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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202202595, feb. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1413001

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En Argentina, el personal de salud ha sido el primero en vacunarse contra COVID-19, pero todavía existen pocos datos sobre la producción de anticuerpos IgG anti-S. Objetivos. Evaluar IgG específica contra glicoproteína spike del SARS-CoV-2 (IgG anti-S) posvacunación en personal de un hospital pediátrico. Explorar la asociación entre presencia de dichos anticuerpos, edad y antecedente de infección previa. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal que incluyó 193 trabajadores vacunados con los dos componentes de la vacuna Sputnik V. Se pesquisó el título de IgG anti-S y se registraron edad, antecedente de infección previa por SARS-CoV-2 y fecha de la vacunación. Resultados. El 98,6 % de los sujetos generó IgG anti-S. El título fue mayor en quienes habían cursado infección previamente (p <0,001), pero no hubo relación con la edad de los sujetos. Conclusión. Aportamos datos de generación de anticuerpos IgG anti-S posvacunación en personal de salud de un hospital pediátrico y exploramos algunos predictores.


Introduction. In Argentina, health care workers have been the first ones to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, but there are still few data on the production of anti-S IgG antibodies. Objectives. To assess specific IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S IgG) after the vaccination of health care workers from a children's hospital. To explore the association between the presence of these antibodies, age, and history of prior infection. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study in 193 workers who received both doses of the two component Sputnik V vaccine. The anti-S IgG antibody titer was measured and age, history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and date of vaccination were recorded. Results. Anti-S IgG antibodies were produced in 98.6% of the subjects. The titer was higher in those with prior infection (p < 0.001), but no relationship was established with subjects' age. Conclusion. We provide data on post-vaccination production of IgG anti-S antibodies among health care workers from a children's hospital and explore some predictors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitals, Pediatric , Antibodies, Viral
2.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1117-1134, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010823

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 and its variants of concern (VOCs) has been ongoing for over 3 years. Antibody therapies encompassing convalescent plasma, hyperimmunoglobulin, and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) applied in passive immunotherapy have yielded positive outcomes and played a crucial role in the early COVID-19 treatment. In this review, the development path, action mechanism, clinical research results, challenges, and safety profile associated with the use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma, hyperimmunoglobulin, and mAbs were summarized. In addition, the prospects of applying antibody therapy against VOCs was assessed, offering insights into the coping strategies for facing new infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/drug therapy , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing
3.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 668-682, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010765

ABSTRACT

Although the development of COVID-19 vaccines has been a remarkable success, the heterogeneous individual antibody generation and decline over time are unknown and still hard to predict. In this study, blood samples were collected from 163 participants who next received two doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (CoronaVac®) at a 28-day interval. Using TMT-based proteomics, we identified 1,715 serum and 7,342 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) proteins. We proposed two sets of potential biomarkers (seven from serum, five from PBMCs) at baseline using machine learning, and predicted the individual seropositivity 57 days after vaccination (AUC = 0.87). Based on the four PBMC's potential biomarkers, we predicted the antibody persistence until 180 days after vaccination (AUC = 0.79). Our data highlighted characteristic hematological host responses, including altered lymphocyte migration regulation, neutrophil degranulation, and humoral immune response. This study proposed potential blood-derived protein biomarkers before vaccination for predicting heterogeneous antibody generation and decline after COVID-19 vaccination, shedding light on immunization mechanisms and individual booster shot planning.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Proteomics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4915-4926, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008068

ABSTRACT

A simple, fast, and visual method for detecting antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) using colloidal gold strips was developed. In this study, the pET-32a-N was transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) for expression. Hybridoma cell lines were generated by fusing SP2/0 myeloma cells with splenocytes from immunized mice with the expressed and purified N protein of PPRV. The PPRV N protein was labeled with colloidal gold particles as the gold-labeled antigen. The N protein served as the gold standard antigen and as the test (T) line-coated antigen, while the monoclonal antibody served as the quality control (C) line-coated antibody to assemble the colloidal gold immunochromatographic test strips for detecting antibodies against the N protein of PPRV. Hybridoma cell line designated as 1F1 was able to stably secrete the monoclonal antibody against the N protein of PPRV. The titer of 1F1 monoclonal antibody in ascites was 1:128 000 determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and the immunoglobulin subtype of the monoclonal antibody was IgG1, with kappa chain. The obtained monoclonal antibody was able to specifically recognize the N protein of PPRV, as shown by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). The developed colloidal gold test strip method was able to detect PPRV antibodies specifically, and there was no difference between different batches of the test strips. Testing of a total of 122 clinical sera showed that the compliance rate of the test strip with ELISA test was 97.6%.The test strip assay developed in this study has good specificity, reproducibility, and sensitivity, and it can be used for the rapid detection of PPRV antibodies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Peste-des-Petits-Ruminants/prevention & control , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Reproducibility of Results , Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus , Antibodies, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Goats
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4861-4873, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008064

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to produce Erns protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by using suspensively cultured CHO cells expression system and to analyze the immunogenicity of the purified Erns protein. In this study, the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1-BVDV-Erns was constructed based on the gene sequence of BVDV-1 NADL strain. The Erns protein was secreted and expressed in cells supernatant after transfecting the recombinant expression plasmid pcDNA3.1-BVDV-Erns into CHO cells. The expression and purification of the Erns protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the reactivity was determined with anti-His monoclonal antibodies and BVDV positive serum with Western blotting. Immunogenicity analysis of the Erns protein was determined after immunizing New Zealand white rabbits, and the serum antibodies were tested by indirect ELISA (iELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). The serum neutralizing titer of the immunized rabbits was determined by virus neutralization test. The concentration of the purified Erns protein was up to 0.886 mg/mL by BCA protein quantification kit. The results showed that the Erns protein could be detected with anti-His monoclonal antibodies and anti-BVDV sera. Serum antibodies could be detected by iELISA on the 7th day post-prime immunization, and the antibody level was maintained at a high titer until the 28th day post-immunization. The antibody titer was 1:128 000. Furthermore, the expression of the Erns protein in BVDV-infected MDBK cells could be detected with immunized rabbits sera by IFA. Moreover, antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies of 2.71 log10 was induced in rabbits. In this study, purified BVDV Erns protein was successfully produced using CHO suspension culture system, and the recombinant protein was proved to have a good immunogenicity, which may facilitate the development of BVD diagnosis method and novel subunit vaccine.


Subject(s)
Rabbits , Animals , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , CHO Cells , Antibodies, Viral , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Diarrhea , Viral Vaccines/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4849-4860, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008063

ABSTRACT

Transient expression is the major method to express foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid proteins in mammalian cells. To achieve stable expression of FMDV capsid proteins and efficient assembly of virus like particles (VLPs) in cells, the plasmids of piggyBac (PB) transposon-constitutive expression and PB transposon-tetracycline (Tet) inducible expression vectors were constructed. The function of the plasmids was tested by fluorescent proteins. By adding antibiotics, the constitutive cell pools (C-WT, C-L127P) expressing P12A3C (WT/L127P) genes and the inducible cell pools (I-WT, I-L127P) expressing P12A3C (WT/L127P) genes were generated. The genes of green fluorescent protein, 3C protease and reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) were integrated into chromosome, which was confirmed by fluorescence observation and PCR testing. The cell pool I-L127P has a stronger production capacity of capsid proteins and VLPs, which was confirmed by Western blotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. In conclusion, inducing the chromosomal expression of FMDV capsid proteins was firstly reported, which may facilitate the technical process of mammalian production of FMDV VLPs vaccine and the construction of mammalian inducible expression systems for other proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Capsid Proteins , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Tetracyclines/metabolism , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Mammals/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4837-4848, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008062

ABSTRACT

To further enhance the immune effect of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine, this study prepared FMDV VLPs-zeolitic imidazolate (framework-8, ZIF-8) complexes with different particle sizes. We used a biomimetic mineralization method with Zn2+ and 2-methylimidazole in different concentration ratios to investigate the effect of size on the immunization effect. The results showed that FMDV VLPs-ZIF-8 with three different sizes were successfully prepared, with an approximate size of 70 nm, 100 nm, and 1 000 nm, respectively. Cytotoxicity and animal toxicity tests showed that all three complexes exhibited excellent biological safety. Immunization tests in mice showed that all three complexes enhanced the titers of neutralizing and specific antibodies, and their immune effects improved as the size of the complexes decreased. This study showed that ZIF-8 encapsulation of FMDV VLPs significantly enhanced their immunogenic effect in a size-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Vaccines
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4809-4823, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008060

ABSTRACT

In order to understand the prevalence and evolution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in China and to develop subunit vaccine against the epidemic lineage, the genetic evolution analysis of PRRSV strains isolated in China from 2001 to 2021 was performed. The representative strains of the dominant epidemic lineage were selected to optimize the membrane protein GP5 and M nucleotide sequences, which were used, with the interferon and the Fc region of immunoglobulin, to construct the eukaryotic expression plasmids pCDNA3.4-IFNα-GP5-Fc and pCDNA3.4-IFNα-M-Fc. Subsequently, the recombinant proteins IFNα-GP5-Fc and IFNα-M-Fc were expressed by HEK293T eukaryotic expression system. The two recombinant proteins were mixed with ISA206VG adjuvant to immunize weaned piglets. The humoral immunity level was evaluated by ELISA and neutralization test, and the cellular immunity level was detected by ELISPOT test. The results showed that the NADC30-like lineage was the main epidemic lineage in China in recent years, and the combination of IFNα-GP5-Fc and IFNα-M-Fc could induce high levels of antibody and cellular immunity in piglets. This study may facilitate the preparation of a safer and more effective new PRRSV subunit vaccine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Swine , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , HEK293 Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Vaccines, Subunit
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3887-3898, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008001

ABSTRACT

In order to achieve large-scale production of HSV-IgM (HSV1, HSV2) human-mouse chimeric antibody in vitro, the gene sequence of the corresponding hybridoma cell was harvested by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) technique to clone the chimeric antibody into eukaryotic expression vectors, and express the target proteins in CHO-S cells. At the same time, the screening process of stable cell lines was optimized, and the pressure conditions of pool construction stage and monoclonal screening stage were explored. Finally, the target protein was purified by protein L affinity purification method and the biological activity was detected. The recombinant IgM antibodies, HSV1 and HSV2, weighted at 899 kDa and 909 kDa respectively, were prepared. The optimal screening pressure was 20P200M (the first phase of pressure) and 50P1000M (the second phase of pressure). The final titer for the monoclonal expression of HSV1-IgM and HSV2-IgM was 1 620 mg/L and 623 mg/L, respectively. This study may facilitate the development of quality control products of HSV1 and HSV2 IgM series recombinant antibodies as well as efficient expression of IgM subtype antibodies in vitro.


Subject(s)
Cricetinae , Humans , Animals , Mice , Immunoglobulin M/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Hybridomas , Recombinant Fusion Proteins
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2948-2959, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine can induce a potent cellular and humoral immune response to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it was unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can induce effective natural killer (NK) cell response in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) and healthy individuals.@*METHODS@#Forty-seven PLWH and thirty healthy controls (HCs) inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine were enrolled from Beijing Youan Hospital in this study. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine on NK cell frequency, phenotype, and function in PLWH and HCs was evaluated by flow cytometry, and the response of NK cells to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Spike (SARS-2-OS) protein stimulation was also evaluated.@*RESULTS@#SARS-CoV-2 vaccine inoculation elicited activation and degranulation of NK cells in PLWH, which peaked at 2 weeks and then decreased to a minimum at 12 weeks after the third dose of vaccine. However, in vitro stimulation of the corresponding peripheral blood monocular cells from PLWH with SARS-2-OS protein did not upregulate the expression of the aforementioned markers. Additionally, the frequencies of NK cells expressing the activation markers CD25 and CD69 in PLWH were significantly lower than those in HCs at 0, 4 and 12 weeks, but the percentage of CD16 + NK cells in PLWH was significantly higher than that in HCs at 2, 4 and 12 weeks after the third dose of vaccine. Interestingly, the frequency of CD16 + NK cells was significantly negatively correlated with the proportion of CD107a + NK cells in PLWH at each time point after the third dose. Similarly, this phenomenon was also observed in HCs at 0, 2, and 4 weeks after the third dose. Finally, regardless of whether NK cells were stimulated with SARS-2-OS or not, we did not observe any differences in the expression of NK cell degranulation markers between PLWH and HCs.@*CONCLUSION@#s:SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicited activation and degranulation of NK cells, indicating that the inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine enhances NK cell immune response.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Killer Cells, Natural , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2938-2947, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#T-cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif domains (TIGIT), an inhibitory receptor expressed on T cells, plays a dysfunctional role in antiviral infection and antitumor activity. However, it is unknown whether TIGIT expression on T cells influences the immunological effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inactivated vaccines.@*METHODS@#Forty-five people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for more than two years and 31 healthy controls (HCs), all received a third dose of a SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, were enrolled in this study. The amounts, activation, proportion of cell subsets, and magnitude of the SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response of TIGIT + CD4 + and TIGIT + CD8 + T cells were investigated before the third dose but 6 months after the second vaccine dose (0W), 4 weeks (4W) and 12 weeks (12W) after the third dose.@*RESULTS@#Compared to that in HCs, the frequency of TIGIT + CD8 + T cells in the peripheral blood of PLWH increased at 12W after the third dose of the inactivated vaccine, and the immune activation of TIGIT + CD8 + T cells also increased. A decrease in the ratio of both T naïve (T N ) and central memory (T CM ) cells among TIGIT + CD8 + T cells and an increase in the ratio of the effector memory (T EM ) subpopulation were observed at 12W in PLWH. Interestingly, particularly at 12W, a higher proportion of TIGIT + CD8 + T cells expressing CD137 and CD69 simultaneously was observed in HCs than in PLWH based on the activation-induced marker assay. Compared with 0W, SARS-CoV-2-specific TIGIT + CD8 + T-cell responses in PLWH were not enhanced at 12W but were enhanced in HCs. Additionally, at all time points, the SARS-CoV-2-specific responses of TIGIT + CD8 + T cells in PLWH were significantly weaker than those of TIGIT - CD8 + T cells. However, in HCs, the difference in the SARS-CoV-2-specific responses induced between TIGIT + CD8 + T cells and TIGIT - CD8 + T cells was insignificant at 4W and 12W, except at 0W.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TIGIT expression on CD8 + T cells may hinder the T-cell immune response to a booster dose of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, suggesting weakened resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in PLWH. Furthermore, TIGIT may be used as a potential target to increase the production of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8 + T cells, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of vaccination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , HIV Infections/complications , Receptors, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 24-33, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Data on the immunogenicity and safety of heterologous immunization schedules are inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of homologous and heterologous immunization schedules.@*METHODS@#Multiple databases with relevant studies were searched with an end date of October 31, 2021, and a website including a series of Coronavirus disease 2019 studies was examined for studies before March 31, 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared different heterologous and homologous regimens among adults that reported immunogenicity and safety outcomes were reviewed. Primary outcomes included neutralizing antibodies against the original strain and serious adverse events (SAEs). A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted using a random-effects model.@*RESULTS@#In all, 11 RCTs were included in the systematic review, and nine were ultimately included in the NMA. Among participants who received two doses of CoronaVac, another dose of mRNA or a non-replicating viral vector vaccine resulted in a significantly higher level of neutralizing antibody than a third CoronaVac 600 sino unit (SU); a dose of BNT162b2 induced the highest geometric mean ratio (GMR) of 15.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.53-24.39. Following one dose of BNT162b2 vaccination, a dose of mRNA-1273 generated a significantly higher level of neutralizing antibody than BNT162b2 alone (GMR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.06-1.64), NVX-CoV2373 (GMR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.16-2.21), or ChAdOx1 (GMR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.25-2.59). Following one dose of ChAdOx1, a dose of mRNA-1273 was also more effective for improving antibody levels than ChAdOx1 (GMR = 11.09; 95% CI: 8.36-14.71) or NVX-CoV2373 (GMR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.08-3.91). No significant difference in the risk for SAEs was found in any comparisons.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Relative to vaccination with two doses of CoronaVac, a dose of BNT162b2 as a booster substantially enhances immunogenicity reactions and has a relatively acceptable risk for SAEs relative to other vaccines. For primary vaccination, schedules including mRNA vaccines induce a greater immune response. However, the comparatively higher risk for local and systemic adverse events introduced by mRNA vaccines should be noted.@*REGISTRATION@#PROSPERO; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ; No. CRD42021278149.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Network Meta-Analysis , Immunization Schedule , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines , mRNA Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
13.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 8-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970003

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Three doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have been recommended for cancer patients to reduce the risk of severe disease. Anti-neoplastic treatment, such as chemotherapy, may affect long-term vaccine immunogenicity.@*METHOD@#Patients with solid or haematological cancer were recruited from 2 hospitals between July 2021 and March 2022. Humoral response was evaluated using GenScript cPASS surrogate virus neutralisation assays. Clinical outcomes were obtained from medical records and national mandatory-reporting databases.@*RESULTS@#A total of 273 patients were recruited, with 40 having haematological malignancies and the rest solid tumours. Among the participants, 204 (74.7%) were receiving active cancer therapy, including 98 (35.9%) undergoing systemic chemotherapy and the rest targeted therapy or immunotherapy. All patients were seronegative at baseline. Seroconversion rates after receiving 1, 2 and 3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination were 35.2%, 79.4% and 92.4%, respectively. After 3 doses, patients on active treatment for haematological malignancies had lower antibodies (57.3%±46.2) when compared to patients on immunotherapy (94.1%±9.56, P<0.05) and chemotherapy (92.8%±18.1, P<0.05). SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 77 (28.2%) patients, of which 18 were severe. No patient receiving a third dose within 90 days of the second dose experienced severe infection.@*CONCLUSION@#This study demonstrates the benefit of early administration of the third dose among cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger , Antibodies, Viral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
14.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 281-285, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969879

ABSTRACT

Seasonal influenza has a high disease burden, and children infected with influenza are prone to multiple complications. Influenza vaccination is effective in preventing infection and reducing risks of severe diseases and complications. Influenza vaccines are trivalent and quadrivalent, depending on the components of the vaccine. According to the hemagglutinin content, it can be divided into full dose and half dose of influenza vaccine for children. The findings from clinical trials and real-world studies suggested, the full-dose influenza vaccine as in adults has the same safety profile and higher immunogenicity in children aged 6 to 35 months. The application of full-dose influenza vaccine in children aged 6 to 35 months can greatly improve the flexibility and convenience of vaccination, and help reduce the workload in the process.


Subject(s)
Child , Adult , Infant , Humans , Child, Preschool , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Antibodies, Viral
15.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 222-228, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969870

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of freeze-dried rabies vaccine (Vero-cells) for human use on different immunization procedures in healthy people aged 9-65 years. Methods: A randomized, blind, positive-controlled clinical study was conducted in March 2015. The eligible residents aged 9-65 were recruited in Dengfeng city and Biyang County, Henan Province. A total of 1 956 subjects were enrolled. The subjects were randomly (1∶1∶1) assigned to 5-dose control group, 4-dose trial group and 5-dose trial group, with 652 subjects in each group. The subjects of 5-dose control group were immunized with control vaccine on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28. The subjects of 4-dose trial group were immunized with trial vaccine on days 0, 7 and 21 (2-1-1 phases) and the subjects of 5-dose trial group were immunized with trial vaccine on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28. A combination of regular follow-up and active reporting was used to observe local and systemic adverse reactions till 30 days after the first and full immunization, and the incidence rate of adverse reactions in three groups was analyzed and compared. The venous blood was collected before the first immunization, 7 days after the first immunization, 14 days after the first immunization and 14 days after the full immunization. The neutralizing antibody of rabies virus was detected by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), and the seropositive conversion rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) of antibody were calculated. Results: The adverse reaction rates in 5-dose control group, 4-dose trial group and 5-dose trial group were 41.87% (273/652), 35.43% (231/652) and 34.97% (228/652), respectively. The adverse reaction rates of 4-dose trial group and 5-dose trial group were lower than those of the 5-dose control group (P<0.05). The local reactions were mainly pain, itching, swelling and redness in injection site, while the systemic reactions were mainly fever, fatigue, headache and muscle pain. The severity of adverse reactions was mainly mild (level 1), accounting for 85.33% (518/607), 89.02% (373/419) and 88.96% (427/480) of the total number of adverse reactions in each group. At 14 days after the first immunization and 14 days after the full immunization, the antibody positive conversion rates of three groups were all 100%. At 7 days, 14 days after the first immunization and 14 days after the full immunization, the GMCs of three groups were 0.60, 0.72, 0.59 IU/ml, 20.42, 23.99, 24.38 IU/ml and 22.95, 23.52, 24.72 IU/ml, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: The freeze-dried rabies vaccine (Vero-cells) for human use has good safety and immunogenicity when inoculated according to 5-dose and 4-dose immunization procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rabies Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Rabies virus , Vaccination , Rabies/prevention & control
16.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 454-463, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981291

ABSTRACT

So far,the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)has been persisting for nearly three years,infecting about 700 million people and causing more than 6 million deaths,which has seriously affected the human society.According to Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data,there are more than 12 million SARS-CoV-2 variants,of which the five major variants of concern are Alpha,Beta,Gamma,Delta and Omicron.Their infectivity,pathogencity,and neutralization resistance have changed greatly compared with the original strain,which has brought great pressure to the prevention and control of the pandemic.Antibody level testing is critical for confirming infection,epidemiological investigation,vaccine development,and neutralizing drug preparation.Focusing on the humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2,this paper introduces the mutation sites,neutralization resistance,and vaccination efficacy of the five variants of concern,and briefly summarizes the evolutionary characteristics,future mutation directions,and host immunity.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Gamma Rays , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2624-2633, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981220

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious disease that causes high mortality in suckling piglets. Although several licensed inactivated and live attenuated vaccines were widely used, the infection rate remains high due to unsatisfactory protective efficacy. In this study, mRNA vaccine candidates against PED were prepared, and their immunogenicity was evaluated in mice and pregnant sows. The mRNA PED vaccine based on heterodimer of viral receptor binding region (RBD) showed good immunogenicity. It elicited robust humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and the neutralizing antibody titer reached 1:300 after a single vaccination. Furthermore, it induced neutralizing antibody level similar to that of the inactivated vaccine in pregnant sows. This study developed a new design of PED vaccine based on the mRNA-RBD strategy and demonstrated the potential for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Animals , Female , Mice , Swine , Antibodies, Viral , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccines, Attenuated , Diarrhea/veterinary
18.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 614-624, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infection after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine could create a strong immunity barrier.@*METHODS@#Blood samples were collected at two different time points from 124 Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infected patients and 124 controls matched for age, gender, and vaccination profile. Live virus-neutralizing antibodies against five SARS-CoV-2 variants, including WT, Gamma, Beta, Delta, and Omicron BA.1, and T-lymphocyte lymphocyte counts in both groups were measured and statistically analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The neutralizing antibody titers against five different variants of SARS-CoV-2 were significantly increased in the vaccinated population infected with the Omicron BA.1 variant at 3 months after infection, but mainly increased the antibody level against the WT strain, and the antibody against the Omicron strain was the lowest. The neutralizing antibody level decreased rapidly 6 months after infection. The T-lymphocyte cell counts of patients with mild and moderate disease recovered at 3 months and completely returned to the normal state at 6 months.@*CONCLUSION@#Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infection mainly evoked humoral immune memory in the original strain after vaccination and hardly produced neutralizing antibodies specific to Omicron BA.1. Neutralizing antibodies against the different strains declined rapidly and showed features similar to those of influenza. Thus, T-lymphocytes may play an important role in recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Breakthrough Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , China/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 28-36, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971610

ABSTRACT

The emerging of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused COVID-19 pandemic. The first case of COVID-19 was reported at early December in 2019 in Wuhan City, China. To examine specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in biological samples before December 2019 would give clues when the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 might start to circulate in populations. We obtained all 88,517 plasmas from 76,844 blood donors in Wuhan between 1 September and 31 December 2019. We first evaluated the pan-immunoglobin (pan-Ig) against SARS-CoV-2 in 43,850 samples from 32,484 blood donors with suitable sample quality and enough volume. Two hundred and sixty-four samples from 213 donors were pan-Ig reactive, then further tested IgG and IgM, and validated by neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Two hundred and thirteen samples (from 175 donors) were only pan-Ig reactive, 8 (from 4 donors) were pan-Ig and IgG reactive, and 43 (from 34 donors) were pan-Ig and IgM reactive. Microneutralization assay showed all negative results. In addition, 213 screened reactive donors were analyzed and did not show obviously temporal or regional tendency, but the distribution of age showed a difference compared with all tested donors. Then we reviewed SARS-CoV-2 antibody results from these donors who donated several times from September 2019 to June 2020, partly tested in a previous published study, no one was found a significant increase in S/CO of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Our findings showed no SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies existing among blood donors in Wuhan, China before 2020, indicating no evidence of transmission of COVID-19 before December 2019 in Wuhan, China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , China/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 728-731, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985464

ABSTRACT

An epidemiological investigation was conducted on a cluster epidemic of COVID-19 in the vaccinated population in Beijing in 2022, and serum samples were collected from 21 infected cases and 61 close contacts (including 20 cases with positive nucleic acid in the isolation observation period). The results of antibody detection showed that the IgM antibody of two infected persons was positive, and the IgG antibody positive rates of patients who were converted, not converted to positive and infected persons were 36.84% (7/19), 63.41% (26/41) and 71.43% (15/21), respectively. About 98.78% of patients had been vaccinated with the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine. The positive rate of IgG antibody in patients immunized with three doses of vaccine was 86.00% (43/50), which was higher than that in patients with one or two doses [16.12% (5/31)]. The antibody level of M (Q1, Q3) in patients immunized with three doses was 4.255 (2.303, 7.0375), which was higher than that in patients with one or two doses [0.500 (0.500, 0.500)] (all P values<0.001). The antibody level of patients who were vaccinated less than three months [7.335 (1.909, 7.858)] was higher than that of patients vaccinated more than three months after the last vaccination [2.125 (0.500, 4.418)] (P=0.007). The positive rate and level of IgG antibody in patients who were converted to positive after three doses were 77.78% (7/9) and 4.207 (2.216, 7.099), respectively, which were higher than those in patients who were converted after one or two doses [0 and 0.500 (0.500, 0.500)] (all P values<0.05).


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
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