Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 128
Filter
1.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 180-187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969761

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hybutimibe monotherapy or in combination with atorvastatin in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia. Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-controlled phase Ⅲ clinical trial of patients with untreated primary hypercholesterolemia from 41 centers in China between August 2015 and April 2019. Patients were randomly assigned, at a ratio of 1∶1∶1∶1∶1∶1, to the atorvastatin 10 mg group (group A), hybutimibe 20 mg group (group B), hybutimibe 20 mg plus atorvastatin 10 mg group (group C), hybutimibe 10 mg group (group D), hybutimibe 10 mg plus atorvastatin 10 mg group (group E), and placebo group (group F). After a dietary run-in period for at least 4 weeks, all patients were administered orally once a day according to their groups. The treatment period was 12 weeks after the first dose of the study drug, and efficacy and safety were evaluated at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. After the treatment period, patients voluntarily entered the long-term safety evaluation period and continued the assigned treatment (those in group F were randomly assigned to group B or D), with 40 weeks' observation. The primary endpoint was the percent change in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline at week 12. Secondary endpoints included the percent changes in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein B (Apo B) at week 12 and changes of the four above-mentioned lipid indicators at weeks 18, 24, 38, and 52. Safety was evaluated during the whole treatment period. Results: Totally, 727 patients were included in the treatment period with a mean age of (55.0±9.3) years old, including 253 males. No statistical differences were observed among the groups in demographics, comorbidities, and baseline blood lipid levels. At week 12, the percent changes in LDL-C were significantly different among groups A to F (all P<0.01). Compared to atorvastatin alone, hybutimibe combined with atorvastatin could further improve LDL-C, TG, and Apo B (all P<0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in percent changes in LDL-C at week 12 between group C and group E (P=0.991 7). During the long-term evaluation period, there were intergroup statistical differences in changes of LDL-C, TG and Apo B at 18, 24, 38, and 52 weeks from baseline among the statins group (group A), hybutimibe group (groups B, D, and F), and combination group (groups C and E) (all P<0.01), with the best effect observed in the combination group. The incidence of adverse events was 64.2% in the statins group, 61.7% in the hybutimibe group, and 71.0% in the combination group during the long-term evaluation period. No treatment-related serious adverse events or adverse events leading to death occurred during the 52-week study period. Conclusions: Hybutimibe combined with atorvastatin showed confirmatory efficacy in patients with untreated primary hypercholesterolemia, which could further enhance the efficacy on the basis of atorvastatin monotherapy, with a good overall safety profile.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Cholesterol, LDL/therapeutic use , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Triglycerides , Apolipoproteins B/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Pyrroles/therapeutic use
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 988-996, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350009

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Em associação às estatinas, os inibidores da pró-proteína convertase subtilisina/kexina tipo 9 (PCSK9) demonstraram ser eficazes na redução de eventos cardiovasculares em pacientes de alto risco. Objetivo: Analisar a custo-efetividade da implementação de evolocumabe para pacientes com alto risco de eventos cardiovasculares no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no Brasil. Métodos: Um modelo de Markov foi utilizado, baseando-se em uma amostra ambulatorial de pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Os desfechos primários analisados foram infarto agudo do miocárdio, acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCi), revascularização do miocárdio e morte cardiovascular. O resultado foi expresso por meio da razão de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI), considerando-se uma taxa de desconto de 5% ao ano, e uma análise de sensibilidade foi realizada, tendo em vista a imprecisão de valores. Resultados: Selecionaram-se 61 pacientes com risco cardiovascular estimado em 35% em 10 anos, se em uso de atorvastatina 80mg/dia, e em 22,75%, se adicionado o evolocumabe. O custo global por paciente no período de 10 anos foi de R$ 46.522,44 no grupo em monoterapia com atorvastatina versus R$ 236.141,85 na terapia combinada, com uma efetividade global de 0,54 e 0,73, respectivamente. Isso resultou em uma RCEI R$ 1.011.188,07 (R$ 864.498,95 a R$ 1.296.748,43) por desfecho cardiovascular evitado. Conclusões: Apesar de não existirem padrões nacionais para custo-efetividade, os dados encontrados sugerem que a estratégia de associação do evolocumabe à terapia com estatina não é, no momento, custo-efetiva.


Abstract Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to systemic hypertension (HTN) may be associated with left atrial (LA) functional abnormalities. Objectives: We aimed to characterize LA mechanics in HCM and HTN and determine any correlation with the extent of left ventricular (LV) fibrosis measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in HCM patients. Methods: Two-dimensional speckle tracking-derived longitudinal LA function was acquired from apical views in 60 HCM patients, 60 HTN patients, and 34 age-matched controls. HCM patients also underwent CMR, with measurement of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) extension. Association with LA strain parameters was analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean LV ejection fraction was not different between the groups. The E/e' ratio was impaired in the HCM group and preserved in the control group. LA mechanics was significantly reduced in HCM, compared to the HTN group. LA strain rate in reservoir (LASRr) and in contractile (LASRct) phases were the best discriminators of HCM, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8, followed by LA strain in reservoir phase (LASr) (AUC 0.76). LASRr and LASR-ct had high specificity (89% and 91%, respectively) and LASr had sensitivity of 80%. A decrease in 2.79% of LA strain rate in conduit phase (LASRcd) predicted an increase of 1cm in LGE extension (r2=0.42, β 2.79, p=0.027). Conclusions: LASRr and LASRct were the best discriminators for LVH secondary to HCM. LASRcd predicted the degree of LV fibrosis assessed by CMR. These findings suggest that LA mechanics is a potential predictor of disease severity in HCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , State Medicine , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/prevention & control , Contrast Media , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/economics , Gadolinium , Anticholesteremic Agents/economics
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 176-180, set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391950

ABSTRACT

A busca pelo corpo perfeito pode gerar graves consequências para a população que faz uso indiscriminado de substâncias visando a resultados rápidos. O caso relatado se refere a um pa- ciente de 21 anos, do sexo masculino, na cidade de São Paulo (SP), que apresentou quadro de síndrome colestática 15 dias após uso do anabolizante estanazolol para fins estéticos na ativi- dade física, evoluindo com hepatite medicamentosa grave, com aumento de transaminases, hiperrubilinemia às custas de bilirrubina direta e fatores de coagulação, sem resposta satis- fatória ao tratamento de suporte convencional, com melhora significativa após introdução de corticoterapia.


Searching for the perfect body image can cause severe conse- quences to the population using substances indiscriminately to reach results fast. The case reported refers to a male patient, 21 years old, from the city of São Paulo (SP), who developed choles- tatic syndrome 15 days after the use of the steroid Stanazol for aesthetic purposes during physical activity, progressing with se- vere drug-induced hepatitis, transaminases, bilirubin, and coagu- lation factors increase with no satisfactory response to the con- ventional support treatment, and significant improvement after the introduction of corticotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Stanozolol/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Anabolic Agents/toxicity , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Bilirubin/blood , Biopsy , Cholagogues and Choleretics/therapeutic use , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Cholestasis/pathology , Cholesterol/blood , Cholestyramine Resin/administration & dosage , Catastrophic Illness , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Transaminases/blood , Hydroxyzine/administration & dosage , Liver/pathology , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Antipruritics/therapeutic use
5.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 593-599, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941145

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety profile of alirocumab (PCSK9 inhibitor) versus ezetimibe on top of maximally tolerated statin dose in high cardiovascular risk Chinese patients with hyperlipidemia. Methods: The ODYSSEY EAST study was a randomized, double-blinded, double dummy, active-control, parallel group, multi-centers clinical trial, the Chinese sub-population included 456 patients with hyperlipidemia and high cardiovascular risk on maximally tolerated statin dose. Patients were randomized (2∶1) to receive the subcutaneous injection of alirocumab (75 mg Q2W; with dose up titration to 150 mg Q2W at week 12 if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was ≥1.81 mmol/L at week 8) or the oral administration of ezetimibe (10 mg daily) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24. Key secondary efficacy endpoints included percentage change from baseline to week 12 or 24 in LDL-C (week 12) and other lipid parameters, including apolipoprotein (Apo) B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), TC, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), HDL-C, fasting triglycerides (TG), and Apo A1, and the proportion of patients reaching LDL-C<1.81 mmol/L at week 24. Safety profile of therapeutic drugs was also assessed during the treatment period. Results: The mean age of 456 Chinese patients was (59.5±10.9) years, 341(74.8%) patients were male, 303 patients (66.4%) in alirocumab group and 153 patients (33.5%) in ezetimibe group. Demographic characteristics, disease characteristics, and lipid parameters at baseline were similar between the two groups. LDL-C was reduced more from baseline to week 12 and 24 in alirocumab group versus ezetimibe group, the difference of their least-squares mean (standard error) percent change were(-35.2±2.2)% and (-36.9±2.5)% (both P<0.001). At 12 weeks, alirocumab had significant reduction on Lp(a), Apo B, total cholesterol and non HDL-C, the difference of their least-squares mean (standard error) percent change were (-40.3±2.8)%, (-27.7±1.8)%, (-19.6±1.5)% and (-27.7±1.9)%, respectively (all P<0.001). At 24 weeks, the percent of patients who reached LDL-C<1.81 mmol/L and LDL-C<1.42 mmol/L was significantly higher in alirocumab group (85.3% and 70.5%) than in ezetimibe group (42.2% and 17.0%, both P<0.001), and alirocumab use was also associated with significant reduction on Lp(a), Apo B, total cholesterol and non HDL-C, the difference of their least-squares mean (standard error) percent change were (-37.2±2.8)%, (-29.1±2.0)%, (-21.6±1.6)% and (-29.6±2.2)%, respectively (all P<0.001). The incidence of treatment related adverse events was similar between the two treatment groups (223/302 patients (73.8%) in alirocumab group and 109/153 patients (71.2%) in ezetimibe group). Respiratory infection, urinary infection, dizziness and local injection-site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events. Conclusions: In high cardiovascular risk patients with hyperlipidemia from China on maximally tolerated statin dose, the reduction of LDL-C induced by alirocumab is more significant than that induced by ezetimibe. Both treatments were generally safe during the observation period of study.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , China , Double-Blind Method , Ezetimibe/therapeutic use , Hypercholesterolemia , Hyperlipidemias , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2415-2421, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Acute coronary syndromes mainly result from abrupt thrombotic occlusion caused by atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques (VPs) that suddenly rupture or erosion. Fibrous cap thickness (FCT) is a major determinant of the propensity of a VP to rupture and is recognized as a key factor. The intensive use of statins is known to have the ability to increase FCT; however, there is a risk of additional adverse effects. However, lower dose statin with ezetimibe is known to be tolerable by patients. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of intensive statin vs. low-dose stain + ezetimibe therapy on FCT, as evaluated using optical coherence tomography.@*METHOD@#Patients who had VPs (minimum FCT 90°) and deferred from intervention in our single center from January 2014 to December 2018 were included in the trial. They were divided into the following two groups: intensive statin group (rosuvastatin 15-20 mg or atorvastatin 30-40 mg) and combination therapy group (rosuvastatin 5-10 mg or atorvastatin 10-20 mg + ezetimibe 10 mg). At the 12-month follow-up, we compared the change in the FCT (ΔFCT%) between the two groups and analyzed the association of ΔFCT% with risk factors. Fisher exact test was used for all categorical variables. Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U-test was used for analyzing the continuous data. The relationship between ΔFCT% and risk factors was analyzed using linear regression analysis.@*RESULT@#Total 53 patients were finally enrolled, including 26 patients who were in the intensive statin group and 27 who were in the combination therapy group. At the 12-month follow-up, the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels were reduced in both the groups. The ΔTC%, ΔLDL-C%, and ΔLp-PLA2% were decreased further in the combination therapy group. FCT was increased in both the groups (combination treatment group vs. intensive statin group: 128.89 ± 7.64 vs. 110.19 ± 7.00 μm, t = -9.282, P < 0.001) at the 12-month follow-up. The increase in ΔFCT% was more in the combination therapy group (123.46% ± 14.05% vs. 91.14% ± 11.68%, t = -9.085, P < 0.001). Based on the multivariate linear regression analysis, only the serum Lp-PLA2 at the 12-month follow-up (B = -0.203, t = -2.701, P = 0.010), ΔTC% (B = -0.573, t = -2.048, P = 0.046), and Δhs-CRP% (B = -0.302, t = -2.963, P = 0.005) showed an independent association with ΔFCT%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Low-dose statin combined with ezetimibe therapy maybe provide a profound and significant increase in FCT as compared to intensive statin monotherapy. The reductions in Lp-PLA2, ΔTC%, and Δhs-CRP% are independently associated with an increase in FCT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ezetimibe/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/drug therapy , Rosuvastatin Calcium/therapeutic use , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 691-697, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054897

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Different strategies have been proposed for the cardiovascular risk management of patients with psoriasis. Objective: To estimate the cardiovascular risk and evaluate two cardiovascular prevention strategies in patients with psoriasis, analyzing which proportion of patients would be candidates to receive statin therapy. Methods: A retrospective cohort was selected from a secondary database. All patients >18 years with psoriasis without cardiovascular disease or lipid-lowering treatment were included. The atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator (2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines) and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk calculator (2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines) were calculated. The SCORE risk value was adjusted by a multiplication factor of 1.5. The recommendations for the indication of statins suggested by both guidelines were analyzed. Results: A total of 892 patients (mean age 59.9 ± 16.5 years, 54.5% women) were included. The median atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation values were 13.4% (IQR 6.1-27.0%) and 1.9% (IQR 0.4-5.2), respectively. According to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator, 20.1%, 11.0%, 32.9%, and 36.4% of the population was classified at low, borderline, moderate, or high risk. Applying the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation, 26.5%, 42.9%, 20.8%, and 9.8% of patients were stratified as having low, moderate, high, or very high risk, respectively. The proportion of subjects with statin indication was similar using both strategies: 60.1% and 60.9% for the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines, respectively. Study limitations: This was a secondary database study. Data on the severity of psoriasis and pharmacological treatments were not included in the analysis. Conclusion: This population with psoriasis was mostly classified at moderate-high risk and the statin therapy indication was similar when applying the two strategies evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Psoriasis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Psoriasis/complications , Triglycerides/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Sex Factors , Cholesterol/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Diabetes Complications
8.
Med. infant ; 26(3): 287-295, sept. 2019. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025029

ABSTRACT

La Hipercolesterolemia Familiar (HF) es una enfermedad hereditaria frecuente que se caracteriza por niveles elevados de colesterol ligado a las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (C-LDL). El exceso de LDL se acumula en las arterias produciendo aterosclerosis prematura. El diagnóstico y tratamiento desde la infancia mejoran el pronóstico de la enfermedad. Existe subdiagnóstico de la HF lo que provoca muertes prematuras por enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV). Para mejorar el subdiagnóstico la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría propuso en el año 2015 realizar tamizaje universal al ingreso escolar. Es relevante entonces que el pediatra pueda diagnosticar la hipercolesterolemia y diferenciar las hipercolesterolemias monogénicas o familiares, de las secundarias (AU)


Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common hereditary disease that is characterized by high cholesterol levels, linked to low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Excess LDL accumulates in the arteries leading to premature atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis and treatment since childhood improve the prognosis of the disease. FH is underdiagnosed resulting in premature death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). To improve diagnosis, in 2015 the Argentine Society of Pediatrics proposed a universal screening program at school age. It is relevant, therefore, for the pediatrician to be able to diagnose hypercholesterolemia and differentiate monogenic or familial from secondary hypercholesterolemia (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cholesterol/metabolism , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/diagnosis , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/physiopathology , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/genetics , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/therapy , Mass Screening , Diagnosis, Differential , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 453-460, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001278

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of mortality. High circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood are associated with cardiovascular mortality, whether through an etiological role or through its association with the progression of CAD per se. Randomized clinical trials have shown that, when LDL levels are reduced, cardiovascular risk is also reduced, which reinforces this association. The first major trial involving a hypolipidemic agent of the statin family, the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), was published in 1994 and found a significant reduction in mortality in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, even in subsequent studies with different statins, a residual risk persisted, and this seems not to have changed over time; it is speculated that this risk may be due to statin intolerance. In this scenario, the potential exists for novel hypolipidemic agents to drive a true revolution in the therapy of dyslipidemia. The recent discovery of PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i), a class of hypolipidemic monoclonal antibodies, is extremely promising. PCSK9 inhibition is capable of promoting a mean LDL reduction of up to 60%, with potential for very significant clinical repercussions, as every 38 mg/dL reduction in LDL appears to be associated with a 22% reduction in cardiovascular risk. This review addresses a brief history of PCSK9i, major trials of these drugs, cardiovascular outcomes, and aspects related to their efficacy and safety. Finally, the molecular mechanisms and possible pleiotropic effects of PCSK9i are also discussed.


Resumo A doença arterial coronariana (DAC) é uma das principais causas de mortalidade. Níveis circulantes elevados de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL) no sangue estão associados com mortalidade cardiovascular, seja por um papel etiológico ou por sua associação com a progressão da DAC em si. Estudos clínicos randomizados mostram que, quando os níveis de LDL são reduzidos, o risco cardiovascular também é reduzido, o que reforça tal associação. O primeiro ensaio importante envolvendo um agente hipolipemiante da família da estatina, o estudo Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), foi publicado em 1994 e encontrou uma redução significativa na mortalidade de pacientes com risco cardiovascular elevado. Contudo, mesmo em estudos subsequentes com diferentes estatinas, observou-se um risco residual persistente, o qual aparentemente não mudou ao longo dos anos. Especula-se que esse risco se deve à intolerância às estatinas. Nesse cenário, existe um potencial para novos agentes hipolipemiantes que levem a uma verdadeira revolução no tratamento das dislipidemias. A descoberta recente dos inibidores de PCSK9 (PCSK9i), uma classe de anticorpos monoclonais, é extremamente promissora. A inibição da PCSK9 é capaz de promover uma redução média nos níveis de LDL de até 60%, com potencial para repercussões clínicas muito significativas, já que para cada redução de 38 mg/dL, parece haver uma redução de 22% no risco cardiovascular. Esta revisão aborda uma breve história dos PCSK9i, os principais ensaios envolvendo esses medicamentos, desfechos cardiovasculares, e aspectos relacionados a sua eficácia e segurança. Finalmente, os mecanismos moleculares e possíveis efeitos pleiotrópicos dos PCSK9i são também discutidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Proprotein Convertase 9/antagonists & inhibitors , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Cholesterol, LDL/drug effects , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Hypercholesterolemia/complications , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 104-110, abr. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002615

ABSTRACT

La reducción del colesterol-LDL (C-LDL) es un objetivo primordial en prevención cardiovascular. Estudios recientes demostraron beneficio clínico al administrar inhibidores de la proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 (iPCSK9) a pacientes que no habían logrado la meta de C-LDL con estatinas de alta intensidad y ezetimibe, sin embargo el uso de estos fármacos está limitado por su costo. El American College of Cardiology, la Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología y la European Society of Cardiology recomiendan una meta de C-LDL menor a 70 mg/dl en prevención secundaria, determinando umbrales de C-LDL de 70, 100 o 140 mg/dl respectivamente, para iniciar el tratamiento con iPCSK9. Con el objetivo de evaluar el esquema hipolipemiante prescripto en internados por síndrome coronario agudo o revascularización coronaria y analizar la proporción de elegibles para ser tratados con iPCSK9 en un escenario real y simulado, realizamos un estudio que incluyó 351 pacientes con enfermedad coronaria, tomados de una base de datos electrónica de un hospital universitario. El 48.4% recibió estatinas de elevada intensidad, 11.4% ezetimibe y 54.7% no logró la meta de C-LDL menor a 70 mg/dl. Utilizando un modelo de simulación en el que todos serían medicados con estatinas de elevada intensidad y ezetimibe, la elegibilidad para prescribir iPCSK9 fue de 31.1%, 12.8% y 9.1% según los umbrales de C-LDL determinados por las tres sociedades científicas. Nuestro estudio demostró una brecha entre las recomendaciones de los consensos para reducir el colesterol y la práctica habitual que debería ser minimizada para optimizar la relación costo/efectividad en prevención secundaria.


LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering is a primary objective in cardiovascular prevention. Recent studies demonstrated clinical benefit when proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) were added to the treatment in patients who had not achieved the LDL-C goal despite being treated with high intensity statins and ezetimibe, however the use of these drugs is limited by their cost. The American College of Cardiology, the Argentine Society of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology recommend an LDL-C goal less than 70 mg/dl in secondary prevention, determining thresholds of LDL-C to start treatment with PCSK9i of 70, 100 or 140 mg/dl respectively. In order to evaluate the lipid-lowering regimen prescribed in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome or coronary revascularization and analyze the proportion of eligible to be treated with PCSK9i in a real and simulated scenario, we conducted a study that included 351 patients with coronary disease collected from an electronic database of a university hospital. The 48.4% received high intensity statins, 11.4% ezetimibe and 54.7% did not achieve the LDL-C goal of less than 70 mg/dL. Using a simulation model in which all would be treated with high intensity statins and ezetimibe, the eligibility to prescribe PCSK9i was 31.1%, 12.8% and 9.1% according to the C- LDL thresholds determined by the three scientific societies. Our study demonstrated a gap between the consensus recommendations for LDL-C lowering and the current practice that should be minimized to optimize the cost/effectiveness ratio in secondary prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Proprotein Convertase 9/antagonists & inhibitors , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina , Societies, Scientific , Time Factors , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ezetimibe/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 65(1): 3-8, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985011

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Diabetes is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular mortality. Over the last years, mortality has decreased significantly, more in individuals with diabetes than in healthy ones. That is mostly due to the control of other cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of our study was to analyze the dyslipidemia control in two diabetes cohorts. METHODS Patients from two distinct cohorts were studied, 173 patients from the BHS (Brasília Heart Study) and 222 patients from the BDS (Brazilian Diabetes Study). The data on dyslipidemia control were studied in both different populations. All patients had diabetes. RESULTS There are significant differences concerning comorbidities between the LDL-C and BDS groups. The average glycated hemoglobin is of 8.2 in the LDL-C > 100 group in comparison with 7.7 and 7.5 in the 70-100 and < 70 groups, respectively (p = 0.024). There is a higher percentage of hypertensive patients with LDL between 70-100 (63.9%), when comparing the < 70 and > 100 groups (54.3% and 54.9%, respectively; p = 0.005). Diastolic pressure is higher in the group with LDL > 100, with an average of 87 mmHg, in comparison with 82.6 mmHg and 81.9 mmHg in the 70-100 and < 70 groups, respectively (p = 0.019). The group with LDL > 100 has the greatest percentage of smokers (8.7%) in comparison with the groups with LDL between 70-100 and < 70 (5.6% and 4.3%, respectively; p = 0.015). There is also a difference in the previous incidence of coronaropathy. In the group with LDL < 70, 28.3% of patients had already experienced a previous infarction, compared with 11.1% and 10.6% in the 70-100 and > 100 groups, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The data in our study have shown that the dyslipidemia control in diabetic patients is inadequate and there is a tendency of direct association between lack of blood glucose control and lack of dyslipidemia control, in addition to the association with other cardiovascular risk factors, such as diastolic hypertension and smoking. This worsened control might be related to the plateau in the descending curve of mortality, and investments in this regard can improve the cardiovascular health in diabetic patients.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O diabetes é importante causa de mortalidade cardiovascular. Nos últimos anos, a mortalidade diminuiu substancialmente, mais em diabéticos do que em não diabéticos, em grande parte devido ao controle de outros fatores de risco cardiovasculares. Nosso estudo tem como objetivo analisar o controle de dislipidemia em duas coortes de diabéticos. MÉTODOS Foram estudados pacientes de duas coortes distintas, sendo 173 pacientes do BHS (Brasília Heart Study) e 222 pacientes do BDS (Brazilian Diabetes Study). Os dados sobre controle de dislipidemia foram estudados nas duas populações diferentes. Todos os pacientes eram diabéticos. RESULTADOS Há diferenças significativas em relação às comorbidades entre os grupos de LDL-C no BDS. A média de hemoglobina glicada é de 8,2 no grupo com LDL-C > 100, comparado com 7,7 e 7,5 nos grupos 70-100 e < 70, respectivamente (p = 0,024). Há maior porcentagem de pacientes hipertensos com LDL entre 70-100 (63,9%), quando comparado aos grupos < 70 e > 100 (54,3% e 54,9%, respectivamente; p = 0,005). A pressão diastólica é mais elevada no grupo com LDL > 100, com média de 87 mmHg, comparado com 82,6 mmHg e 81,9 mmHg nos grupos 70-100 e < 70, respectivamente (p = 0,019). O grupo com LDL > 100 tem maior porcentagem de tabagistas (8,7%) quando comparado aos grupos com LDL entre 70-100 e < 70 (5,6% e 4,3%, respectivamente; p = 0,015). Há, também, diferença na incidência prévia de coronariopatia. No grupo com LDL < 70, 28,3% dos pacientes já apresentaram infarto prévio, comparados com 11,1% e 10,6% nos grupos 70-100 e > 100, respectivamente (p < 0,001). CONCLUSÃO Os dados do nosso estudo mostram que o controle de dislipidemia em diabéticos é inadequado, e há uma tendência de associação direta entre descontrole glicêmico e descontrole de dislipidemia, além de associação com outros fatores de risco cardiovascular, como hipertensão diastólica e tabagismo. Esse pior controle pode estar relacionado ao platô no descenso da curva de mortalidade, e o investimento nesse quesito pode melhorar a saúde cardiovascular dos diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Simvastatin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Dyslipidemias/complications , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Pressure , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/prevention & control , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Middle Aged
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(6): 810-821, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Children with familial hypercholesterolemia may develop early endothelial damage leading to a high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins have been shown to be effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels and cardiovascular events in adults. The effect of statin treatment in the pediatric population is not clearly demonstrated. Objective: To systematically review the literature to evaluate the effects of different statins and dosages in total cholesterol levels in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia. We also aimed to evaluate statin safety in this group. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Bireme, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SciELO and LILACS databases, were searched for articles published from inception until February 2016. Two independent reviewers performed the quality assessment of the included studies. We performed a meta-analysis with random effects and inverse variance, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results: Ten trials involving a total of 1543 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our study showed reductions in cholesterol levels according to the intensity of statin doses (high, intermediate and low): (-104.61 mg/dl, -67.60 mg/dl, -56.96 mg/dl) and in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: [-105.03 mg/dl (95% CI -115.76, -94.30), I2 19.2%], [-67.85 mg/dl (95% CI -83.36, -52.35), I2 99.8%], [-58.97 mg/dl (95% CI -67.83, -50.11), I2 93.8%. The duration of statin therapy in the studies ranged from 8 to 104 weeks, precluding conclusions about long-term effects. Conclusion: Statin treatment is efficient in lowering lipids in children with FH. There is need of large, long-term and randomized controlled trials to establish the long-term safety of statins.


Resumo Fundamentos: Crianças com hipercolesterolemia familiar podem desenvolver dano endotelial precoce, aumentando o risco de desenvolver doenças cardiovasculares. As estatinas tiveram sua eficácia em diminuir níveis de colesterol LDL e eventos cardiovasculares em adultos comprovada. O efeito das estatinas na população pediátrica não está claramente demonstrado. Objetivo: Revisar sistematicamente a literatura para avaliar os efeitos e a segurança de diferentes estatinas e suas dosagens nos níveis de colesterol total em crianças e adolescentes com hipercolesterolêmica familiar. Métodos: Artigos publicados desde o início até fevereiro de 2016 foram pesquisados nas bases PubMed, EMBASE, Bireme, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SciELO e LILACS. Dois revisores independentes avaliaram a qualidade dos estudos incluídos. Realizamos meta-análise com efeitos aleatórios e variância inversa. Análises de subgrupos foram realizadas. Resultados: Dez ensaios envolvendo 1.543 pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Em nosso estudo, as análises demostraram reduções nos níveis de colesterol, de acordo com a intensidade das doses de estatina (alta, intermediária e baixa): (-104,61 mg/dl, -67,60 mg/dl, -56,96 mg/dl) e no nível de lipoproteínas de baixa densidade: [-105,03 mg/dl (IC95% -115.76, -94.30), I2 19.2%], [-67.85 mg/dl (IC95% -83.36, -52.35), I2 99.8%], [-58.97 mg/dl (IC95% -67.83, -50.11), I2 93,8%. A duração da terapia com estatina variou de 8 a 104 semanas, impedindo conclusões sobre os efeitos a longo prazo. Conclusão: O tratamento com estatinas é eficiente na redução de lipídios em crianças com hipercolesterolemia familiar. É necessário realizar ensaios controlados randomizados de longo prazo para estabelecer a segurança do uso de estatinas a longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(6): 518-525, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: There is controversy whether management of blood cholesterol should be based or not on LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) target concentrations. Objectives: To compare the estimated impact of different lipid-lowering strategies, based or not on LDL-c targets, on the risk of major cardiovascular events in a population with higher cardiovascular risk. Methods: We included consecutive individuals undergoing a routine health screening in a single center who had a 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) ≥ 7.5% (pooled cohort equations, ACC/AHA, 2013). For each individual, we simulated two strategies based on LDL-c target (≤ 100 mg/dL [Starget-100] or ≤ 70 mg/dL [Starget-70]) and two strategies based on percent LDL-c reduction (30% [S30%] or 50% [S50%]). Results: In 1,897 subjects (57 ± 7 years, 96% men, 10-year ASCVD risk 13.7 ± 7.1%), LDL-c would be lowered from 141 ± 33 mg/dL to 99 ± 23 mg/dL in S30%, 71 ± 16 mg/dL in S50%, 98 ± 9 mg/dL in Starget-100, and 70 ± 2 mg/dL in Starget-70. Ten-year ASCVD risk would be reduced to 8.8 ± 4.8% in S50% and 8.9 ± 5.2 in Starget-70. The number of major cardiovascular events prevented in 10 years per 1,000 individuals would be 32 in S30%, 31 in Starget-100, 49 in S50%, and 48 in Starget-70. Compared with Starget-70, S50% would prevent more events in the lower LDL-c tertile and fewer events in the higher LDL-c tertile. Conclusions: The more aggressive lipid-lowering approaches simulated in this study, based on LDL-c target or percent reduction, may potentially prevent approximately 50% more hard cardiovascular events in the population compared with the less intensive treatments. Baseline LDL-c determines which strategy (based or not on LDL-c target) is more appropriate at the individual level.


Resumo Fundamentos: Há controvérsias sobre se o controle do colesterol plasmático deve ou não se basear em metas de concentração de colesterol LDL (LDL-c). Objetivos: Comparar o impacto estimado de diferentes estratégias hipolipemiantes, baseadas ou não em metas de LDL-c, sobre o risco de eventos cardiovasculares maiores em uma população de risco cardiovascular mais elevado. Métodos: Foram incluídos indivíduos consecutivamente submetidos a uma avaliação rotineira de saúde em um único centro e que apresentavam um risco em 10 anos de doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica (DCVAS) ≥ 7,5% ("pooled cohort equations", ACC/AHA, 2013). Para cada indivíduo, foram simuladas duas estratégias baseadas em meta de LDL-c (≤ 100 mg/dL [Emeta-100] ou ≤ 70 mg/dL [Emeta-70]) e duas estratégias baseadas em redução percentual do LDL-c (30% [E30%] ou 50% [E50%]). Resultados: Em 1.897 indivíduos (57 ± 7 anos, 96% homens, risco em 10 anos de DCVAS 13,7 ± 7,1%), o LDL-c seria reduzido de 141 ± 33 mg/dL para 99 ± 23 mg/dL na E30%, 71 ± 16 mg/dL na E50%, 98 ± 9 mg/dL na Emeta-100 e 70 ± 2 mg/dL na Emeta-70. O risco em 10 anos de DCVAS seria reduzido para 8,8 ± 4,8% na E50% e para 8,9 ± 5,2 na Emeta-70. O número de eventos cardiovasculares maiores prevenidos em 10 anos por 1.000 indivíduos seria de 32 na E30%, 31 na Emeta-100, 49 na E50% e 48 na Emeta-70. Em comparação com a Emeta-70, a E50% evitaria mais eventos no tercil inferior de LDL-c e menos eventos no tercil superior de LDL-c. Conclusões: As abordagens hipolipemiantes mais agressivas simuladas neste estudo, com base em meta de LDL-c ou redução percentual, podem potencialmente prevenir cerca de 50% mais eventos cardiovasculares graves na população em comparação com os tratamentos menos intensivos. Os níveis basais de LDL-c determinam qual estratégia (baseada ou não em meta de LDL-c) é mais apropriada para cada indivíduo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Age Factors
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(4): 410-417, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764463

ABSTRACT

AbstractIntroduction:Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) allows for non-invasive coronary artery disease (CAD) phenotyping. There are still some uncertainties regarding the impact this knowledge has on the clinical care of patients.Objective:To determine whether CAD phenotyping by CCTA influences clinical decision making by the prescription of cardiovascular drugs and their impact on non-LDL cholesterol (NLDLC) levels.Methods:We analysed consecutive patients from 2008 to 2011 submitted to CCTA without previous diagnosis of CAD that had two serial measures of NLDLC, one up to 3 months before CCTA and the second from 3 to 6 months after.Results:A total of 97 patients were included, of which 69% were men, mean age 64 ± 12 years. CCTA revealed that 18 (18%) patients had no CAD, 38 (39%) had non-obstructive (< 50%) lesions and 41 (42%) had at least one obstructive ≥ 50% lesion. NLDLC was similar at baseline between the grups (138 ± 52 mg/dL vs. 135 ± 42 mg/dL vs. 131 ± 44 mg/dL, respectively, p = 0.32). We found significative reduction in NLDLC among patients with obstrctive lesions (-18%, p = 0.001). We also found a positive relationship between clinical treatment intensification with aspirin and cholesterol reducing drugs and the severity of CAD.Conclusion:Our data suggest that CCTA results were used for cardiovascular clinical treatment titration, with especial intensification seen in patients with obstructive ≥50% CAD.


ResumoFundamento:A Angiotomografia Coronariana (AngioTC Cor) permite a fenotipagem de Doença Arterial Coronariana (DAC) de forma não invasiva. Ainda há incertezas sobre o impacto que esse conhecimento promove no tratamento clínico do paciente.Objetivo:Avaliar se a fenotipagem da DAC por AngioTC Cor influencia na tomada de decisão sobre o início da terapêutica cardiovascular e seu impacto nos níveis séricos de colesterol não HDL (CNHDL).Métodos:Foram analisados pacientes consecutivos sem diagnóstico prévio de DAC que realizaram AngioTC Cor entre os anos 2008 e 2011 e que possuíam duas dosagens seriadas de colesterol até três meses antes da AngioTC Cor, e de três a seis meses após.Resultados:Um total de 97 pacientes foram incluídos, sendo 69% homens, idade média de 64 ± 12 anos. A AngioTC Cor revelou que 18 (18%) pacientes não tinham lesões detectáveis, 38 (39%) tinham lesões não obstrutivas < 50%, e 41 (42%) tinham ao menos uma lesão obstrutiva ≥ 50%. As medidas de CNHDL basal foram similares entre os grupos, (138 ± 52 mg/dL vs. 135 ± 42 mg/dL vs. 131 ± 44 mg/dL, respectivamente, p = 0,32). Observou-se redução significativa do CNHDL apenas no grupo com lesões obstrutivas ≥ 50% (-18%, p = 0,001). Observa-se ainda relação entre a intensificação do tratamento clínico com AAS e drogas redutoras de colesterol proporcional à gravidade da DAC pela AngioTC Cor.Conclusão:Esses dados sugerem que o resultado da AngioTC Cor foi utilizado para a titulação terapêutica de pacientes com DAC, sendo o tratamento intensificado especialmente em DAC obstrutiva ≥ 50%.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Clinical Decision-Making , Cholesterol/blood , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Disease Management , Drug Prescriptions , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Statistics, Nonparametric
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(1): 11-19, July 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755000

ABSTRACT

Background:

Previous reports have inferred a linear relationship between LDL-C and changes in coronary plaque volume (CPV) measured by intravascular ultrasound. However, these publications included a small number of studies and did not explore other lipid markers.

Objective:

To assess the association between changes in lipid markers and regression of CPV using published data.

Methods:

We collected data from the control, placebo and intervention arms in studies that compared the effect of lipidlowering treatments on CPV, and from the placebo and control arms in studies that tested drugs that did not affect lipids. Baseline and final measurements of plaque volume, expressed in mm3, were extracted and the percentage changes after the interventions were calculated. Performing three linear regression analyses, we assessed the relationship between percentage and absolute changes in lipid markers and percentage variations in CPV.

Results:

Twenty-seven studies were selected. Correlations between percentage changes in LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and percentage changes in CPV were moderate (r = 0.48, r = 0.47, and r = 0.44, respectively). Correlations between absolute differences in LDL-C, non‑HDL-C, and ApoB with percentage differences in CPV were stronger (r = 0.57, r = 0.52, and r = 0.79). The linear regression model showed a statistically significant association between a reduction in lipid markers and regression of plaque volume.

Conclusion:

A significant association between changes in different atherogenic particles and regression of CPV was observed. The absolute reduction in ApoB showed the strongest correlation with coronary plaque regression.

.

Fundamento:

Estudos prévios sugerem uma relação linear entre o LDL-C e mudanças no volume de placa coronariana (VPC) medido por ultrassonografia intravascular. No entanto, estas publicações incluíram um número pequeno de estudos e não exploraram outros marcadores lipídicos.

Objetivo:

Avaliar a associação entre alterações nos marcadores lipídicos e regressão no VPC com base em dados publicados.

Métodos:

Nós coletamos dados dos braços controle, placebo e intervenção de estudos que compararam o efeito de tratamentos hipolipemiantes no VPC, e dos braços placebo e controle de estudos que testaram medicamentos que não afetam os lipídios. Os volumes inicial e final da placa, representados em mm3, foram extraídos e as alterações percentuais após as intervenções foram calculadas. Nós realizamos três análises de regressão linear e avaliamos a relação entre alterações percentuais e absolutas dos marcadores lipídicos com as variações percentuais do VPC.

Resultados:

Vinte e sete estudos foram selecionados. As correlações entre as variações percentuais do LDL-C, não- HDL-C e apolipoproteína B (ApoB) com variações percentuais do VPC foram moderadas (r = 0,48; r = 0,47; e r = 0,44, respectivamente). As correlações entre diferenças absolutas do LDL-C, não-HDL-C e ApoB com diferenças percentuais do VPC foram mais fortes (r = 0,57; r = 0,52; e r = 0,79). O modelo de regressão linear mostrou uma associação estatisticamente significativa entre a redução nos marcadores lipídicos e regressão no volume da placa.

Conclusão:

Observamos uma associação significativa entre alterações de diferentes partículas aterogênicas e regressão do VPC. A redução absoluta da ApoB mostrou a correlação mais forte com a regressão da placa coronariana.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apolipoproteins B/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/blood , Arm , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/drug therapy , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Reference Values , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Interventional
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(2): 265-267, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741067

ABSTRACT

A sixty-one year old white female was referred to the Dermatology Department to treat an ingrown nail in the inner corner of the left hallux. Examination of the entire nail unit showed the presence of xanthonychia in the outer corner besides thickening and increase in the transverse curvature of the nail plate. Dermoscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance of the free edge of the nail plate detected characteristic signs of onychomatricoma, a diagnosis that was later confirmed by anatomopathological exam.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Fibric Acids/therapeutic use , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Niacin/therapeutic use , Coronary Disease/blood , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Oxazolidinones/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Stroke/blood , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/prevention & control , Sulfhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 41(1): 31-38, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741565

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine whether the use of a set of preoperative variables can predict the need for postoperative ICU admission. Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study of 120 patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection between July of 2009 and April of 2012. Prediction of ICU admission was based on the presence of one or more of the following preoperative characteristics: predicted pneumonectomy; severe/very severe COPD; severe restrictive lung disease; FEV1 or DLCO predicted to be < 40% postoperatively; SpO2 on room air at rest < 90%; need for cardiac monitoring as a precautionary measure; or American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≥ 3. The gold standard for mandatory admission to the ICU was based on the presence of one or more of the following postoperative characteristics: maintenance of mechanical ventilation or reintubation; acute respiratory failure or need for noninvasive ventilation; hemodynamic instability or shock; intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications (clinical or surgical); or a recommendation by the anesthesiologist or surgeon to continue treatment in the ICU. Results: Among the 120 patients evaluated, 24 (20.0%) were predicted to require ICU admission, and ICU admission was considered mandatory in 16 (66.6%) of those 24. In contrast, among the 96 patients for whom ICU admission was not predicted, it was required in 14 (14.5%). The use of the criteria for predicting ICU admission showed good accuracy (81.6%), sensitivity of 53.3%, specificity of 91%, positive predictive value of 66.6%, and negative predictive value of 85.4%. Conclusions: The use of preoperative criteria for predicting the need for ICU admission after elective pulmonary resection is feasible and can reduce the number of patients staying in the ICU only for monitoring. .


Objetivo: Avaliar se a utilização de um conjunto de variáveis pré-operatórias é capaz de antever a necessidade de internação em UTI no pós-operatório. Métodos: Estudo de coorte observacional prospectivo, com 120 pacientes submetidos à ressecção pulmonar eletiva entre julho de 2009 e abril de 2012. A previsão de indicação de internação em UTI indicação foi baseada na presença de uma ou mais das seguintes condições pré-operatórias: previsão de pneumonectomia; DPOC grave/muito grave; doença restritiva grave; VEF1 ou DLCO previstos para o pós-operatório < 40% do previsto; SpO2 em repouso e ar ambiente < 90%; necessidade de monitorização cardíaca profilática; classificação da American Society of Anesthesiologists ≥ 3. O padrão ouro para internação justificada em UTI foi baseado na presença de uma ou mais das seguintes condições pós-operatórias: manutenção de ventilação mecânica ou reintubação; insuficiência respiratória aguda ou necessidade de ventilação não invasiva; instabilidade hemodinâmica ou choque; intercorrências intraoperatórias ou no pós-operatório imediato (cirúrgicas ou clínicas); indicação do anestesiologista ou cirurgião para a manutenção de tratamento na UTI. Resultados: Dos 120 pacientes avaliados, houve previsão de necessidade de internação em UTI em 24 (20,0%), sendo essa considerada justificada em 16 deles (66,6%) desses 24, ao passo que dos 96 pacientes sem previsão de necessidade de internação em UTI, essa foi necessária em 14 (14,5%). A utilização dos critérios preditivos para a internação em UTI mostrou boa acurácia (81,6%), sensibilidade de 53,3%, especificidade de 91%, valor preditivo positivo de 66,6% e valor preditivo negativo de 85,4%. Conclusões: A utilização de critérios pré-operatórios para a indicação de internação em UTI após ressecção pulmonar eletiva é factível e é capaz de reduzir o número de pacientes que aí permanecem apenas para vigilância. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , /diagnosis , Glutamate Decarboxylase/immunology , Age of Onset , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , /drug therapy , /immunology , Glucose Intolerance , Germany/epidemiology , Heptanoic Acids/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Phenotype , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Risk Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL