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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(3): 133-138, set-dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129455

ABSTRACT

Quando um indivíduo é exposto a antígenos eritrocitários não próprios, ocorre uma resposta imunológica, que leva à produção de anticorpos irregulares voltados contra esses antígenos. Esse processo é conhecido como aloimunização eritrocitária e acontece em decorrência de transfusões de sangue ou gestações incompatíveis. Na medicina transfusional a pesquisa de anticorpos irregulares é fundamental, pois a falha na detecção de um aloanticorpo pode provocar reações transfusionais, aloimunizações, anemias hemolíticas autoimunes e doença hemolítica perinatal. Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar a frequência de anticorpos irregulares de pacientes atendidos no Hemocentro Regional de Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, no ano de 2017. Os dados foram coletados a partir da revisão de registros em arquivos do Laboratório de Imunohematologia do Hemonúcleo. Foram avaliados dados de 49 protocolos de pacientes que apresentaram dificuldades transfusionais no ano de 2017. Dentre os pesquisados, 37 pacientes (75,5%) apresentaram anticorpos irregulares. Dentre os anticorpos anti-eritrocitários observados neste estudo, evidenciou-se a presença de doze pacientes com anti-D (27,2%), seis pacientes com anti-K (13,6%), quatro pacientes com anti-C (9,0%) e em seis pacientes (13,6%) foi observada a presença de autoanticorpos. Este estudo indica que, nos pacientes transfundidos, os anticorpos mais frequentes foram os aloanticorpos Anti-D do Sistema Rh, provavelmente devido ao seu alto grau de imunogenicidade. A prevalência desses anticorpos é semelhante a vários estudos encontrados na literatura.


When an individual is exposed to not-self red blood cell antigens, an immune response occurs, which leads to the production of irregular antibodies directed against these antigens. This process is known as erythrocyte alloimmunization and occurs as a result of blood transfusions or incompatible pregnancies. In transfusion medicine, the search for irregular antibodies is essential, since failure to detect an alloantibody can cause transfusion reactions, alloimmunizations, autoimmune hemolytic anemias, and perinatal hemolytic disease. This study aims at analyzing the frequency of irregular antibodies of patients seen at the Regional Blood Center of Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, in 2017. The data were collected from the review of records in files of the Immunohematology Laboratory of Hemonúcleo. Data from 49 protocols of patients who had transfusion difficulties in 2017 were evaluated. Among those surveyed, 37 patients (75.5%) had irregular antibodies. Among the anti-erythrocyte antibodies observed in this study, the presence of twelve patients with anti-D (27.2%), six patients with anti-K (13.6%), four patients with anti-C (9.0 %), and in six patients (13.6%) with the presence of autoantibodies were observed. This study indicates that, in transfused patients, the most frequent antibodies were the Rh System Anti-D alloantibodies, probably due to their high degree of immunogenicity. The prevalence of these antibodies is similar to several studies found in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Autoantibodies/immunology , Isoantibodies/immunology , Autoantibodies/isolation & purification , Blood Transfusion , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Erythrocytes/immunology , Transfusion Reaction/immunology , Isoantibodies/isolation & purification , Antibodies/isolation & purification , Antibodies/immunology
2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC4582, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039732

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The correct identification of erythrocyte antibodies is fundamental for the searching for compatible blood and haemolytic transfusion reactions prevention. Antibodies against antigens of high prevalence are difficult to identify because of the rarity of their occurrence and unavailability of negative red cells for confirmation. We report a case of 46-years-old woman, diagnosed with hemoglobinopathy, and who had symptomatic fall in hemoglobin levels (5.3g/dL) after blood transfusion suggestive of transfusion reaction. The patient's blood type was O RhD-positive. Irregular antibody screening was positive and demonstrated a panreaction against all erythrocytes tested, but this result was not reactive with dithiothreitol. Using negative red cells for antigens of high prevalence of our inventory we could identify in the serum of the same erythrocytes an anti-Holley antibody associated with anti-E. Molecular analysis confirmed that the patient was negative for E and Holley antigens. The crossmath with compatible units confirmed the results. Holley is a high prevalence antigen of the Dombrock blood system whose negative phenotype is extremely rare in all populations and is associated with hemolytic transfusion reactions. This is an antibody that is difficult to identify because laboratories need to have experience in solving complex cases, and have available a large stock of rare sera and erythrocytes, as well other tools such as enzymes, thiol reagents and molecular tests. The correct identification of a rare antibody is initial and mandatory for searching of compatible donors, and to guarantee a satisfactory transfusional support.


RESUMO A correta identificação dos anticorpos eritrocitários é fundamental na busca de sangue compatível e na prevenção das reações transfusionais hemolíticas. Anticorpos contra antígenos de alta prevalência são de difícil identificação, devido à raridade de sua ocorrência e à indisponibilidade de hemácias negativas para sua confirmação. Apresentamos aqui o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 46 anos, com diagnóstico de hemoglobinopatia, que apresentou queda sintomática dos níveis de hemoglobina (5,3g/dL) após transfusão sanguínea, sugestiva de reação transfusional. O tipo sanguíneo da paciente era O RhD-positivo. A pesquisa de anticorpos irregulares foi positiva, demonstrando panreação contra todos os eritrócitos testados, mas não reativo ao ditiotreitol. Utilizando hemácias selecionadas negativas para antígenos de alta prevalência do nosso inventário, foi possível identificar no soro da mesma um anticorpo anti-Holley associado a um anti-E. A análise molecular confirmou que a paciente era negativa para os antígenos E e Holley, e as provas de compatibilidade com unidades fenotipadas confirmaram os resultados. Holley é um antígeno de alta prevalência do sistema sanguíneo Dombrock, cujo fenótipo negativo é extremamente raro em todas as populações e está associado a reações transfusionais hemolíticas. Trata-se de anticorpo de difícil identificação, pois os laboratórios precisam ter experiência na resolução de casos complexos, grande estoque de soros e eritrócitos raros, além de outras ferramentas, como enzimas, reagentes tiol e testes moleculares. A identificação correta de um anticorpo raro é inicial e obrigatória para a busca de doadores compatíveis, garantindo um suporte transfusional satisfatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Blood Group Incompatibility/immunology , Blood Group Antigens/immunology , Transfusion Reaction/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Immunoglobulins/blood , Erythrocytes/immunology , Hematologic Tests/methods , Isoantibodies/immunology , Middle Aged , Antibodies/blood
3.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 39(4): 346-350, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056639

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder; celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy that can mimic any functional gastrointestinal disorder. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of celiac disease antibodies (anti Tissue Transglutaminase-tTG) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Patients and methods This cross sectional study was conducted on 70 patients with irritable bowel syndrome fulfilling Rome III criteria who visited Azadi Teaching Hospital in Duhok city-Iraq. Patients were classified according to irritable bowel syndrome subtypes into: Diarrhoea Predominant (D-IBS), Constipation Predominant (C-IBS) and Mixed (M-IBS). IgA and IgG anti tTG were used to screen patients for celiac disease. Results A total number of 70 patients (44 females and 26 males) were included; their mean age was 33 years (SD ± 7.64). Five patients (7.1%) were found to have positive both IgA and IgG anti tTG. Three of them have had D-IBS and the other two had C-IBS. No one of the M-IBS patients tested positive. Conclusion The prevalence of anti tTG antibodies in irritable bowel syndrome is high. Patients with D-IBS should be screened for celiac disease.


Resumo Introdução A síndrome do intestino irritável (SII) é um distúrbio gastrointestinal comum; a doença celíaca é uma enteropatia autoimune que pode imitar qualquer distúrbio gastrointestinal funcional. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de anticorpos contra a doença celíaca (antitransglutaminase tecidual - tTG) em pacientes com SII. Pacientes e Métodos Este estudo transversal foi conduzido em 70 pacientes com síndrome do intestino irritável que atendiam aos critérios de Roma III e se apresentaram ao Hospital de Ensino Azadi na cidade de Duhok, no Iraque. Os pacientes foram classificados de acordo com os subtipos de síndrome do intestino irritável em: predominantemente diarreia (D-SII), predominantemente constipação (C-SII) e mista (M-SII). IgA e IgG antitTG foram usados para rastrear pacientes com doença celíaca. Resultados Um total de 70 pacientes (44 mulheres e 26 homens) foram incluídos; a idade média foi de 33 anos (DP ± 7,64). Cinco pacientes (7,1%) apresentaram IgA e IgG antitTG positivos. Três deles tinham D-SII e os outros dois tinham C-SII. Nenhum dos pacientes com M-SII apresentou teste positivo. Conclusão A prevalência de anticorpos antitTG na SII é alta. A presença de doença celíaca deve ser avaliada em pacientes com D-SII.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Celiac Disease , Celiac Disease/immunology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Antibodies/immunology , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Iraq
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(2): 116-122, Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-841765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Maxadilan (Max) is a salivary component in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912), a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Max has a powerful vasodilatory effect and is a candidate vaccine that has been tested in experimental leishmaniasis. Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926) is a vector of the pathogen responsible for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. OBJECTIVE We searched for Max expression in Ny. neivai and for antibodies against Max in ATL patients. METHODS cDNA and protein were extracted from the cephalic segment, including salivary glands, of Ny. neivai and analysed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and blotting assays. The results were compared with data obtained from Lu. longipalpis samples. We quantified antibodies against Max in serum samples from 41 patients with ATL (31 and 10 with the cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms, respectively) and 63 controls from the endemic northeastern region of São Paulo state, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FINDINGS Recognition of a Max-simile peptide by specific antibodies confirmed expression of a Max sequence in Ny. neivai (GenBank EF601123.1). Compared to controls, patients with ATL presented higher levels of antibodies against Max (p = 0.004); 24.4% of the patients with ATL and 3.2% of the controls presented anti-Max levels above the cutoff index (p = 0.014). The anti-Max levels were not associated with the specific clinical form of ATL, leishmanin skin test response, absence or presence of amastigotes in histopathologic exam, results of indirect immunofluorescence testing for leishmaniasis, or duration of cutaneous form disease. MAIN CONCLUSION High serum anti-Max levels did not protect patients against ATL, but confirmed previous natural exposure to Ny. neivai bites in this ATL endemic region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/blood , Insect Proteins/immunology , Insect Vectors/classification , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies/blood , Psychodidae/chemistry , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoblotting , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Insect Proteins/analysis , Endemic Diseases
5.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 32(4): 494-505, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844900

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las infecciones virales postrasplante de órganos sólidos constituyen las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad de los pacientes trasplantados. En Cuba se introdujo recientemente la detección de anticuerpos clase IgM e IgG, antivirus de Epstein Barr (EBV) y anticitomegalovirus (CMV) mediante técnicas de ELISA con analizador automático como parte del aseguramiento pretrasplante renal. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de las infecciones en los pacientes en espera de trasplante renal y si existe asociación entre la presencia de anticuerpos anti-EBV y anti-CMV con posibles eventos sensibilizantes y la presencia de anticuerpos anti-HLA. Métodos: se estudiaron 1 179 muestras de pacientes en espera de trasplante renal, entre agosto de 2013 y diciembre de 2014. Se realizaron 4 técnicas de inmunoensayos enzimáticos (ELISA) de tipo heterogéneo, no competitivo, cuantitativo e indirecto usando los estuches comerciales: Cytomegalovirus IgG ELISA, Cytomegalovirus IgM ELISA, Epstein-Barr virus VCA IgG y Epstein-Barr virus VCA IgM. El estado de aloinmunizacion anti-HLA clase I y II se definió de acuerdo a los estudios realizados por ELISA con los estuches comerciales: LIFECODES QuikScreen y LIFECODES B-Screen. Se empleó el estadígrafo Chi cuadrado de independencia para determinar la existencia de asociación entre la presencia de anticuerpos y el sexo, las transfusiones sanguíneas, trasplantes previos, hepatitis B, C y anticuerpos anti-HLA. Resultados: la prevalencia de infección con estos virus fue semejante en sujetos sanos y pacientes en espera de trasplante renal. Existió asociación entre IgM anti-CMV, IgG anti-CMV y IgM anti-EBV con el sexo, e IgG anti-CMV con las transfusiones, la seropositividad para la hepatitis C y los anticuerpos anti-HLA clase I. Conclusiones: se hace necesario tomar medidas para evitar el contagio peritrasplante por transmisión sanguínea de los pacientes seronegativos a estos virus pues debido a la inmunosupresión que provocan constituyen un riesgo para el éxito del trasplante renal(AU)


Introduction: Solid organ post-transplant viral infections are the main cause of worldwide morbi-mortality in transplanted patients. In Cuba it has been recently introduced the IgM and IgG anti Epstein Barr (EBV) and anti Citomegalovirus (CMV) antibody detection by ELISA with automatic analyzers as part of the pre transplant studies. Objective: to know population viral infection prevalence and to find possible association between anti EBV and anti CMV antibodies with sensitizing events and anti-HLA antibodies. Methods: An, investigation was carry out using 1179 samples from patients waiting for renal transplant at the Institute of Hematology and Immunology since August 2013 to December 2014. Four enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) heterogeneous type, non-competitive, quantitative and indirect were performed using commercial kits: Cytomegalovirus IgG ELISA, IgM ELISA Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus VCA IgG and Epstein-Barr virus VCA IgM. Alloimmunization state anti-HLA class I and II are defined according to studies by ELISA with commercial kits: LIFECODES QuikScreen and LIFECODES B-Screen. Chi square test of independence was used to determine the existence of association between the presence of antibodies and sex, blood transfusions, previous transplantation, hepatitis B, C and anti-HLA antibodies. Results: It was found that the viral infection prevalence was the same as other populations, association of IgM anti CMV, IgG anti CMV and IgM anti EBV with sex and IgG anti CMV with blood transfusions, hepatitis C seropositivity and anti-HLA clase I antibodies. Conclusions : It is necessary to take measures to avoid peritransplant contagion of seronegative patients to theseviruses by blood transmission due to the immunosuppression that they cause, in order to obtain a renal transplant success(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Antibodies/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Virus Diseases/transmission
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(5): 400-403, oct. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734408

ABSTRACT

En trasplante renal, los anticuerpos donante-específicos por ensayos de fase sólida predicen el rechazo temprano mediado por anticuerpos, incluso con resultados negativos de citometría de flujo o citotoxicidad dependiente del complemento. Aquí se describen los protocolos de inmunosupresión y los resultados a diez meses de cuatro pacientes en los que se detectó anticuerpos donante-específicos anti-antígenos leucocitarios humanos (HLA) por Luminex®, pero no detectados por el método de citotoxicidad dependiente de complemento (CDC) ni por citometría de flujo. Los cuatro pacientes recibieron tratamiento de inducción con 5 dosis de timoglobulina de 1.25 mg/kg y 5 dosis de inmunoglobulina intravenosa (IVIG) de 400 mg/kg. Además, uno recibió 20 mg de basiliximab el mismo día del trasplante y el día 4 postrasplante; otro recibió 3 sesiones de plasmaféresis en los días -5, -3, y -1 y eculizumab en dosis de 1200 mg antes del trasplante, 900 mg el día 1, and 600 mg por semana durante un mes. En todos los casos, la inmunosupresión de mantenimiento consistió en tacrolimus, micofenolato y deltisona. Todos presentaron buenos resultados en el corto plazo. Nuestra experiencia sugiere que los pacientes con anticuerpos donante-específicos anti-HLA detectados solo por Luminex® deben recibir un seguimiento estricto y que en esta población se pueden obtener buenos resultados a partir del uso de terapia de inducción con timoglobulina e IVIG.


In renal transplantation, donor specific antibodies (DSAs) detected by sensitive solid-phase assay foresee early antibody-mediated rejections, even with negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity or flow cytometry results. We describe the immunosuppression protocols and outcomes at 10 months of four renal transplant patients in whom anti-HLA DSAs were detected by Luminex® but not by CDC and flow cytometry. The four patients underwent induction treatment with five doses of thymoglobulin at 1.25 mg/kg and 5 doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) at 400 mg/kg. In addition, one patient received 20 mg basiliximab on the day of transplant and on post-operative day 4; another patient underwent three sessions of plasmapheresis on days -5, -3, and -1 and also received 1200 mg eculizumab prior to transplant, 900 mg on day 1, and 600 mg each week during one month. In all of them, the maintenance immunosuppressive regimen consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate acid and deltisone. All patients had good short-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that patients with anti-HLA DSAs detected only by Luminex® should be monitored closely and can be treated successfully with induction therapy based on thymoglobulin and IVIG.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies/immunology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , HLA Antigens/immunology , Immunosuppression/methods , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Femina ; 42(4): 185-192, jul-ago. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-737135

ABSTRACT

Se ha considerado que el útero gestante es un lugar inmunológicamente privilegiado, donde el feto es protegido del rechazo por el sistema inmune materno, mediante un amplio repertorio de estrategias de evasión que contribuye a la sobrevivencia del feto. La gestación en sí misma constituye un acontecimiento de equilibrio inmunológico y la tolerancia inmunológica permite la progresión del embarazo, donde participan una secuencia sincronizada de eventos que se inicia desde la concepción y fertilización para dar lugar a la implantación y progresa hasta alcanzar un embarazo a término. El sistema inmune es la principal barrera que poseemos para protegernos de las infecciones. Durante la vida intrauterina, el feto está protegido por la madre de las agresiones externas, por lo que no necesita que su sistema inmunológico sea operativo, sin embargo, al nacer, recibe una avalancha de elementos extraños, por lo que necesitará disponer de cierta protección, así como una preparación para ejecutar las defensas necesarias para su protección inmunológica. La inmunidad sérica durante la vida fetal queda limitada a la transferencia a través de la placenta de IgG materna, a pesar de que el feto tiene la facultad de sintetizar inmunoglobulinas desde las primeras etapas de la gestación. Al nacimiento, el niño tiene su sistema inmunológico completo, aunque inmaduro, pero es capaz de responder a los estímulos antigénicos. Tiene múltiples anormalidades en el desarrollo de su sistema inmune, que involucran a los anticuerpos/inmunoglobulinas, complemento y granulocitos pudiendo contribuir a la alta incidencia de sus infecciones. El recién nacido carece de memoria inmunológica debido a que, en condiciones normales, el feto está exento de estímulos producidos por antígenos extraños. Dicha memoria se va adquiriendo a medida que entra en contacto con los diferentes antígenos. Se obtendrá cierta protección a las infecciones entéricas gracias a las IgA que aporta la lactancia materna. La exposición prenatal y postnatal a productos microbianos ambientales que pueden activar la inmunidad innata, puede acelerar el proceso de maduración del sistema inmune.(AU)


It has been considered the pregnant women`s womb as an immunological exceptional place, where fetus is protected against been rejected because of maternal immune system by means of a wide groups of evasive strategies that help in its survival. Pregnancy itself is an immunological equilibrium state and the immunological tolerance allow the progression of this event, where participate a synchronized sequence of biological events started from conception and fertilization to allow the implantation, and progress until to reach the pregnancy end. The immune system is our main barrier against infections. During intrauterine life fetus is protected by the mother against external aggressions, therefore he don`t need an operative immune system, nevertheless, at birth the new organisms receive an avalanche of strange elements needing some kind of protection as well as a preparation to carry out the necessary defense for his immunological protection. Serum immunity during fetal life is limited to the transference of maternal IgG through placenta, despite fetus capability to synthesize immunoglobulins from first stages of gestation. At birth the babe has a complete immunological system although immature but capable to respond to antigenic stimulus. He has multiples abnormalities in the immune system development that take account antibodies/immunoglobulin, complement and granulocytes contributing to his high incidence of infections. Newborn lack immunological memory because in normal conditions fetus is not stimulated by odd antigens. This memory is acquired through the contact with different antigens. It will be obtained some protection against enteric infections because IgA from maternal lactation. The prenatal and postnatal exposition to environmental microbial products that activate the innate immunity can accelerate the immune system maturing process.(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Infant, Newborn/immunology , Infant, Premature/immunology , Fetus/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Pregnancy/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Microbiological Phenomena/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology
8.
Clinics ; 69(supl.1): 17-21, 1/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699020

ABSTRACT

The sensitization of patients to human leukocyte antigens prior to heart transplantation is increasingly being recognized as an important challenge both before and after the transplant, and the effects of sensitization on clinical outcomes are just beginning to be understood. Many patients are listed with the requirement of a negative prospective or virtual crossmatch prior to accepting a donor organ. This strategy has been associated with both longer waitlist times and higher waitlist mortality. An alternative approach is to transplant across a potentially positive crossmatch while utilizing strategies to decrease the significance of the human leukocyte antigen antibodies. This review will examine the challenges and the impact of sensitization on pediatric patients prior to and following heart transplantation.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Antibodies/immunology , Heart Transplantation , HLA Antigens/immunology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Histocompatibility Testing/methods , Postoperative Care , Preoperative Care , Treatment Outcome , Transplantation Immunology/immunology , Waiting Lists
9.
Clinics ; 69(supl.1): 55-72, 1/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699022

ABSTRACT

In this review, we identify important challenges facing physicians responsible for renal and cardiac transplantation in children based on a review of the contemporary medical literature. Regarding pediatric renal transplantation, we discuss the challenge of antibody-mediated rejection, focusing on both acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. We review new diagnostic approaches to antibody-mediated rejection, such as panel-reactive antibodies, donor-specific cross-matching, antibody assays, risk assessment and diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection, the pathology of antibody-mediated rejection, the issue of ABO incompatibility in renal transplantation, new therapies for antibody-mediated rejection, inhibiting of residual antibodies, the suppression or depletion of B-cells, genetic approaches to treating acute antibody-mediated rejection, and identifying future translational research directions in kidney transplantation in children. Regarding pediatric cardiac transplantation, we discuss the mechanisms of cardiac transplant rejection, including the role of endomyocardial biopsy in detecting graft rejection and the role of biomarkers in detecting cardiac graft rejection, including biomarkers of inflammation, cardiomyocyte injury, or stress. We review cardiac allograft vasculopathy. We also address the role of genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies, gene expression profiling using entities such as AlloMap®, and adenosine triphosphate release as a measure of immune function using the Cylex® ImmuKnow™ cell function assay. Finally, we identify future translational research directions in heart transplantation in children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Graft Rejection , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Translational Medical Research , Antibodies/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/pathology , Graft Rejection/genetics , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/pathology , Graft Rejection/therapy , Histocompatibility Testing , Risk Assessment , Transplantation Tolerance
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 999-1004, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113975

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: House dust mites (HDMs) are an important source of indoor allergens associated with asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Chicken immunoglobulin (Ig) Y is known to be a good alternative to mice and rabbit antibody production. In this study, we produced IgYs specific to HDMs and investigated their IgE immunoreactivities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total IgYs were isolated from the yolks of White Leghorn hens immunized with either Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus or D. farinae protein extract. Control antibodies were separated from the yolks of immunized hens with phosphate buffered saline. IgYs specific to HDMs were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis. RESULTS: The concentration of egg IgY specific to D. farinae in an immunized hen increased and the highest achieved was 661.3 ug/mg (per an egg) on day 47, compared with 760 ug/mg IgY specific to D. pteronyssinus on day 16. The D. pteronyssinus or D. farinae-specific IgY was detected by binding of each mite proteins, and their immunoreactivities were elevated dependent of the specific IgY concentration. CONCLUSION: IgY specific to HDMs may be a promising antibody for immunological diagnosis as well as identification of possible resistance relating to HDM allergy.


Subject(s)
Allergens/immunology , Animals , Antibodies/immunology , Chickens , Egg Yolk/immunology , Female , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Pyroglyphidae/immunology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50917

ABSTRACT

The N-terminal fragment of prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a commonly used biomarker for the diagnosis of congestive heart failure, although its biological function is not well known. NT-proBNP exhibits heavy O-linked glycosylation, and it is quite difficult to develop an antibody that exhibits glycosylation-independent binding. We developed an antibody that binds to the recombinant NT-proBNP protein and its deglycosylated form with similar affinities in an enzyme immunoassay. The epitope was defined as Gly63-Lys68 based on mimetic peptide screening, site-directed mutagenesis and a competition assay with a peptide mimotope. The nearest O-glycosylation residues are Thr58 and Thr71; therefore, four amino acid residues intervene between the epitope and those residues in both directions. In conclusion, we report that an antibody reactive to Gly63-Lys68 of NT-proBNP exhibits O-glycosylation-independent binding.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/chemistry , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Heart Failure/immunology , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Rabbits , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(8): 979-982, ago. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686073

ABSTRACT

Enterotoxaemia, a common disease that affects domestic small ruminants, is mainly caused by the epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens type D. The present study tested four distinct immunization protocols to evaluate humoral response in lambs, a progeny of non-vaccinated sheep during gestation. Twenty-four lambs were randomly allocated into four groups according to age (7, 15, 30 and 45 days), receiving the first dose of epsilon toxoid commercial vaccine against clostridiosis with booster after 30 days post vaccination. Indirect ELISA was performed after the first vaccine dose and booster to evaluate the immune response of the lambs. Results showed that for the four protocols tested all lambs presented serum title considered protective (≥0.2UI/ml epsilon antitoxin antibodies) and also showed that the anticipation of primovaccination of lambs against enterotoxaemia conferred serum title considered protective allowing the optimization of mass vaccination of lambs.


Enterotoxemia, uma das mais comuns enfermidades que acomete os pequenos ruminantes domésticos, é causada principalmente pela toxina épsilon de Clostridium perfringens tipo D. O presente estudo avaliou a resposta humoral conferida por quatro protocolos distintos de primovacinação na progênie de ovelhas não vacinadas durante a gestação. Vinte e quatro cordeiros foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com a idade (dias) que receberam a primeira dose da vacina comercial contra clostridiose contendo toxóide epsilon na sua formulação. Todos os cordeiros foram vacinados aos 7, 15, 30 ou 45 dias de idade e receberam um reforço da dose 30 dias após a vacinação. A avaliação sorológica dos cordeiros pelo teste de ELISA indireto foi realizada por ocasião da administração da primeira dose da vacina. Os resultados elucidaram não haver comprometimento da resposta imune de cordeiros vacinados tanto aos 7, 15, 30 ou 45 dias de idade associada ao reforço da dose 30 dias após, demonstrando assim que a antecipação da primeira vacinação conferiu proteção aos cordeiros contra a enterotoxemia, permitindo otimizar o planejamento da vacinação em massa dos cordeiros.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies/immunology , Antitoxins/toxicity , Clostridium , Kinetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunization/veterinary , Ruminants
13.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 4(14): 18-22, mar. 2013. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-724707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El brote de dengue de 2009 constituyó el primero con casos autóctonos en Tucumán. Los departamentos de Río Chico y Capital fueron los más afectados. Hubo baja notificación de niños de uno a nueve años (2,6/1.000). Este hallazgo impulsó a conocer el real impacto del brote en la población infantil. OBJETIVO: Estimar la incidencia de dengue en niños de uno a nueve años. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal de sero prevalencia(IgG) en julio de 2009 en Aguilares (Departamento de Río Chico),con una muestra probabilística de niños de uno a nueve años que habían residido allí en los últimos seis meses. Los criterios de exclusión fueron: hogar inhabitado, rechazo a participar o niño con enfermedad aguda. Se utilizó una prueba de neutralización por reducciónde placas. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron muestras de 118 niños. Hubo 18 rechazos a participar. El 24...


INTRODUCTION: The 2009 dengue outbreak became the first with autochthonous cases in Tucumán. The departments of Río Chico and Capital were the most affecte dones. There was low incidence in one- to nine-year-old children(2.6/1000). This finding led to a study to know the real impact of the outbreak on children. OBJECTIVE: To estimate dengue incidence in one- to nine-year-old children. METHODS: Across-sectional seroprevalence (IgG) study was carried out in July 2009 in Aguilares (Department of Río Chico), with aprobability sample composed by one- to nine-year-old children who had lived there in the last six months. Exclusion criteria were: uninhabited home, refusal to participate or seriously illchild. The laboratory study consisted of a plaque reduction neutralization test. RESULTS: A total of 118 samples were obtained. There were 18 refusals to participate. 24...


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Antibodies/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue Virus , Dengue/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73 Suppl 1: 1-9, 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1165154

ABSTRACT

Encephalitis are an inflammatory processes of various origin, among which include autoimmune origin. The identification of antibodies against the N-methyl-D- aspartate, allowed clinical immunological characterization of an entity susceptible to immunomodulatory therapy. Originally described in young women associated with ovarian teratoma, is now a recognized entity in children even in the absence of detectable tumors. The aim of the study was conducted through review of medical records, was to describe the clinical, developmental and findings in further studies of eleven children with confirmed diagnosis of this entity through identification of specific antibodies. All debuted with psychiatric symptoms in nine associating seizures, and two extrapyramidal movements. In the evolution of language all had commitment nine severe autonomic symptoms, one with hypoventilation and requirements of ARM. Brain MRI was abnormal in three. Eight had voltage EEG asymmetry and / or amplitude, three of them had spikes. Six had CSF pleocytosis and three of seven positive oligoclonal bands. Five IgM serology for mycoplasma were positive. CPK increase occurred in conjunction with antisychotics in five. With immunomodulatory treatment, five had complete recovery three behavioral disorders / cognitive deficits and one severe. A patient’s clinical picture resolved without treatment. In any associated tumor was detected. We conclude that in front of a child with acute encephalopathy and clinical support this entity after infectious cause were ruled out, immunomodulatory therapy should be started early, avoid the use of antipsychotic drugs and search for possible hidden tumors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/immunology , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/immunology , Argentina , Seizures/physiopathology , Child , Acute Disease , Electroencephalography , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/diagnosis , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/physiopathology , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/therapy , Brain/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Immunomodulation , Male , Child, Preschool , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168393

ABSTRACT

The interactions between the tumor microenvironment and tumor cells determine the behavior of the primary tumors. Whether cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) have a tumor progressive or a protective role likely depends on the type of tumor cells and the CAF subpopulation. In the present study, we analyzed the prognostic significance of CAF subpopulations in colorectal cancer (CRC). CAF phenotypes were analyzed in 302 CRC patients by using antibodies against podoplanin (PDPN), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), and S100A4. The relationship between the CAF phenotypes and 11 clinicopathological parameters were evaluated and their prognostic significance was analyzed from the disease-free and overall survival times. We observed that at the tumor invasive front, PDPN CAFs were present in 40% of the cases, and S100A4 or alpha-SMA CAFs were detected in all the cases. PDPN/S100A4 and alpha-SMA/S100A4 dual-stained CAFs were observed in 10% and 40% of the cases, respectively. The PDPN+ CAFs were associated with 6 favorable clinicopathological parameters and prolonged disease-free survival time. The PDPN-/alpha-SMA(high) CAFs were associated with 6 aggressive clinicopathological parameters and tended to exhibit shorter disease-free survival time. On the other hand, the PDPN-/S100A4(high) CAFs were associated with 2 tumor progression parameters, but not with disease prognosis. The PDPN+ CAF phenotype is distinct from the alpha-SMA or S100A4 CAFs in that it is associated with less aggressive tumors and a favorable prognosis, whereas the PDPN-/alpha-SMA(high) or PDPN-/S100A4(high) CAFs are associated with tumor progression in CRC. These findings suggest that CAFs can be a useful prognostic biomarker or potential targets of anti-cancer therapy in CRC.


Subject(s)
Actins/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies/immunology , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Fibroblasts/cytology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Phenotype , Prognosis , S100 Proteins/immunology , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25342

ABSTRACT

We examined the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms of gabapentin in the attenuation of neuropathic pain and the interaction between the anti-allodynic effects of gabapentin and interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression in a rat model of neuropathic pain. The anti-allodynic effect of intrathecal gabapentin was examined over a 7-day period. The anti-allodynic effects of IL-10 was measured, and the effects of anti-IL-10 antibody on the gabapentin were assessed. On day 7, the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-10 were measured. Gabapentin produced an anti-allodynic effect over the 7-day period, reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines but increasing the expression of IL-10 (TNF-alpha, 316.0 +/- 69.7 pg/mL vs 88.8 +/- 24.4 pg/mL; IL-1beta, 1,212.9 +/- 104.5 vs 577.4 +/- 97.1 pg/mL; IL-6, 254.0 +/- 64.8 pg/mL vs 125.5 +/- 44.1 pg/mL; IL-10, 532.1 +/- 78.7 pg/mL vs 918.9 +/- 63.1 pg/mL). The suppressive effect of gabapentin on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was partially blocked by the anti-IL-10 antibody. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly attenuated by daily injections of IL-10. The anti-allodynic effects of gabapentin may be caused by upregulation of IL-10 expression in the spinal cord, which leads to inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cords.


Subject(s)
Amines/pharmacology , Analgesics/pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies/immunology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Injections, Spinal , Interleukin-10/genetics , Male , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Up-Regulation , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(10): 1009-1013, out. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-654391

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle from milk producing farms of the microregion of Batalha, state of Alagoas, Brazil, as well as to identify the risk factors associated with the infection. Blood samples were collected from 1,004 cattle of 17 farms for the serological investigation regarding the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies by the Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction Technique (IMRT). From the total amount of samples analyzed, 77/1,004 (7.67%) were positive and 927/1,004 (92.33%) were negative. The logistical regression identified that cattle from farms without consortium breeding have an infection risk 6.33 (p<0.001; C.I. 2.89-13.10) times higher than cattle from farms with that type of breeding. Cattle from farms where the aborted fetuses are not adequately buried have an infection risk 3.04 (p<0.001; C.I. 1.64-5.63) times higher than cattle from farms with adequate destination of these fetuses. Infection by N. caninum occurs in cattle of the investigated region. The factors identified in our study can be used as risk indicators, so that control measures could be implemented to avoid infection by N. caninum in the herds of this region.


Objetivou-se com este estudo investigar pos anti-N. caninum através do teste de Reação de Imunoflua prevalência de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em bovi-orescência Indireta (RIFI). Do total das amostras analisadas, nos procedentes de propriedades leiteiras da microrregião 77/1004 (7,67%) foram positivas e 927/1004 (92,33%) fo-Batalha, Estado de Alagoas, Brasil, além de identificar os fato-ram negativas. A regressão logística identificou que animais res de risco associados à infecção. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 1004 bovinos procedentes de 17 propriedades para investigação sorológica quanto à presença de anticorpos anti-N. caninum através do teste de Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). Do total das amostras analisadas, 77/1004 (7,67%) foram positivas e 927/1004 (92,33%) foram negativas. A regressão logística identificou que animais de propriedades sem criação consorciada têm risco 6,33 (p<0,001; I.C. 2,89-13,10) vezes maior de infecção do que animais de propriedades onde ocorre esse tipo de criação. Animais de propriedades onde os fetos abortados não são adequadamente enterrados têm risco 3,04 (p<0,001; I.C. 1,64- 5,63) vezes maior de infecção do que animais de propriedades onde é feito o destino adequado dos mesmos. A infecção por N. caninum ocorre em bovinos na região estudada. Os fatores identificados neste estudo podem servir como indicadores de risco para que sejam implantadas medidas de controle para evitar a infecção por N. caninum nos rebanhos dessa região.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Antibodies/immunology , Cattle/immunology , Neospora/isolation & purification , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Abortion, Veterinary , Biological Contamination , Risk Factors , Burial/methods
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 10(4)jul.-ago. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-646058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: AntiC1q autoantibody has been associated with kidney involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). We aim to review the pathogenic and diagnostic role of antiC1q in lupus nephritis (LN). CONTENTS: Researchers observed that human antiC1q antibodies,while bound to C1q on the surface of apoptotic cells, did not bind to C1q complexed with either immunoglobulins or immune complexes. This finding implied that the conformational changes to C1q that reveal the antiC1q-antibody-binding sites depend on the nature of the surface ligand to which the C1q is bound. It could be therefore hypothesized that is binding to C1q complexed with apoptotic cells within the kidney that provides the substrate for antiC1q antibodies to amplify complement-mediated renal injury and the strong renal tropism of antiC1q-antibody-mediated tissue injury. Prospective studies were able to demonstrate that the occurrence of LN was associated with high levels of antibodies antiC1q which fell significantly after immunosuppressive therapy and no occurrence of LN in those patients with SLE antiC1q negative, Negative Predictive Value as high as 100% for the test in question also were shown. When AntiC1q; dsDNA, C3 and C4 were compared for the prediction of proliferative forms of LN, antiC1q showed better sensitivity and specificity among all tested. CONCLUSION: Enough evidence exists that the dosage of AntiC1q is recognized as an important tool, noninvasive and should be used in a regular way to assess the diagnosis of LN.


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Autoanticorpos antiC1q tem sido associado com envolvimento renal no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES). O objetivo deste estudo foi rever o papel patogênico e diagnóstico de antiC1q na nefrite lúpica (NL). CONTEÚDO: Pesquisadores observaram que anticorpos humanos antiC1q encontram-se acoplados a C1q na superfície de células apoptóticas, porém não se ligam a C1q nos complexos imunes circulantes. Esta constatação sugere que as mudanças conformacionais na molécula de C1q que fazem com que os anticorpos antiC1q se liguem à mesma dependerá da natureza do ligante de superfície ao qual o C1q está vinculado. Surge então a hipótese de que é necessária a vinculação de C1q com as células apoptóticas renais, fornecendo assim o substrato para que os anticorpos antiC1q se aclopem a esta molécula, justificando a amplificação da lesão tecidual renal mediada pelo complemento e também o forte tropismo renal destes autoanticorpos no LES. Estudos prospectivos foram capazes de demonstrar que a ocorrência de NL foi associada com altos níveis de anticorpos antiC1q que diminuíram significativamente após a terapia imunossupressora e não houve nenhum caso de NL em pacientes com LES e antiC1q negativo, sendo que valor preditivo negativo de até 100% para o teste em questão também foram mostrados. Quando AntiC1q; dsDNA, C3 e C4 foram comparados como testes de diagnóstico das formas proliferativas da NL, antiC1q apresentou melhor sensibilidade e especificidade dentre todos. CONCLUSÃO: Há evidência suficiente de que a dosagem de AntiC1q é reconhecida como uma ferramenta importante, não invasiva, devendo ser utilizada de forma regular para o diagnóstico de NL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lupus Nephritis
19.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 15(1)jan-jun. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-681433

ABSTRACT

A Leishmaniose Tegumentar (LT) é uma doença parasitária cosmopolita provocada por um protozoário pertencente à Ordem Kinetoplastida, família Trypanossomatidea e Gênero Leishmania e é transmitida por insetos dípteros hematófagos pertencentes à subfamília Phlebotominae. Nos cães a forma tegumentar se manifesta com lesões mucocutâneas, formação de úlceras de fundo granulomatoso e bordas salientes de difícil cicatrização. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a presença de anticorpos anti-Leishmania spp. em um cão errante com sintomatologia clínica sugestiva para LTA na região noroeste do estado do Paraná. O resultado positivo no exame sorológico encontrado no presente trabalho sugere que houve a circulação do agente etiológico e, consequentemente, a exposição deste animal ao parasito, porém novos estudos com cães errantes e domiciliados com ou sem sintomatologia característica para LTA devem ser realizados para esclarecer melhor a participação do cão na epidemiologia da LTA no município local.


Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a cosmopolitan parasitic disease caused by a protozoan belonging to the Kinetoplastida order, Trypanossomatidea family and Leishmania genus, and is transmitted by blood-sucking flies belonging to the Phlebotominae subfamily. In dogs, the cutaneous form manifests with mucocutaneous lesions, granulomatous bottom ulcers and difficult to heal flanges. This study aimed to report the presence of anti-Leishmania spp. in a stray dog with clinical symptoms suggesting LTA in the northwestern region of the state of Paraná. The positive serology found in the present study suggests that there was a movement of the etiological agent and, therefore, this animal’s exposure to the parasite, but further studies with stray and and domestic dogs with or without characteristic symptoms of LTA should be done to understand the role of a dog in the leishmaniasis epidemiology in the local municipality.


La Leishmaniosis Tegumentaria (LT) es una enfermedad parasitaria cosmopolita provocada por un protozoario perteneciente al Orden Kinetoplastida, familia Trypanosomatidae, Género Leishmania y es transmitida por insectos dípteros hematófagos pertenecientes a la subfamilia Phlebotominae. En perros, la forma tegumentaria se manifiesta con lesiones mucocutáneas, formación de úlceras de fondo granulo matoso y bordas salientes de difícil cicatrización. El objetivo de esta investigación fue relatar la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Leishmania spp. en un perro callejero con sintomatología clínica sugestiva para LTA en la región noroeste del estado de Paraná. El resultado positivo encontrado en el examen serológico, en la investigación, sugiere que hubo circulación del agente etiológico y, consecuentemente, la exposición de este animal al parasito, pero nuevos estudios con perros callejeros y domiciliados con o sin sintomatología característica para LTA deben ser realizados, para aclarar mejor la participación del perro en la epidemiología de LTA en el municipio local.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies/immunology , Parasites , Zoonoses/transmission , Dogs/classification , Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous/parasitology
20.
Salvador; s.n; 2012. 63 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000935

ABSTRACT

A Leishamaniose Visceral (LV) é transmitida pela picada de insetos da espécie vetora Lutzomyialongipalpis através da inoculação dos parasitas juntamente com a saliva na pele do hospedeiro durante a alimentação sanguínea. A saliva deste vetor desempenha um papel importante na obtenção do repasto, sendo também capaz de modular o sistema imune do hospedeiro. Algumas proteínas salivares são imunogênicas e podem induzir a produção de anticorpos específicos. Neste sentido, a presença de anticorpos anti-saliva pode ser utilizada como marcador de exposição ao vetor. Na LV, a presença de galinhas em área endêmica é considerada um fator importante na manutenção da fauna flebotomínica, além de ser citada como um importante fator de risco para a transmissão da doença. Entretanto, o papel da galinha na cadeia epidemiológica da LV ainda não é bem compreendido. Nosso objetivo neste estudo foi detectar nestes animais a presença de anticorpos contra o sonicado de glândula salivar (SGS)...


Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis , when saliva and parasites are injected into the host skin during blood feeding. Saliva has an important role not only in the blood meal process but it is also able to modulate the host’s immune response. Some salivary proteins are immunogenic inducing production of anti-saliva antibodies in the host that can be used as markers of exposure to the vector. In VL, the presence of chicken in the endemic area is indicated as an important source for a blood meal and is often considered as a risk factor for transmission. However the role of the chicken in the VL epidemiology has not been defined. Here we investigate if the detection of antibodies against salivary gland sonicate (SGS)...


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies/analysis , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies/blood , Chickens/immunology , Chickens/parasitology , Chickens/blood
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