a large tertiary care referral center in Upstate New York. Design, setting, participants, and measurements: A retrospective analysis of cases with pauci-immune GN on renal biopsy and clinical diagnosis of ANCA vasculitis presenting over 11 years was conducted. Outcomes of interest were: demographics, ANCA antibody positivity, patient and renal survival, and regional trends. Results: 986 biopsies were reviewed, 41 cases met the criteria for inclusion: 18 GPA, 19 MPA, and 4 double positive (anti-GBM disease plus ANCA vasculitis). Mean age at presentation was 52.4 years (SD 23.7), 23 (56%) were male and median creatinine was 2.6 mg/dL. The median patient follow up was 77 weeks (IQR 10 - 263 weeks), with a 3-month mortality rate of 5.7% and a 1-year estimated mortality rate of 12%. Thirteen patients required hemodialysis at the time of diagnosis; 7 patients came off dialysis, with median time to renal recovery of 4.86 weeks (IQR 1.57 - 23.85 weeks). C-ANCA positivity (p < 0.001) and C-ANCA plus PR3 antibody pairing (p = 0.005) was statistically significant in GPA versus MPA. P-ANCA positivity was observed in MPA versus GPA (p = 0.02) and double positive versus GPA (p = 0.002), with P-ANCA and MPO antibody pairing in MPA versus GPA (p = 0.044). Thirty-seven of the 41 cases were referred locally, 16 cases were from within a 15-mile radius of Albany, Schenectady, and Saratoga counties. Conclusions: ANCA vasculitis is associated with end stage renal disease and increased mortality. Our study suggests the possibility of higher regional incidence of pauci-immune GN in Upstate New York. Further studies should investigate the causes of clustering of cases to specific regions.

RESUMO Introdução e objetivos: A vasculite associada a anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilo (ANCA) é uma vasculite de pequenos vasos com estimativas epidemiológicas insuficientes nos Estados Unidos. Nosso objetivo foi determinar características demográficas e clínicas de pacientes com vasculite associada à ANCA, apresentando-se a um grande centro de referência de atendimento terciário em Upstate New York. Formato, cenário, participantes e medidas: Foi realizada uma análise retrospectiva dos casos de GN pauci-imune em biópsias renais e diagnóstico clínico de vasculite ANCA por mais de 11 anos. Os resultados de interesse foram: dados demográficos, positividade de anticorpos ANCA, sobrevidas renal e de pacientes e tendências regionais. Resultados: 986 biópsias foram revisadas, 41 casos preencheram os critérios de inclusão: 18 GPA, 19 PAM, e 4 duplo-positivos (doença anti-MBG com vasculite ANCA). A média de idade na apresentação foi de 52,4 anos (DP 23,7), 23 (56%) eram do sexo masculino e mediana de creatinina de 2,6 mg/dL. O acompanhamento mediano dos pacientes foi de 77 semanas (IQR 10 - 263 semanas), com uma taxa de mortalidade de 3 meses de 5,7% e uma taxa de mortalidade estimada em 1 ano de 12%. Treze pacientes necessitaram de hemodiálise no momento do diagnóstico; 7 pacientes saíram da diálise, com tempo médio para recuperação renal de 4,86 semanas (IQR 1,57 - 23,85 semanas). A positividade para C-ANCA (p < 0,001) e o pareamento de anticorpos C-ANCA mais PR3 (p = 0,005) foram estatisticamente significantes em GPA versus PAM. A positividade de P-ANCA foi observada em PAM versus GPA (p = 0,02) e duplo positivo versus GPA (p = 0,002), com pareamento de anticorpos P-ANCA e MPO em PAM versus GPA (p = 0,044). Trinta e sete dos 41 casos foram encaminhados localmente, 16 casos foram de dentro de um raio de 15 milhas dos condados de Albany, Schenectady e Saratoga. Conclusões: A vasculite por ANCA está associada à doença renal terminal e aumento da mortalidade. Nosso estudo sugere a possibilidade de maior incidência regional de GN pauci-imune no norte do estado de Nova York. Novos estudos devem investigar as causas do acúmulo de casos em regiões específicas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tertiary Healthcare , Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease/epidemiology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/mortality , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Biopsy , Comorbidity , New York/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Mortality/trends , Renal Dialysis , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease/blood , Creatinine/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/blood , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775076


Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a clinical syndrome with major clinical manifestations of hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse infiltration in the lung. DAH has a high mortality rate in the acute stage and is a life-threatening emergency in clinical practice. Compared with adult DHA, childhood DHA tends to have a specific spectrum of underlying diseases. It has long been believed that idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is the main cause of childhood DAH; however, with the increase in reports of childhood DAH cases, the etiology spectrum of childhood DAH is expanding. The treatment and prognosis of DAH with different etiologies are different. This review article gives a general outline of childhood DAH, with focuses on DAH caused by IPH, systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-related vasculitis, COPA syndrome, or IgA vasculitis.

Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Child , Hemorrhage , Humans , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Alveoli , Vasculitis
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 705-712, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762116


Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is one form of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Identical to what has been called Churg-Strauss syndrome, EGPA exhibits both allergic and vasculitis features. EGPA was first described as a syndrome consisting of asthma, fever, eosinophilia, and organ involvement including heart failure, neuropathy, and kidney damage, by Churg and Strauss in 1951. On the basis of the 2012 Chapel Hill Consensus Conferences Nomenclature of Vasculitis, EGPA comprises three typical allergic components, including asthma, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophil-rich granuloma of the respiratory tracts. EGPA has three clinical and histological stages. The first is an allergic stage composed of asthma and sinusitis, and the second is an eosinophilic stage characterised by peripheral hypereosinophilia and intra-organ infiltration of eosinophils. The last is a vasculitic stage, including necrotising inflammation of small vessels and end-organ damage. In this review, we describe the classification criteria for EGPA and recommendations for the evaluation and management of EGPA with conventional and newly suggested drugs for EGPA. Also, we discuss a variety of clinical aspects such as predictive values for prognosis and associations with other Th2-mediated diseases and hepatitis B virus.

Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Asthma , Churg-Strauss Syndrome , Classification , Congresses as Topic , Consensus , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Fever , Granuloma , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Heart Failure , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Inflammation , Kidney , Prognosis , Respiratory System , Sinusitis , Vasculitis
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1164-1173, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762068


PURPOSE: The controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score was developed to detect undernutrition in patients. Here, we investigated whether the CONUT score estimated at diagnosis could help predict poor outcomes [all-cause mortality, relapse, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)] of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed and collated data, including baseline characteristics, clinical manifestations (to calculate AAV-specific indices), and laboratory results, from 196 newly diagnosed AAV patients. Serum albumin, peripheral lymphocyte, and total cholesterol levels (at diagnosis) were used to calculate CONUT scores. RESULTS: In total, 111 patients had high CONUT scores (≥3), which showed higher frequency of myeloperoxidase-ANCA and ANCA positivity, and demonstrated higher AAV-specific indices. The optimal cut-offs of CONUT score (at diagnosis) for predicting all-cause mortality and ESRD were ≥3.5 and ≥2.5, respectively. Patients with CONUT scores higher than the cut-off at diagnosis exhibited lower cumulative and ESRD-free survival rates compared to those with lower scores than the cut-off. In multivariable analyses, diabetes mellitus [hazard ratio (HR): 4.394], five-factor score (HR: 3.051), and CONUT score ≥3.5 (HR: 4.307) at diagnosis were independent predictors of all-cause mortality, while only serum creatinine (HR: 1.714) was an independent predictor of ESRD occurrence. CONCLUSION: CONUT score at diagnosis is associated with all-cause mortality in AAV patients.

Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Cholesterol , Creatinine , Cytoplasm , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Lymphocytes , Malnutrition , Mortality , Nutritional Status , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Serum Albumin , Survival Rate , Vasculitis
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 10-21, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719692


Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of systemic necrotising vasculitides, which often involve small vessels, and which lead to few or no immune deposits in affected organs. According to clinical manifestations and pathological features, AAV is classified into three variants: microscopic polyangiitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and eosinophilic GPA. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria contributed to the classification of AAV, although currently the algorithm suggested by the European Medicines Agency in 2007 and the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides proposed in 2012 have encouraged physicians to classify AAV patients properly. So far, there have been noticeable advancements in studies on the pathophysiology of AAV and the classification criteria for AAV in Western countries. However, studies analysing clinical features of Korean patients with AAV have only been conducted and reported since 2000. One year-, 5 year-, and 10 year-cumulative patient survival rates are reported as 96.1, 94.8, and 92.8%. Furthermore, initial vasculitis activity, prognostic factor score, age and specific organ-involvement have been found to be associated with either all-cause mortality or poor disease course. The rate of serious infection is 28.6%, and 1 year-, 5 year- and 10 year-cumulative hospitalised infection free survival rates range from 85.1% to 72.7%. The overall standardised incidence ratio of cancer in AAV patients was deemed 1.43 compared to the general Korean population.

Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Classification , Consensus , Cytoplasm , Eosinophils , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Microscopic Polyangiitis , Mortality , Rheumatology , Survival Rate , Vasculitis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773996


Objective To investigate the prognosis predictors of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody(ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis treated with glucocorticoid(GC).Methods The clinicopathological data of patients with biopsy-confirmed ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis were retrospective analyzed by retrieving the medical database in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2000 to May 2015. Pathological categories were re-classified. Renal remission rates,infection rates,and death events were compared between intravenous glucocorticoid(GC)pulse therapy group and non-pulse group. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze factors influencing the short-term prognosis.Results Among the 81 patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis,49(60.5%)received GC pulse therapy and 32(39.5%)did not. The GC pulse group had significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline(eGFR0)than the non-pulse group(t=3.003,P=0.015)but significantly higher 24-hour urinary protein(24 hUP)(t=2.394,P=0.002)and Birmingham Systemic Vasculitis Activity Score(BVAS)(t=0.049,P=0.013). There was no significant difference in the cumulative amount of cyclophosphamide(CTX)(t=1.336,P=0.245)between these two groups. The overall renal remission rate of GC pulse group in the 6 month was significantly lower(48.7% vs. 79.3%;χ =6.591,P=0.024). Univariate analysis showed that baseline 24 hUP(t=6.222,P=0.017),eGFR0(t=3.727,P=0.046),and pathological category(χ =7.654,P=0.045)were associated with the overall renal remission rate in the 6 month. Multivariate analysis showed the crescent category was an independent factor(OR=20.63,95%CI:2.217-191.973,P=0.008;compared with sclerotic category)for overall renal remission rate in the 6 month,while GC pulse therapy was not an predictor(OR=0.271,95%CI:0.062-1.179,P=0.082). A total of 37 patients experienced infections within 6 months. The infection rate in GC pulse group(55.1%,27/49)was significantly higher than that of non-pulse group(31.3%,10/32)(P=0.042). Univariate regression analysis showed that eGFR0(t=1.912,P=0.049),baseline BVAS(t=-3.360,P=0.001)and GC pulse(χ =6.249,P=0.014)were associated with infection events within 6 months. Multivariate analysis showed that the baseline BVAS was the only predictor with 1.089 times for every 1 point increase in BVAS(OR=1.089,95%CI:1.006-1.179,P=0.034). Conclusions Crescentic category favors renal remission independently compared with sclerotic category. Patients with crescentic category may benefit more from intensive treatment. BVAS acts as an independent risk factor of infection.

Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Glomerulonephritis , Drug Therapy , Glucocorticoids , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies