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1.
Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2(1): 46-54, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1366088

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a chronic neurologic disease that comes third after cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's disease. Anti-epileptic drugs may affect certain hematological parameters of epileptic patients. Few researches investigated hematological adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs in Libya. Thus, the aim was to evaluate hematological parameters in epileptic children who are on antiepileptic drugs. This retrospective study included 83 pediatric patients with epilepsy recruited from Benghazi Children Hospital, Department of Neurology, from December 2017 to April 2018. Data collected included demographic characteristics, types of epilepsy, anti-epileptic drugs and serum hematological parameters. Hematological parameters recorded included: hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count. In all treated patients, regardless of the number of antiepileptic drugs therapy used, the average levels of hematological parameters were significantly lower in treated group compared to control group (11.64 gm per dl, 34.53%, 27.74 pg and 33.13 gm per dl, respectively). A significant increase (12.12109 per l) in white blood cell counts in treated group was found. Average hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean cell hemoglobin concentration levels were significantly lower in patients on poly-therapy compared to mono-therapy and control groups. Average white blood cell counts were significantly increased in patients on anti-epileptic drugs. In sodium valproate users, levels of hematological parameters were significantly decreased but significantly increased in white blood cell counts. In diazepam users, significant increases in white blood cells and platelet but no difference in other parameters observed. There were no differences in all hematological parameters among patients using carbamazepine except for platelet counts (significantly decreased). In conclusion, there is substantial effect of the anti-epileptic drugs, especially sodium valproate, on hematological parameters of children despite the effects were not critical as the changes were still in the normal range.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Drug Therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Epilepsy , Anticonvulsants , Hematologic Agents
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 881-886, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153454

ABSTRACT

Abstract Regarding the proven anticonvulsant effect of Zhumeria majdae essential oil (ZMEO) in previous studies we were prompted to investigate the ZMEO effects on the tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of morphine and the morphine withdrawal syndrome. Tolerance to the morphine anticonvulsant effect was induced in mice by subcutaneous injection of 2.5 mg/kg of morphine for 4 days. Subsequent doses of ZMEO (20 mg/kg) were used to study the expression and development of morphine tolerance. Clonidine was used as the standard drug to inhibit the morphine withdrawal syndrome symptoms. To study the ZMEO effect on withdrawal syndrome, mice received appropriate morphine values for 4 days and on the fifth day, 60 min before administration of naloxone. The effective dose of ZMEO was determined and the number of jumps, stands and changes in the dry stool weight, as symptoms of withdrawal syndrome were evaluated. The dose of 20 mg/kg of ZMEO decreased the tolerance in development and expression groups significantly. Counting the number of jumping, standing and defecation were assessed 30 min after morphine and 1 h after the vehicle and clonidine. The dose of 40 mg/kg ZMEO decreased all the signs of withdrawal syndrome significantly. ZMEO was analyzed by GC/MS and linalool (53.1%) and camphor (23.8%) were characterized as the main components. The results suggest that ZMEO possesses constituent(s) that have activity against tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of morphine and the morphine withdrawal symptoms.


Resumo Em relação ao efeito anticonvulsivante comprovado do óleo essencial de Zhumeria majdae (ZMEO) em estudos anteriores, fomos instigados a investigar os efeitos do ZMEO em relação à tolerância aos efeitos anticonvulsivantes da morfina e da síndrome de abstinência de morfina. A tolerância ao efeito anticonvulsivante da morfina foi induzida em camundongos por injeção subcutânea de 2,5 mg/kg de morfina por 4 dias. Doses subsequentes de ZMEO (20 mg/kg) foram utilizadas para estudar a expressão e o desenvolvimento da tolerância à morfina. A clonidina foi usada como droga padrão para inibir os sintomas da síndrome de abstinência da morfina. Para estudar o efeito do ZMEO na síndrome de abstinência, os camundongos receberam valores apropriados de morfina por 4 dias e, no 5º dia, 60 minutos antes da administração de naloxona. A dose efetiva de ZMEO foi determinada, e o número de saltos e de permanência e as alterações no peso das fezes secas, conforme os sintomas da síndrome de abstinência, foram avaliados. A dose de 20 mg/kg de ZMEO diminuiu significativamente a tolerância nos grupos de desenvolvimento e expressão. A contagem do número de saltos, permanência e defecação foi avaliada 30 minutos após a morfina e 60 minutos após o veículo e a clonidina. A dose de 40 mg/kg de ZMEO diminuiu significativamente todos os sinais da síndrome de abstinência. O ZMEO foi analisado por GC/MS, e linalol (53,1%) e cânfora (23,8%) foram caracterizados como os principais componentes. Os resultados sugerem que o ZMEO apresenta constituintes que possuem atividade contra a tolerância aos efeitos anticonvulsivantes da morfina e aos sintomas de abstinência da morfina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy , Oils, Volatile , Pentylenetetrazole/toxicity , Pentylenetetrazole/therapeutic use , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/drug therapy , Morphine/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353510

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are rare and potentially fatal adverse hypersen-sitivity reaction to some drugs, especially anticonvulsants.The syndrome affects not only the skin but also other organs, especially the liver. The incidence can vary from 1 to 5 cases per 10.000 patients exposed to anticonvul-sants. The recognition of the syndrome is of fundamental importance since the mortality rate is between 10 and 40%. Once the diagnosis is established, the triggering drug must be identified and discontinued. Corticosteroids are usually associated with therapy. Autoimmune sequelae have been reported, including vitiligo and rarely alopecia. Alopecia universalis is a variant of alopecia areata, characterized by hair loss throughout the body. We report a case of DRESS, associated with two autoimmune dermatological diseases: alopecia universalis and vitiligo. (AU)


RESUMO: A reação a drogas com eosinofilia e sintomas sistêmicos (DRESS) é uma rara e potencialmente fatal reação adversa de hipersensibilidade, decorrente de alguns medicamentos, principalmente os anticonvulsivantes. A síndrome não afeta apenas a pele, mas também outros órgãos, principalmente o fígado. A incidência pode variar de 1 a 5 casos por 10.000 pacientes expostos aos anticonvulsivantes. O reconhecimento da síndrome é de fundamental importân-cia devido a taxa de mortalidade entre 10-40%. Uma vez estabelecido o diagnóstico, deve-se identificar o medica-mento desencadeante e suspendê-lo. O corticosteróide geralmente é associado na terapia. Sequelas autoimunes foram relatadas, incluindo vitiligo e raramente alopecia. A alopecia universal é uma variante da alopecia areata, caracterizada pela perda de pelos em todo o corpo. Relatamos um caso de DRESS, associado a duas doenças au-toimunes dermatológicas: alopecia universal e vitiligo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Vitiligo , Drug Eruptions , Drug Hypersensitivity , Eosinophilia , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Anticonvulsants
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 440-444, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347288

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar evidências atuais sobre topiramato para o estado de mal epiléptico refratário. Métodos: Foi revisada a literatura para investigar a eficácia do topiramato no tratamento de estado de mal epiléptico refratário. Os termos de busca utilizados foram: "status epilepticus", "refractory", "treatment" e "topiramate". Não se empregaram restrições. Resultados: A busca identificou 487 artigos que descreviam o uso de topiramato para tratamento de estado de mal epiléptico refratário e seus resultados. Relatos de caso, revisões e experimentos em animais foram excluídos. Após exclusão de duplicatas e aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, restaram nove estudos. Realizaram-se análises descritivas e qualitativas, com os seguintes resultados: as taxas de resposta, definidas como término de crises até 72 horas após administração de topiramato, variaram entre 27% e 100%. A mortalidade variou de 5,9% a 68%. Desfechos funcionais positivos, definidos como alta hospitalar, volta à funcionalidade basal ou reabilitação, foram documentados por sete estudos, e as taxas variaram entre 4% e 55%. A maioria dos estudos reportou apenas efeitos colaterais leves ou ausentes. Conclusão: Topiramato foi efetivo em abortar estado de mal epiléptico refratário, apresentando baixa mortalidade e boa tolerabilidade. Portanto, topiramato poderia ser uma boa opção como terceira linha para estado de mal epiléptico refratário, porém mais estudos são necessários.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify current evidence on the use of topiramate for refractory status epilepticus. Methods: We reviewed the literature to investigate the efficacy of topiramate in the treatment of refractory status epilepticus. The search terms used were "status epilepticus", "refractory", "treatment" and "topiramate". No restrictions were used. Results: The search yielded 487 articles that reported using topiramate as a treatment for refractory status epilepticus and its outcomes. Case reports, review articles, and animal experiments were excluded. After excluding duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, nine studies were included for analyses. Descriptive and qualitative analyses were performed, and the results were as follows: response rates (defined as termination in-hospital until 72 hours after the administration of topiramate) varied from 27% to 100%. The mortality rate varied from 5.9% to 68%. Positive functional long-term outcomes, defined as discharge, back to baseline or rehabilitation, were documented by seven studies, and the rates ranged between 4% and 55%. Most studies reported no or mild adverse effects. Conclusion: Topiramate was effective in terminating refractory status epilepticus, presented relatively low mortality and was well tolerated. Therefore, topiramate could be a good option as a third-line therapy for refractory status epilepticus, but further studies are necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Topiramate/adverse effects
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 62-68, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287242

ABSTRACT

Resumen La elección de un método anticonceptivo considerado como altamente efectivo en mujeres epilépticas en edad fértil es importante, ya que requiere al momento de indicarlos tener en cuenta los criterios de elegibilidad y las posibles interacciones farmacológicas entre determinados tipos de fármacos anticonvulsivantes (principalmente las inductoras enzimáticas del sistema hepático P450 como: carbamacepina, fenitoína, fenobarbital, oxacarbamacepina, eslicarbazepina, rufinamida, lacosamida y topiramato en dosis altas) y ciertos métodos anticonceptivos (anticonceptivos orales combinados o solo con progesterona e implantes de progesterona subdérmicos) pudiendo acelerar el metabolismo de estas últimas con el consiguiente riesgo de fracaso o viceversa, reduciendo la concentración plasmática (como por ejemplo; lamotrigina) predisponiendo a crisis epilépticas, riesgo de embarazos no deseados, abortos, teratogenicidad por valproato, complicaciones materno fetal y dificultad en el manejo de la actividad epiléptica durante la gestación. En caso de asociarse ambas medicaciones, se debe considerar el uso combinado con un método de barrera u optar por la utilización de inyección de depósito de acetato de medroxiprogesterona o dispositivo intrauterino como anticoncepción. Está demostrado que el asesoramiento sobre planificación familiar en la primera consulta puede influenciar en la elección del método anticonceptivo y el inicio temprano de ácido fólico en caso de búsqueda de fertilidad. En conclusión, se debe analizar junto con las pacientes epilépticas las diferentes opciones terapéuticas con el fin de lograr y optimizar la mejor meta de cada uno.


Abstract The choice of a contraceptive method considered highly effective in epileptic women of childbearing age is important, since it requires taking into account the eligibility criteria and the possible pharmacological interactions between certain types of anti-seizure drugs (mainly enzyme inducers drugs of the hepatic system P450 such as: carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, oxacarbamazepine, eslicarbazepine, rufinamide, lacosamide and topiramate in high doses) and certain contraceptive methods (oral contraceptives combined or only with progesterone and subdermal progesterone implants), which may accelerate the metabolism of the latter with the consequent risk of failure or vice versa, reduction of plasma concentration (such as lamotrigine) predisposing to seizures, risk of unwanted pregnancies, abortions, teratogenicity due to valproato, maternalfetal complications and difficulty in the management of epileptic activity during pregnancy. In case of prescribing both medications, the combined use with a barrier method should be considered or the use of a depot injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate or intrauterine device as contraception should be considered. Family planning counseling at the first visit has been shown to influence the choice of the contraceptive method and the early initiation of folic acid in the search for fertility. In conclusion, the different therapeutic options should be analyzed together with the epileptic patients in order to achieve and optimize the best goal for each one.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Contraception , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
6.
Femina ; 49(3): 173-176, 20210331. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224083

ABSTRACT

A epilepsia, doença cerebral caracterizada pela predisposição à geração de crises epilépticas, representa a patologia neurológica grave mais frequente na gravidez. Quando não acompanhada corretamente, possui um acentuado nível de morbimortalidade materno-fetal, sendo especialmente relacionada a riscos de convulsão materna na gestação e malformações fetais. Este artigo discute o acompanhamento da gestante epiléptica, trazendo recomendações de cuidados no período pré-concepcional, manejo durante o pré-natal, condução do trabalho de parto, peculiaridades no puerpério e tratamento de crises convulsivas, quando necessário. Serão abordados tanto aspectos de tratamento farmacológico quanto de monitoramento e orientações gerais, com o objetivo de contribuir para um suporte mais abrangente e adequado a esse grupo mais vulnerável de pacientes sob o cuidado do médico ginecologista-obstetra e neurologista.(AU)


Epilepsy, which is a brain disease defined for a greater predisposition for epileptic crisis, represents the most frequent neurological pathology during pregnancy. Without proper monitoring it is related to high morbidity and mortality to both mother and baby, especially due to the risks of mother seizure during pregnancy and fetus malformation. This article discusses about health care giving and follow-up for the epileptic pregnant women, pointing recommendations for preconception care, prenatal management, labor conduct, peculiarities in puerperium and treatment of convulsive crisis when needed. There will be approached pharmacological and non-pharmacological aspects, such as follow up exams and general orientations, having as a goal to contribute to an more abrangent and proper support of this more vulnerable group of patients under the care responsibility of obstetrician-gynecologist ad neurologist doctors.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/prevention & control , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Seizures/drug therapy , Carbamazepine/administration & dosage , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Postpartum Period/drug effects , Time-to-Pregnancy/drug effects , Lamotrigine/administration & dosage , Levetiracetam/administration & dosage , Obstetric Labor Complications/prevention & control , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam (LEV) versus phenytoin (PHT) as second-line drugs for the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) in children.@*METHODS@#English and Chinese electronic databases were searched for the randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of LEV and PHT as second-line drugs for the treatment of childhood CSE. RevMan 5.3 software was used for data analysis.@*RESULTS@#Seven studies with 1 434 children were included. The Meta analysis showed that compared with the PHT group, the LEV group achieved a significantly higher control rate of CSE (@*CONCLUSIONS@#LEV has a better clinical effect than PHT in the treatment of children with CSE and does not increase the incidence rate of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11097, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278588

ABSTRACT

Pediatric epilepsy comprises chronic neurological disorders characterized by recurrent seizures. Sodium valproate is one of the common antiseizure medications used for treatment. Glucuronide conjugation is the major metabolic pathway of sodium valproate, carried out by the enzyme uridine 5′-diphosphate (UDP) glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) whose gene polymorphisms may alter the clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the association between UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism and clinical outcome in terms of efficacy and tolerability in pediatric epileptic patients on sodium valproate monotherapy. Pediatric epileptic patients (n=65) aged 2-18 years receiving sodium valproate monotherapy for the past one month were included. Genetic polymorphism patterns of UGT1A6 (T19G, A541G, A552C) were evaluated by PCR-RFLP. Clinical outcome was seizure control during the 6 months observation period. Tolerability was measured by estimating the hepatic, renal, and other lab parameters. Out of 65 patients, TT (40%), TG (57%), and GG (3%) patterns were observed in UGT1A6 (T19G) gene, AA (51%), AG (40%), and GG (9%) in (A541G) gene, and AA (43%), AC (43%), and CC (14%) in (A552C) gene. No statistical difference in clinical outcome was found for different UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism patterns. We concluded that different patterns of UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism were not associated with the clinical outcome of sodium valproate in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Sodium valproate was well-tolerated among pediatric patients with epilepsy and can be used as an effective antiseizure medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/genetics , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/genetics , Seizures/drug therapy , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(2): e202, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1280503

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la hipovitaminosis D se encuentra ampliamente extendida a nivel mundial, con consecuencias clínicas a nivel óseo y extraóseo. Entre los factores que la causan se encuentran los antiepilépticos (AE). En Uruguay no se conoce su prevalencia en niños ni en pacientes que reciben AE. Objetivos: conocer la prevalencia de hipovitaminosis D de niños y adultos en un prestador de salud y compararla con la prevalencia en pacientes bajo tratamiento con AE. Método: estudio descriptivo, transversal, realizado entre marzo y diciembre de 2017. Las variables analizadas fueron: niveles de vitamina D, calcio, fósforo, fosfatasa alcalina y parathormona intacta. Se consideró insuficiencia de vitamina D niveles menores de 30 ng/ml y déficit niveles menores de 20 ng/ml. Resultados: se incluyeron 113 pacientes, 60 niños y 53 adultos. La prevalencia global de insuficiencia de vitamina D fue de 89% y déficit de 60%. En niños expuestos a AE, la media de vitamina D fue 17,5 ng/ml, y en niños no expuestos 19,6 ng/ml. En adultos la media de vitamina D fue de 18,1 en expuestos a AE y 16,9 en no expuestos. La diferencia de medias no fue estadísticamente significativa en niños ni en adultos. Se observaron niveles de calcemia significativamente descendidos en niños y adultos con AE. Conclusiones: la insuficiencia de vitamina D fue cercana a 90% y el déficit superó el 50%. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre grupos en hipovitaminosis D, pero se observaron niveles de calcemia reducidos en los expuestos a AE. Es necesario continuar analizando los factores que la causan y sus consecuencias clínicas.


Summary: Introduction: hypovitaminosis D is a highly spread condition worldwide, with clinical consequences that affect bone directly, among other manifestations. Antiepileptic drugs are among factors that cause this deficiency. In Uruguay, there is no information about hypovitaminosis D in children or patients who receive antiepileptic drugs. Objectives: to learn about the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in children and adults in a health institution and to compare it with the prevalence in patients receiving antiepileptic drugs. Method: descriptive, transversal study conducted from March through December, 2017. The following variables were analysed: vitamin D, calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and intact parathyroid hormone. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as vitamin D levels of less than 30 ng per mL and deficiency as D levels of less than 20 ng per mL. Results: 113 patients were included in the study, 60 of which were children and 53 adults. Global prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 89% and deficiency was 60%. In children taking antiepileptic drugs, the average vitamin D value was 17.5 ng/ml and it was 19.6 ng/ml for those not exposed to those drugs. In adults, the average vitamin D value was 18.1 in the population taking antiepileptic drugs and 16.9 in patients not taking that medication. The difference between average values was not statistically significant in children or adults. Calcemia levels observed were significantly lower in both children and adults taking antiepileptic drugs. Conclusions: vitamin D insufficiency was close to 90% and deficiency was over 50%. No significant differences were found between hypovitaminosis D groups, although reduced calcemia was observed in patients exposed to antiepileptic drugs. Further studies are necessary to analyse factors that cause this condition and its clinical consequences.


Resumo: Introdução: a hipovitaminose D está amplamente difundida em todo o mundo, com consequências clínicas a nível ósseo e extraósseo. Entre os fatores que a causam estão os medicamentos antiepilépticos (AE). No Uruguai, sua prevalência em crianças ou em pacientes adultos recebendo AE não é conhecida. Objetivos: conhecer a prevalência de hipovitaminose D em crianças e adultos em um prestador de serviços de saúde e compará-la com a prevalência em pacientes em tratamento com AE. Método: estudo transversal descritivo realizado entre março e dezembro de 2017. As variáveis analisadas foram: níveis de vitamina D, cálcio, fósforo, fosfatase alcalina e paratormona intacta. Níveis menores que 30 ng / ml e níveis de déficit menores que 20 ng / ml foram considerados como insuficiência de vitamina D. Resultados: foram incluídos 113 pacientes, 60 crianças e 53 adultos. A prevalência global de insuficiência de vitamina D foi de 89% e déficit de 60%. Em crianças expostas à AE, a média de vitamina D foi de 17,5 ng / ml e em crianças não expostas de 19,6 ng / ml. Em adultos, a média de vitamina D foi de 18,1 nos expostos ao AE e de 16,9 nos não expostos. A diferença nas médias não foi estatisticamente significativa nas crianças nem nos adultos. Níveis de cálcio significativamente diminuídos foram observados em crianças e adultos com EA. Conclusões: a insuficiência de vitamina D foi próxima a 90% e o déficit ultrapassou 50%. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos na hipovitaminose D, mas níveis reduzidos de cálcio foram observados naqueles expostos a EA. É necessário continuar analisando os fatores que o causam e suas consequências clínicas.


Subject(s)
Vitamin D Deficiency , Hypocalcemia , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
10.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(4): 166-170, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344802

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia es una enfermedad neurológica frecuente que afecta a cerca de 50.000 millones de personas en el mundo. En Chile, la prevalencia estimada es de 10.8 a 17 por 1.000 habitantes. La primera opción para su tratamiento son los fármacos antiepilépticos (FAE) los cuales logran un aceptable control de enfermedad en la mayoría de los casos, sin embargo, tienen la potencialidad de desencadenar una serie de efectos adversos destacando entre ellos el desarrollo de hipocalcemia (HC) secundaria a hipovitaminosis D (HD), alteración que por lo general es leve y asintomática. Presentamos el caso de una mujer perimenopausica con antecedente de epilepsia en tratamiento con anticonvulsivante que desarrolla hipocalcemia severa. Además revisamos los mecanismos descritos a través de los cuales los FAE afectan el metabolismo de esta vitamina.


Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that affects about 50,000 million people in the world. The estimated prevalence is 10.8 to 17 per 1.000 inhabitants in Chile. The first option for its treatment are antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which achieve an acceptable control of the disease in most cases, however, they have the potential to trigger a series of adverse effects (AE) highlighting among them the development of hypocalcemia (HC) secondary to hypovitaminosis D (HD), an alteration that is generally mild and asymptomatic. We present the case of a perimenopausal woman with a history of epilepsy under treatment with an anticonvulsant who develops severe hypocalcemia. We also review the mechanisms described through which AEDs affect the metabolism of this vitamin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Vitamin D/metabolism , Epilepsy/metabolism , Hypercalcemia/etiology
11.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(1): 1-9, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1141391

ABSTRACT

Objective: Gingival hyperplasia (GH) is one of the side effects of anticonvulsant drugs. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of GH associated with the use of anticonvulsant, through a systematic review. Material and Methods: Systematic search was done at databases Pubmed and Embase between January 1984 and March of 2020 for identification of articles addressing the prevalence of GH associated with the use of anticonvulsant drugs. The methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS) was independently assessed for quality in the selected papers. Results: The search identified 4.471 references. Nine articles were selected and evaluated 632 participants. All of the studies included in the systematic review showed a low risk of bias. The anticonvulsants used by patients were carbamazepine, ethosuximide, phenytoin, primidone, phenobarbital, sodium valproate. The studies showed a correlation between different types of anticonvulsants and GH prevalence, with a range from 0% to 73%. Among the anticonvulsants used, phenytoin showed the greatest incidence of GH, varying between 15.61% and 73% in patients. Conclusion: In the analysis of the results obtained in the literature, it is possible to notice that the great majority of studies presented incidence of GH associated with anticonvulsant use. However, further studies are necessary to understand the anticonvulsant action mechanism inducing GH, as well as the prevention forms, given that GH is a significant side effect. (AU)


Objetivo: Hiperplasia gengival (HG) é um dos efeitos colaterais das drogas anticonvulsivantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de HG associada ao uso de anticonvulsivantes, por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Material e Métodos: A busca sistemática foi realizada nas bases de dados Pubmed e Embase entre janeiro de 1984 e março de 2020 para identificação de artigos que abordassem a prevalência de HG associada ao uso de drogas anticonvulsivantes. Foi avaliado independentemente, o risco de viés através do "Methodological index for non-randomized studies" (MINORS), para análise da qualidade dos trabalhos selecionados. Resultados: A pesquisa identificou 4.471 referências. Nove artigos foram selecionados e avaliaram 632 participantes. Todos os estudos incluídos na revisão sistemática mostraram baixo risco de viés. Os anticonvulsivantes utilizados pelos pacientes foram carbamazepina, etossuximida, fenitoína, primidona, fenobarbital e valproato de sódio. Os estudos mostraram correlação entre os diferentes tipos de anticonvulsivantes e a prevalência de HG, com variação entre 0% a 73%. Entre os anticonvulsivantes utilizados, a fenitoína apresentou a maior incidência de HG, variando entre 15,61% e 73% em pacientes. Conclusão: Na análise dos resultados obtidos na literatura, é possível notar que a grande maioria dos estudos apresentou incidência de HG associada ao uso de anticonvulsivantes. No entanto, estudos adicionais são necessários para compreender o mecanismo de ação do anticonvulsivante para a indução da HG, bem como as formas de prevenção, dado que a HG é um efeito colateral significativo (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenobarbital , Phenytoin , Primidone , Carbamazepine , Prevalence , Valproic Acid , Ethosuximide , Gingival Hyperplasia , Anticonvulsants
12.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(10): 588-591, 20200000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362543

ABSTRACT

La encefalopatía es un cuadro clínico característico de múltiples procesos neurológicos y sistémicos que no hay que confundir con la encefalitis, que es una inflamación cerebral, normalmente causadas por infecciones virales. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 58 años con enfermedad renal crónica en diálisis peritoneal, que ingresa por sepsis de origen peritoneal con clínica de encefalopatía y crisis epilépticas parciales. La paciente presenta lesiones de herpes zóster en zona lumbar y se practica punción lumbar, con resultado del líquido cefalorraquídeo positivo para virus varicela-zóster, por lo que completa tratamiento con aciclovir. En la resonancia magnética no presenta ninguna alteración, y una segunda punción lumbar tras mejoría de las lesiones cutáneas es negativa. El curso de la paciente es fluctuante durante el ingreso, con mejoría significativa tras antibióticos, hemodiálisis y tratamiento antiepiléptico, y no respondiendo al aciclovir. La etiología sospechada es la debida al contexto infeccioso y metabólico de la paciente. Probablemente el resultado del líquido fue contaminado por la proximidad de las lesiones herpéticas, ya que además no es frecuente encontrar encefalitis infecciosas agudas sin alteraciones en las pruebas de imagen. La mejoría final fue debida tanto a la medicación antiepiléptica como al inicio de hemodiálisis


Encefalopathy is a clinical syndrome ocurring in multiple neurologic and systemic diseases which must not be mistaken with encephalitis, that is a cerebral inflammatory process, often caused by viral infections. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman with chronic renal failure receiving peritoneal dyalisis, who was admitted into hospital for sepsis secondary to infectious peritonitis, with encefalopathy and epileptic partial seizures. The patient presented lumbar herpetic cutaneous lesions and a lumbar punction is practiced, with a positive result in the cerebrospinal fluid for varicella-zoster virus. Treatment with aciclovir was completed. Her cerebral magnetic resonance was absolutely normal, and a second lumbar puncture when herpetic lesions got better was negative. The course is fluctuating during the stay, and a significant clinical improvement occurs after antibiotics, hemodyalisis and antiepileptic treatment. The patient did not respond to aciclovir. The suspected ethiology is the infectious and metabolic context. Positivity for the virus is thought to be a contamination from the nearby herpetic lesions. Also, it is rare for an infectious acute encephalitis to present with normal radiologic imaging. The final clinical improvement was probably due to hemodyalisis initiation and the antiepileptic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Brain Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis , Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster/diagnosis , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
13.
Med. infant ; 27(2): 133-137, Diciembre 2020. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1148492

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los errores de medicación (EM) causan una elevada morbimortalidad y generan costos innecesarios. El servicio de emergencias (SE) presenta un mayor riesgo de EM que otras áreas. El desarrollo de una herramienta que estandarice el uso de fármacos podría mejorar la seguridad y el proceso de medicación. Objetivos: Evaluar las mejoras en el proceso de medicación mediante el uso de tablas de medicación (TM) durante la atención del estado epiléptico (EE). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo antes y después no controlado. La intervención fue el desarrollo e implementación de TM. Se relevó in situ la prescripción, preparación y administración de fármacos incluidos en las TM durante segunda quincena de Octubre y mes de Noviembre 2016, previo a la implementación de la herramienta, y en el mismo período de 2017, luego de la inducción e implementación de las tablas. Se registraron los EM y se categorizaron de acuerdo a la etapa del proceso en que ocurrieron. Resultados: En el período pre-intervención se realizaron 14 registros, 86% (12) tenía al menos un error; 57% (8) errores en la etapa de prescripción, 57% (8) en la de preparación y 21% (3) en la de administración. En el período post-intervención se realizaron 17 registros, 12% (2) tenía por lo menos un EM. No se registraron errores en la fase de prescripción, hubo 12% (2) de errores de preparación y 6% (1) de administración. Conclusión: La implementación de las TM para la estandarización del uso de fármacos en EE resultó una medida muy positiva, mejorando la seguridad en el proceso de medicación (AU)


Introduction: Medication errors (ME) are associated with high morbidity mortality and lead to unnecessary costs. The risk of ME is higher at the emergency department (ED) than in other areas. Developing a tool that standardizes drug use may improve safety and medication processes. Objectives: To evaluate improvements in the medication process by using medication cards (MCs) during status epilepticus (SE) care. Materials and methods: An uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted. The intervention was the development and implementation of MCs. The in situ prescription, preparation, and administration of drugs included in the MCs was recorded during the second half of October and November 2016, prior to the implementation of the tool, and in the same period of 2017, after the introduction and implementation of the MCs. ME were recorded and categorized according to the stage of the process in which they occurred. Results: In the pre-intervention period 14 episodes were recorded; in 86% (12) at least one error occurred; 57% (8) were ME in the prescription stage, 57% (8) were ME in the preparation stage, and 21% (3) were ME in the administration stage. In the post-intervention period 17 errors were recorded, in 12% (2) at least one ME occurred. No errors were recorded in the prescription stage, 12% (2) were preparation errors, and 6% (1) administration errors. Conclusion: The implementation of MCs for the standardization of medications used in the RU was successful, improving safety in the medication process (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy , Hospital Rapid Response Team/statistics & numerical data , Medication Errors/prevention & control , Medication Errors/statistics & numerical data , Medication Systems, Hospital/organization & administration , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Quality Improvement , Patient Safety
14.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(4): 31-34, out.-dez. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140812

ABSTRACT

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is the most commom form of focal epilepsy in adults. Its clinical features include focal seizure, dysmnestic symptoms ­ such as déjà vu or jamais vu ­ and autonomic or psychic aura. We reported two cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with similar clinical features, but with entirely different etiologies. Mesial temporal sclerosis contributes up to 70% of all mesial temporal lobe epilepsy cases and MRI usually shows reduced hippocampal volume and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging. Incomplete hippocampal inversion has uncertain relation with epilepsy and is characterized by an atypical verticalized and medially positioned anatomical pattern of the hippocampus and also a deep collateral sulcus.


A epilepsia do lobo temporal mesial é a forma mais comum de epilepsia focal em adultos. Suas características clínicas incluem crises focais, sintomas dismnésicos - como déjà vu ou jamais vu - e aura autonômica ou psíquica. Relatamos dois casos de pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal mesial com manifestações clínicas semelhantes, mas com etiologias completamente diferentes. A esclerose mesial temporal contribui com até 70% de todos os casos de epilepsia do lobo temporal mesial e, geralmente, na ressonância magnética, apresenta atrofia do hipocampo e hipersinal na imagem ponderada em T2. A rotação incompleta do hipocampo possui uma relação incerta com a epilepsia e é caracterizada por alteração da estrutura interna do hipocampo, com um sulco colateral verticalizado e profundo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/diagnosis , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/drug therapy , Seizures , Carbamazepine/administration & dosage , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Hippocampus/abnormalities , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(2): 20-29, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102906

ABSTRACT

In February 2020, the pandemic disease designated COVID-19, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown to be able to cause severe illness in some patients. Recent studies have hypothesized that the SARS-CoV-2 exploits the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to gain entry inside the cells and so reach the central nervous system1. Amid this context, we have about 50 million people with epilepsy taking antiseizure drugs (ASDs) and or other medications (eg.: steroids, Cannabidiol, etc.) that are at risk to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 virus. So, we did an extensive review in the literature searching for recent studies that had explored the effects of the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection and epilepsy. We did not find evidence of poor outcomes between epilepsy and COVID-19. Regarding ASDs, we have found that enzyme inducers and inhibitors can have significant interactions with drugs that have been used to treat COVID-19 such as antiretrovirals, antibiotics, and antimalarial drugs. In contrast, others have fewer or no interactions with them as such as benzodiazepines, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Topiramate, Perampanel, and so on. Besides that, the management of seizures in epileptic patients and status epilepticus should not be different from the usual protocol. However, the acknowledgment of these potential drug interactions could help in the right choice of ASDs, and also be aware of potential risk drug combinations and the importance in some cases of close monitoring of serum levels and adverse events.


Desde de Fevereiro de 2020, a doença pandêmica conhecida como COVID-19, causada pelo Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tem se mostrado capaz de acometer gravemente alguns pacientes. Estudos recentes levantaram hipóteses de que o SARSCoV-2 explora o receptor da enzima conversora de angiotensina 2 (ACE2) para entrar no interior das células e atingir o sistema nervoso central1 . Nesse contexto, temos cerca de 50 milhões de pessoas com epilepsia em uso de medicações antiepilépticas (DAEs) e ou outras medicações (como corticoesteroides, Canabidiol, etc.). Por isso, fizemos uma extensa revisão na literatura, buscando estudos recentes que exploraram os efeitos do papel da infecção por SARS-CoV-2 e da epilepsia. Até o momento, não há evidências de que pessoas com epilepsia apresentam prognóstico ruim no que se refere ao COVID-19. No que se refere aos antiepilépticos, foi encontrado que indutores e inibidores enzimáticos são os que apresentam mais interação medicamentosa com drogas utilizadas no tratamento do COVID-19, tais como antirretrovirais, antibióticos, e drogas antimaláricas, enquanto outras apresentam pouca ou nenhuma interação com esses. Além disso, o manejo de crises epilépticas e estado de mal epiléptico não deve diferente do protocolo usual. No entanto, o reconhecimento das potenciais interações medicamentosas nesse contexto pode auxiliar na escolha correta do antiepiléptico, e alertar sobre os potenciais riscos de combinação entre drogas e a importância de em alguns casos monitorizar de perto os níveis séricos e eventos adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epilepsy/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Drug Interactions , Epilepsy/complications , COVID-19/complications , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 197-203, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223696

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN La fenitoína es usada con mucha frecuencia en nuestro medio, por lo que se requiere hacer estudios de monitorización terapéutica, que contribuya a minimizar los efectos adversos y optimizar la terapia farmacológica. En ese contexto, nuestro objetivo ha sido determinar el índice nivel/dosis de la fenitoína en pacientes epilépticos voluntarios de Mérida. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y por reclutamiento consecutivo concurrente, conformado por 30 pacientes voluntarios con diagnóstico de epilepsia. Las muestras de suero se obtuvieron en niveles mínimos de pacientes que estaban en tratamiento con fenitoína durante 1 mes. Los niveles del fármaco se cuantificaron por el método de Inmunoensayo de enzima donante clonada en el equipo Indiko Thermo Scientific. RESULTADOS El índice nivel/dosis fue de 1,4 y 1,6, la concentración plasmática de 4,8mg/l y 8,0mg/l, la capacidad metabólica de 388,4 y 462,9mg/día, respectivamente en mujeres y hombres. Mientras que el nivel de la concentración plasmática en el estado estacionario fue de 6,5mg/l y 5,5mg/l, la dosis de carga máxima de 237,3mg y de 395,6mg, respectivamente en mujeres y hombres con epilepsia de la ciudad de Mérida. CONCLUSIONES Nuestros resultados sugieren que se debe individualizar la dosis en base al índice nivel/dosis de cada paciente, ya que no se puede extrapolar para todos los pacientes con epilepsia, debido a diversos factores como al fenotipo metabólico y al uso de fármacos inductores e inhibidores enzimáticos.


INTRODUCTION Phenytoin is used very frequently in our environment, so it is necessary to do studies of therapeutic monitoring, which helps to minimize adverse drug reaction and optimize pharmacological therapy. In this context, our objective was to determine the level/dose index of phenytoin in volunteer epileptic patients from Mérida. METHODS A descriptive, observational and consecutive concurrent recruitment study was carried out, consisting of 30 volunteer patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy. The serum samples were obtained in minimum levels from patients who were in treatment with phenytoin for 1 month. The levels of the drug were quantified by the method of donor enzyme immunoassay cloned in the Indiko Thermo Scientific equipment. RESULTS The level/dose index was 1,4 and 1,6, the plasma concentration of 4,8mg/l and 8,0mg/l, the metabolic capacity of 388,4 and 462,9mg/day, respectively in women and men. While the level of plasma concentration at steady state was 6,5mg/l and 5,5mg/l, the maximum loading dose of 237,3mg and 395,6mg, respectively in women and men with epilepsy of the city of Mérida. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that the dose should be individualized based on the level/dose index of each patient, since it can not be extrapolated for all patients with epilepsy, due to various factors such as the metabolic phenotype and the use of enzyme-inducing drugs and inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Phenytoin/blood , Phenytoin/pharmacokinetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Monitoring , Anticonvulsants/blood , Anticonvulsants/pharmacokinetics
19.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 8(1): e012, ene.-abr. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1095512

ABSTRACT

Los signos de desgaste y rechinamiento de los dientes están asociados con el bruxismo y se observan comúnmente en los consultorios dentales. En este reporte, las autoras describen un caso de bruxismo probablemente inducido por el medicamento anticonvulsivo Valpromed®, que fue tratado con éxito mediante una férula dental. El paciente llegó a la clínica declarando que deseaba mejorar su estética. En el examen clínico, se observó un desgaste moderado de las superficies oclusales de los molares asociado con antecedentes de rechinamiento nocturno, característico del bruxismo del sueño. Hace aproximadamente 5 meses, el paciente comenzó la terapia con Valpromed® por orden del neurólogo, debido a episodios de migraña. El medicamento se prescribió para evitar el riesgo de convulsiones ya que el paciente había sufrido de neurocisticercosis durante la infancia. Según los consejos del especialista en rehabilitación oral y la literatura revisada, las autoras concluyeron que el bruxismo podía atribuirse a la terapia con el medicamento anticonvulsivo. Para el tratamiento, se escogió una técnica mínimamente invasiva. Aunque el paciente todavía está en controles, la férula dental parece ser un enfoque prometedor para el tratamiento de esta afección. (AU)


Signs of tooth wear and grinding are associated with bruxism, which is commonly observed in dental offices. Here, the authors describe a case of bruxism probably induced by the anti-seizure drug Valpromed®, that was successfully treated with a dental splint. A man was attended in the dental clinic for improvement of dental aesthetics. On clinical examination moderate overwear of the occlusal surfaces of molars was observed associated with a history of nightly grinding, characteristic of sleep bruxism. Approximately 5 months previously, the patient had started therapy with Valpromed® due to episodes of migraine. The drug had been prescribed by a neurologist to prevent convulsions since the patient had had neurocysticercosis during childhood. Based on the advice of an oral rehabilitation specialist and the literature reviewed, it was concluded that the presence of bruxism in this patient may be attributed to the therapy with the anti-seizure medication. Although the patient is still under controls, the dental splint seems to be a promising approach for the treatment of this condition. The patient was treated with a minimally invasive dental splint and is monitored periodically, showing good results. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Periodontal Splints , Bruxism , Mouth Rehabilitation , Anticonvulsants
20.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(2): 254-257, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138001

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bilateral fracture of the femoral neck secondary to seizure is a rare event. The occurrence of these lesions is related to vigorous tonic-clonic muscular contractions and to the use of anticonvulsive medications. Femoral neck fractures in young adults treated with total hip arthroplasty are the exception, and the choice of surgical access should consider several factors; the direct anterior approach is a possibility for total hip arthroplasty. The authors present the case of a 36-year-old male with bilateral fracture of the femoral neck secondary to seizure, and in regular use of phenytoin. Due to the risk of fixation failure and prolonged evolution time, bilateral total hip arthroplasty was the procedure of choice. The choice of the approach should take into consideration the patient's anatomy, material availability, and surgeon's experience. Thus, the greater ease of preparation and positioning of the patient, the shorter hospital stay, the early postoperative rehabilitation, and the mastery of the technique by the surgeon, are possible justifications for the adoption of the direct anterior approach.


Resumo A fratura bilateral do colo do fêmur secundária à crise convulsiva é um evento raro. A ocorrência dessas lesões está relacionada a contrações musculares tônico-clônicas vigorosas e ao uso de medicações anticonvulsivantes. As fraturas do colo do fêmur no adulto jovem tratadas com artroplastia total do quadril são exceção, e a escolha do acesso cirúrgico deve levar em consideração diversos fatores; o acesso anterior direto é uma possibilidade para artroplastia total do quadril. Os autores apresentam o caso de um homem de 36 anos com fratura bilateral do colo do fêmur secundária a crise convulsiva e em uso regular de fenitoína. Devido ao risco de falha da fixação e ao tempo de evolução prolongado, optou-se pela artroplastia total do quadril bilateral. A escolha da via de acesso deve levar em consideração a anatomia do paciente, a disponibilidade de materiais e a experiência do cirurgião. Dessa forma, a maior facilidade de preparo e posicionamento do paciente, o menor tempo de internação, a reabilitação pós-operatória precoce e o domínio da técnica pelo cirurgião são possíveis justificativas para a adoção do acesso anterior direto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Rehabilitation , Seizures , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Epilepsy , Fractures, Bone , Femoral Neck Fractures , Hip , Length of Stay , Muscle Contraction , Anticonvulsants
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