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1.
Arq Asma Alerg Imunol ; 7(3): 311-312, Jul.Set.2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524185

ABSTRACT

Relato de caso de paciente com rinossinusite crônica com polipose nasal em tratamento com dupilumabe. São descritos os aspectos clínicos e o impacto na qualidade da vida do paciente. Imagens tomográficas evidenciam a melhora do processo inflamatório e a regressão dos pólipos nasais.


We report the case of a patient with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps treated with dupilumab. The clinical features and impact on the patient's quality of life are described. Computed tomography shows improvement of the inflammatory process and regression of the nasal polyps.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1304-1313, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981139

ABSTRACT

CLDN6 is a member of the CLDNs family that is specifically and highly expressed in cancers such as ovarian, testicular, endocervical, liver and lung adenocarcinoma, but hardly expressed in adult normal tissues. CLDN6 is able to activate multiple signaling pathways, which take part in the development and progression of cancer, including promoting tumor growth, migration and invasion, and promoting chemoresistance in cancer. In recent years, CLDN6 has received much attention as a novel target for cancer therapeutics. Many types of anticancer drugs targeting CLDN6 have been developed, including antibody-conjugated drugs (ADC), monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T). This paper briefly summarizes the structure, expression and function of CLDN6 in tumors, and reviews the current status and ideas of developing targeted CLDN6 anticancer drugs.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction , Immunotherapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Neoplasms/drug therapy
3.
S. Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 38(1): 1-12, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1428242

ABSTRACT

Background: Experience from the Zaire Ebolavirus epidemic in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (2018­2020) demonstrates that early initiation of essential critical care and administration of Zaire Ebolavirus specific monoclonal antibodies may be associated with improved outcomes among patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Objectives: This series describes 13 EVD patients and 276 patients with suspected EVD treated during a Zaire Ebolavirus outbreak in Guinea in 2021. Method: Patients with confirmed or suspected EVD were treated in two Ebola treatment centres (ETC) in the region of N'zérékoré. Data were reviewed from all patients with suspected or confirmed EVD hospitalised in these two ETCs during the outbreak (14 February 2021 ­ 19 June 2021). Ebola-specific monoclonal antibodies, were available 2 weeks after onset of the outbreak. Results: Nine of the 13 EVD patients (age range: 22­70 years) survived. The four EVD patients who died, including one pregnant woman, presented with multi-organ dysfunction and died within 48 h of admission. All eight patients who received Ebola-specific monoclonal antibodies survived. Four of the 13 EVD patients were health workers. Improvement of ETC design facilitated implementation of WHO-recommended 'optimized supportive care for EVD'. In this context, pragmatic clinical training was integrated in routine ETC activities. Initial clinical manifestations of 13 confirmed EVD patients were similar to those of 276 patients with suspected, but subsequently non confirmed EVD. These patients suffered from other acute infections (e.g. malaria in 183 of 276 patients; 66%). Five of the 276 patients with suspected EVD died. One of these five patients had Lassa virus disease and a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) co-infection. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary outbreak response teams can rapidly optimise ETC design. Trained clinical teams can provide WHO-recommended optimised supportive care, including safe administration of Ebola-specific monoclonal antibodies. Pragmatic training in essential critical care can be integrated in routine ETC activities. Contribution: This article describes clinical realities associated with implementation of WHO-recommended standards of 'optimized supportive care' and administration of Ebola virus specific treatments. In this context, the importance of essential design principles of ETCs is underlined, which allow continuous visual contact and verbal interaction of health workers and families with their patients. Elements that may contribute to further quality of care improvements for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Ebola Vaccines , Lassa Fever , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Critical Pathways , Critical Care
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 141-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of daratumumab in treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients with renal impairment (RI).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 15 MM patients with RI who received daratumumab-based regimen from January 2021 to March 2022 in three centers were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with daratumumab or daratumumab combined with dexamethasone or daratumumab combined with bortezomib and dexamethasone and the curative effect and survival were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The median age of 15 patients was 64 (ranged 54-82) years old. Six patients were IgG-MM, 2 were IgA-MM,1 was IgD-MM and 6 were light chain MM. Median estinated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 22.48 ml/(min·1.73 M2). Overall response rate of 11 patients with MM was 91% (≥MR), including 1 case of stringent complete response (sCR), 2 cases of very good partial response (VGPR), 3 cases of partial response (PR) and 4 cases of minor response (MR). The rate of renal response was 60%(9/15), including 4 cases of complete response (CR), 1 case of PR and 4 cases of MR. A median time of optimal renal response was 21 (ranged 7-56) days. With a median follow-up of 3 months, the median progression-free survival and overall survival of all patients were not reached. After treatment with daratumumab-based regimen, grade 1-2 neutropenia was the most common hematological adverse reaction. Non-hematological adverse reactions were mainly infusion-related adverse reactions and infections.@*CONCLUSION@#Daratumumab-based regimens have good short-term efficacy and safety in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients with renal impairment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 347-358, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970379

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop a method to detect bovine multi-cytokines based on flow cytometry. Previously we have prepared and screened monoclonal antibodies against bovine cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10 and MCP-1. These bovine cytokine monoclonal antibodies were fluorescently labeled, and the combination of antibody and cell surface molecules were used to develop the method for detecting bovine multi-cytokines. Subsequently, the developed method was used to determine the cytokine expression profile of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infected bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, and evaluate the cytokine expression level of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells of tuberculosis-positive cattle. The bovine multi-cytokine flow cytometry detection method can effectively determine the cytokine expression of BCG-infected bovine peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Among them, the expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α continue to increase after 40 hours of infection, while the expression levels of IP-10 and MCP-1 decreased. The combined detection of IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α on CD4+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of cattle can effectively distinguish tuberculosis-positive and tuberculosis-negative samples. This method may facilitate evaluating the level of cellular immune response after bovine pathogen infection and vaccine injection.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Animals , Cytokines , BCG Vaccine/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-2 , Flow Cytometry/methods , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Tuberculosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 273-280, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969878

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omazumab) in the treatment of allergic united airway disease (UAD) in the real-wold. Methods: Retrospective cohort study summarizes the case data of patients with allergic united airway disease who were treated with anti IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) for more than 16 weeks from March 1, 2018 to June 30, 2022 in the Peking University First Hospital.The allergic UAD is defined as allergic asthma combined with allergic rhinitis (AA+AR) or allergic asthma combined with chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps (AA+CRSwNP) or allergic asthma combined with allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps (AA+AR+CRSwNP). The control of asthma was evaluated by asthma control test (ACT), lung function test and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). The AR was assessed by total nasal symptom score (TNSS). The CRSwNP was evaluated by nasal visual analogue scale (n-VAS), sino-nasal outcome test-22 (SNOT-22), nasal polyps score (TPS) and Lund-Mackay sinus CT grading system. The global evaluation of omalizumab for the treatment of allergic UADwas performed by Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness(GETE).The drug-related side effects were also recorded. Matched t test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to compare the score changes of IgE monoclonal antibody (omazumab) before and after treatment, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influencing factors of IgE monoclonal antibody (omazumab) response. Results: A total of 117 patients with UAD were enrolled, ranging in age from 19 to 77 years; The median age of patients was 48.7 years; Among them, 60 were male, ranging from 19 to 77 years old, with a median age of 49.9 years; There were 57 females, ranging from 19 to 68 years old, with a median age of 47.2 years. There were 32 cases in AA+AR subgroup, 59 cases in AA+CRSwNP subgroup, and 26 cases in AA+AR+CRSwNP subgroup. The total serum IgE level was 190.5 (103.8,391.3) IU/ml. The treatment course of anti IgE monoclonal antibody was 24 (16, 32) weeks. Compared with pre-treatment, omalizumab increased ACT from 20.0 (19.5,22.0) to 24.0 (23.0,25.0) (Z=-8.537, P<0.001), increased pre-bronchodilator FEV1 from 90.2 (74.8,103.0)% predicted value to 95.4 (83.2,106.0)% predicted value (Z=-5.315,P<0.001), increased FEV1/FVC from 80.20 (66.83,88.38)% to 82.72 (71.26,92.25)% (Z=-4.483,P<0.001), decreased FeNO from(49.1±24.8) ppb to (32.8±24.4) ppb (t=5.235, P<0.001), decreased TNSS from (6.5±2.6)to (2.4±1.9) (t=14.171, P<0.001), decreased n-VAS from (6.8±1.2) to (3.4±2.0)(t=14.448, P<0.001), decreased SNOT-22 from (40.0±7.9) to (21.3±10.2)(t=15.360, P<0.001), decreased TPS from (4.1±0.8) to (2.4±1.0)(t=14.718, P<0.001) and decreased Lund-Mackay CT score from (6.0±1.3) to (3.1±1.6)(t=17.012, P<0.001). The global response rate to omalizumab was 67.5%(79/117). The response rate in AA+AR (90.6%,29/32) was significantly higher than that in AA+CRSwNP (61.0%,36/59) and AA+AR+CRSwNP (53.8%,14/26) subgroups (χ2=11.144,P=0.004). Only 4 patients (3.4%,4/117) had mild side effects. Conclusion: The real-world study showed favorable effectiveness and safety of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody for treatment of allergic UAD. To provide basis for preventing the progress and precise treatment of allergic UAD.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adult , Aged , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Asthma/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 850-854, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982140

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the causes of ineffectiveness of platelet transfusion with monoclonal antibody solid phase platelet antibody test (MASPAT) matching in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and explore the strategies of platelet transfusion.@*METHODS@#A case of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) induced by transfusion which ultimately resulted in transplantation failure and ineffective platelet transfusion with MASPAT matching was selected, and the causes of ineffective platelet transfusion and platelet transfusion strategy were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The 32-year-old female patient was diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia (high risk) in another hospital with the main symptoms of fever and leukopenia, who should be admitted for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after remission by chemotherapy. In the course of chemotherapy, DSA was generated due to platelet transfusion, and had HLA gene loci incompatible with the donor of the first transplant, leading to the failure of the first transplant. The patient received platelet transfusion for several times before and after transplantation, and the results showed that the effective rate of MASPAT matched platelet transfusion was only 35.3%. Further analysis showed that the reason for the ineffective platelet transfusion was due to the missed detection of antibodies by MASPAT method. During the second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the DSA-negative donor was selected, and the matching platelets but ineffective transfusion during the primary transplantation were avoided. Finally, the patient was successfully transplanted and discharged from hospital.@*CONCLUSIONS@#DSA can cause graft failure or render the graft ineffective. For the platelet transfusion of patients with DSA, the platelet transfusion strategy with matching type only using MASPAT method will miss the detection of antibodies, resulting in invalid platelet transfusion.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adult , Platelet Transfusion , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Retrospective Studies , HLA Antigens , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
8.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 544-551, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981897

ABSTRACT

Objective To prepare specific mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) against human adenovirus type 55 Hexon protein (HAdV55 Hexon). Methods The Hexon genes of HAdV55, 3, 4, 7, 16 and 21 were chemically synthesized as templates for PCR amplification. The prokaryotic expression plasmids pET28a-HAdV55 Hexon and eukaryotic expression plasmids pCAGGS-HAdV3, 4, 7, 16, 21 and 55 Hexon were constructed respectively. The pET28a-HAdV55 Hexon plasmid was transformed into E. coli competent cell BL21 (DE3) and was induced by IPTG. After the purified inclusion body was denatured and renatured, Hexon55 protein was purified by tangential flow filtration system. pCAGGS-HAdV55 Hexon was used to immunize BALB/c mice by cupping, and HAdV55 Hexon protein was used to booster immunization. The anti-HAdV55 Hexon mAb was prepared by hybridoma technique and the titer and subclass were determined. The specificity of antibody was identified by Western blot using HEK293T cells transfected with pCAGGS-HAdV55 Hexon and by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using BHK cells transfected with pCAGGS-HAdV55 Hexon. Both clones with high titer were selected, and the cross-reactivity of pCAGGS-HAdV3, 4, 7, 16, 21 and 55 Hexon transfected cells were analyzed by Western blot analysis and IFA. Results PET28a-HAdV55 Hexon and pCAGGS-HAdV55 Hexon, 3, 4, 7, 16 and 21 expression plasmids were successfully constructed. BL21 transformed with pET28a-HAdV55 Hexon was induced by IPTG. The HAdV55 Hexon protein was mainly expressed in the form of inclusion body. After denaturation and renaturation, the purified HAdV55 Hexon protein was obtained by ultrafiltration. Six hybridoma cell lines secreting HAdV55 Hexon mAb were obtained. The antibody subclass analysis showed that 2 strains were IgG2a subtypes and 4 strains were IgG2b. Two specific HAdV55 Hexon antibodies with high titer were obtained, and there was no cross-reactivity with HAdV3, 4, 7, 16, 21 Hexon. Conclusion The specific mice mAb against HAdV55 Hexon provides an experimental basis for establishing its antigen detection method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Isopropyl Thiogalactoside , Blotting, Western , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibody Specificity , Mice, Inbred BALB C
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2919-2924, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981423

ABSTRACT

Zearalenone(ZEN) is a toxic metabolite produced by Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum, and other fungi, with estrogenic characteristics. Exposure to or ingestion of ZEN during pregnancy can cause reproductive dysfunction, miscarriage, stillbirth, and malformation, and seriously endanger human life and health. The detection methods for ZEN in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition) are liquid chromatography(LC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS), and it is stipulated that ZEN should not exceed 500 μg in 1 000 g of Coicis Semen. Although these detection methods by instruments can achieve the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ZEN in Coicis Semen, their high detection cost and long periods hinder the rapid screening of a large number of samples in the field. In this study, the synthesized ZEN hapten was conjugated with bovine serum albumin(BSA) and ovalbumin(OVA) to obtain the complete ZEN antigen. By virtue of antibody preparation techniques, ZEN monoclonal antibody 4F6 was prepared, which showed 177.5%, 137.1%, and 109.7% cross-reactivity with ZEN structural analogs zearalanol, zearalenone, and α-zearalenol, respectively, and no cross-reactivity with other fungal toxins such as aflatoxin. Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(dcELISA) based on ZEN monoclonal antibody 4F6 was developed for the determination of ZEN in Coicis Semen with an IC_(50) of 1.3 μg·L~(-1) and a detection range of 0.22-21.92 μg·L~(-1). The recoveries were 83.91%-105.3% and the RSD was 4.4%-8.0%. The established dcELISA method was used to determine the ZEN residuals in nine batches of Coicis Semen samples, and the results were validated by LC-MS. The correlation between the two detection methods was found to be 0.993 9, indicating that the established dcELISA could be used for the rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of ZEN residuals in Coicis Semen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Zearalenone , Coix , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mycotoxins , Antibodies, Monoclonal
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 605-612, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984756

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and influencing factors of programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody rechallenge therapy in advanced gastric cancer (GC). Methods: The clinical data of patients with advanced GC who were treated with anti-PD-1 rechallenge in Henan Cancer Hospital from January 2020 to December 2021 were collected retrospectively. The progression-free survival (PFS) was defined as the time from the first or second used of anti-PD-1 treatment to the date of disease progression or the last follow-up, named PFS(1) and PFS(2), respectively. Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test were used for survival analysis, Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the influencing factors. Results: A total of 60 patients with anti-PD-1 rechallenge therapy were collected, the median follow-up time was 12.2 months. The median progression-free survival (PFS(2)) of anti-PD-1 rechallenge therapy was 2.9 months, the objective response rate (ORR) was 16.7%, and the disease control rate (DCR) was 55.0%. The median PFS(2) of the first and second anti-PD-1 identical and different rechallenge treatment was 3.5 months and 1.9 months (P=0.007) respectively. The median PFS(2) of positive PD-L1 expression in rechallenge therapy was 3.4 months, ORR was 22.7%, and DCR was 63.6%; the median PFS(2) was 4.5 months, ORR was 27.3%, and DCR was 54.5% in patients with median PFS(1)≥6 months. Multivariate analysis showed that peritoneal metastasis was independently associated with anti-PD-1 rechallenge therapy with PFS(2) (HR=2.327, 95% CI, 1.066-5.082, P=0.034). The incidence of adverse reactions in grade 1-2 and grade 3-4 of anti-PD-1 rechallenge therapy was 83.3%, and 35.0%, respectively, and the safety was controllable. Conclusion: Rechallenge therapy with anti-PD-1 is a feasible treatment in advanced GC, but the screening of suitable population for rechallenge therapy still needs prospective data analysis and verification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/adverse effects
11.
Rev. Cient. Esc. Estadual Saúde Pública de Goiás Cândido Santiago ; 9 (Ed. Especial, 1ª Oficina de Elaboração de Pareceres Técnicos Científicos (PTC): 9e8, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1524065

ABSTRACT

Belimumabe, rituximabe, terapia imunossupressora. Indicação: Nefrite lúpica nos estágios III, IV, V, refratária à terapia imunossupressora. Pergunta: Belimumabe é eficaz (remissão da nefrite, normalização da perda da função renal, qualidade de vida) e seguro (descontinuação devido a eventos adversos totais e eventos adversos graves) para o tratamento de pacientes com nefrite lúpica refratária nos estágios III, IV, V em comparação aos medicamentos disponíveis no Sistema Único de Saúde? Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e eficácia do belimumabe em comparação com os medicamentos disponíveis no Sistema Único de Saúde em pacientes adultos com nefrite lúpica. Métodos: Revisão rápida de revisões sistemáticas. Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado nas bases de dados PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, BVS, EPISTEMONIKOS, Cochrane Library e em registros de revisões sistemáticas e ensaios clínicos. Seguiu estratégias de buscas predefinidas. Foi feita avaliação da qualidade metodológica dos estudos incluídos através da ferramenta AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Version 2). Resultados: Foram selecionadas duas revisões sistemáticas que atendiam aos critérios de elegibilidade, mas nenhum ensaio clínico foi escolhido, pois não atendiam aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: a terapia combinada de belimumabe, ou de rituximabe, com tratamento imunossupressor padrão é mais eficaz que o tratamento padrão para alcançar remissão clínica da nefrite lúpica. A terapia combinada é tão segura quanto o tratamento padrão. Belimumabe e rituximabe tem eficácia similar entre si


Belimumab, rituximab, and immunosuppressive therapy. Indication: Refractory lupus nephritis to immunosuppressive therapy in stages III, IV, V. Question: Is belimumab effective (for remission of nephritis, normalization of loss of renal function, quality of life) and safe (for discontinuation due to total adverse events and serious adverse events) in the treatment of patients with refractory lupus nephritis in stages III, IV, V compared to the drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System? Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of belimumab compared to drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System in adult patients with lupus nephritis. Methods: Rapid review of systematic reviews. A bibliographic search was done in the PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, BVS, EPISTEMONIKOS, Cochrane Library databases and in records of systematic reviews and clinical trials. It has followed predefined search strategies. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the AMSTAR-2 tool (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Version 2). Results: Two systematic reviews were selected, which met the eligibility criteria, but no clinical trials were chosen, as they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Combination therapy of belimumab or rituximab with standard immunosuppressive treatment is more effective than standard treatment in achieving clinical remission of lupus nephritis. Combination therapy is as safe as standard treatment. Belimumab and rituximab have similar efficacy to each other


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Lupus Nephritis/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Remission Induction , Antibodies, Monoclonal
12.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(4): 432-467, out.dez.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1452572

ABSTRACT

A dermatite atópica (DA) é uma doença cutânea inflamatória, crônica, comum, complexa e de etiologia multifatorial, que se manifesta clinicamente com prurido muitas vezes incapacitante, lesões recorrentes do tipo eczema, xerose e que pode evoluir para liquenificação. Embora o conhecimento sobre a sua fisiopatologia venham crescendo nos últimos anos, ainda as formas graves são frequentes e representam um desafio para o clínico. Para o presente guia realizou-se revisão não sistemática da literatura relacionada à DA grave refratária aos tratamentos habituais com o objetivo de elaborar um documento prático e que auxilie na compreensão dos mecanismos envolvidos na DA, assim como dos possíveis fatores de risco associados à sua apresentação. A integridade da barreira cutânea é um dos pontos fundamentais para a manutenção da homeostase da pele. Além dos cuidados gerais: evitação dos agentes desencadeantes e/ou irritantes, o uso de hidratantes, suporte emocional, entre outros, o uso de agentes anti-inflamatórios/imunossupressores de uso tópico e/ou sistêmico também foi revisado. A aquisição de novos agentes, os imunobiológicos e as pequenas moléculas, melhorou a terapêutica para os pacientes com formas graves de DA, sobretudo as refratárias aos tratamentos convencionais.


Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, common, and complex inflammatory skin disease with a multifactorial etiology. It manifests clinically with often disabling pruritus, recurrent eczema-like lesions, and xerosis, and can progress to lichenification. Although understanding of the disease's pathophysiology has been growing in recent years, severe forms are still frequent and represent a challenge for clinicians. A non-systematic review of the literature on severe atopic dermatitis refractory to conventional treatment was conducted to develop the present guide, whose purpose is to help clarify the mechanisms involved in the disease and possible risk factors. The integrity of the skin barrier is fundamental for maintaining skin homeostasis. In addition to general care, patients should avoid triggering and/or irritating agents and moisturizers and seek emotional support, etc.; the use of topical and/or systemic anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive agents was also reviewed. New agents, immunobiologicals, and small molecules have led to a broader range of therapies for patients with severe forms of the disease, especially cases refractory to conventional treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Societies, Medical , Immunoglobulin E , Cyclosporine , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Calcineurin Inhibitors , Antibodies, Monoclonal
13.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(4): 231-239, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1424871

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Un nuevo brote de coronavirus surgió en 2019 en Wuhan, China, causando conmoción en el sistema sanitario de todo el mundo; el Comité Internacional de Taxonomía de Virus lo denominó SARS-CoV-2, agente causante de la enfermedad COVID-19.El espectro de gravedad de la enfermedad es muy amplio: la mayoría de los pacientes no presentan gravedad, pero otros pueden desarrollar neumonías, y la insuficiencia respiratoria aguda es la causa más frecuente de mortalidad. Objetivo: analizar y desarrollar las distintas alternativas terapéuticas aportadas por la Biotecnología para tratar los síntomas de aquellos pacientes con COVID-19. Metodología: se realizó una revisión de la bibliografía disponible, a partir de enero de 2020 en PubMed, acerca de los tratamientos que se encuentran aún en ensayos clínicos y aquellos que cuentan con aprobación bajo uso de emergencia para la enfermedad COVID-19. También se realizaron búsquedas a través de Google y Google Académico para publicaciones de organismos de Salud en referencia a políticas de salud establecidas para la terapéutica durante dicha pandemia. Resultados: este trabajo aborda las nuevas alternativas terapéuticas para COVID-19 derivadas de la Biotecnología, que se encuentran tanto en uso como en etapas de ensayos clínicos comprendidos dentro del segmento de los biofármacos y las bioterapias. Se incluye un breve resumen del estatus regulatorio de entidades de salud, el mecanismo de acción de dichas terapias y características generales de cada uno. Se incluyen novedosas bioterapias que se empezaron a implementar para afrontar la pandemia. Conclusiones: la pandemia de coronavirus está poniendo a prueba el sistema sanitario internacional, para brindar soluciones tanto desde el diagnóstico y prevención como para el tratamiento de la población a fin de disminuir la mortalidad. Esto incluyó, obviamente también, al área de la Biotecnología aplicada a la salud, que ha aportado en los tres aspectos mencionados; el presente trabajo se centra en las respuestas de tipo terapéutico que ha brindado y que están comercializadas o en fases clínicas. (AU)


INTRODUCTION: A new coronavirus outbreak emerged in 2019 in Wuhan, China, causing a shock to the healthcare system around the world; the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses named it SARS-CoV- 2, the infectious agent of the COVID-19 disease. The spectrum of severity of the disease is very wide, most patients are not serious, but others can develop pneumonia, with acute respiratory failure being the most frequent cause of mortality. Objective: to analyze and develop the different therapeutic alternatives provided by Biotechnology dedicated to Health, to treat the symptoms of those COVID-19 patients who require it, and thus reduce mortality.Methodology: a review of the available literature from January 2020 in PubMed of the treatments that are still in clinical trials and those that have been approved under emergency use for the disease COVID-19 was performed. Searches were also carried out through Google and Google Scholar for publications of Health organizations in reference to health policies established for therapeutics during the mentioned pandemic. Results: this work addresses the new therapeutic alternatives derived from Biotechnology, which are both in use and in stages of clinical trials, to treat patients who developed COVID-19 included within the segment of biopharmaceuticals and biotherapies. A brief summary of the regulatory status of health entities, the mechanism of action of said therapies and general characteristics of each one is included. Innovative biotherapies that began to be implemented to face the pandemic are included. Conclusions: The coronavirus pandemic has driven the international health system to the test, to provide solutions both from the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the population to reduce the mortality of patients. This obviously also included the area of Biotechnology applied to health, which has contributed in the three aspects mentioned. The present work focuses on the therapeutic responses that it has provided and that are commercialized or in clinical phases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy/methods , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Therapy/classification , Biological Therapy/standards , Biotechnology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Immunomodulating Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Horses , Immune Sera/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(3): 27644, out. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1399339

ABSTRACT

Introdução:uma vez conhecidos os mecanismos de patogênese do SARS-CoV-2, vários métodos de tratamento para a COVID-19 foram desenvolvidos, dentre eles destaca-se o uso dos anticorpos monoclonais para o contexto de pacientes em estágios graves da doença. Objetivo: compreender se o uso dos anticorpos monoclonais para tratamento da COVID-19 grave interfere nos níveis séricos da angiotensina II. Metodologia:Para a realização dessa pesquisa foram selecionados através do DeCS e MeSH os descritores "COVID-19", "Angiotensin II" e "Antibodies, Monoclonal" e seus respectivos "entry terms" sugeridos pela base MeSH. Posteriormente,utilizando-se os operadores booleanos OR e AND, foi montada uma estratégia de busca, a qual foi utilizada nas bases de dados PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library e Scopus, sem restrição dedata de publicação ou idioma. Resultados:ao final do processo de seleção dos artigos, 29 foram selecionados para a leitura e análise completa. Nesta revisão, foram abordados diferentes tipos de anticorpos monoclonais, os quais foram oportunamente agrupados de acordo com o seu mecanismo de ação. Conclusão: foi possível concluir que das cinco classes de anticorpos monoclonais tratadas neste trabalho, três potencialmente podem causar alterações nos níveis séricos de angiotensina II (AU).


Introduction:once the mechanisms of pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 are known, several methods of treatment for COVID-19 have been developed, among them the use of monoclonal antibodies for the context of patients in severe stages of the disease. Purpose:to understand whether the use of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of severe COVID-19 interferes with serum angiotensin II levels. Methodology:For this research were selected through DeCS and MeSH the descriptors "COVID-19", "Angiotensin II" and "Antibodies, Monoclonal" and their respective entry "Terms" suggested by the MeSH database. Subsequently, using the boolean operators OR and AND, a search strategy was set up, which was used in the databases PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Scopus, without restriction of publication date or language. Results:at the end of the article selection process, 29 were selected for reading and full analysis. In this review, different types of monoclonal antibodies were addressed, which were opportunely grouped according to their mechanism of action. Conclusion:it was possible to conclude that of the five classes of monoclonal antibodies treated in this study, three potentially can cause changes in serum levels of angiotensin II (AU).


Introducción:Una vez conocidos los mecanismos de patogénesis del SARSCoV-2, se desarrollaron variosmétodos de tratamiento para el COVID-19, entre ellos, el uso de anticuerpos monoclonales para el contexto de pacientes en fases graves de la enfermedad. Objetivo:Comprender si el uso de anticuerpos monoclonales para el tratamiento de la COVID-19 grave interfiere en los niveles séricos de angiotensina II. Metodología:Los descriptores "COVID-19", "Angiotensina II", "Anticuerpos, Monoclonales" y sus respectivos "entry terms" (términos de entrada) sugeridos por el MeSH fueron seleccionados a través de DeCS yMeSH. Posteriormente, utilizando los operadores booleanos OR y AND, se estableció una estrategia de búsqueda que se utilizó en las bases de datos PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library y Scopus, sin restricción de fecha de publicación ni de idioma. Resultados:Al final del proceso de selección de artículos, se seleccionaron 29 artículos para su lectura y análisis completos. En esta revisión se han abordado diferentes tipos de anticuerpos monoclonales, que se han agrupado oportunamente según su mecanismo de acción. Conclusión:Se pudo concluir que de las cinco clases de anticuerpos monoclonales tratados en este trabajo, tres pueden potencialmente causar alteraciones en los niveles séricos de angiotensina II (AU).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
15.
Univ. salud ; 24(2): 184-196, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1377466

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El eculizumab es un anticuerpo monoclonal de tipo IgG diseñado para el tratamiento de la hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna (HPN), en el que su diana farmacológica forma parte del sistema del complemento. Su mecanismo de acción ha permitido implementarlo en el tratamiento de enfermedades huérfanas, como el síndrome urémico hemolítico atípico (SUHa), trastorno del espectro de la neuromielitis óptica (TENMO) y miastenia gravis, cuya incidencia, es baja. Asimismo, es viable en el tratamiento de Guillain Barré y el síndrome antifosfolípido catastrófico (CAPS). Objetivo: Evidenciar aplicaciones terapéuticas del eculizumab y beneficios más significativos en algunos padecimientos. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó búsqueda bibliográfica en el periodo 2010-2021, en bases de datos: Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed y Scielo, utilizando como palabra clave "eculizumab". Posteriormente, se afinó la búsqueda utilizando palabras claves asociadas a enfermedades tratadas con este medicamento. Resultados: Se identificó el mecanismo de acción del fármaco y su efecto sobre la patogénesis de hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna, síndrome urémico atípico, miastenia gravis generalizada refractaria, trastorno del espectro de la neuromielitis óptica, síndromes antifosfolípidos catastrófico y Guillain-Barré. Conclusiones: El eculizumab tiene una alta seguridad y capacidad para tratar y disminuir síntomas de diversas enfermedades que involucran el sistema del complemento.


Introduction: Eculizumab is an IgG type monoclonal antibody designed to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and its pharmacological target is a member of the complement system. Its mechanism of action has permitted its use in the treatment of orphan diseases such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and myasthenia gravis, all of which have a low incidence. Likewise, eculizumab is a viable treatment for Guillain Barré and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAS). Objective: To describe the therapeutic applications of eculizumab and its most significant benefits in some illnesses. Materials and methods: A bibliographic search was carried out during the 2010-2021 period in Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed and Scielo databases using the keyword eculizumab. Then, the search was refined by using keywords associated with diseases treated with this medication. Results: The mechanism of action of the antibody and its effect on the pathogenesis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, refractory generalized myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder, catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, and Guillain Barré were identified. Conclusions: Eculizumab has high safety and capacity in treating and diminishing symptoms of diverse illnesses, which involve the complement system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Immunoglobulins , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal
16.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 38(2): e1583, abr.-jun. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408455

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los linfomas no Hodgkin indolentes se destacan por el reto que suponen desde el punto de vista terapéutico. La introducción de la terapia con rituximab, un anticuerpo monoclonal que se une al antígeno CD20 de la membrana de los linfocitos B, revolucionó los tratamientos hasta ese momento y abrió el camino para el desarrollo de otros anticuerpos monoclonales anti-CD20. Objetivo: Describir las características generales de los linfomas no Hodgkin indolentes y de los anticuerpos monoclonales anti-CD20, así como el rol de la terapia anti-CD20 en dichas enfermedades. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura publicada en los últimos 20 años, disponible en los repositorios: Scielo, Scopus, Pubmed/Medline, ScienceDirect y Mediagraphic. Se emplearon para elaborar este manuscrito 35 documentos, de ellos 80 por ciento correspondieron a los últimos 5 años. Conclusiones: La sólida evidencia científica, acumulada durante las últimas dos décadas, respalda el uso clínico de los anticuerpos monoclonales anti-CD20 en el tratamiento de los linfomas no Hodgkin indolentes. El uso efectivo de estos fármacos como agentes únicos o combinados con quimioterapia demuestran su versatilidad terapéutica(AU)


Introduction: Indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are notable for the challenge they pose from a therapeutic point of view. The introduction of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to the CD20 antigen of the B-lymphocyte membrane, revolutionized treatments up to that time and opened the way for the development of other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. Objective: To describe the general characteristics of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, as well as the role of anti-CD20 therapy in these diseases. Methods: A review of the literature published in the last 20 years, available in the repositories: Scielo, Scopus, Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct and Mediagraphic, was performed. Thirty-five papers were used to prepare this manuscript, 80 percent of which corresponded to the last 5 years. Conclusions: Strong scientific evidence, accumulated over the last two decades, supports the clinical use of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The effective use of these drugs as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy demonstrates their therapeutic versatility(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Antigens, CD20/therapeutic use , Rituximab , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations
17.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 40-45, maio 05,2022. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370563

ABSTRACT

Introduction: dengue is a most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the Americas and tropical countries. Objective: in this work, mice were hyperimmunized with DENV 4 antigen to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Methodology: DENV 4 (GenBank KC806069) was inoculated in C6/36 cell monolayers cultivated in Leibovitz's 15 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum and incubated at 28 oC. The virus stock was submitted to concentration and ultracentrifugation and stored at -80 oC until use (VC DENV 4). Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 50µg of DENV-4 and successive intraperitoneal injections of 25 µg of VCDENV 4 with Freund's incomplete adjuvant were performed. The spleen cells were fused to SP2/0 myeloma cells with PEG 1540 and distributed in 96-well microplates with Iscove's modified medium with Hipoxantina­Aminopterina­Timidina. Hybridoma screening by indirect ELISA showed positive results for six mAbs, and their characterization was performed by Western blotting and Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFI) techniques. Results: the six mAbs showed strong recognition of prM (24/29 kDa), and minor reaction to E protein (66 kDa), E/E protein dimer (105 kDa), and NS1 (49 kDa) protein in two mAbs. The use of mAbs anti-prM as a diagnostic tool using IFI has been demonstrated to detect DENV-4 antigen in infected cells or tissues. Conclusion: DENV 4 generate mAbs with strong reactivity to prM with potential use to confirm the presence of DENV 4 antigen in tissues or infected cells.


Introdução: a dengue é uma doença viral transmitida por mosquitos comumente das Américas e países tropicais. Objetivo: neste trabalho, camundongos foram hiperimunizados com antígeno DENV 4 para produzir anticorpos monoclonais (mAbs). Metodologia: DENV 4 (GenBank KC806069) foi inoculado em monocamadas de células C6 / 36 cultivadas em meio Leibovitz 15 suplementado com 5% de soro fetal bovino e incubadas a 28oC. O estoque viral foi submetido à concentração, ultracentrifugação e armazenado a -80 oC (VC DENV 4). Camundongos Balb / c foram injetados intraperitonealmente com 50 µg de VC DENV-4 e injeções intraperitoneais sucessivas de 25 µg de antigeno com adjuvante incompleto de Freund. As células do baço foram misturadas a células SP2/0 com PEG 1540 e distribuídas em microplacas de 96 poços com meio Iscove Modificado em presença de Hipoxantina ­ Aminopterina ­ Timidina. A triagem de hibridomas por ELISA indireto apresentou resultados positivos para seis mAbs, e sua caracterização foi realizada por técnicas de Western blotting e Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI). Resultados: os seis mAbs mostraram forte reconhecimento de prM (24/29 kDa) e reação menor à proteína E (66 kDa), dímero de proteína E / E (105 kDa) e proteína NS1 (49 kDa) em dois mAbs. O uso de mAbs anti-prM como uma ferramenta de diagnóstico utilizando IFI demonstrou eficacia em detectar o antígeno DENV-4 em células ou tecidos infectados. Conclusão: o mAbs produzidos para DENV 4 demonstraram uma forte reatividade contra prM, e poderiam ser uma ferramenta de uso potencial no diagnóstico de DENV 4 .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Dengue/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Antigens, Viral/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
18.
s.l; CONETEC; 1 abr. 2022.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1437068

ABSTRACT

EFECTOS EN LA SALUD: Hasta el momento, no se encuentra publicada evidencia en seres humanos que permita evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de la combinación de tixagevimab y cilgavimab. Podría ser una combinación menos activa frente a las nuevas variantes del SARS-CoV-2. IMPLEMENTACIÓN: BARRERAS Y COSTO COMPARATIVO: La tecnología aún no está autorizada para su comercialización en Argentina. Su forma de administración dificultaría su implementación. Su costo comparativo por tratamiento sería elevado y no se conoce la disponibilidad del laboratorio para responder a la demanda sin afectar la equidad en la distribución. RECOMENDACIONES: Las guías de práctica clínica de alta calidad metodológica actualizadas no tienen una dirección clara en cuanto a la utilización rutinaria del tratamiento. Sugieren utilizar el tratamiento en casos especiales y en personas de alto riesgo muy seleccionadas para profilaxis previa a la exposición.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19 Drug Treatment/instrumentation , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Argentina , Efficacy , Cost-Benefit Analysis
19.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(2): 201-205, abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402958

ABSTRACT

Resumen El presente comentario, escrito en virtud del decreto del gobierno nacional que designó a 2021 como año de homenaje al Dr. César Milstein, es una visión personal sobre el significado del desarrollo de los anticuerpos monoclonales, del aporte que brindó y brinda a la ciencia y tecnología actual y del contexto del correspondiente Premio Nobel en el ámbito de la Inmunología y las Ciencias Médicas. El objetivo de este artículo es transmitir, a modo de homenaje, algunas de mis experiencias en la especialidad y la relación profesional y personal con el creador de la producción de anticuerpos monoclonales por fusión de células somáticas, tecnología que continúa realizando grandes aportes al conocimiento.


Abstract The present commentary, which was written by virtue of the national government decree that designated 2021 as the year of the tribute to Dr. César Milstein, is a personal vision of the meaning of the development of monoclonal antibodies, of the contribution that he has always made to the current science and technology, and of the context of the corresponding Nobel Prize within the sphere of Immunology and the Medical Sciences. The aim of this article is to share, as a tribute, some of my experiences in the specialty and my professional and personal relationship with the creator of the immense breakthrough still being delivered by his development.


Resumo O presente comentário, escrito em virtude do decreto do governo nacional que nomeou o ano 2021 como ano de homenagem ao Dr. César Milstein, é uma visão pessoal sobre o significado do desenvolvimento dos anticorpos monoclonais, da contribuição que ofereceu e oferece à ciência e tecnologia atual e do contexto do correspondente Prêmio Nobel no âmbito da Imunologia e das Ciências Médicas. O objetivo deste artigo é transmitir, à maneira de homenagem, algumas das minhas experiências na especialidade e na relação profissional e pessoal com o criador do imenso avanço que continua nos oferecendo seu descobrimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Famous Persons , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Science , Specialization , Technology , Vision, Ocular , Cells , Knowledge , Growth and Development , Allergy and Immunology , Occupational Groups , Nobel Prize
20.
s.l; CONETEC; 1 abr. 2022.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1363200

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Desarrollado por AstraZeneca, Evusheld es una combinación de dos anticuerpos monoclonales de acción prolongada que funcionan uniéndose a la proteína de pico en el exterior del virus SARS-CoV-2, el virus que causa el COVID-19. Esto, a su vez, evita que el virus se adhiera a las células humanas y entre en ellas. Evusheld se utiliza en pacientes antes de estar expuesto a la infección por COVID-19 para prevenir la enfermedad (lo que se conoce como "profilaxis previa a la exposición"), especialmente en adultos en quienes se considera poco probable que generen una respuesta inmunitaria a partir de la vacunación contra el COVID-19 o para quienes no se recomienda la vacunación.(13) Evusheld es una combinación de tixagevimab (AZD8895) y cilgavimab (AZD1061), derivados de células B donadas por pacientes convalecientes después del virus SARS-CoV-2. Los anticuerpos monoclonales humanos se unen a sitios distintos en la proteína de punta 2 del SARS-CoV-2, con una extensión de la vida media y una unión reducida al receptor Fc. La extensión de la vida media triplica aproximadamente la durabilidad de su acción en comparación con los anticuerpos convencionales y brindaría de seis a doce meses de protección contra COVID-19 luego de una sola administración. El tratamiento se está probando actualmente en varios ensayos de prevención y tratamiento de COVID19: ensayo de fase III PROVENT 8 de más de 5000 participantes en profilaxis previa a la exposición; TACKLE COVID-19 9. Ensayo de tratamiento de fase III en un entorno ambulatorio; y ensayos de tratamiento de colaboradores en entornos ambulatorios y hospitalizados. AZD7442 se está evaluando en las vías de administración IM e intravenosa. (17) Los hallazgos preliminares 'in vitro' de investigadores de la Universidad de Oxford y la Universidad de Columbia también demuestran que AZD7442 neutraliza las variantes virales emergentes recientes del SARS-CoV-2. (18­21) Luego de un parte de prensa en el que se informan los resultados preliminares del estudio STORM-CHASER y PROVENT, para su uso como profilaxis post-exposición y en personas ambulatorias, adultos de alto riesgo en los que resulte poco probable que desarrollen una inmunidad apropiada con la vacunación, su uso fue autorizado por las Agencias de Medicamentos del Reino Unido y los Estados Unidos.(17) La Administración de Drogas y Alimentos (FDA, su sigla del inglés Food and Drugs Administration) de los Estados Unidos emitió una autorización de uso de emergencia para Evusheld para la profilaxis previa a la exposición (prevención) de COVID-19 en personas mayores de 12 años de edad y que pesan al menos 40 kilogramos. (22) El producto solo está autorizado para aquellas personas que actualmente no están infectadas con el virus SARS-CoV-2 y que no han estado expuestas recientemente a una persona infectada con SARS-CoV-2. La autorización también requiere que las personas tengan: sistemas inmunitarios comprometidos de moderados a graves debido a una afección médica, o debido a la toma de medicamentos o tratamientos inmunosupresores, y es posible que no generen una respuesta inmunitaria adecuada a la vacunación contra el COVID-19 o; antecedentes de reacciones adversas graves a una vacuna contra el COVID-19 y/o sus componente. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe es evaluar parámetros de eficacia, seguridad, conveniencia y recomendaciones disponibles acerca del empleo de la combinación de tixagevimab y cilgavimab (Evusheld) para el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19 en Argentina. MÉTODOS: Teniendo en cuenta la velocidad con la que la información relacionada a la pandemia aparece y se modifica, se desarrolló un protocolo sustentado en proyectos que resume activamente la evidencia científica a medida que la misma se hace disponible. Con este fin se utilizó la plataforma L- ove de Epistemonikos https://app.iloveevidence.com/topics para identificar revisiones sistemáticas "vivas". Se seleccionaron aquellas con una calidad metodológica apropiada evaluada a través de la herramienta AMSTAR-2, y que a su vez llevaran un proceso de actualización frecuente. (23) De cada una de las revisiones sistemáticas identificadas se extractaron los efectos de la intervención sobre los desenlaces priorizados como importantes o críticos y la certeza en dichos efectos. Para la priorización de los desenlaces se adoptó una perspectiva desde el paciente considerando sus potenciales preferencias. La selección se realizó por consenso entre los autores y supervisores del informe considerando los resultados de múltiples ejercicios de priorización publicados, realizados en el marco del desarrollo de distintas guías de práctica clínica. Se seleccionaron "mortalidad", "ingreso en asistencia ventilatoria mecánica", "tiempo hasta resolución de síntomas", "hospitalización", "eventos adversos graves" como desenlaces críticos. Adicionalmente, se extractaron datos relacionados con efectos de subgrupo potencialmente relevantes para la toma de decisión, con especial énfasis en el tiempo de evolución, la severidad de la enfermedad y el estado de vacunación. En los casos en que no fue reportado por las revisiones sistemáticas incluidas, se calculó el efecto absoluto de las intervenciones en pacientes vacunados, tomando el riesgo basal reportado para pacientes no vacunados multiplicado por un riesgo relativo de 0,1 según el efecto de la vacunación observado en distintos estudios y sistemas de vigilancia. (8,10,24,25) Para confeccionar las conclusiones en el efecto de las intervenciones evaluadas sobre los desenlaces priorizados, utilizamos lineamientos publicados, específicamente desarrollados a tal fin. Este dominio contempla dos subdominios: la existencia de barreras y facilitadores en nuestro contexto para la implementación de la tecnología evaluada no consideradas en los otros dominios analizados, y los costos comparativos en relación con otras intervenciones similares. Con el objetivo de emitir un juicio de valor sobre la magnitud de dichos costos, en pacientes hospitalizados se utilizó como comparador al tratamiento con dexametasona, que ha demostrado ser una intervención accesible y de beneficios importantes en el contexto analizado. Para la identificación de recomendaciones sustentadas en evidencia y actualizadas, se utilizó la plataforma COVID recmap. Se seleccionaron aquellas guías con rigor metodológico apropiado según la herramienta AGREE II (> 70%) y se incorporaron sus recomendaciones al informe. RESULTADOS: No se identificaron revisiones sistemáticas que cumplieran con los criterios de inclusión del presente informe y reportaron resultados. El ensayo STORM CHASER, cuyos resultados preliminares fueron publicados en un parte de prensa por el laboratorio AstraZeneca, evaluó la seguridad y eficacia de AZD7442, una combinación de anticuerpos de acción prolongada, para la prevención de la COVID-19 sintomática en participantes expuestos recientemente al virus SARS-CoV-2. El ensayo no cumplió con el criterio principal de valoración de la prevención posterior a la exposición de la COVID-19 sintomática con AZD7442 en comparación con el placebo. Los participantes del ensayo eran adultos no vacunados de 18 años o más con exposición confirmada a una persona con un caso del virus SARS-CoV-2 en los últimos ocho días. Adicionalmente, existe información sobre la efectividad in vitro de tixagevimab/cilgavimab frente a las diferentes variantes de SARS-CoV-2. Esta información se encuentra disponible en OpenData Portal, que condensa la información de un conjunto priorizado de publicaciones (preprints y artículos revisados por pares). Los resultados muestran que la combinación de tixagevimab/cilgavimab podría ser menos activa frente a las nuevas variantes del SARS-CoV-2, incluida Omicrón y subvariantes (B.1.1.529; BA.1.1; BA.1; BA.1 [+Q493K]; BA.2; B.1.1.529 [+F694Y] en comparación de las variantes predominantes al momento de realizarse el estudio STORM-CHASER. CONCLUSIONES: El cuerpo de la evidencia (un estudio aún no publicado cuyos datos se encuentran parcialmente disponibles en un comunicado de prensa) muestra que tixagevimab/cilgavimab, podría tener un beneficio clínico pequeño en personas expuestas al SARS-COV-2 con factores de riesgo para progresar a enfermedad grave que no han sido vacunados y con riesgo de falla inmune. En esta población, podría disminuir el riesgo de infección. No se cuenta con datos de infección por nuevas variantes ni relacionados con otros desenlaces como la admisión hospitalaria, la necesidad de ventilación mecánica o la muerte. Esta tecnología tampoco ha sido probada en personas vacunadas ni en otros escenarios. La evidencia proveniente de estudios in vitro, nos muestra que podría no ser activa frente a las nuevas variantes del SARS-CoV-2, incluida Omicrón y sus sub-variantes en estudio. La tecnología no está autorizada para su comercialización por la Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica de nuestro país. La forma de administración y el costo comparativo estimado es elevado podrían constituir barreras para su uso. Las guías de práctica clínica de alta calidad metodológica actualizadas no tienen una dirección clara en cuanto a la utilización rutinaria del tratamiento y sugieren utilizar el tratamiento en casos muy especiales en personas de alto riesgo muy seleccionadas para profilaxis previa a la exposición.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Argentina , Efficacy , Cost-Benefit Analysis
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