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In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.830-834, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353529
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(10): 618-624, 20200000. fig, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362699


All health care providers should be aware of the impact of bleeding disorders on their patients during any surgical procedures. The knowledge of the mechanisms of hemostasis and optimized management are very important. Initial recognition of a bleeding disorder, in such patients with a systemic pathologic process, may occur in surgical practice. The surgical treatment of those patients might be complicated during the surgery due to the use of anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet medications raises a challenge in the daily practice of surgical professionals. Adequate hemostasis is critical for the success of any surgical procedure because bleeding problems can give rise to complications associated with important morbidity-mortality. Besides, prophylactic, restorative, and surgical care of patients with any bleeding disorders is handled skillfully by practitioners who are well educated regarding the pathology, complications which could arise, and surgical options associated with these conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review common bleeding disorders and their effects on the surgical aspect. Many authors consider that patient medication indicated for the treatment of background disease should not be altered or suspended unless so indicated by the prescribing physician. Local hemostatic measures have been shown to suffice for controlling possible bleeding problems resulting from surgery.

Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/surgery , Hemorrhagic Disorders/complications , Hemostasis, Surgical/mortality , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 275-281, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139708


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: It is very common to offer low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) medications to women with unexplained habitual abortion, to increase the livebirth rate. Although no benefit from LMWH has been clearly demonstrated, examination of the effects of enoxaparin on placental structure is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess placental structural changes in pregnancies treated with enoxaparin, compared with controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control study in an obstetrics and gynecology unit of a tertiary-level university hospital in Turkey. METHODS: Forty patients who had had term pregnancies and live births but also histories of habitual abortion were recruited for this study. Placentas were sampled using a systematic random sampling method. Tissue samples were obtained, embedded and sectioned for routine histological analyses. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used. Surface area and length estimates from placental components were evaluated by using Image J. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were also assessed via immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups regarding maternal age, abortion rate, birth weight or gestational age. Comparison of the enoxaparin and control groups showed that there were no significant differences in terms of surface area and ratios of placental components. We found that Bcl-2 was generally expressed at high levels in the enoxaparin group, while there was no difference in terms of Ki-67 between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that enoxaparin did not show any significant effect on the placental structure of cases that had histories of habitual abortion.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Placenta/drug effects , Abortion, Habitual/etiology , Enoxaparin/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Turkey , Case-Control Studies , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 364-387, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137197


Abstract The development of protocols to prevent perioperative Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) and the introduction of increasingly potent antithrombotic drugs have resulted in concerns of increased risk of neuraxial bleeding. Since the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology 2014 guideline, new oral anticoagulant drugs were approved by international regulating agencies, and by ANVISA. Societies and organizations that try to approach concerns through guidelines have presented conflicting perioperative management recommendations. As a response to these issues and to the need for a more rational approach, managements were updated in the present narrative review, and guideline statements made. They were projected to encourage safe and quality patient care, but cannot assure specific results. Like any clinical guide recommendation, they are subject to review as knowledge grows, on specific complications, for example. The objective was to assess safety aspects of regional analgesia and anesthesia in patients using antithrombotic drugs, such as: possible technique-associated complications; spinal hematoma-associated risk factors, prevention strategies, diagnosis and treatment; safe interval for discontinuing and reinitiating medication after regional blockade.

Resumo Os padrões evolutivos para a prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso perioperatório e a introdução de medicações antitrombóticas cada vez mais potentes resultaram em preocupações com o aumento do risco de sangramento neuroaxial. Após o consenso da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia em 2014, novos medicamentos anticoagulantes orais foram aprovados pelas instituições reguladoras internacionais, assim como pela ANVISA. As sociedades que buscam abordar o manejo perioperatório desses fármacos apresentam recomendações conflitantes. Em resposta a essas questões e à necessidade de uma abordagem mais racional, as condutas foram atualizadas nesta revisão narrativa e feitas declarações de consenso. Elas foram projetadas para encorajar a assistência ao paciente de forma segura e de qualidade, mas não podem garantir um resultado específico. Tal como acontece com qualquer recomendação de orientação clínica, estas estão sujeitas a revisão com o conhecimento de avanços específicos de complicações. O objetivo foi avaliar aspectos da segurança em anestesia e analgesia regional em pacientes em uso de medicações antitrombóticas, tais como: possíveis complicações decorrentes da técnica; fatores de risco associados ao hematoma espinhal, estratégias de prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento; intervalo seguro para suspensão e reinício da medicação após o bloqueio regional.

Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Brazil , Risk Factors , Perioperative Care/methods , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 340-347, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249922


Abstract SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) has become a pandemic with a high case fatality rate that mainly affects adults. Most severely ill adult patients develop a coagulopathy that was not described until recently, and which is currently considered a main cause of death. Everything indicates that a similar phenomenon also occurs in children with COVID-19. Anticoagulant treatment has become one of the therapeutic foundations for this infection; however, its implementation in children can be difficult since, until recently, it was not considered in the pediatric population. Evidence regarding the use of anticoagulants in COVID-19 is rapidly generated, changes constantly, it is often difficult to interpret, and can be contradictory. After an extensive review of the published literature, a proposal was generated that offers suggestions for anticoagulant treatment, considering available resources in Mexico.

Resumen La infección por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) se ha constituido en una pandemia con alto índice de letalidad que afecta principalmente a los adultos. La mayor parte de los pacientes adultos graves desarrolla una coagulopatía que no estaba descrita, la cual actualmente se considera la principal causa de muerte. Todo indica que un fenómeno parecido ocurre también en el niño con COVID-19. El tratamiento anticoagulante se ha convertido en uno de los fundamentos terapéuticos de esta infección; sin embargo, su establecimiento en el niño puede ser difícil ya que, hasta hace poco, no estaba considerado en la población pediátrica. La evidencia respecto al uso de anticoagulantes en COVID-19 se genera con rapidez, cambia constantemente, con frecuencia es difícil de interpretar y puede ser contradictoria. Después de una extensa revisión de la literatura publicada, se generó una propuesta que ofrece sugerencias para el tratamiento anticoagulante en la que se consideran los recursos disponibles en México.

Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Mexico
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.3): 65-66, June 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135192


Si bien la incidencia es incierta, algunos reportes de caso sugieren que la infección por COVID 19 se asocia con un aumento del riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso. Sugerimos iniciar tromboprofilaxis a todos los pacientes hospitalizados por síntomas asociados con una infección por COVID-19, a menos que esté contraindicado, con enoxaparina 40 mg SC diariamente si el clearance de creatinina es mayor a 30 ml/min.

Although the incidence is uncertain, some case reports suggest that COVID 19 infection is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. We suggest starting prophylactic anticoagulant therapy for all patients hospitalized with a symptomatic infection with COVID-19, unless contraindicated, with enoxaparin 40 mg SC daily if creatinine clearance is greater than 30 ml/min.

Humans , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Inpatients , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Argentina , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 470-477, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126146


Vitamin K is found in higher concentrations in dark green plant and in vegetable oils. The adequate intake of vitamin K is 90 and 120ug/day for adult elderly men and women, respectively. The main function of vitamin K is to act as an enzymatic cofactor for hepatic prothrombin synthesis, blood coagulation factors, and anticoagulant proteins. Prominent among the many available anticoagulants is warfarin, an antagonist of vitamin K, which exerts its anticoagulant effects by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K1 and vitamin KH2. From the beginning of the therapy it is necessary that the patients carry out the monitoring through the prothrombin time and the international normalized ratio. However, it is known that very low intake and/or fluctuations in vitamin K intake are as harmful as high consumption. In addition, other foods can interact with warfarin, despite their content of vitamin K. The aim of this study was to gather information on the drug interaction of warfarin with vitamin K and with dietary supplements and other foods.

La vitamina K se encuentra en concentraciones más altas en plantas de color verde oscuro y en aceites vegetales. La ingesta adecuada de vitamina K es de 90 y 120 ug/día para hombres y mujeres adultos mayores, respectivamente. La función principal de la vitamina K es actuar como un cofactor enzimático para la síntesis de protrombina hepática, factores de coagulación de la sangre y proteínas anticoagulantes. Entre los muchos anticoagulantes disponibles destaca la warfarina, un antagonista de la vitamina K, que ejerce sus efectos anticoagulantes al inhibir la síntesis de la vitamina K1 y la vitamina KH2. Desde el inicio de la terapia, es necesario que los pacientes realicen el monitoreo a través del tiempo de protrombina y la proporción normalizada internacional. Sin embargo, se sabe que una ingesta muy baja y/o fluctuaciones en la ingesta de vitamina K son tan dañinas como un consumo alto. Además, otros alimentos pueden interactuar con la warfarina, a pesar de su contenido de vitamina K. El objetivo de este estudio fue recopilar información sobre la interacción de los medicamentos de la warfarina con la vitamina K y con los suplementos dietéticos y otros alimentos.

Humans , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Food-Drug Interactions , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Vitamin K/administration & dosage , Vitamin K/metabolism , Warfarin/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , International Normalized Ratio , Anticoagulants/metabolism
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(4): 218-227, Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137824


Abstract Objective To identify current strategies and recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis associated with the pregnancy-puerperal cycle, a condition of high morbidity and mortality among women. Methods The literature search was performed between May and October 2019, using the PubMed database, including papers published in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The terms thromboembolism (Mesh) AND pregnancy (Mesh) OR postpartum (Mesh) were used as descriptors, including randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and guidelines published from 2009 to 2019, presenting strategies for prevention of thromboembolism during pregnancy and the postpartum. Results Eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Many studies evaluated were excluded because they did not address prevention strategies. We compiled the recommendations from the American Society of Hematologists, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, the American College of Chest Physicians and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Conclusion: There are some gaps in the research, and clinical studies with appropriate methodology are needed to support decisions made regarding the risk of thromboembolism in the perigestational period. Thus, the attention of the professionals involved in the care of pregnant and postpartum women is crucial, as it is a condition associated with high morbidity and mortality.

Resumo Objetivo Identificar as estratégias e recomendações atuais para profilaxia de tromboembolismo venoso associado ao ciclo gravídico-puerperal, condição de alta morbimortalidade entre mulheres. Métodos A busca na literatura ocorreu entre maio e outubro de 2019, com pesquisa na base de dados do PubMed, contemplando trabalhos publicados nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Os termos thromboembolism (Mesh) AND pregnancy (Mesh) OR postpartum (Mesh) foram utilizados como descritores, incluindo ensaios clínicos randomizados, metanálises, revisões sistemáticas e diretrizes publicadas entre 2009 a 20019, apresentando estratégias de prevenção de tromboembolismo venoso durante a gravidez e o pós-parto. Resultados Oito artigos abordando estratégias de tromboprofilaxia primária e secundária durante a gestação, parto e puerpério foram selecionados para a presente revisão sistemática. Muitos estudos avaliados foram excluídos por não abordarem estratégias de prevenção. Foram compiladas as recomendações das seguintes sociedades: American Society of Hematologists, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, American College of Chest Physicians e Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Conclusão Até o presente momento, há algumas lacunas e estudos clínicos com metodologia adequada se fazem necessários para respaldar a tomada de decisão frente ao risco de tromboembolismo venoso no período perigestacional. Torna-se fundamental a atenção dos profissionais envolvidos no atendimento às gestantes e puérperas, pois trata-se de uma condição associada a alta morbimortalidade.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/drug therapy , Postpartum Period , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131008


Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia; its prevalence is near 2% in the general population; in Mexico, more than one-half million people are affected. AF needs to be considered as a public health problem. Because AF is an independent risk factor associated with mortality, due to embolic events, heart failure, or sudden death; early diagnosis is of utmost importance. In unstable patients with a recent onset of AF, electrical cardioversion should be practiced. In stable patients, once thromboembolic measures have been taken, it is necessary to assess whether it is reasonable to administer an antiarrhythmic drug to restore sinus rhythm or performed electrical cardioversion. For recidivating cases of paroxysmal and persistent presentation, the most effective strategy is performed pulmonary vein isolation with either radiofrequency or cryoballoon energy. Permanent AF is that in which recovery of sinus rhythm is not possible, the distinguishing feature of this phase is the uncontrollable variability of the ventricular frequency and could be treated pharmacologically with atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockers or with a VVIR pacemaker plus AV nodal ablation. The presence of AF has long been associated with the development of cerebral and systemic (pulmonary, limb, coronary, renal, and visceral) embolism. The prevention of embolisms in “valvular” AF should perform with Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). For patients with AF not associated with mitral stenosis or a mechanical valve prosthesis, a choice can be made between anticoagulant drugs, VKA, or direct oral anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents have the weakest effect in preventing embolism.

Resumen La fibrilación auricular (FA) es una arritmia frecuente; su prevalencia es cercana al 2% en la población general, en México se ven afectados más de medio millón de personas por eso debe considerarse como un problema de salud pública. Debido a que la FA es un factor de riesgo independiente asociado a mortalidad, por eventos embólicos, insuficiencia cardíaca o muerte súbita, la identificación y diagnóstico temprano es de suma importancia. En el inicio reciente de FA en pacientes inestables, se debe practicar la cardioversión eléctrica. En pacientes estables, una vez que se han tomado medidas tromboembólicas, es necesario evaluar si es razonable administrar un medicamento antiarrítmico para restaurar el ritmo sinusal o realizar una cardioversión eléctrica. Para los casos que recidivan, ya sea paroxística o persistente, la estrategia más efectiva es realizar el aislamiento de la venas pulmonares con radiofrecuencia o crioablación con balón. La FA permanente es aquella en la que no es posible la recuperación del ritmo sinusal, la característica distintiva de esta fase de la FA es la variabilidad incontrolable de la frecuencia ventricular. Puede tratarse farmacológicamente con bloqueadores nodales AV o con un marcapasos VVIR mas ablación del nodo AV. La presencia de FA se ha asociado durante mucho tiempo con el desarrollo de embolia cerebral y sistémica (pulmonar, de extremidades, coronaria, renal y visceral). La prevención de embolias en la FA “valvular” debe realizarse con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK). Para los pacientes con FA no asociados con estenosis mitral o una prótesis valvular mecánica, se puede elegir entre medicamentos anticoagulantes, AVK o anticoagulantes orales directos (DOAC). Los agentes antiplaquetarios tienen el efecto más débil para prevenir la embolia.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cryosurgery/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(1): 69-80, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125039


La enfermedad tromboembólica venosa (ETV) en adultos hospitalizados posee elevada morbimortalidad, es origen de complicaciones crónicas y determina incrementos de costos para el sistema de salud. Desde la publicación de recomendaciones de tromboprofilaxis en pacientes internados en 2013, han surgido nuevas alternativas y estrategias, que nos motivaron a actualizar nuestras recomendaciones. A pesar de que existen diferentes consensos y guías de práctica clínica la adherencia a las mismas es subóptima. Se han actualizado las diferentes alternativas terapéuticas para los adultos hospitalizados (clínicos no quirúrgicos, quirúrgicos no ortopédicos, con y sin cáncer, ortopédicos y embarazadas), poniendo particular atención en los fármacos disponibles en Argentina.

Venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) in hospitalized adults has high morbidity and mortality, is the origin of chronic complications and increased cost for the health system. Since the publication of recommendations for thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients in 2013, new alternatives and strategies have emerged, which motivated us to update our recommendations. Although there are different consensus and clinical practice guidelines, adherence to them is suboptimal. The different therapeutic alternatives for hospitalized adult patients (non-surgical, surgical non-orthopedic, with and without cancer, orthopedic an d pregnant) have been updated, paying particular attention to the drugs available in Argentina.

Humans , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/standards , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Argentina , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(4): e20180325, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090818


RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo visou avaliar a adequação da prescrição de profilaxia de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) após a implementação do protocolo. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo antes e depois realizado em um hospital de cuidados terciários no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Pacientes clínicos e cirúrgicos internados, com 18 anos ou mais, foram avaliados para o risco de TEV e, posteriormente, para adequação da tromboprofilaxia, de acordo com o risco. As avaliações ocorreram antes e depois de uma estratégia de implementação de protocolo, que consistiu em uma plataforma on-line para acessar o protocolo, uma postagem pública do diagrama do protocolo, alertas clínicos na sala de convívio médico, alertas de e-mail e alertas pop-up no sistema informatizado de prescrição médica. O Desfecho principal foi a adequação da prescrição de profilaxia do TEV de acordo com o protocolo. Resultados Foram avaliados 429 pacientes para adequação da tromboprofilaxia (213 antes e 216 depois). A prevalência de adequação aumentou de 54% para 63% (pré e pós-intervenção, respectivamente) e após o ajuste por tipo de paciente e fase do estudo, a razão de prevalência atingiu (RP) = 1,20, intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC) 1,02-1,42. Conclusões os resultados mostraram que a adequação geral da prescrição de tromboprofilaxia foi discretamente melhorada. Apesar desses resultados, este estudo fornece evidências, até o momento, de uma série de estratégias para implementar o protocolo em instituições privadas em países de renda média com uma equipe médica aberta, pois há poucas pesquisas investigando esse tipo de intervenção simples e pragmática.

ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to assess the adequacy of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis prescription after a protocol implementation. Methods This was a before-and-after study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Medical and surgical inpatients aged 18 years or older were assessed for VTE risk and subsequently for thromboprophylaxis adequacy, according to their risk. The evaluations occurred before and after the protocol strategy implementation; it consisted of an online platform to access the protocol, a public posting of the protocol diagram, clinical alerts on the medical staff TV, e-mail alerts, and pop-up alerts on the computerized physician order entry system. The main outcome measure was the adequacy of VTE prophylaxis prescription according to the protocol. Results A total of 429 patients were evaluated for thromboprophylaxis adequacy (213 before and 216 after). The prevalence of adequacy increased from 54% to 63% (pre and post-intervention, respectively), and after adjustment for patient type and phase of the study, the prevalence ratio reached (PR)=1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.42. Conclusion The results showed that the overall appropriateness of thromboprophylaxis prescription was weakly improved. Despite these results, this study provides evidence to date a bunch of strategies for protocol implementations in private institutions in middle-income countries with an open medical staff, as there are few studies investigating these simple and pragmatic interventions.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 38(1): 65-71, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100688


Introducción: la pseudotrombocitopenia inducida por EDTA (ácido etilendiamino tetraacético) es un fenómeno de aglutinación de plaquetas que se presenta in vitro, mediado por anticuerpos anti-plaquetarios de tipo IgG, IgA o IgM dirigidos contra el complejo glucoproteínico IIb/IIIa de la membrana plaquetaria. Caso clínico: presentamos un caso clínico de una paciente de 59 años de edad sometida a recambio valvular aórtico; clínicamente con evolución favorable durante el periodo posquirúrgico, sin embargo, en estudios de control se registra trombocitopenia severa, lo que llevo a cuestionar el uso de anticoagulantes y la necesidad de transfusión de plaquetas. Al realizar estudios complementarios se encontró agregados plaquetarios en el frotis de sangre periférica, posteriormente se realizó recuento seriado de plaquetas y comparación del histograma plaquetario, catalogando el caso como pseudotrombocitopenia. Conclusión: La trombocitopenia por agregados plaquetarios es una condición de baja incidencia (0.07% a 0.1%). Se debe a la agregación de plaquetas in vitro asociada al uso de anticoagulantes, frecuentemente etilendiaminotetraacético (EDTA), en el presente caso también se asoció al uso de citrato de sodio. Este problema no se asocia a sangrado, sin embargo su desconocimiento pudo haber llevado a realizar procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos innecesarios

Introduction: EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) ­induced by pseudothrombocytopenia is a platelet agglutination phenomenon that occurs in vitro, which are mediated by anti-platelet antibodies of the IgG, IgA or IgM type directed against the glycoprotein complex IIb / IIIa of the platelet membrane . Clinical case: This is a clinical case of a 59-yearsold patient undergoing aortic valve replacement, clinically with a favorable evolution during the postoperative period, however, in control studies, severe thrombocytopenia was recorded, which led to questioning the use of anticoagulants and the need for platelet transfusion. When carrying out complementary studies, aggregated platelet were found in the peripheral blood smear, later, a serial platelet count and comparison of the platelet histogram were performed, classifying the case as pseudotrombocytopenia. Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia due to aggregated platelet is a low incidence condition (0.07% to 0.1%). It is due to the aggregation of platelets in vitro associated with the use of anticoagulants [frequently ethylenediamine tetra acetic (EDTA)]; in the present case it was also associated with the use of sodium citrate. This problem is not associated with bleeding; however its lack of knowledge leads to unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Antibodies , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 382-392, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149097


Resumen Introducción: La llegada de los anticoagulantes directos (ACD) ha supuesto un cambio en el tratamiento de la fibrilación auricular no valvular (FANV) en los últimos años. Los objetivos de este estudio son determinar el grado de control de la anticoagulación con antivitamina K (AVK) y su posible implicación en efectos cardiovasculares adversos mayores (ECAM) y evaluar las diferencias entre el grupo en tratamiento con AVK respecto del grupo con ACD. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo que incluyó a pacientes consecutivos diagnosticados con FANV valorados en el Servicio de Cardiología con un seguimiento de 18 meses. Se analizaron diferencias demográficas, clínicas y analíticas entre grupos, incluido el grado de control de la anticoagulación del grupo AVK y su posible relación con ECAM. Resultados: Se incluyó a 273 pacientes: 46.5% tratados con AVK, 42.5% con ACD y 11% sin tratamiento anticoagulante. El control de la anticoagulación con AVK fue del 62.1%, sin diferencias en ECAM en función de control. El grupo ACD presentó menos ECAM que el grupo de AVK (13.4 vs. 4.3%; HR, 0.90; 0.83-0.98; p = 0.01), con una menor mortalidad cardiovascular (0.0 vs. 5.5%; HR, 0.94; 0.90-0.98; p = 0.01) y total (0.9 vs. 12.6%; HR, 0.88; 0.82-0.94; p menor que 0,01), aunque sin diferencias significativas en eventos hemorrágicos (0.9 vs. 4.7%; p = 0.07) ni isquémicos (2.6 vs. 0.8%; p = 0.27). Discusión: Los pacientes con AVK poseen un perfil clínico diferente en comparación con los que reciben ACD. El control de anticoagulación del grupo de AVK fue inadecuado en casi la mitad de los casos. El grupo de AVK presentó más ECAM que el grupo de ACD.

Abstract Introduction: The arrival of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has led to a change in the management of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in recent years. The objectives of this study are to determine the level of therapeutic control of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and its possible involvement in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and to evaluate differences between the group on VKA with respect to the group on DOACs. Patients and methods: Prospective cohort study that included consecutive patients diagnosed with NVAF in Cardiology Consultations with a clinical follow-up of 18 months. Demographic, clinical and analytical differences between groups were analyzed, including the level of therapeutic control of anticoagulation on the VKA group and its association with MACE. Results: Overall, 273 patients were included: 46.5% on VKA, 42.5% on DOACs, 11% without antithrombotic treatment. Patients on VKA spent 62.1% of their time within therapeutic range (TTR by the Rosendaal formule). There were no differences in MACE depending on anticoagulation control. The DOACs group presented lesser MACE rate than the VKA group (13.4 vs. 4.3%; 0.90; HR 0.90; 0.83-0.98 p = 0.01) with lower cardiovascular mortality (0.0 vs. 5.5%; HR, 0.94; 0.90-0.98; p = 0.01) and total mortality (0.9 vs. 12.6%; HR, 0.88; 0.82-0.94; p less 0.01) although without significant differences in hemorrhagic (0.9 vs. 4.7 %; p = 0.07), or ischemic events (2.6 vs. 0.8%, p = 0.27). Conclusions: Patients on VKA have a different clinical profile than those who receive DOACs. Patients on VKA have an inadequate control of the anticoagulation in quite the half of the cases. The VKA group presented more MACE than the DOACs group.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Administration, Oral , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(3): 216-221, jul.-sep. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149070


Abstract Objective: Anticoagulation is the primary management to prevent venous thromboembolism; inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) provide a mechanical prophylactic alternative when anticoagulation is contraindicated. The aim of this study was to evaluate in IVCF patients, whether the initiation of anticoagulation therapy is associated with decreased rates of recurrent thrombotic events and device-related complications. Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients that underwent insertion of IVCF. Subjects with IVCF were studied in two groups: those initiated on anticoagulation (A) and without anticoagulation (NA). Variables as indications for IVCF, anticoagulation, recurrence of thrombosis, complications, and reinterventions were examined. Results: From April 2007 to March 2014, 54 patients underwent IVCF placement; (61% of females), with mean age of 54 years (standard deviation ± 19). 28 (52%) were initiated on anticoagulation, during a mean follow-up period of 28 months, five experienced recurrent thrombosis and three were on the A group (p=0.5); when comparing patients that developed post-thrombotic syndrome, seven were in the A group and seven in the NA. Two patients with IVC rupture were in the A group (p=0.5), and the only case of IVCF migration occurred in the A group. 11 (20%) patients died from comorbidities nonrelated to the device or procedure (four in the A cohort). Conclusions: Patients with IVCF on anticoagulation have equivalent rates of thrombotic events and device-related complications than those patients NA.

Resumen Objetivo: La anticoagulación es la terapia de elección para la prevención de tromboembolismo venoso; los filtros de vena cava inferior (FVCI) proveen una alternativa mecánica profiláctica cuando la anticoagulación está contraindicada. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si la terapia anticoagulante se asocia con una tasa menor de eventos trombóticos recurrentes y complicaciones relacionadas con el dispositivo. Métodos: Los pacientes fueron categorizados en dos grupos: Aquellos a los que se les inicio anticoagulación (A) y aquellos que no (NA). Variables tales como indicación de la colocación del filtro, anticoagulación, recurrencia de trombosis y complicaciones fueron examinadas. Resultados: De abril de 2007 a marzo 2014, a 54 pacientes se les coloco un filtro (61% fueron mujeres), con una media de edad de 54 años [Desviación estándar (DE) ±19. Veintiocho (52%) fueron iniciados en anticoagulación y durante un seguimiento de 28 meses, 5 pacientes experimentaron recurrencia de trombosis, 3 en el grupo A (p=0.5). Al comparar los pacientes que desarrollaron síndrome posflebítico, 7 pertenecieron al grupo A y 7 al grupo NA. Dos pacientes con ruptura de vena cava pertenecieron al grupo A (p=0.5) y el único caso de migración del dispositivo ocurrió en el grupo A. Once (20%) pacientes fallecieron debido a comorbilidades no relacionadas con el dispositivo o el procedimiento. Conclusión: Pacientes con FVCI en anticoagulación tienen tasas de eventos trombóticos y complicaciones asociadas a los dispositivos equivalentes a aquellos pacientes sin anticoagulación.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Vena Cava Filters/adverse effects , Foreign-Body Migration/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Thrombosis/etiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Equipment Failure