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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 1-40, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370311


Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells that spreads through cell division. There are different types of medicines available to treat cancers, but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe for humans. The major problem involved in the cancer treatments is the toxicity of the established drug and their side effects. Medicinal plants are used as folk medicines in Asian and African populations for thousands of years. 60% of the drugs for treating cancer are derived from plants. More than 3000 plants have anticancer activity. The present review aims at the study of a broad spectrum survey of plants having anticancer components for different type of cancers. This article consists of 364 medicinal plants and their different parts as potential Source of Anticancer Agents.

El cáncer es un crecimiento anormal y descontrolado de células que se disemina a través de la división celular. Hay diferentes tipos de medicamentos disponibles para tratar el cáncer, pero no se ha encontrado ningún medicamento que sea completamente efectivo y seguro para los seres humanos. El principal problema involucrado en los tratamientos del cáncer es la toxicidad del fármaco establecido y sus efectos secundarios. Las plantas medicinales se utilizan como medicinas populares en poblaciones asiáticas y africanas durante miles de años. El 60% de los medicamentos para el tratamiento del cáncer se derivan de plantas. Más de 3000 plantas tienen actividad anticancerígena. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo el estudio de un estudio de amplio espectro de plantas que tienen componentes anticancerígenos para diferentes tipos de cánceres. Este artículo consta de 364 plantas medicinales y sus diferentes partes como fuente potencial de agentes anticancerígenos.

Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2017; 19 (1): 94-101
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185796


Objective: Crocin [Cro] and crocetin [Crt] are two widely known saffron carotenoids, which exert anticancer effects by different mechanisms. Here, we investigated and compared the preventive effect of Cro and Crt at the initiation and promotion stages of breast cancer induction in an animal model

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, female Wistar albino rats were injected with three doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [NMU]. The preventive intervention was done at different times for the initiation and promotion stages. Thus, Cro/Crt was administered by gavage 20 days before, or one week after, the first NMU injection, for the prevention at the initiation or promotion stages respectively. The treatment was repeated every three days, and continued up to the end of experiment. Tumor appearance was checked by palpation and some parameters were determined after sacrifice

Results: Tumor volume, latency period, and tumor number were significantly decreased in the rat groups treated with both saffron carotenoids for prevention at both the initiation and promotion stages. Tumor incidence was 77% due to NMU injection, which was decreased to 45 and 33% [on average] after Cro and Crt administration, respectively. In addition, enkephaline degrading aminopeptidase [EDA] was decreased significantly in the ovaries of the animals, however, changes in the brain were not significant

Conclusion: Crt/Cro showed a significant protective effect against the NMU-induced breast cancer in rats. However, Crt was more effective than Cro and prevention at the initiation stage was more effective than at the promotion stage

Animals, Laboratory , Female , Carotenoids/therapeutic use , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Methylnitrosourea , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Biol. Res ; 50: 36, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950884


BACKGROUND: Melanoma took top position among the lethal cancers and, despite there have been some great attempts made to increase the natural life of patients with metastatic disease, long-lasting and complete remissions are few. Piceatannol, owns the similar function as resveratrol, has been defined as an anti-cancer agent playing important role in inhibition of proliferation, migration and metastasis in various cancer. Thus, we aim to investigate the anti-cancer effect and mechanisms of piceatannol in melanoma cells. METHODS: Melanoma cell lines WM266-4 and A2058 were treated either with or without piceatannol. Cell viability and cell apoptosis were assessed by using MTT and Annexin V/PI assay, respectively. Cells were transfected with specific miRNA using Lipfectamine 2000. miRNA bingding ability to 3'-UTR region within specific gene was assed by firefly luciferase analysis. Gene and protein expression was eveluated by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Our study showed that piceatannol inhibited WM266-4 and A2058 cells growth and induced apoptosis. Totally, 16 differentially expressed miRNAs were screened out including 8 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated miRNAs. Expression level of miR-181a is significantly higher in piceatannol-treated cells than normal control and is lower in melanoma cancer tissues than its adjacent normal tissues. Bcl-2 is a target gene of miR-181a. Moreover, silencing of miR-181a reverses the decrease of cell viability induced by piceatannol in WM266-4 and A2058 cells. Taken together, present study uncovered the ability of piceatannol to repress melanoma cell growth and clarified the contribution of miR-181a in the anticancer role of piceatannol. CONCLUSION: The present study proposes that piceatannol can be taken into account to be a hopeful anticancer agent for melanoma.

Humans , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , MicroRNAs/drug effects , Melanoma/drug therapy , Up-Regulation , Cell Survival , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Melanoma/metabolism , Melanoma/pathology
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 131-142
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158396


Oligosaccharides and dietary fibres are non-digestible food ingredients that preferentially stimulate the growth of prebiotic Bifidobacterium and other lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) provide a plethora of health benefits and can be incorporated into several functional foods. In the recent times, there has been an over emphasis on the microbial conversion of agroresidues into various value added products. Xylan, the major hemicellulosic component of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs), represents an important structural component of plant biomass in agricultural residues and could be a potent bioresource for XOS. On an industrial scale, XOS can be produced by chemical, enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of LCMs. Chemical methods generate XOS with a broad degree of polymerization (DP), while enzymatic processes will be beneficial for the manufacture of food grade and pharmaceutically important XOS. Xylooligomers exert several health benefits, and therefore, have been considered to provide relief from several ailments. This review provides a brief on production, purification and structural characterization of XOS and their health benefits.

Adjuvants, Immunologic/economics , Adjuvants, Immunologic/isolation & purification , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents/economics , Anticarcinogenic Agents/isolation & purification , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/economics , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biomass , Carbohydrate Sequence , Chromatography/methods , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/economics , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Glucuronates/economics , Glucuronates/isolation & purification , Glucuronates/pharmacology , Glucuronates/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrolysis , Lignin/analysis , Microbiota/drug effects , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Structure , Oligosaccharides/economics , Oligosaccharides/isolation & purification , Oligosaccharides/pharmacology , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Prebiotics/economics , Waste Products/economics , Xylans/chemistry
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950783


BACKGROUND: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential and invitro cytotoxicity studies of whole plant methanol extract of Rumex vesicarius L. Methanol extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw were assessed for its hepatoprotective potential against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by monitoring activity levels of SGOT (Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase), ALP (Alkaline phosphatase), TP (Total protein), TB (Total bilirubin) and SOD (Superoxide dismutase), CAT (Catalase), MDA (Malondialdehyde). The cytotoxicity of the same extract on HepG2 cell lines were also assessed using MTT assay method at the concentration of 62.5, 125, 250, 500 µg/ml. RESULTS: Pretreatment of animals with whole plant methanol extracts of Rumex vesicarius L. significantly reduced the liver damage and the symptoms of liver injury by restoration of architecture of liver. The biochemical parameters in serum also improved in treated groups compared to the control and standard (silymarin) groups. Histopathological investigation further corroborated these biochemical observations. The cytotoxicity results indicated that the plant extract which were inhibitory to the proliferation of HepG2 cell line with IC50 value of 563.33 ± 0.8 Mg/ml were not cytotoxic and appears to be safe. CONCLUSIONS: Rumex vesicarius L. whole plant methanol extract exhibit hepatoprotective activity. However the cytotoxicity in HepG2 is inexplicable and warrants further study.

Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Rumex/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Phytotherapy/methods , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Silymarin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tetrazolium Salts , Bilirubin/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Catalase/metabolism , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Methanol , Drinking/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Formazans , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 29(7): 423-428, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714578


PURPOSE: To evaluate the genotoxicity of propolis and L-lysine, as well as their effects on the possible cellular damage in erythroblasts (bone marrow) and leukocytes (peripheral blood) caused by the carcinogen BBN (n - butyl - n {4 - hydroxybutyl} nitrosamine) in rats subjected to bladder carcinogenesis and treated with green propolis and L-lysine. METHODS: One hundred and twenty five rats were distributed into the following groups: I, IIA, IIB, III, K, L M N, X, XI, XII and XIII. Groups I to X received BBN in drinking water for 14 weeks (wks). Group I was treated with intragastric (ig) propolis at 150 mg/kg body weight, for 44 wks, beginning 30 days before start of BBN. Groups IIA and III were treated with propolis (150 mg/kg), for 40 wks, subcutaneous (sc) and ig, respectively, beginning simultaneously with BBN. On the 32nd wk, the animals of groups L, M and N were treated ig with L-lysine (300 mg/kg), celecoxib (30 mg/kg) and propolis (300 mg/kg), respectively, up to the 40th wk. The groups that received only BBN (IIB and K) were treated with water, sc and orally, respectively, for 40 wks. Groups XI, XII and XIII received respectively propolis (150 mg/kg), L-lysine (150 mg/kg) and water ig for 40 wks. After 40 wks, the surviving animals were anesthetized and subjected to femoral bone marrow aspiration and blood collection from the aorta, for CA and MNT, respectively, for investigation of genotoxicity. RESULTS: Groups IIB and K, which received only BBN and water, showed the greatest DNA damage in peripheral leukocytes (CA) and largest number of micronuclei in bone marrow erythrocytes (MNT) in relation to all other groups that received BBN and lysine and/or propolis (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both propolis and L-lysine are effective in protecting against genotoxicity, as well not being genotoxic themselves toward the cells evaluated, at the doses and times administered and according to the two tests utilized. .

Animals , Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lysine/pharmacology , Propolis/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Carcinogenicity Tests , Comet Assay , DNA Damage , Micronucleus Tests , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/prevention & control
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(1): 16-23, mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-752687


La porción comestible del mango contiene ácido ascórbico, carotenoides, polifenoles, terpenoides y fibra que tienen efectos protectores para la salud, y posiblemente contra el desarrollo de cáncer de colon (CCO). El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la capacidad antiproliferativa en células de adenocarcinoma de colon (SW480) y preventiva en un modelo in vivo de CCO de un extracto acuoso de Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar. El contenido de fenoles totales, flavonoides y carotenoides también fue analizado. El extracto inhibió el crecimiento de las células SW480 en forma dosistiempo- dependiente hasta 22,3% luego de 72h de exposición al extracto (200 μg/mL). La carcinogénesis en el colon de ratones Balb/c fue inducida mediante dos inyecciones intraperitoneales de azoximetano (AOM) a la tercera y cuarta semana de haber iniciado el suministro de mango en el líquido de bebida (0,3%, 0,6%, 1,25%). Después de 10 semanas de tratamiento se observó inhibición dosis-dependiente de la formación de focos de criptas aberrantes (FCA); 0,3% de mango inhibió más del 60% de FCA (p=0,05) comparado con los controles que recibieron agua. Estos resultados muestran que la pulpa del mango de azúcar, un alimento natural, no tóxico, que forma parte de la dieta del ser humano contiene compuestos bioactivos capaces de reducir el crecimiento de células tumorales y prevenir la aparición de las lesiones precancerosas en colon durante el inicio de la carcinogénesis.

Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 μg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.

Animals , Male , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Colonic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mangifera/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/chemically induced , In Vitro Techniques , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neoplasms, Experimental
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 521-528
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150266


Anti-carcinogenic potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia (EN) leaves and an isolated flavonoid (ENF) was investigated against N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DENA)-induced renal carcinogenesis in mice. Experimental mice were pretreated with 150 and 400 mg/kg body wt of EN, 0.5% and 1% mg/kg body wt of butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) as a standard antioxidant and 50 mg/kg body wt of ENF for 21 days prior to the administration of a single dose of 50 mg/kg body wt of DENA. Levels of renal markers (urea and creatinine), xenobiotic metabolic enzymes (Cyt P450 and Cyt b5), lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GST and GSH) and other biochemical parameters — AST, ALT, ALP, total protein (TP), and total cholesterol (TC) were measured to determine the renal carcinogenesis caused by DENA. DENA administration significantly (p<0.001) decreased the body weight and increased the tissue weight. It significantly (p<0.001) enhanced the levels of Cyt P450, Cyt b5 and LPO and decreased the levels of SOD, CAT, GST and GSH content. The activities of AST, ALT and ALP and the TP content and renal markers were also significantly decreased (p<0.001), while TC level was markedly increased after DENA administration, as compared with the normal control group (p<0.001). Pretreatment with EN and ENF counteracted DENA-induced oxidative stress (LPO) and exerted its protective effects by restoring the levels of antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GST and GSH), biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, TP and TC), renal markers (urea and creatinine) and xenobiotic enzymes (Cyt P450 and Cyt b5) in renal tissue. In conclusion, the present study showed significant anti-carcinogenic potential of the hydro-ethanolic extract of E. neriifolia and ENF against DENA-induced renal carcinogenicity.

Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents/isolation & purification , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Diethylnitrosamine/toxicity , Euphorbia/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/chemically induced , Kidney Neoplasms/enzymology , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Mice , Organ Size/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Xenobiotics/metabolism
Clinics ; 68(10): 1350-1357, out. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689984


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in sclerotic mice. METHODS: Skin fibroblasts that were isolated from three systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients and three healthy subjects were treated with crocetin (0.1, 1 or 10 μM). Cell proliferation was measured with an MTT assay. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected via an immunohistochemical method. Alpha 1 (I) procollagen (COL1A1), alpha 1 (III) procollagen (COL3A1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. SSc mice were established by the subcutaneous injection of bleomycin. Crocetin (50 mg/kg/d) was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. Dermal thickness and lung fibrosis were assessed with Masson's trichrome staining. Plasma ET-1 was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skin and lung ET-1 and COL1A1 mRNA levels were measured via real-time PCR. RESULTS: Crocetin inhibited the proliferation of SSc and normal fibroblasts, an effect that increased with crocetin concentration and incubation time. Crocetin decreased the expression of α-SMA and the levels of mRNA for COL1A1, COL3A1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1, while crocetin increased TIMP-1 mRNA levels in both SSc and normal fibroblasts. Skin and lung fibrosis was induced, and the levels of ET-1 in the plasma, skin and lungs were elevated in bleomycin-injected mice. Crocetin alleviated the thickening of the dermis and lung fibrosis; decreased COL1A1 mRNA levels in the skin and lung; and simultaneously decreased ET-1 concentrations in the plasma and ET-1 mRNA levels in the skin and lungs of the bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice, especially during the early phase (weeks 1-3). CONCLUSION: Crocetin inhibits cell proliferation, differentiation and collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. Crocetin alleviates skin and lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc ...

Animals , Female , Mice , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Scleroderma, Systemic/drug therapy , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic , Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Bleomycin , Carotenoids/therapeutic use , Collagen Type I/blood , Collagen Type III/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Endothelin-1/blood , Fibrosis , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Scleroderma, Systemic/chemically induced , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Skin/drug effects , Skin/metabolism , Time Factors , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/blood
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(2): 176-185, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722790


Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) is traditionally used as antitumor source in Santiago de Cuba. Therefore, the aim of this study was to document and analyze the traditional medicinal use of this plant by cancer patients in Santiago de Cuba and to evaluate its antiproliferative activity on human normal and cancer cells. Cancer patients consuming Trichilia hirta extracts (Jubabán) were randomly selected and interviewed. The antiproliferative activity of a polysaccharide-rich fraction from leaves was evaluated against normal (MRC-5) and cancer cells (A-549, HeLa and Hep-2) by MTT assay. The study revealed that Trichilia hirta extracts are mainly used as anticancer source (46 percent. Moreover, the majority of cancer patients consuming Trichilia hirta extracts had carcinoma (86 percent). In particular, the most frequent were lung (26 percent) and prostate (18 percent) carcinoma. The majority (90 percent) of patients were consuming the extracts simultaneously, or after the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment. The polysaccharide-rich fraction showed antiproliferative activity against human lung cancer cells (A-549) and human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cancer cells. However, no toxicity was observed in human normal fibroblasts (MRC-5). These results suggest that polysaccharide-rich fraction from Trichilia hirta contribute to the antitumor properties of this specie.

Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) es tradicionalmente usada como recurso antitumoral en Santiago de Cuba. Por lo que, el objetivo de este estudio fue documentar y analizar el uso tradicional de esta planta por pacientes con cáncer en Santiago de Cuba y evaluar su actividad antiproliferativa sobre células humanas normales y tumorales. Pacientes con cáncer consumiendo los extractos de Trichilia hirta (jubabán) fueron aleatoriamente seleccionados y entrevistados. La actividad antiproliferativa de la fracción rica en polisacáridos de hojas fue evaluada en células normales (MRC-5) y en células tumorales (A-549, HeLa y Hep-2) a través del ensayo con MTT. El estudio reveló que los extractos de Trichilia hirta eran usados mayoritariamente como recurso antitumoral (46 por ciento). Además, la mayoría de los pacientes consumiendo extractos de Trichilia hirta presentaron carcinoma (86 por ciento). En particular, los más frecuentes fueron carcinomas de pulmón (26 por ciento) y próstata (18 por ciento). También la mayoría de los pacientes (90 por ciento) consumieron los extractos simultáneamente o después de tratamientos con quimioterapia y radioterapia. La fracción rica en polisacáridos mostró actividad antiproliferativa contra las células de cáncer de pulmón humano (A-549) y carcinoma de cerviz humano (HeLa). Sin embargo, no se observó toxicidad en fibroblastos humanos normales (MRC-5). Estos resultados sugieren que la fracción rica en polisacáridos de hojas de Trichilia hirta contribuye a la actividad antitumoral de esta especie.

Humans , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Ethnopharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Meliaceae/chemistry , Cuba , Formazans , Fibroblasts , Medicine, Traditional , Cell Proliferation , Tetrazolium Salts
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71537


Induction of apoptosis in target cells is a key mechanism by which chemotherapy promotes cell killing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) and Genistein in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induce apoptosis in endometrial cancer cell (Ishikawa) and to assess apoptotic mechanism. The MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to determine cell viability and cell cycle. The induction of apoptosis was measured by caspase-3 activity test, DNA fragmentation assay, annexin V binding assay and western blot analysis. There was no effect in cell growth inhibition and cell cycle progression alone or in two-combination. However, the treatment of I3C and Genistein followed by TRAIL showed significant cell death and marked increase in sub-G1 arrest. Three-combination treatment revealed elevated expression of DR4, DR5 and cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-8, PARP. The Flip was found down regulated. Moreover, increase in caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation indicated the induction of apoptosis. The results indicate that I3C and Genistein with TRAIL synergistically induced apoptosis via death receptor dependent pathway. Our findings might provide a new insight into the development of novel combination therapies against endometrial cancer.

Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 8/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Synergism , Endometrial Neoplasms/metabolism , Female , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Genistein/pharmacology , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand/metabolism , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(9): 841-850, Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646329


The combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and retinoids has been suggested as a potential epigenetic strategy for the control of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treatment with butyrate, a dietary HDACi, combined with vitamin A on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the crystal violet staining method. MCF-7 cells were plated at 5 x 10(4) cells/mL and treated with butyrate (1 mM) alone or combined with vitamin A (10 µM) for 24 to 120 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was 34, 10 and 46% following treatment with butyrate, vitamin A and their combination, respectively, suggesting that vitamin A potentiated the inhibitory activities of butyrate. Furthermore, exposure to this short-chain fatty acid increased the level of histone H3K9 acetylation by 9.5-fold (Western blot), but not of H4K16, and increased the expression levels of p21WAF1 by 2.7-fold (Western blot) and of RARβ by 2.0-fold (quantitative real-time PCR). Our data show that RARβ may represent a molecular target for butyrate in breast cancer cells. Due to its effectiveness as a dietary HDACi, butyrate should be considered for use in combinatorial strategies with more active retinoids, especially in breast cancers in which RARβ is epigenetically altered.

Female , Humans , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Butyrates/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , DNA Methylation/drug effects , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Vitamin A/pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents/administration & dosage , Butyrates/administration & dosage , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/administration & dosage
Acta cir. bras ; 27(2): 185-192, Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614540


PURPOSE: To determine the effects of green propolis extracted in L-lysine (WSDP) and of L- lysine for 40 weeks on induced rat bladder carcinogenesis. METHODS: The animals (groups I, II, III, IV, V and VI) received BBN during 14 weeks. Group I was treated with propolis 30 days prior received BBN, and then these animals were treated daily with propolis; Groups II and III was treated with subcutaneous and oral propolis (respectively) concurrently with BBN. The animals of Group IV were treated L-lysine; Group V received water subcutaneous; and Group VI received only to BBN. Among the animals not submitted to carcinogenesis induction, Group VII received propolis, Group VIII received L-lysine and Group IX received water. RESULTS: The carcinoma incidence in Group I was lower than that of control (Group VI). The carcinoma multiplicity in Group IV was greater than in Group VI. All animals treated with L-lysine developed carcinomas, and they were also more invasive in Group IV than in controls. On the other hand, Group VIII showed no bladder lesions. CONCLUSION: The WSDP is chemopreventive against rat bladder carcinogenesis, if administered 30 days prior to BBN , and that L-lysine causes promotion of bladder carcinogenesis.

OBJETIVO: Determinar os efeitos da própolis verde extraída em L - Lisina (WSDP) e da L-Lisina por 40 semanas em ratos induzidos a carcinogênese de bexiga. MÉTODOS: Os animais (grupos I, II, III, IV, V e VI) receberam BBN por 14 semanas. O grupo I foi tratado com própolis 30 dias antes de receber BBN e em seguida estes animais foram tratados diariamente com própolis; Os grupos II e III foram tratados com própolis subcutânea e oral (respectivamente) e concorretemente com BBN. Os animais do grupo IV foram tratados com L- Lisina; o grupo V recebeu água subcutânea; o grupo VI recebeu apenas BBN. Entre os animais não submetidos a indução de carcinogênese, Grupo VII, receberam própolis, Grupo VIII, receberam L-Lisina e Grupo IX receberam água. RESULTADOS: A incidência de carcinoma no grupo I foi menor que no grupo controle (grupo IV) A multiplicidade de carcinoma no grupo IV foi maior que no grupo VI. Todos os animais tratados com L - Lisina desenvolveram carcinomas e estes foram mais invasivos no grupo IV que no grupo controle. Por outro lado o grupo VIII não apresentou lesões. CONCLUSÃO: WSDP é quimiopreventiva contra a carcinogese de bexiga se administrada 30 dias antes do início do BBN, e a L - Lisina causa promoção da carcinogênese de bexiga.

Animals , Female , Rats , Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine/therapeutic use , Lysine/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Propolis/therapeutic use , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/prevention & control , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinogens , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Propolis/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/chemically induced , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186641


Previously, we found that high doses of genistein show an inhibitory effect on uterine leiomyoma (UtLM) cell proliferation. In this study, using microarray analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis(TM), we identified genes (up- or down-regulated, > or = 1.5 fold, P < or = 0.001), functions and signaling pathways that were altered following treatment with an inhibitory concentration of genistein (50 microg/ml) in UtLM cells. Downregulation of TGF-beta signaling pathway genes, activin A, activin B, Smad3, TGF-beta2 and genes related to cell cycle regulation, with the exception of the upregulation of the CDK inhibitor P15, were identified and validated by real-time RT-PCR studies. Western blot analysis further demonstrated decreased protein expression of activin A and Smad3 in genistein-treated UtLM cells. Moreover, we found that activin A stimulated the growth of UtLM cells, and the inhibitory effect of genistein was partially abrogated in the presence of activin A. Overexpression of activin A and Smad3 were found in tissue samples of leiomyoma compared to matched myometrium, supporting the contribution of activin A and Smad3 in promoting the growth of UtLM cells. Taken together, these results suggest that down-regulation of activin A and Smad3, both members of the TGF-beta pathway, may offer a mechanistic explanation for the inhibitory effect of a high-dose of genistein on UtLM cells, and might be potential therapeutic targets for treatment of clinical cases of uterine leiomyomas.

Activins/genetics , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15/genetics , Down-Regulation , Female , Genistein/pharmacology , Humans , Leiomyoma/metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Smad3 Protein/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Up-Regulation , Uterine Neoplasms/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82229


Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring compound which is known to induce the phase II antioxidant genes via Nrf2 activation, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated Nrf2 induction in response to SFN in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and determined the signaling pathways involved in this process. SFN treatment reduced cell viability. Prior to cell death, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated at a high rate within a minute of commencing SFN treatment. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked SFN-induced decrease in cell growth. Erk1/2 was activated within 30 min of SFN addition, whereas Akt phosphorylation did not significantly change until the first 8 hr after SFN treatment but then became substantially low until 48 hr. Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation attenuated SFN-induced loss of cell viability. Nrf2 protein levels in both nuclear and whole cell lysates were increased by SFN treatment, which was dependent on ROS production. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA attenuated SFN-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) up-regulation. Induction of the Nrf2/HO-1 after SFN treatment was potently suppressed by pretreatment with NAC. Overall, our results indicate that SFN mediates antioxidative and antiproliferative responses by generating ROS in BEAS-2B cells.

Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Bronchi/cytology , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/biosynthesis , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/biosynthesis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Thiocyanates/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(3): 242-248, Mar. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539721


The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group). Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats). Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05) placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL). The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05) among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05) DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm) and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm) treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm), as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g) or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g) resulted in increased (P < 0.05) hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g). Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brassica/chemistry , DNA Damage , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Precancerous Conditions/prevention & control , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , DNA , Glutathione Transferase/analysis , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/enzymology , Precancerous Conditions/chemically induced , Precancerous Conditions/enzymology , Rats, Wistar
SPJ-Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2010; 18 (1): 51-58
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-93550


Garlic [Allium sativum], a member of the family Liliaceae, contains an abundance of chemical compounds that have been shown to possess beneficial effects to protect against several diseases, including cancer. Evidence supports the protective effects of garlic in stomach, colorectal, breast cancer in humans. The protective effects appear to be related to the presence of Organosulfur compounds, predominantly allyl derivatives, which also have been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in forestomach, esophagus, colon, mammary gland and lung of experimental animals. The exact mechanisms of the cancer-preventive effects are not clear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Organosulfur compounds modulate the activity of several metabolizing enzymes that activate [cytochrome P450s] or detoxify [glutathione S-transferases] carcinogens and inhibit the formation of DNA adducts in several target tissues. Antiproliferative activity has been described in several tumor cell lines, which is possibly mediated by induction of apoptosis and alterations of the cell cycle. Organosulfur compounds in garlic are thus possible cancer-preventive agents. Clinical trials will be required to define the effective dose that has no toxicity in humans

Humans , Animals , Garlic , Sulfur Compounds/pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Aug; 46(4): 307-318
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135210


The study was undertaken to examine whether Carcinosin-200 (Car-200) could provide additional ameliorative effect, if used intermittently with Natrum sulphuricum-30 (Nat Sulph-30) against hepatocarcinogenesis induced by chronic feeding of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB) and phenobarbital (PB) in mice (Mus musculus). Mice were randomly divided into seven sub-groups: (i) normal untreated; (ii) normal + succussed alcohol; (iii) p-DAB (0.06%) + PB (0.05%); (iv) p-DAB + PB + succussed alcohol, (v) p-DAB + PB + Nat Sulph-30, (vi) p-DAB + PB + Car-200, and (vii) p-DAB + PB + Nat Sulph-30 + Car-200. They were sacrificed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days for assessment of genotoxicity through cytogenetical end-points like chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index and sperm head anomaly and cytotoxicity through assay of widely accepted biomarkers and pathophysiological parameters. Additionally, electron microscopic studies and gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were conducted in liver at 90 and 120 days. Results showed that administration of Nat Sulph-30 alone and in combination with Car-200 reduced the liver tumors with positive ultra-structural changes and in MMPs expression, genotoxic parameters, lipid peroxidation, -glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood glucose, bilirubin, creatinine, urea and increased GSH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase activities and hemoglobin, cholesterol, and albumin levels. Thus, intermittent use of Car-200 along with Nat Sulph-30 yielded additional benefit against genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by the carcinogens during hepatocarcinogenesis.

Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Azo Compounds/toxicity , Biomarkers/metabolism , Carcinogens , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/chemically induced , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Coloring Agents/toxicity , Female , Liver Neoplasms/chemically induced , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Mice , Microscopy, Electron , Mutagens , Sulfates/therapeutic use , Time Factors
Rev. nutr ; 22(2): 237-244, mar.-abr. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-517448


Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of dietary omega-3 supplementation toreduce induced intestinal preneoplastic lesions in Wistar rats. Methods: A total of 58 11-week-old male Wistar rats (Rattus norvergicus, albinus variety, Rodentia) were distributed into two groups: a control group (n=25) and an omega-3-treated group (n=28). Aberrant crypt foci were induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Tissue incorporation of the supplemented omega-3 fatty acids was evaluated by determining the fatty acid profiles of intra-abdominal fat and the liver with gas chromatography.Results: The omega-3 group presented lower weight and lower food intake (p<0.05) than the control group. Thenumber of aberrant crypt foci decreased 55.34% in response to omega-3 supplementation. Foci with more than three crypts decreased 57.14% between weeks 13 and 28. There was no statistical difference for the docosahexaenoic acid content in the liver of the omega-3 group between week 6 and weeks 13 and 28. Conclusion: These results suggest that omega-3 may slow the progress of colorectal carcinogenesis.

Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o potencial anticarcinogênico da suplementação com ômega-3 em reduzirlesões pré-neoplásicas induzidas em intestino de ratos Wistar. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos, com 11 semanas de idade (Rattus norvergicus), foram subdivididos em dois grupos: grupo controle (n=25) e grupo ômega-3 (n=28). Os focus de criptas aberrantes foram induzidos pela 1,2 dimetilhidrazina. A incorporação dos ácidos graxos ômega-3 suplementados foi avaliada pela identificação do perfil de ácidos graxos da gordura intra-abdominal e do fígado por cromatografia gasosa. Resultados: O grupo ômega-3 apresentou menor consumo da dieta e menor ganho de peso (p<0,05) do que o grupo controle. O número de focus de criptas aberrantes foi reduzido em 55,34% como conseqüência da suplementação dietética com ômega-3. Os focus com três ou mais do que três criptas diminuíram 57,14% entre a 13ª a 28ª semanas. Não foi verificada diferença estatística para o conteúdo de ácido docosahexaenóico. Conclusão: O resultado sugere que o ômega-3 pode reduzir a evolução da carcinogênese colorretal.

Animals , Male , Rats , /therapeutic use , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Precancerous Conditions/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements/analysis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76610


AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is highly conserved in eukaryotes, where it functions primarily as a sensor of cellular energy status. Recent studies indicate that AMPK activation strongly suppresses cell proliferation in non-malignant cells as well as in tumor cells. In this study, quercetin activated AMPK in MCF breast cancer cell lines and HT-29 colon cancer cells, and this activation of AMPK seemed to be closely related to a decrease in COX-2 expression. The application of a COX-2 inhibitor or cox-2(-/-) cells supported the idea that AMPK is an upstream signal of COX-2, and is required for the anti-proliferatory and pro-apoptotic effects of quercetin. The suppressive or growth inhibitory effects of quercetin on COX-2 were abolished by treating cancer cells with an AMPK inhibitor Compound C. These results suggest that AMPK is crucial to the anti-cancer effect of quercetin and that the AMPK-COX-2 signaling pathway is important in quercetin-mediated cancer control.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Quercetin/pharmacology