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1.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 347-352, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126171

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La infección por Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mypn) podría estar ocurriendo a edades más tempranas, debido a fenómenos sociales como concurrencia a centros de cuidado diurno en forma más frecuente y precoz. Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Mypn en niños de 0-12 años, y explorar si la edad, asistencia a centro de cuidados diurnos/escuela, hacinamiento o convivencia con niños incrementan el riesgo de seropositividad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio transversal incluyendo niños de 0-12 años de edad que requirieron extracciones de sangre para control, por lo demás sanos. En todos los casos se consignaron las variables mencionadas y se determinó IgG anti-Mypn mediante enzimoinmunoanálisis. Se evaluó la asociación entre predictores y seropositividad en un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: Se incluyeron 232 pacientes (edad promedio 56,4 ± 40,0 meses). El 56,9% concurría a centro de cuidado diurno/escuela, 63,8% convivían con menores de 12 años y 15,9% presentaban hacinamiento. El 14,6% presentaba anticuerpos anti-Mypn. Los niños seroposi- tivos no mostraron diferencias significativas con aquellos seronegativos en relación a edad (63,1 ± 40,7 vs. 55,4 ± 41,3 meses), escolaridad (64,7% vs 55,5%), hacinamiento (14,7% vs 14,9%), ni con vivencia con menores (64,7% vs 63,6%). La edad tampoco se mostró como predictor independiente de seropositividad en el modelo multivariado. Conclusión: La prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Mypn fue 14,6%. La edad no fue predictor de seropositividad.


Abstract: Introduction: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mypn) infection could be occurring at an earlier age due to social pheno mena such as attending daycare centers more frequently and earlier than decades ago. Objective: to estimate the prevalence of anti-Mypn antibodies in children aged 0-12 years, and to explore whether age, attendance to daycare center/school, overcrowding or the presence of children aged below 12 years in the households increase the risk of seropositivity. Patients and Method: Cross-sectional stu dy including healthy children aged 0-12 years which required blood draws for routine laboratory tests. In all cases, the aforementioned variables were recorded and anti-Mypn IgG was determined by enzyme immunoassay. The association between predictors and seropositivity was assessed in a logistic regression model. Results: We included 232 patients (average age 56.4 ± 40.0 months). 56.9% attended a daycare center/school, 63.8% co-habited with children under 12 years old, and 15.9% lived in overcrowded households. The prevalence of anti-Mypn antibodies was 14.6%. There were no significant differences between seropositive and seronegative children regarding age (63.1 ± 40.7 vs. 55.4 ± 41.3 months), school/day-care attendance (64.7% vs. 55.5%), overcrowding (14.7% vs. 14.9%), or co-habiting with children (64.7% vs. 63.6%). Age was not an independent predictor of seropositivity in the multivariate model. Conclusion: The prevalence of anti-Mypn antibodies in children was 14.6% and age was not a predictor of seropositivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/immunology , Argentina/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/blood , Schools , Biomarkers/blood , Crowding , Logistic Models , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Child Day Care Centers , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e005320, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138121

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens (TBRP) are important causes of infections in both dogs and humans. Dogs play an important role as a biological host for several tick species and can serve as sentinels for rickettsial infections. Our aim was to determine the presence of TBRP in dogs and in dog-associated ticks and their potential risk to human diseases in Medellin, Colombia. DNA for E. canis (16S rRNA and dsb) and A. platys (groEl) was detected in 17.6% (53/300) and 2.6% (8/300) of dogs, respectively. Antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. 82 (27.3%) and Anaplasma spp. 8 (2.6%) were detected in dogs. Antibody reactivity against both agents were found in 16 dogs (5.3%). Eight dogs showed antibody for Rickettsia spp. with titers that suggest 3 of them had a probable exposure to R. parkeri. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (178/193) was the main tick in dogs, followed by R. microplus (15/193). The minimum infection rates (MIR) in R. sanguineus were 11.8% for E. canis and 3.4% for A. platys. E. canis and A. platys are the main TBRP infecting dogs and ticks and R. sanguineus s.l. is likely involved in the transmission of both agents. Interestingly, we found serological evidence of exposure in dogs for spotted fever group rickettsiae.


Resumo As riquétsias transmitidas por carrapatos (RTC) são causas importantes de infecção em cães e humanos. Os cães exercem um papel essencial como hospedeiros biológicos para diversas espécies de carrapatos, assim como podem ser úteis como sentinelas de infecções por riquétsias. O intuito deste estudo foi determinar a presença de RTC em cães, assim como em seus carrapatos, para determinar o risco potencial de doença humana em Medellín, Colômbia. DNA de Ehrlichia canis (16S rRNA e dsb) e Anaplasma platys (groEl) foi detectado em 17,6% (53/300) e 2,6% (8/300) dos cães, respectivamente. Anticorpos contra Ehrlichia spp. (82; 27,3%) e Anaplasma spp. (8; 2,6%) foram detectados nos cães. Reatividade de anticorpos contra ambos patógenos (Ehrlichia e Anaplasma) foi detectada em 16 cães (5,3%). Oito animais apresentaram anticorpos contra Rickettsia spp., e 3 deles sugerem uma provável exposição a Rickettsia parkeri. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (178/193) foi a principal espécie de carrapatos, seguida de R. microplus (15/193). A taxa de infecção mínima em R. sanguineus foi 11,8% para E. canis e 3,4% para A. platys. E. canis e A. platys são as principais RTC que infectam cãese R. sanguineus s.l. provavelmente está envolvido na transmissão de ambos os agentes. É evidente, porém, a exposição sorológica dos cães a riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Ehrlichiosis/microbiology , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Anaplasmosis/microbiology , Anaplasmosis/epidemiology , Rickettsia/genetics , Rickettsia Infections/microbiology , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Tick-Borne Diseases/microbiology , Tick-Borne Diseases/veterinary , Tick-Borne Diseases/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiology , Ehrlichia/genetics , Anaplasma/genetics , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e021419, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138088

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to do a serological survey on three rickettsial species: Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri, two species of the spotted fever group (SFG) that are considered to be great importance for public health; and Rickettsia bellii, a species of unknown pathogenicity that infects a variety of human-biting ticks. Serum samples from 273 dogs were tested using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). A total of 52 samples (19.04%) were seropositive for at least one of the three Rickettsia spp. antigens. Thirty-eight (73.07%), twelve (23.07%) and one (1.92%) of these dogs showed homologous reactions to R. bellii, R. rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. Our results showed that the seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. was relatively low. However, the positive serological tests indicated that these dogs had become infected by these agents at some point in their lives. Lastly, our study adds to the previous knowledge on the epidemiology of rickettsiosis in the state of Goiás by doing the first record of detection of anti-R. rickettsii, R. parkeri and R. bellii antibodies by IFA among dogs, thus indicating that these agents may be circulating in the dog population analyzed.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um levantamento sorológico para três espécies de rickettsias: Rickettsia rickettsii e Rickettsia parkeri, duas espécies do grupo da febre maculosa (GFM) consideradas de grande importância para a saúde pública; e Rickettsia bellii, uma espécie de patogenicidade desconhecida que infecta uma variedade de carrapatos que parasitam seres humanos. Amostras de soro de 273 cães foram testadas, usando-se a técnica de reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). O total de 52 amostras (19,04%) foram soropositivas para pelo menos um dos três antígenos de Rickettsia spp. Trinta e oito (73,07%), doze (23,07%) e um (1,92%) desses cães apresentaram reações homólogas à R. bellii, R. rickettsii e R. parkeri, respectivamente. Esses resultados demonstraram uma baixa soroprevalência para Rickettsia spp. No entanto, as amostras positivas indicam que esses cães foram infectados por esses agentes em algum momento de suas vidas. Por fim, este estudo contribui para o conhecimento sobre a epidemiologia das rickettsioses no estado de Goiás, realizando a primeira detecção de anticorpos anti-Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri e R. bellii pela RIFI em cães, indicando que esses agentes podem estar circulando na população canina analisada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Rickettsia Infections/blood , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/blood , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Rickettsia/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis/veterinary , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e020219, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092693

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), for which humans and dogs are both susceptible. Dogs are sentinels in serological surveys, however, canine disease is rarely reported. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate natural infection by spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in dogs and ticks collected from domiciles close to forest fragments, featuring domestic-wildlife interface areas. Samples from 115 dogs and 135 ixodids were assessed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting the gltA gene for Rickettsia spp. and the ompA gene for the SFG rickettsial species. One dog (0.87%; 1/115) was positive for R. rickettsii. This dog presented nonspecific laboratory and clinical abnormalities (thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia, lymph node enlargement, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy). Rickettsia parkeri was identified in 2.96% (4/135) of the ticks (Amblyomma sculptum, A. aureolatum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). This study confirmed the presence of SFG bacteria in non-endemic and preserved locations, where domestic and wild populations interact. We reinforce the fact that the dog is susceptible to natural R. rickettsii infection. Although this is a rare finding, preventive measures should be taken against BSF in the studied areas. Finally, R. parkeri infection is possibly being demonstrated in A. sculptum for the first time.


Resumo Rickettsia rickettsii é o agente causador da Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB), doença na qual humanos e cães são susceptíveis. Os cães são sentinelas nos inquéritos sorológicos, contudo, a doença canina é raramente descrita. Assim sendo, objetivou-se avaliar a infecção natural por Rickettsia spp. do Grupo da Febre Maculosa (GFM) em cães e carrapatos obtidos de domicílios próximos a fragmentos de mata, caracterizando áreas de interface doméstico-silvestre. Amostras de 115 cães e 135 ixodídeos foram avaliadas pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) tendo como alvo o gene gltA de Rickettsia spp. e o gene ompA das espécies do GFM. Um cão (0,87%; 1/115) foi positivo para R. rickettsii. Este animal apresentou alterações clínicas e laboratoriais inespecíficas (trombocitopenia, hiperproteinemia, linfonodos edemaciados, emagrecimento, anorexia e letargia). Rickettsia parkeri foi identificada em 2,96% (4/135) dos carrapatos (Amblyomma sculptum, A. aureolatum e Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Este estudo confirmou a presença de bactérias do GFM em locais preservados e não endêmicos, onde populações domésticas e silvestres interagem. Reforçamos o fato do cão ser susceptível à infecção natural por R. rickettsii. Embora este seja um achado raro, medidas preventivas devem ser tomadas contra a FMB nas áreas estudadas. Em última análise, a infecção por R. parkeri possivelmente está sendo demonstrada pela primeira vez em A. sculptum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dogs , Rickettsia/genetics , Ticks/microbiology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis/veterinary , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Rickettsia/classification , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis/diagnosis , Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis/microbiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e014919, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092692

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study investigated the seropositivity for five different tick-borne agents, namely Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Trypanosoma vivax in beef cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal. The serum samples collected from animals (200 cows; 200 calves) were used in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISA) to detect IgG antibodies against A. marginale, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. vivax, and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) for detecting IgG antibodies against C. burnetii and A. phagocytophilum. No correlation was observed between seropositivity for C. burnetii and A. phagocytophilum with other agents whereas moderate correlation was observed for A. marginalexB. bigemina x B. bovis. Cows were more seropositive for T. vivax whereas calves were more seropositive for B. bovis and B. bigemina. The highest number of seropositive animals by a single agent was observed for T. vivax (15.2%). Co-seropositivity for T. vivax + A. marginale was higher in cows (25.5%) and for T. vivax + B. bovis + B. bigemina + A. marginale was higher in calves (57.5%). The high seropositivity correlation for A. marginale x B. bovis x B. bigemina is probably due to the presence of the tick biological vector, Rhipicephalus microplus, in the studied farms. Common transmission pathways, mediated by hematophagous dipterans and fomites, may explain the high co-seropositivity of cows for A. marginale and T. vivax. Low seropositivity to C. burnetii is probably due to the type of breeding system employed (extensive). Seropositivity for A. phagocytophilum in only one animal suggests the occurrence of a cross-serological reaction with another agent of the genus Anaplasma.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a co-soropositividade para agentes transmitidos por carrapatos, como Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, e Trypanosoma vivax em bovinos de corte do Pantanal Brasileiro. Amostras de soro foram colhidas de 400 animais (200 vacas; 200 bezerros) e submetidas a Ensaios Imunoenzimáticos Indiretos (iELISA) para detecção de anticorpos IgG anti- A. marginale, anti- B. bovis, anti- B. bigemina e anti- T. vivax, e à Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI) para detecção de anticorpos IgG anti -C. burnetii e anti- A. phagocytophilum. Ausência de correlação foi vista entre os animais soropositivos para C. burnetii e A. phagocytophilum com os outros agentes e correlação moderada ocorreu entre A. marginale x B. bigemina x B. bovis. Vacas foram mais soropositivas que bezerros para T. vivax e bezerros mais soropositivos que vacas para B. bovis e B. bigemina. Maior número de animais soropositivos para um único agente foi visto para T. vivax (15,2%). Vacas demonstraram maior co-soropositividade para T. vivax + A. marginale (25,5%) e bezerros para T. vivax + B. bovis + B. bigemina + A. marginale (57,5%). A alta correlação entre a soropositividade para A. marginale x B. bovis x B. bigemina é provavelmente devida à presença do vetor biológico, o carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus, nas fazendas estudadas. As vias de transmissão comuns, mediadas por dípteros hematófagos e fômites, podem explicar a alta co-soropositividade das vacas para A. marginale e T. vivax. A baixa soropositividade para C. burnetii é provavelmente devida ao tipo de sistema de criação empregado (extenso). A soropositividade para A. phagocytophilum em apenas um animal sugere a ocorrência de reação sorológica cruzada com outro agente do gênero Anaplasma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Tick-Borne Diseases/microbiology , Tick-Borne Diseases/parasitology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
6.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 324-333, dic. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1057396

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leptospirosis is important in Uruguay due to the economic loss caused by the diseases of production animals, mainly bovines, and also due to frequent human infection. We decided to study anti-Leptospira antibodies in the sera of dairy workers, rice laborers, veterinarians, suburban slum dwellers and garbage recyclers. Our aims were to estimate the seroprevalence of infection by Leptospira spp. in these people at risk, the relative importance of the known risk factors associated with infection, and the impact of human infections in each setting. Groups at risk were identified and 35 visits to their locations were made, conducting field surveys and exchange talks for information and education. Simple epidemiological questionnaires were administered and sera samples were taken from 308 persons. The microagglutination Technique (MAT) and the IgM Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) assay were employed to detect antibodies. Environmental water samples, canine and equine sera were also examined. More than 45% of human sera were reactive and the studied groups were confirmed to be widely exposed to infection. Female sera were frequently reactive, though most illnesses occur in men, and the most severe cases in elderly males; the emergence and evolution of the disease may strongly depend on the host condition and functions. Animal contact and unsafe water usage were the main identified risk factors to be considered in prevention. Fifty per cent of the studied horses showed a positive MAT reaction. The underdiagnosis of the illness and its long-term symptoms require further study, as well as greater health and social attention efforts.


Resumen La leptospirosis es importante en Uruguay por las pérdidas económicas que ocasionan las enfermedades en los animales de producción, principalmente en los bovinos, y a causa de la frecuente infección humana. Decidimos estudiar anticuerpos anti -Leptospira en trabajadores de tambo y de plantaciones de arroz, así como en veterinarios, habitantes de asentamientos y recicladores de residuos. Buscamos evaluar la importancia de distintos factores de riesgo conocidos asociados con la infección por Leptospira spp., y estimar la frecuencia y el impacto de las infecciones humanas en la población expuesta. Se efectuaron 35 visitas a colectivos de riesgo, realizando relevamientos de campo e intercambios educativos, llenando formularios epidemiológicos sencillos y tomando muestras de sangre a 308 personas. Se investigaron anticuerpos séricos con técnicas de microaglutinación (MAT) e inmunofluorescencia indirecta para IgM. Se examinaron también, muestras de agua ambiental, y sueros caninos y equinos. Más del 45% de los sueros humanos fueron reactivos y se confirmó que los grupos estudiados estaban ampliamente expuestos a la infección. Los sueros de mujeres fueron frecuentemente reactivos, aunque la mayoría de las enfermedades ocurren en varones, y los casos más graves en varones añosos. La emergencia y la evolución de la afección pueden depender fuertemente del estado del huésped y su respuesta. El contacto con animales y el uso de agua insegura fueron los principales factores de riesgo identificados para considerar en la prevención. El 50% de los sueros equinos fueron reactivos por MAT. Es necesario incrementar los esfuerzos de atención social y sanitaria en estos sectores, superar el subdiagnóstico y estudiar la evolución y la sintomatología a largo plazo de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/prevention & control , Leptospirosis/blood , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Social Conditions , Uruguay/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Leptospirosis/etiology
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 405-410, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038299

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: A high prevalence of leprosy among children under 15 years of age indicates the need to implement actions to prevent new cases of the disease. Serological tests have been developed with the aim of helping to control the disease by indicating, through seropositivity, the presence of infection. Objective: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with seropositivity rate for anti-NDO-LID antibodies in children under 15 years of age, contacts of leprosy patients. Method: We performed a cross-sectional study with 210 children under 15 years old of age. Of them, 50 were household contacts and 160 were neighborhood contacts living in the municipality of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, in 2016. The data were obtained from interviews and the NDO-LID rapid test during home visits from February to July 2016. For the analysis, we used Poisson regression and prevalence ratio. Results: Seropositivity in contacts was 6.2%. Variables associated with seropositive tests included sex (PR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.08), race/skin color (PR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90 - 0.99), residence area (PR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.09), and number of people per household (PR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.08). Study Limitations: The small sample size, besides leading to wide confidence intervals, may have been a limitation for the identification of associated factors. Conclusions: The prevalence of seropositivity was high. Variables associated with NDO-LID seropositivity included female sex, not to be brown skinned, live in urban areas, and live with five or more people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/immunology , Leprosy/immunology , Leprosy/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Serologic Tests/methods , Residence Characteristics , Family Characteristics , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Infant , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 383-394, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042517

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum e Leptospira spp. em cães de Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. O teste de imunofluorescência indireta foi utilizado para detectar anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-N. caninum. Ensaio imunoenzimático e soroaglutinação microscópica foram utilizados para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-Leptospira spp., respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram: 67,02% (435/649) das amostras reativas para T. gondii e, 1,38% (9/649) para N. caninum, ambas com ausência de variáveis significativas estatisticamente. Para Leptospira spp. os resultados indicaram soroprevalência de 23,11% (153/649). A análise das variáveis sem distinção de sorovar mostraram associação para caraterísticas intrísecas como raça, idade, estado nutricional e categoria de cães. Para as variáveis extrínsecas, a região da cidade e ter acesso à rua mostraram associação estatística (p<0,05). Os sorovares mais prevalentes foram: Canicola com 59,47% (91/153); Bratislava 13,07% (20/153) e Butembo 15,68% (24/153). As variáveis que compõem o modelo de análise multivariada ajustada usando como desfecho Leptospira spp. foram: idade, raça, estado nutricional e área. Para o sorovar Canicola, as variáveis significantes (p<0,05) foram sexo, estado nutricional e área; para o sorovar Bratislava, as variáveis significantes (p<0,05) foram linfadenomegalia e presença de pulgas. Dos resultados obtidos, cães podem ser usados como sentinelas para infecção por T. gondii e Leptospira spp. na cidade de Foz do Iguaçu e em outras cidades com desfechos similares. Além disso, medidas preventivas devem ser tomadas pelas autoridades de saúde, pois são zoonoses e os seres humanos também estão em risco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Toxoplasma/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Neospora/immunology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 180-185, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042493

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ehrlichiosis is caused by agents belonging to Ehrlichia genus. Despite the frequent reports on the serological and molecular detection of E. canis in dogs in Brazil, there is scant data on ehrlichiosis in brazilian cats. This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp. in domestic cats from Greater Rio de Janeiro, and evaluating hematological changes associated with this rickettsial infection. We searched for IgG antibodies against E. canis on blood samples of 216 cats by Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA). Additionally, we performed nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) assays targeting E. canis-16S rRNA and dsb gene, respectively. Fifty-seven (26.4%) cats were seropositive for Ehrlichia spp. by IFA. Ehrlichia spp.-16S rRNA gene fragments were detected in 3 cats (1.4%). Although the obtained 16S rRNA sequences showed 99 to 100% identity with E. canis, cats were negative in qPCR. Anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, left shift neutrophil and hyperproteinemia were observed. Anemia was statistically associated with seropositivity to E. canis and kittens showed lower positivity rates (p<0.05). This study showed that Ehrlichia spp. occur in domestic cats from Greater Rio de Janeiro. Further studies involving culture isolation are much needed to more precisely characterize these organisms.


Resumo A erliquiose é causada por agentes pertencentes ao gênero Ehrlichia . Apesar dos frequentes relatos de detecção sorológica e molecular de E. canis em cães no Brasil, existem poucos dados sobre a erliquiose em gatos brasileiros. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de Ehrlichia spp. em gatos domésticos do Grande Rio de Janeiro e avaliar as alterações hematológicas associadas a essa infecção rickettsial. Procuramos anticorpos IgG anti-E. canis em amostras de sangue de 216 gatos por Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). Além disso, foram realizados ensaios de nested PCR (nPCR) e PCR em tempo real (qPCR) para detecção dos genes E. canis-16S rRNA e dsb , respectivamente. Cinquenta e sete (26,4%) gatos foram soropositivos para Ehrlichia spp. pela RIFI. Fragmentos do gene rRNA de Ehrlichia spp.-16S foram detectados em 3 gatos (1,4%) por ensaios de nPCR. Embora as sequências 16S rRNA obtidas tenham 99 a 100% de identidade com E. canis, os gatos foram negativos nos ensaios de qPCR. Anemia, trombocitopenia, leucocitose, desvio nuclear neutrofílico à esquerda e hiperproteinemia foram observados. Anemia foi estatisticamente associada à soropositividade para E. canis e filhotes apresentaram menores taxas de positividade (p <0,05). Este estudo demonstra que Ehrlichia spp. ocorrem em gatos domésticos da Grande Rio de Janeiro. Outros estudos envolvendo o isolamento por cultura são necessários para caracterizar com mais precisão esses organismos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ehrlichiosis/diagnosis , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180133, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041574

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dogs play an epidemiological role in several vector-borne diseases that affect human and animal health worldwide. We aimed to identify rickettsial circulation among dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) from a region endemic for both diseases. METHODS: CVL-seropositive dogs were screened for spotted fever group rickettsiae using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Among the CVL-positive dogs, anti-Rickettsia rickettsii antibodies were identified in one asymptomatic and one oligosymptomatic dog. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows low circulation of antibodies to R. rickettsii in CVL-seropositive dogs. It is recommended that surveillance studies in dogs should continue in order to monitor this scenario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/veterinary , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/diagnosis , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Endemic Diseases/veterinary , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 795-800, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974314

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in female buffalo in the state of Pernambuco. A total of 123 female buffalo blood samples were collected from five properties distributed in the state of Pernambuco. The microscopic agglutination test was used to study anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies. The occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies was 28.5% (35/123; CI 20.7-37.3%) and on different properties, the occurrence ranged from 28.6% to 80.0%, with 100% of the properties showing animals with positive results. The serovars of the serogroup Sejroe with a higher incidence were Hardjoprajtino (CTG strain, 49.1%) and Hardjo (Prajtino genotype, 43.2%), followed by serogroup Grippotyphosa with the Grippotyphosa serovar (3.9%), serogroup Pomona with the Pomona serovar (1.9%), and the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Copenhageni (1.9%). This was the first record of the occurrence of anti-Lepstospira spp. antibodies in female buffalo in the state of Pernambuco. Control measures are necessary to prevent health and economic losses, given that the agent involved affects animal reproduction, triggering drops in conception rates or even clinical cases of abortion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Buffaloes/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/blood , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brazil , Agglutination Tests , Buffaloes/immunology , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Serogroup , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospira/genetics , Leptospirosis/immunology , Leptospirosis/microbiology , Leptospirosis/blood , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 514-520, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977931

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic agent transmitted mainly by small ruminants. In Brazil the disease has been classified as a notifiable disease since 2013, when human cases were reported. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with the presence of anti- Coxiella burnetii antibodies in goats and sheep in a semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. Sera of 412 goats and 403 sheep from municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco, were examined by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) against antigens of C. burnetii. Information about management variables (independent variables) that could be associated with the presence of the microorganism (dependent variables) were obtained from the supervisor of each farm. It was determined that 2.2% (9/412) of the goats and 2.1% (9/403) of the sheep had antibodies reactive to C. burnetii. The presence of anti-C. burnetii antibodies was associated with the dry area of the Sequeiro (a region in the northern part of the municipality of Petrolina) (P = 0.025), male sheep (P = 0.020), and intensive goat breeding (P = 0.005). This study therefore showed the presence of anti-C. burnetii antibodies in goat and sheep, confirming for the first time that this agent is likely circulating among goat herds in the Caatinga Biome, semi-arid of Brazil.


Resumo Coxiella burnetii é um agente zoonótico transmitido principalmente por pequenos ruminantes. No Brasil, a doença foi classificada como de notificação compulsória desde 2013, quando casos humanos foram relatados. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores de risco associados à presença de anticorpos anti-Coxiella burnetii em caprinos e ovinos em uma região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil. Este estudo envolveu um inquérito sorológico de 412 caprinos e 403 ovinos em fazendas do município de Petrolina, no estado de Pernambuco. Os soros foram examinados pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI) contra antígenos de C. burnetii . Informações sobre variáveis ​​de manejo (variáveis ​​independentes) que poderiam estar associadas à presença do microrganismo (variáveis ​​dependentes) foram obtidas do proprietário de cada fazenda. Foi determinado que 2,2% (9/412) dos caprinos e 2,1% (9/403) dos ovinos tinham anticorpos reativos a C. burnetii. A presença de anticorpos anti-C. burnetii foram associados com a área seca do Sequeiro (região no norte do município de Petrolina) (P = 0,025), ovinos machos (P = 0,020) e criação intensiva de caprinos (P = 0,005). Este estudo, portanto, observou a presença de anticorpos anti-C. burnetii em pequenos ruminantes, confirmando pela primeira vez que este agente pode estar circulando em rebanhos caprinos no bioma Caatinga, semiárido do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Q Fever/veterinary , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Goats/microbiology , Sheep/microbiology , Goat Diseases/diagnosis , Coxiella burnetii/immunology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Q Fever/diagnosis , Q Fever/microbiology , Q Fever/epidemiology , Sheep Diseases/microbiology , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Goat Diseases/microbiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 442-448, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979386

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Serological tests are practical, with low cost, but no noninvasive tests are available for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Brazil. The aim here was to develop and validate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serological tests to detect anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies, based on cultured strains from Brazilian patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional, diagnostic accuracy study comparing a locally developed and validated ELISA and invasive tests among dyspeptic patients at two public hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An ELISA test was prepared using whole-cell antigen from 56 strains. After genotypic characterization, it was standardized and optical density (OD) cutoffs were determined based on the serum antibody response of 100 H. pylori-negative samples, compared with 82 H. pylori-positive samples. Validation was performed on 174 symptomatic patients. RESULTS: The optimal OD cutoffs established (for monoclonal and polyclonal tests, respectively) were 0.167 and 0.164; overall ELISA sensitivity: 84.3%, 78.9%; specificity: 88.6%, 90.6%; positive predictive value (PPV): 75.4%, 80%; negative predictive value (NPV): 93.1%, 81.8%; accuracy: 87.3%, 86.2%; child and adolescent ELISA sensitivity: 74.2%, 81.8%; specificity: 90.8%, 86.7%; PPV: 66.6%, 84.3%; NPV: 95.8%, 84.8%; accuracy: 88.5%, 84.6; adult ELISA sensitivity: 84.4%, 75%; specificity: 86.9%, 93%; PPV: 81.8%, 78.3%; NPV: 88.9%, 91.8%; accuracy: 85.9%, 88.5%. CONCLUSION: The polyclonal serological test developed using local strains presented better diagnostic performance among children and adolescents, while the monoclonal test was better among adults. The results from both tests suggest that these in-house serological tests could be used to detect anti-H. pylori antibodies in our population, for screening purposes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assay/standards , Reference Standards , Stomach/microbiology , Stomach/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Helicobacter pylori/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 564-568, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951797

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to standardize and validate the dot-blot test for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, compare the results with those found in the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and complement fixation test (CF), and estimate the relative sensitivity and specificity of the dot-blot compared to these tests. Fifty bovine blood serum samples were used for the test standardization, and 1315 samples were used for evaluation and comparison between the tests; the results were compared using the Kappa indicator. At the end of standardization, it was established as optimal for the antigen obtained from Brucella abortus B19 after passing through a microorganism rupture process, the blood serum samples diluted at 1:100, and the conjugate at 1:30,000. The comparison of the dot-blot results with 2-ME showed Kappa index of 0.9939, sensitivity of 99.48%, and specificity 99.91%, with CF, Kappa index of 0.8226, sensitivity 100% and specificity 95.32%. Using the combination of the test results 2-ME and CF to establish the true condition of the animal, the dot-blot showed relative sensitivity of 100%, and relative specificity of 99.91%. The evaluated test proved to be effective and reliable, besides being easy to handle and interpret the results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Brucella abortus/isolation & purification , Brucellosis/veterinary , Serologic Tests/methods , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brucella abortus/immunology , Brucellosis/diagnosis , Brucellosis/microbiology , Brucellosis/blood , Serologic Tests/instrumentation , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 368-371, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041464

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Serological surveys are important to assess the health status of wild animals. In this study, antibodies against Leptospira spp, causal agents of leptospirosis, were detected in free-living marsupials in the State of Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Nineteen blood samples collected from marsupials in the municipalities of Peixe-Boi, Viseu, and Castanhal were subjected to microscopic agglutination tests. RESULTS: In total, 36.8% (7/19) of samples were positive, and two exhibited co-agglutination. The most frequent serovars were Icterohaemorrhagiae (60%; 3/5), Panama (20%; 1/5), and Nupezo (20%; 1/5). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-Leptospira spp antibodies currently circulate in free-living marsupials in Northeastern Pará.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Marsupialia/microbiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brazil , Agglutination Tests/veterinary , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Animals, Wild/classification , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Marsupialia/classification
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(5): 1403-1414, Mai. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890586

ABSTRACT

Resumo A leptospirose é uma zoonose mundial cuja transmissão está interligada por múltiplos fatores na interface homem-animal-ecossistema. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar os fatores de risco para a ocorrência de anticorpos antiLeptospira em cães na capital Teresina (PI), e determinar sua distribuição espacial. Amostras sanguíneas de 558 cães foram submetidas à prova de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM). Aplicou-se questionários semiestruturados para os proprietários dos cães e obteve-se a localização geográfica da residência para a sua projeção em mapas geográficos. A soroprevalência foi de 13,8%, no qual o sorogrupo mais frequente foi o Icterohaemorrhagiae com 49,2%. Foram considerados fatores de risco os cães com acesso à rua, o não recolhimento da vasilha de alimento e a baixa renda dos proprietários. Foi observado maior número de cães soropositivos no período chuvoso com 87,1%, sendo um possível fator de risco para a ocorrência de casos. A distribuição dos cães soropositivos na cidade se apresentou de forma dispersa, com predominância dos casos em área antropizada. Esses fatores de risco favorecem a ocorrência de anticorpos antiLeptospiraem cães, os quais podem ser fontes de manutenção do agente na cidade e reforça a necessidade de vigilância epidemiológica e ambiental na prevenção da leptospirose.


Abstract Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis whose transmission is interlinked by multiple factors in the man-animal-ecosystem interface. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for the occurrence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in dogs in the capital Teresina (PI), and to determine their spatial distribution. Five hundred fifty-eight dog blood samples were submitted to the Microscopic Serum Agglutination (MSA) test. We applied semi-structured questionnaires to dog owners and obtained the area of residence for projection in geographical maps. Serum prevalence was 13.8%, in which the most common serovar was icterohaemorrhagiae, with 49.2%. Dogs with street access, failure to collect food bowl and low income of owners were risk factors. There was a higher number of seropositive dogs in the rainy season, with 87.1%, which is a probable risk factor for the occurrence of cases. The distribution of seropositive dogs was widely spread in the city, with predominance of cases in anthropized areas. These risk factors favor the occurrence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in dogs that are agent maintenance sources in the city and reinforce the need for epidemiological and environmental surveillance to prevent leptospirosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Agglutination Tests , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Income
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(3): 222-227, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962721

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Primary Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is acquired predominantly in childhood in the family setting. We aimed to investigate the presence of intrafamilial concurrent H. pylori infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study with a control group, conducted in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Fifty adult patients with gastroduodenal symptoms who underwent gastroscopy (index parents), their spouses and their children were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected from all of the study subjects to test for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response. H. pylori antigen was investigated in the stool specimens of children only. RESULTS: The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of the 40 patients in whom H. pylori infection was demonstrated via endoscopy, their spouses and their children. Group 2 included the remaining 10 patients who underwent endoscopy revealing negative results for H. pylori, their spouses and their children. IgG antibodies were present in all of the index parents, 95% of their spouses and 93% of their children in group 1; 13 of the children (9%) were also positive for H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA). However, IgG antibodies were present in only 2 of the 10 index parents in group 2. One of their spouses and one of their children had a positive antibody response. All of their children had negative stool antigen test results. CONCLUSION: H. pylori infections exhibit intrafamilial clustering. Parental infection, age ≥ years and having three or more siblings are the major risk factors for H. pylori infection in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Family Health , Helicobacter pylori/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Duodenal Diseases/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Helicobacter Infections/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/blood , Helicobacter Infections/transmission , Age Factors , Spouses , Siblings , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(1): 23-30, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894095

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Community-acquired pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity in childhood, but the detection of its causative agent remains a diagnostic challenge. The authors aimed to evaluate the role of the chest radiograph to identify cases of community-aquired pneumonia caused by typical bacteria. Methods: The frequency of infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was compared in non-hospitalized children with clinical diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia aged 2-59 months with or without radiological confirmation (n = 249 and 366, respectively). Infection by S. pneumoniae was diagnosed by the detection of a serological response against at least one of eight pneumococcal proteins (defined as an increase ≥2-fold in the IgG levels against Ply, CbpA, PspA1 and PspA2, PhtD, StkP-C, and PcsB-N, or an increase ≥1.5-fold against PcpA). Infection by H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was defined as an increase ≥2-fold on the levels of microbe-specific IgG. Results: Children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia had higher rates of infection by S. pneumoniae. The presence of pneumococcal infection increased the odds of having radiologically confirmed pneumonia by 2.8 times (95% CI: 1.8-4.3). The negative predictive value of the normal chest radiograph for infection by S. pneumoniae was 86.3% (95% CI: 82.4-89.7%). There was no difference on the rates of infection by H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis between children with community-acquired pneumonia with and without radiological confirmation. Conclusions: Among children with clinical diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia submitted to chest radiograph, those with radiologically confirmed pneumonia present a higher rate of infection by S. pneumoniae when compared with those with a normal chest radiograph.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar o papel do raios X de tórax na identificação de casos de pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC) causada por agentes bacterianos. Métodos: A frequência de infecção por Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae e Moraxella catarrhalis em crianças com PAC não hospitalizadas foi comparada com a presença de confirmação radiológica da pneumonia (n = 249 crianças com pneumonia radiologicamente confirmada e 366 crianças com raios X de tórax normal). Infecção por S. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada com base na resposta sorológica a pelo menos uma dentre oito proteínas pneumocócicas investigadas (aumento ≥ 2 vezes nos níveis de IgG em relação a Ply, CbpA, PspA1 e 2, PhtD, StkP-C e PcsB-N ou aumento≥ 1,5 vez em relação aPcpA). Infecção por H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis foi definida por aumento ≥ 2 vezes nos níveis de IgG específica a antígenos de cada agente. Resultados: Crianças com pneumonia radiologicamente confirmada apresentaram maior taxa de infecção pelo pneumococo. Além disso, a presença de infecção pneumocócica foi um fator preditor de pneumonia radiologicamente confirmada, o que aumenta sua chance de detecção em 2,8 vezes (IC 95%: 1,8-4,3). O valor preditivo negativo do raios X normal para a infecção por S. pneumoniae foi 86,3% (IC95%: 82,4%-89,7%). Não houve diferença nas frequências de infecção por H. influenzae e M. catarrhalis entre crianças com PAC com ou sem confirmação radiológica. Conclusão: Crianças com diagnóstico clínico de PAC submetidas a um raios X de tórax que apresentam confirmação radiológica têm maior taxa de infecção por S. pneumoniae comparadas com as crianças com raios X normal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Radiography, Thoracic , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Moraxellaceae Infections/diagnostic imaging , Haemophilus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Haemophilus influenzae/isolation & purification , Haemophilus influenzae/immunology , Moraxella catarrhalis/immunology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnostic imaging , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/blood
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 606-611, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978077

ABSTRACT

Resumen Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer norteamericana que consultó en nuestro país por un eritema migrans múltiple, diagnosticándose una enfermedad de Lyme. Este cuadro infeccioso es causado por espiroquetas del complejo Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) y es transmitido por la mordedura de garrapatas. Tradicionalmente Bbsl había sido detectada en garrapatas sólo en el hemisferio norte. Sin embargo, desde el 2013 ha habido reportes en Sudamérica. En Chile, recientemente se describió Borrelia chilensis, la cual no tiene una enfermedad asociada en humanos. Se discuten aspectos del agente infeccioso, su epidemiología, sus vectores y nuevos hallazgos en Sudamérica. Además, se plantean los criterios diagnósticos clínicos, de laboratorio y tratamiento, de acuerdo a la etapa en su historia natural.


This is a case report of an american woman who consulted in our country for multiple erythema migrans, from which a Lyme disease was diagnosed. This infectious disease is caused by spirochetes from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex (Bbsl) and is transmitted by the bite of ticks. Traditionally Bbsl had been detected in ticks only in the Northern Hemisphere. However, since 2013 there have been reports in South America. In Chile, Borrelia chilensis was recently described, which does not have an associated disease in humans. Aspects of the infectious agent, its epidemiology, its vectors and new findings in South America are discussed. Likewise, the clinical diagnostic criteria, laboratory and appropriate treatment are proposed, according to the stage in their natural history.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Middle Aged , Lyme Disease/diagnosis , Borrelia burgdorferi/immunology , Travel-Related Illness , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Lyme Disease/transmission
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 332-333, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042648

ABSTRACT

Resumen Entre las enfermedades infecciosas febriles se encuentran: dengue, leptospirosis, rickettsiosis y salmonelosis, entre otras. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar la presencia de anticuerpos IgM a dengue y Leptospira en pacientes febriles. La seropositividad para IgM frente al dengue fue 34%; 26,3% en mujeres y 7,6% en varones, sin diferencias significativas (p = 0,181). La seropositividad para los anticuerpos IgM a Leptospira fue 3,2%; encontrándose sólo en mujeres. La serología positiva para leptospirosis y dengue fue 1%. Los serovares detectados fueron Pomona y Canicola por la técnica de microaglutinación. Se pudo identificar la presencia insospechada de leptospirosis y dengue en meses atípicos para este último, hecho importante para considerar el estudio de serología en el diagnóstico diferencial de enfermedades febriles.


Among the infectious diseases characterized by a febrile picture are: dengue, leptospirosis, rickettsiosis and salmonellosis, among others. The objective of this study was to identify IgM antibodies against dengue and Leptospira in febrile patientes. The seropositivity for IgM antibodies to dengue was 34%; 26.3% for women and 7.6% for men, without differences significant (p = 0.181). The seropositivity for IgM antibodies to Leptospira was 3.2%, being found only in women. Positive serology for both dengue and Leptospira was 1%. The serovars detected were Pomona and Canicola by the microagglutination technique. It was possible to identify the unsuspected presence of leptospirosis and dengue in atypical months for the latter, an important fact to consider the study of serology in the differential diagnosis of febrile diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Dengue/epidemiology , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hospitals, General , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Mexico/epidemiology
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