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1.
Afr J Pharm Res Dev (AJOPRED) ; 16(1): 39-49, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1553329

ABSTRACT

The burden of epilepsy in developing countries made medicinal plants like Xylopia aethiopica fruit; Khaya grandifoliola, Alstonia boonei etc an alternative source in epilepsy management in the south-western part of Nigeria. The aim of the study was to provide pharmacological rationale for the ethnomedicinal use of the plants in epilepsy management. The oral medial lethal dose of methanol stem bark extracts of Alstonia boonei (MEAB) and Khaya grandifoliola (MEKG) and methanol fruit extract of Xylopia aethiopica (MEXAF) were done in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation Development guideline. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical profiling of the extracts was done. Anticonvulsant screening was carried out on the extracts (doses: 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg) using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure and maximum electroshock tests (MEST). Results showed that the MEXAF has the highest amount of phytochemicals except for saponins in MEKG; and MEAB with the least amount (but higher alkaloid) than MEKG. The TLC showed different bands of spots of the extracts. In the PTZ test, MEXAF showed 100 % protection against mortality at 300 mg/kg; MEAB with 66.67 % protection at 75 mg/kg and MEKG 0 % protection. MEAB, MEKG and MEXAF nonsignificantly increased the onset of seizure and latency to death. In the MEST, MEXAF, MEKG and MEAB at 75 mg/kg protected 50, 33.3 and 16.67% of the animals against tonic hind limb extension respectively and nonsignificantly (p˃0.05) decreased the recovery time at a dose of 75 mg/kg. It was concluded that the extracts possess anticonvulsant activities hence, the pharmacological credence for the ethnomedicinal use of these plants in treating epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Seizures , Plant Extracts , Alstonia , Diagnosis , Epilepsy , Xylopia , Anticonvulsants , Plants, Medicinal , Prevalence , Meliaceae , Phytochemicals
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1596-1602, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528809

ABSTRACT

El ácido valproico (VPA) es un fármaco antiepiléptico teratógenico que, al ser administrado durante etapas tempranas del embarazo, puede producir alteraciones en el desarrollo embriofetal, las que se manifiestan tanto a nivel del sistema nervioso como del testículo. No obstante, se ha reportado que la administración de vitamina E (VE) podría revertir dichas alteraciones. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto protector de la VE a nivel testicular en fetos y ratones púberes expuestos a VPA durante la fase embrionaria de su desarrollo. Se utilizó un total de 30 ratones hembra adultas gestantes (Mus musculus) cepa BALB/c, las cuales se dividieron en 6 grupos. El estudio contempló el análisis de fetos machos a los 17,5 días post-coital (dpc) y machos juveniles a las 6 semanas post-natal. A los grupos 1 y 4 se les administró 0,3 mL de solución fisiológica (grupos control para 17,5 dpc y 6 semanas postnatal, respectivamente). A los grupos 2 y 5 se les suministró la cantidad de 600 mg/kg de VPA (grupos VPA), en tanto que a los grupos 3 y 6 se les aplicó la misma dosis de VPA complementada con 200 UI de VE (grupos VPA+VE). Se describió la histología normal y patológica del compartimento peritubular del testículo. En los grupos VPA se evidenció una degeneración de la pared peritubular, y atrofia de túbulos seminíferos, así como exfoliación de las células germinales. Por el contrario, en los grupos VPA+VE tales signos no fueron observados y la morfología presentó aspecto normal solo con algunas alteraciones focales. Estos resultados corroboran el hecho que la administración de VE contrarresta en parte, los efectos deletéreos que ocasiona el VPA.


SUMMARY: Valproic acid (VPA) is a teratogenic antiepileptic drug that, when administered during the early stages of pregnancy, can produce alterations in embryo-fetal development, which manifest both at the level of the nervous system and the testicle. However, it has been reported that the administration of vitamin E (VE) could reverse these alterations. The study aimed to determine the protective effect of VE at the testicular level in fetuses and pubertal mice exposed to VPA during the embryonic phase of their development. 30 pregnant adult female mice (Mus musculus) BALB/c strain were used, which were divided into 6 groups. The study included the analysis of male fetuses at 17.5 days post-coital (dpc) and juvenile males at 6 weeks post-natal. Groups 1 and 4 were administered 0.3 mL of physiological solution. Groups 2 and 5 were given 600 mg/kg of VPA (VPA groups), while groups 3 and 6 were given the same dose of VPA supplemented with 200 IU of VE (VPA+VE). The normal and pathological histology of the peritubular compartment of the testis was described. In the VPA groups, degeneration of the peritubular wall, and atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, as well as exfoliation of the germ cells, were evident. On the contrary, in the VPA+VE groups such signs were not observed and the morphology presented a normal appearance with only some focal alterations. These results corroborate the fact that the administration of VE partially counteracts the deleterious effects caused by VPA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Testis/drug effects , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Valproic Acid/toxicity , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Seminiferous Tubules/cytology , Seminiferous Tubules/drug effects , Testis/cytology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Anticonvulsants/toxicity
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202696, abr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418352

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El estado epiléptico constituye la emergencia neurológica más frecuente. Si bien la mortalidad en niños es baja, su morbilidad puede superar el 20 %. Objetivo. Conocer las pautas de manejo del estado epiléptico referidas por médicos pediatras que atienden esta patología en forma habitual. Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, transversal, basado en una encuesta a médicos de tres hospitales pediátricos monovalentes de gestión pública de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Resultados. Se administraron 292 encuestas (la tasa de respuesta completa alcanzó el 86 %); el 77 % se administró a pediatras y el 16 %, a especialistas en cuidados intensivos. Un 47 % de los participantes refiere indicar la primera benzodiacepina en el tiempo correcto; el 56 % utilizar diazepam intrarrectal en ausencia de un acceso intravenoso; el 95 % elige lorazepam como benzodiacepina inicial en caso de contar con acceso intravenoso; el 58 % refiere iniciar la etapa de fármacos de segunda línea en tiempo adecuado; el 84 % opta por fenitoína como fármaco inicial de segunda línea, un 33 % no cronometra el tiempo durante el tratamiento. La adherencia global a las recomendaciones internacionales fue del 17 %. Conclusiones. Nuestro estudio advierte una baja adherencia referida de los pediatras a las guías internacionales, en particular en las decisiones tiempo-dependientes. También se observó mayor heterogeneidad en las conductas terapéuticas a medida que se avanza en el algoritmo de tratamiento.


Introduction. Status epilepticus is the most common neurological emergency. Although mortality in children is low, morbidity may exceed 20%. Objective. To evaluate the management of status epilepticus by pediatricians who usually treat this condition. Population and methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional study based on a survey administered to physicians from 3 pediatric hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires. Results. A total of 292 surveys were administered (complete response rate as high as 86%); 77% were administered to pediatricians and 16% to intensive care specialists. Forty-seven percent of the participants reported that they administer the first dose of a benzodiazepine within the correct timeframe; 56% use intrarectal diazepam when intravenous access is not available; 95% choose lorazepam as the initial benzodiazepine if an intravenous access is available; 58% initiate the administration of a second-line drug within the correct timeframe; 84% administer phenytoin as the first-choice, second-line drug; and 33% do not measure treatment time. Overall adherence to international recommendations was 17%. Conclusions. Our study highlights poor adherence of pediatricians to international guidelines, particularly in time-dependent decisions. Greater heterogeneity was observed in treatment approaches as the treatment algorithm progressed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Status Epilepticus/diagnosis , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diazepam/therapeutic use , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
4.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 6(1): 78-85, ene. 30, 2023.
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1413719

ABSTRACT

Como parte de las terapias alternativas para el control de síntomas refractarios en enfermedades avanzadas destaca el uso de cannabidiol. Este se ha estudiado en patologías como enfermedad de Alzheimer, Parkinson y trastornos convulsivos. Los síndromes convulsivos están presentes en todos los grupos etarios. Dentro de este, la epilepsia es refractaria hasta en un 40 % de los pacientes, quienes han demostrado disminución en la frecuencia de convulsiones con el uso concomitante de cannabidiol y antiepilépticos convencionales, con efectos secundarios leves, como diarrea y somnolencia. Con el objetivo de determinar el uso del cannabidiol para el control de síntomas neurológicos refractarios en pacientes con síndromes convulsivos y enfermedades neurodegenerativas, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed, Scopus y Embase. Se incluyeron metaanálisis, artículos originales, revisiones sistemáticas y bibliográficas, y documentos de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, publicados entre 2017 y 2022. Los efectos del cannabidiol lo convierten en una alternativa, adicional a la terapéutica convencional, para el control de síntomas en trastornos neurológicos, disminuyendo de forma sostenida el número total de episodios con un perfil de seguridad aceptable. Existe limitada información respecto al uso de cannabidiol en enfermedades neurodegenerativas, por lo que no se ha evidenciado su efectividad


As part of the alternative therapies for the control of refractory symptoms in advanced diseases, the use of cannabidiol stands out. It has been studied in pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and convulsive disorders. Convulsive syndromes are present in all age groups. Within this group, epilepsy is refractory in up to 40 % of patients, who have shown a decrease in the frequency of seizures with the concomitant use of cannabidiol and conventional antiepileptics, with mild side effects such as diarrhea and drowsiness. To determine the use of cannabidiol for the control of refractory neurological symptoms in patients with seizure syndromes and neurodegenerative diseases, a literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Embase. Meta-analyses, original articles, systematic and literature reviews, and documents from the Pan American Health Organization, published between 2017 and 2022, were included. The effects of cannabidiol make it an alternative, in addition to conventional therapeutics, for symptom control in neurological disorders, sustainably decreasing the total number of episodes with an acceptable safety profile. There is limited information regarding the use of cannabidiol in neurodegenerative diseases, the reason its effectiveness has not been demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Seizures , Syndrome , Cannabidiol , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Anticonvulsants , Nervous System Diseases
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431754

ABSTRACT

Los riesgos teratogénicos ocasionados por la exposición intrauterina a fármacos antiepilépticos (FAE) son conocidos, por lo que su prescripción se mantiene bajo estricto control. Describir los efectos adversos fetales de la exposición a FAE durante la gestación, reportados en la literatura durante el período 2016-2022. Revisión sistematizada de estudios que reportaron los efectos adversos fetales inducidos por la exposición a FAE en mujeres embarazadas en tratamiento por diagnósticos neurológicos, principalmente de epilepsia. La búsqueda se realizó en PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Lilacs y SciELO. Se identificaron 37 artículos distribuidos en 13 países de Asia, Europa, América del Norte y Oceanía. Se observaron resultados perinatales adversos, tanto físicos como cognitivos, en la mayoría de los estudios. Los fármacos identificados como los más utilizados en los últimos años fueron valproato, topiramato, carbamazepina, lamotrigina y levetiracetam. Los FAE tienen potencial teratogénico en distintos grados de riesgo, provocando anomalías congénitas o efectos adversos en múltiples sistemas del cuerpo humano, siendo los sistemas nervioso, circulatorio y osteomuscular los más afectados.


The teratogenic risks caused by intrauterine exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AED) are known, so their prescription is kept under strict control. To describe the fetal adverse effects AED exposure during gestation, reported in the literature during the period 2016-2022. Systematized review of studies that reported fetal adverse effects induced for the exposure to AED in pregnant women in treatment for neurological diagnoses, mainly epilepsy. The search was carried out in PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Virtual Health Library, Lilacs and SciELO. 37 articles distributed in thirteen countries in Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania were identified. Adverse perinatal outcomes, both physical and cognitive, were observed in most studies. The most common drugs identified were valproate, topiramate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and levetiracetam. AED have teratogenic potential in different degrees of risk, causing congenital anomalies or adverse effects in multiple systems of the human body, being the nervous, circulatory and musculoskeletal systems the most affected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/chemically induced , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Fetal Diseases/chemically induced , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Teratogens , Abnormalities, Drug-Induced , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468878

ABSTRACT

Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) inhibits serotonin reuptake selectively and is approved for major depressive disorders. This research investigated influence of DVS on modulating brain monoamine and oxidative stress in mice. The antiepileptic potential of DVS (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg/i.p.) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 85 mg/kg) with i.p. route of administration, strychnine (STR; 75 mg/kg) with i.p. route, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg) with s.c. route and maximal electroshock MES-induced convulsion in mouse models. The activities of oxidative stress, i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brains of PTZ-induced convulsive mice. Treatment with DVS increased the latency to develop siezures and declined mortalities in rodents against PTZ, STR and pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Results of MES-leaded siezures revealed that DVS reduced tonic hind limb extension duration and mortalities significantly. Brain, SOD, GSH and GABA level were significantly (P<0.01) increased and LPO reduced significantly (P<0.01) after DVS treatment. Furthermore, the DVS did not show any motor coordination signs in the rotarod test. We demonstrated that the role of DVS in convulsion genesis in mice under control condition and attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative damage.


O succinato de desvenlafaxina (DVS) inibe seletivamente a recaptação da serotonina e é aprovado para transtornos depressivos maiores. Esta pesquisa investigou a influência do DVS na modulação da monoamina cerebral e do estresse oxidativo em camundongos. O potencial antiepiléptico de DVS (10, 20 ou 30 mg / kg / i.p.) Em pentilenotetrazole (PTZ; 85 mg / kg) com i.p. via de administração, estricnina (STR; 75 mg / kg) com i.p. via, pilocarpina (400 mg / kg) com s.c. rota e convulsão induzida por MES de eletrochoque máximo em modelos de camundongos. As atividades de estresse oxidativo, ou seja, superóxido dismutase (SOD), glutationa (GSH) e peroxidação lipídica (LPO), bem como ácido gama-aminobutírico (GABA) nos cérebros de camundongos convulsivos induzidos por PTZ. O tratamento com DVS aumentou a latência para desenvolver crises e diminuiu a mortalidade em roedores contra convulsões induzidas por PTZ, STR e pilocarpina. Os resultados de siezures conduzidos por MES revelaram que o DVS reduziu significativamente a duração e a mortalidade da extensão tônica dos membros posteriores. Os níveis de cérebro, SOD, GSH e GABA aumentaram significativamente (P < 0,01) e o LPO reduziu significativamente (P < 0,01) após o tratamento com DVS. Além disso, o DVS não apresentou sinais de coordenação motora no teste do rotarod. Demonstramos o papel do DVS na gênese da convulsão em camundongos sob condição de controle e atenua o dano oxidativo induzido por PTZ.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Seizures/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Desvenlafaxine Succinate/pharmacology , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Mice
7.
Rev. Cient. Esc. Estadual Saúde Pública de Goiás Cândido Santiago ; 9 (Ed. Especial, 1ª Oficina de Elaboração de Pareceres Técnicos Científicos (PTC): 9f1-EE3, 2023. ilus, tab, apêndice
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1524805

ABSTRACT

Uso de canabidiol (CDB) medicinal presente no óleo de canabis. Indicação: Tratamento de crianças portadoras de epilepsia refratária resistente a medicação e síndromes graves decorrentes. Pergunta: O uso do canabidiol em crianças com epilepsia resistente a medicamentos apresentaria diminuição na frequência de crises convulsivas? Objetivo: Investigar a eficácia e a segurança do canabidiol, em comparação a placebo, na manutenção da remissão em crianças com epilepsia refratária. Métodos: Revisão rápida de revisões sistemáticas, por meio de buscas bibliográficas realizadas nas bases PUBMED, SCOPUS, BVS, Cochrane Library. Foram utilizadas estratégias de buscas com vocabulário padronizado e avaliação da qualidade metodológica usando o checklist AMSTAR 2. Resultados: Foram selecionadas duas revisões sistemáticas que atendiam aos critérios de elegibilidade. O CDB quando comparado ao placebo reduziu 50% das convulsões para epilepsia refrataria (RR 1.69 [1.20 ­ 2.36]), para a síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut o RR foi 2.98 (IC 95%, 1.83 - 4.85) e para a síndrome de Dravet o RR foi 2.26 (IC 95% ,1.38 - 3.70). O CDB pode resultar em uma diminuição no apetite em dosagens maiores (RR = 2,10, IC 95% [0,96­4,62], embora não apresente diferença de efeito dos grupos comparadores. Conclusão: Duas revisões sistemáticas recentes o CDB quando comparado ao placebo reduziu 50% das convulsões para epilepsia refrataria e síndromes graves. Entretanto, existem poucos ensaios clínicos publicados na área


: Use of cannabidiol (CBD) present in cannabis oil. Indication: Treatment of children with drug-resistant refractory epilepsy and severe syndromes resulting. Question: Would the use of cannabidiol in children with drug-resistant epilepsy lead to a decrease in seizure frequency? Objective: to investigate the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol, compared to placebos, in maintaining remission in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods: Rapid review of systematic reviews, through a bibliographical search carried out in the PUBMED, SCOPUS, BVS, Cochrane Library databases. Predefined search strategies were followed, and the methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the AMSTAR 2 tool. Results: Two systematic reviews were selected, which met the eligibility criteria. CBD when compared to placebo reduce 50% of seizures for refractory epilepsy (RR 1.69, IC 95% [1.20 ­ 2.36]), for Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome the RR was foi 2.98 (IC 95%, 1.83 - 4.85) and for Dravet Syndrome o RR FOI 2.26 (IC 95% ,1.38 - 3.70). CBD may result in appetite decrease using high doses (RR = 2.10, 95% IC [0.96­ 4.62], with no statistical difference. Conclusion: Two recent systematics, CBD, when compared to placebo, presented 50% of seizures for refractory epilepsy and severe syndromes. However, there are few clinical trials published in the area


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/drug therapy , Dronabinol/therapeutic use , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Efficacy , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants
8.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1425743

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Felbamato. Indicação: Tratamento de epilepsia refratária. Pergunta: O Felbamato é mais eficaz e seguro comparado a anticonvulsivantes disponíveis no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em pacientes com epilepsia refratária? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foram selecionadas 2 revisões sistemáticas, que atendiam aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: O felbamato não demonstrou ser uma opção mais benéfica que os demais medicamentos disponíveis no SUS no tratamento de epilepsia refratária a medicamentos. Salienta-se que a maior parte das evidências eram de baixa certeza


Technology: Felbamate. Indication: Treatment of refractory epilepsy. Question: Is felbamate more effective and safer compared to anticonvulsants available in Brazilian Public Health System in patients with refractory epilepsy? Methods: A rapid review of evidence (overview) of systematic reviews, with bibliographic survey carried out in the PUBMED database, using a structured search strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed using AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Results: Two systematic reviews that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Conclusion: Felbamate did not prove to be a more beneficial option than the other drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System in the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy. It should be noted that most of the evidence was of low certainty


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Seizures/drug therapy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2512-2521, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981327

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of Banxia Baizhu Tianma Decoction(BBTD) on realizing withdrawal of anti-epileptic drugs and explore the relationship between BBTD and the amino acid metabolism by transcriptomic analysis in the rat model of epilepsy induced by lithium chloride-pilocarpine. The rats with epilepsy were divided into a control group(Ctrl), an epilepsy group(Ep), a BBTD & antiepileptic drug integrative group(BADIG), and an antiepileptic drug withdrawal group(ADWG). The Ctrl and Ep were given ultrapure water by gavage for 12 weeks. The BADIG was given BBTD extract and carbamazepine solution by gavage for 12 weeks. The ADWG was given carbamazepine solution and BBTD extract by gavage for the former 6 weeks, and then only given BBTD extract for the latter 6 weeks. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by behavioral observation, electroencephalogram(EEG), and hippocampal neuronal morphological changes. High-throughput sequencing was used to obtain amino acid metabolism-related differen-tial genes in the hippocampus, and the mRNA expression in the hippocampus of each group was verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR). The hub genes were screened out through protein-protein interaction(PPI) network, and Gene Ontology(GO) functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed. Two ceRNA networks, namely circRNA-miRNA-mRNA and lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA, were constructed for ADWG vs BADIG. The experimental results showed that compared with those in Ep, rats in ADWG were significantly improved in the behavioral observation, EEG, and hippocampal neuronal impairment. Thirty-four amino acid metabolism-related differential genes were obtained by transcriptomic analysis, and the sequencing results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Eight hub genes were obtained through PPI network, involving several biological processes, molecular functions, and signal pathways related to amino acid metabolism. Finally, the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA ternary transcription network of 17 circRNA, 5 miRNA, and 2 mRNA, and a lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ternary network of 10 lncRNA, 5 miRNA, and 2 mRNA were constructed in ADWG vs BADIG. In conclusion, BBTD can effectively achieve the withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs, which may be related to the transcriptomic regulation of amino acid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , RNA, Circular/genetics , Transcriptome , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Anticonvulsants , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Carbamazepine , Amino Acids , Gene Regulatory Networks
10.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(2): e213, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1520113

ABSTRACT

Introducción: indicaciones off label, estrecho margen terapéutico, variabilidad farmacocinética, interacciones farmacológicas constituyen algunos de los problemas a abordar en el uso crónico de antiepilépticos (AE). Caracterizar su perfil de uso es necesario para promover su prescripción racional. Objetivo: Describir el perfil de uso de AE en menores de 15 años hospitalizados en el Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell entre 1/07/2020 y 31/12/2020. Material y método: estudio descriptivo, de menores de 15 años hospitalizados en cuidados moderados en tratamiento con AE. Variables: tipo y número de AE, motivo de la indicación, vía de administración, dosis, uso asociado con psicofármacos, adherencia. Resultados: recibían AE 113 pacientes, mediana edad 7 años, 50,4% sexo femenino. Motivo de la indicación: epilepsia (grupo A) 50,4% y otras patologías (grupo B) 49,6%. Mediana de edad: 2,7 años grupo A vs. 11,5 años grupo B. El AE más indicado fue levetiracetam en el grupo A (35%) y ácido valproico en el grupo B (35,7%). La asociación con psicofármacos se registró en 8,7% grupo A vs. 44,6% en el grupo B. Conclusiones: predominó el uso de levetiracetam en pacientes epilépticos. La mitad de los pacientes recibieron AE para patologías diferentes a la epilepsia, mayoritariamente psiquiátricas. En este grupo predominó el uso de ácido valproico. El análisis de esta serie permite una aproximación al conocimiento del perfil de uso de AE en los niños asistidos en este centro, y por tanto de los principales problemas a abordar. Futuros estudios multicéntricos con población ambulatoria son necesarios para mejorar el conocimiento y contribuir al uso racional de los mismos.


Introduction: off-label prescription, narrow therapeutic margin, pharmacokinetic variability, drug interaction, are some of the problems to consider in the chronic use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). It is necessary to characterize their utilization profile in order to promote rational prescription. Objective: to describe the utilization profile of AEDs in children under 15 years of age hospitalized at the Pereira Rossell Pediatric Hospital from 7/01/2020 to 12/31/2020. Material and Methods: descriptive study of children under 15 years of age hospitalized in moderate care units receiving treatment with AEDs. Variables: type and number of AEDs, reason for the prescription, dose, associated use of psychotropic drugs, compliance. Results: 113 patients received AEDs, median age 7 years, 50.4% females. Reason for prescription; epi- lepsy (group A) 50.4%, other pathologies (group B) 49.6%. Median age in group A 2.7 years, versus 1.1.5 years in group B. Most frequently prescribed AEDs was levetiracetam in group A (35%) and valproic acid in group B (37,7%). Association with psychotropic drugs was present in 8.7% of group A versus 44.6% of group B. Conclusions: levetiracem use was predominant in epileptic patients. Half of the patients received AEDs for pathologies other than epilepsy, mostly psychiatric. In this group the use of valproic acid was predominant. Analysis of this series enables an approximation to the understanding of the profile of AEDs use in children assisted at this Hospital, and there- fore an approximation to the problems to be considered. Future multicenter studies with an outpatient population are necessary to expand our knowledge and to contribute to a rational use of these drugs.


Introdução: indicações off-label, margem terapêutica estreita, variabilidade farmacocinética, interações farmacológicas são alguns dos problemas a serem abordados no uso crônico de drogas antiepilépticas (EA). Caracterizar seu perfil de uso é necessário para promover sua prescrição racional. Objetivo: descrever o perfil de utilização da AE em crianças menores de 15 anos internadas no Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell entre 01/07/2020 e 31/12/2020. Material e Métodos: estudo descritivo de crianças menores de 15 anos internadas em cuidados moderados em tratamento de EA. Variáveis: tipo e número de EAs, motivo da indicação, via de administração, dose, uso associado a psicotrópicos, adesão. Resultados: 113 pacientes receberam EA, com meia idade de 7 anos, 50,4% do sexo feminino. Motivo da indicação: epilepsia (grupo A) 50,4% e outras patologias (grupo B) 49,6%. Mediana de idade: 2,7 anos grupo A vs. 11,5 anos grupo B. O EA mais indicado foi Levetiracetam no grupo A (35%) e ácido valpróico no grupo B (35,7%). A associação com psicotrópicos foi registrada em 8,7% do grupo A vs. 44,6% no grupo B. Conclusões: o uso de Levetiracetam em pacientes epilépticos predominou. A metade dos pacientes recebeu AE por outras patologias que não foram a epilepsia, principalmente psiquiátricas. Nesse grupo, predominou o uso do ácido valpróico. A análise desta série permite aproximar o conhecimento do perfil de uso da AE nas crianças atendidas nesse centro e, portanto, a aproximação aos principais problemas a serem abordados. Futuros estudos multicêntricos com população ambulatorial são necessários para aprimorar o conhecimento e contribuir para sua utilização racional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Off-Label Use , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Child, Hospitalized , Cross-Sectional Studies , Polypharmacy , Age and Sex Distribution , Anticonvulsants/classification
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20692, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447567

ABSTRACT

Abstract Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system, in which the nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed causing seizures. The objective was to develop an RP-HPLC method for consistent simultaneous quantitation of four antiepileptic drugs Levetiracetam (LVT), Lamotrigine (LTG), Phenobarbital (PBT) and Phenytoin (PTY). An isocratic method was developed on C18 column in JASCO HPLC using 5 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1ml/min and detected at 230 nm using UV detector. The mean retention time for LVT, LTG, PBT and PTY were found as 2.55, 3.55, 4.65 and 5.99 minutes respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and was found to be acceptable. The %RSD value was <2.0 % thus stating the developed method was precise for the drugs in the given range. The accuracy values were within 85-115% of the recovery range. The specificity of the method was evaluated by an assay of marketed formulation, and it showed a percent content between 90-110% w/w for all the four drugs. The proposed analytical method was simple, accurate and robust and was precisely able to resolve the four major antiepileptic drugs. Hence, the current method can be applied successfully for routine examination of these drugs


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/methods , Anticonvulsants/analysis , Epilepsy/pathology
13.
Med. infant ; 29(3): 205-211, Septiembre 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1399593

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Reportamos resultados sobre la efectividad, seguridad y tolerancia del cannabidiol como adyuvante terapéutico en pacientes pediátricos con encefalopatías epilépticas del desarrollo (EED) resistentes al tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico tras un seguimiento promedio de 20 meses. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo para evaluar la eficacia, la seguridad y la tolerancia del aceite de cannabis medicinal enriquecido con CBD añadido a los medicamentos anticonvulsivos estándar en niños con EED resistentes a los medicamentos atendidos en un único centro. Resultados: Entre octubre de 2018 y marzo de 2020, se incluyeron 59 pacientes. La edad media en el momento del inicio del protocolo fue de 10,5 años (rango, 2-17 años). La mediana de la duración del tratamiento fue de 20 meses (rango, 12-32). La mediana de edad en el momento de la primera convulsión fue de 8 meses (rango, 1 día - 10 años). Al final del seguimiento, el 78% de los niños tenía una disminución ≥ 50% en frecuencia de las crisis y el 47,5% tenía una disminución > 75%. Siete pacientes (11,9%) estaban libres de convulsiones. El número de crisis se redujo de una mediana de 305/mes a 90/mes, que supone una reducción media del 57% y una mediana del 71% (p < 0,0001). Los efectos adversos fueron en su mayoría leves o moderados. El CBD se interrumpió en 17 pacientes (28,8%) por falta de respuesta al tratamiento, aumento de la frecuencia de las convulsiones, intolerancia al fármaco o cumplimiento terapéutico insuficiente. Conclusión: En los niños con EED resistentes a los fármacos, el tratamiento a largo plazo del cannabis medicinal enriquecido con CBD como terapia adyuvante resultó ser seguro, bien tolerado y eficaz. Las reducciones sostenidas en la frecuencia de las convulsiones y la mejora de los aspectos de la vida diaria se observaron en comparación con nuestros preliminares (AU)


Objective: We report results on the effectiveness, safety, and tolerance of cannabidiol (CBD) as add-on therapy in children with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) resistant to pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment after a mean follow-up of 20 months. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of CBD-enriched medical cannabis oil added to standard antiseizure medications in children with drug-resistant DEEs seen at a single center. Results: Between October 2018 and March 2020, 59 patients were included. The median age at protocol initiation was 10.5 years (range, 2-17 years). Median treatment duration was 20 months (range, 12-32). The median age at the time of the first seizure was 8 months (range, 1 day - 10 years). At the end of follow-up, 78% of the children had a decrease ≥ 50% in seizure frequency and 47.5% had a decrease of > 75%. Seven patients (11.9%) were seizure free. The number of seizures was reduced from a median of 305/month to 90/month, accounting for a mean reduction of 57% and a median of 71% (p < 0.0001). Adverse effects were mostly mild or moderate. CBD was discontinued in 17 patients (28.8%) due to lack of response to treatment, increased seizure frequency, drug intolerance, or poor compliance. Conclusion: In children with drug-resistant DEE, long-term treatment with CBD-enriched medicinal cannabis as add-on therapy proved to be safe, well tolerated, and effective. Sustained reductions in seizure frequency and improvement in aspects of daily living were observed compared to our preliminary results (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Medical Marijuana/therapeutic use , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/drug therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies
14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392318

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar los riesgos y beneficios del uso de vigabatrina comparada con hormona adrenocorticotrópica (ACTH) para el tratamiento de espasmos infantiles. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en Epistemonikos. Se extrajeron datos desde las revisiones identificadas. Se realizó un metaanálisis a partir de estudios primarios y se utilizó el método GRADE para la presentación de resultados. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron nueve revisiones sistemáticas. Se observó que el uso de vigabatrina en comparación con ACTH disminuye la resolución de espasmos (RR 0,8, IC 95% 0,65 - 0,98) y podría disminuir la resolución de hipsarritmia (RR 0,71, IC 95% 0,48 - 1,05). No fue posible determinar si el uso de vigabatrina disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar efectos adversos (RR 0,75, IC 95% 0,23 - 2,45) por certeza de evidencia muy baja. CONCLUSIONES: La evidencia parece inclinarse a favor del uso de ACTH. Sin embargo debe considerarse la necesidad de nuevas investigaciones para esclarecer su seguridad.


OBJECTIVE: To determine the risks and benefits of the use of vigabatrin compared to ACTH for the treatment of infantile spasms. METHOD: A search in Epistemonikos was performed. Data were extracted from the identified reviews. A meta-analysis was performed from primary studies and the GRADE method was used to present the results. RESULTS: Nine systematic reviews were identified. Vigabatrin use compared to ACTH was found to decrease resolution of spasms (RR 0.8, 95% CI 0.65 - 0.98) and might decrease resolution of hypsarrhythmia (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0 .48 - 1.05). It was not possible to determine whether the use of vigabatrin reduces the risk of developing adverse effects (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.23 - 2.45) due to very low certainty of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence seems to lean in favor of the use of ACTH. However, the need for new research should be considered to clarify its safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spasms, Infantile/drug therapy , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/therapeutic use , Vigabatrin/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , GRADE Approach
15.
Med. UIS ; 35(1): 71-79, ene,-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394434

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la hipovitaminosis D es un problema prevalente en la población general y muy frecuente en niños; relacionado a diferentes patologías o factores como el uso de medicamento antiepilépticos (MAEs), principalmente aquellos inductores enzimáticos del citocromo P450, ampliamente relacionados con la salud ósea. Razón por la que este estudio busca determinar la distribución de insuficiencia de Vitamina D en niños tratados farmacológicamente para la epilepsia, así como establecer factores asociados basándose en características sociodemográficas, clínicas y terapéuticas. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo con 103 pacientes con epilepsia en manejo con MAEs, asistentes a la consulta de neuropediatría en un hospital de tercer nivel, se tomó información de las historias clínicas de niños entre 0 y 18 años durante enero del 2016 y junio del 2019. Se construyó un modelo multivariado en relación a la presencia de insuficiencia de vitamina D y valores normales de esta. Resultados: el 44,7% presentaron insuficiencia de vitamina D, mientras 6,8% de pacientes presentó deficiencia, de los cuales 4 tenían historia de fracturas. Se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa con la insuficiencia en pacientes que residen en área rural (ORa=4,2 (IC95=1,3-13,4) p=0,013), pertenecen a nivel socio económico bajo (Ora=2,9 (IC95%=1,1-77) p=0,030) y padecen epilepsia refractaria (Ora=3,1 (IC95%=1-8,7) p=0,033). Conclusiones: la hipovitaminosis D es frecuente en paciente con epilepsia en manejo farmacológico con MAE. La insuficiencia se asoció con epilepsia refractaria, nivel socioeconómico bajo y provenir de área rural, por lo que se recomienda vigilancia rutinaria de los niveles de vitamina D y suplementación en aquellos pacientes con déficit. MÉD.UIS.2022;35(1): 71-9


Abstract Hypovitaminosis D is a prevalent problem in the general population and very common in children; related to different pathologies or factors such as the use of antiepileptic drugs (MAEs), mainly those enzymatic inducers of cytochrome P450, broadly related with bone health. Reason why this study seeks to determine the distribution of vitamin D insufficiency in children with epilepsy in pharmacological treatment and to establish associated factors based on sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics. Methodology: descriptive, cross- sectional, retrospective study with 103 patients with epilepsy in management with MAEs, attending the neuropaediatric consultation in a third-level hospital, information was taken from the medical records of children between 0 and 18 years of age during January 2016 and June 2019. A multivariate model was built in relation to the presence of vitamin D insufficiency and its normal values. Results: 44.7% of patients had vitamin D insufficiency, while 6.8% had deficiency, of which 4 had a history of fractures. A statistically significant association with insufficiency was found in patients residing in rural areas (ORa=4.2 (IC95=1.3-13.4) p=0.013), they belong to a low socio-economic level (Ora=2.9 (95% CI=1.1-77) p=0.030) and suffering from refractory epilepsy (Ora=3.1 (95% CI=1-8.7) p=0.033). Conclusions: hypovitaminosis D is frequent in a patient with epilepsy under pharmacological management with MAE. Insufficiency was associated with refractory epilepsy, low socioeconomic status and coming from rural areas, so routine monitoring of vitamin D levels is recommended in those patients with deficits. MÉD.UIS.2022;35(1): 71-9


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vitamin D Deficiency , Epilepsy , Fractures, Bone , Anticonvulsants
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 48-55, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360131

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Epilepsy has neuropsychiatric comorbidities such as depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety. Drugs that target epilepsy may also be useful for its neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Objective: To investigate the effects of serotonergic modulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines and the seizures in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with serotonin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan, or saline 30 min prior to PTZ treatment. Behavioral seizures were assessed by the Racine's scale. Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum and brain tissue were determined by ELISA. Results: Serotonin and fluoxetine, but not sumatriptan, alleviated PTZ-induced seizures by prolonging onset times of myoclonic-jerk and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The anti-seizure effect of fluoxetine was greater than that of serotonin. Likewise, serotonin and fluoxetine, but not sumatriptan, reduced PTZ-induced increases in the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in both serum and brain tissue. None of the administered drugs including PTZ affected TNF-α concentrations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that endogenous and exogenous serotonin exhibits anticonvulsant effects by suppressing the neuroinflammation. It seems that 5-HT1B/D receptors do not mediate anticonvulsant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of serotonin.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A epilepsia apresenta comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas como depressão, transtorno bipolar e ansiedade. Os medicamentos que visam o tratamento da epilepsia podem ser úteis para a epilepsia e suas comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas. Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da modulação serotonérgica em citocinas pró-inflamatórias e as convulsões no modelo de convulsão induzida por pentilenotetrazol (PTZ) em ratos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram injetados intraperitonealmente com serotonina, inibidor seletivo da recaptação da serotonina fluoxetina, sumatriptano agonista do receptor 5-HT1B / D ou solução salina 30 min antes do tratamento com PTZ. As crises comportamentais foram avaliadas pela escala de Racine. As concentrações de IL-1β, IL-6 e TNF-α no soro e tecido cerebral foram determinadas por ELISA. Resultados: A serotonina e a fluoxetina, mas não o sumatriptano, aliviaram as convulsões induzidas por PTZ ao prolongar os tempos de início das convulsões mioclônicas e tônico-clônicas generalizadas. O efeito anticonvulsivo da fluoxetina foi maior do que o da serotonina. Da mesma forma, a serotonina e a fluoxetina, mas não o sumatriptano, reduziram os aumentos induzidos por PTZ nos níveis de IL-1β e IL-6 no soro e no tecido cerebral. Nenhum dos medicamentos administrados, incluindo PTZ, alterou as concentrações de TNF-α. Conclusões: Nossos achados sugerem que a serotonina endógena e exógena exibe efeitos anticonvulsivantes por suprimir a neuroinflamação. Aparentemente, os receptores 5-HT1B / D não medeiam os efeitos anticonvulsivantes e anti-neuroinflamatórios da serotonina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/drug therapy , Serotonin/adverse effects , Fluoxetine/adverse effects , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Sumatriptan/adverse effects , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20161, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403702

ABSTRACT

Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS), an epidemic defined as a group of interconnected physiological, biochemistry, clinical, and metabolic factors, directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and death. MetS therapy includes diet, physical exercise, and a poly-pharmacological intervention. Cannabis is mainly recognized for its recreational uses and has several medical applications for neurological diseases, due to its hypnotic, anxiolytic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anticonvulsant activities. Although several clinical observations in Cannabis smokers suggest metabolic effects, its utility in metabolic disorders is unclear. This review aims to determine under what conditions Cannabis might be useful in the treatment of MetS. Cannabis contains 120 phytocannabinoids, of which Δ9-THC mediates its psychoactive effects. Cannabinoids exert biological effects through interactions with the endocannabinoid system, which modulates several physiologic and metabolic pathways through cannabinoid receptors (CB1/CB2). Signaling through both receptors inhibits neurotransmitter release. In general, endocannabinoid system stimulation in Cannabis smokers and Δ9-THC signaling through CB1 have been implicated in MetS development, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, CB1 antagonists and non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids like cannabidiol reduce these effects through interactions with both cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors. These pharmacological approaches represent a source of new therapeutic agents for MetS. However, more studies are necessary to support the therapeutic potential of Cannabis and cannabinoids in metabolic abnormalities


Subject(s)
Cannabis/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Biochemistry/classification , Cannabinoids/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases , Receptors, Cannabinoid/analysis , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/antagonists & inhibitors , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Anticonvulsants/classification
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20066, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403741

ABSTRACT

Abstract Recent studies suggested that safranal exerts anticonvulsant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of safranal on epileptic activities in the amygdala electrical kindling model in male rats. Animals were implanted with a recording electrode on the skull and a tripolar in the amygdala. After 10 days of recovery, the afterdischarge (AD) threshold of each animal was determined and stimulated once daily the AD threshold for full kindling development. Then, parameters including afterdischarge duration (ADD), stage 4 latency (S4L), stage 5 duration (S5D), and stimulation threshold were determined before and after injection of safranal (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 ml/ kg; i.p). While the dose of 0.05 ml/kg had no significant effect, the dose of 0.1 ml/kg increased the AD threshold as well as S4L and decreased the S5D (P<0.05). Injection of 0.2 ml/kg of the safranal significantly decreased the ADD and S5D (P<0.05) and 83.3% of animals had no stage 4 and stage 5 of kindling (P<0.001). Based on the obtained data safranal has anticonvulsant effects dosedependently. It seems that a dose of 0.2 ml/kg is the minimum effective dose. Further investigation is warranted to conduct the clinical implications for the treatment of epileptic disorders


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Seizures/prevention & control , Epilepsy/pathology , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Amygdala/physiopathology
19.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(3): 1-8, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1378405

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the mandible in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) treated with antiepileptic drugs using one beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: The study was carried out with 18 adolescents aged 12­18 years, undergoing routine dental treatment at the dental clinic of APCD-São Caetano do Sul. CBCT scans were of divided into two groups: G1 adolescents with CP using antiepileptic drugs and G2 normoactive adolescents. A single dentomaxillofacial radiologist assessed and evaluated the images using Dental Slice software and Image J. Fisher's exact tests as well as paired and unpaired Student's t-tests were performed. Results: Groups differed significantly with regard in the values of density (p < 0.001), with G1 presenting lower values compare to G2. G1 showed significantly lower density means on the right side, left side, and right/left sides of the mandible edge than G2 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: CP patients using antiepileptic drugs show evidence of bone mineral density loss of the mandible.(AU)


Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a densidade ótica óssea da mandíbula em adolescentes com paralisia cerebral (PC) tratados com drogas antiepilépticas por meio de tomográfica computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC). Métodos: O estudo foi realizado com 18 adolescentes de 12 a 18 anos, em tratamento odontológico de rotina na clínica odontológica da APCD-São Caetano do Sul. As TCFC foram divididas em dois grupos: G1 adolescentes com PC em uso de antiepilépticos e G2 adolescentes normoativos. Um único radiologista dentomaxilofacial assessou e avaliou as imagens usando usando os softwares Dental Slice e Image J. Os testes exatos de Fisher, bem como os testes t de Student pareados e não pareados foram realizados. Resultados: Os grupos diferiram significativamente quanto aos valores de densidade óptica (p <0,001), com o grupo G1 apresentando valores menores em relação ao G2. O grupo G1 apresentou médias de densidade óptica significativamente menores nos lados direito, esquerdo e direito / esquerdo da borda da mandíbula do que o G2 (p <0,001). Conclusão: Pacientes com PC em uso de drogas antiepilépticas apresentam evidências de perda de densidade óssea da mandíbula (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Osteoporosis , Bone Density , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Anticonvulsants
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19594, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384011

ABSTRACT

Abstract The treatment of epilepsy is complex and a matter of concern is the interchangeability among different formulations available for antiepileptic drugs. To evaluate the effects of interchangeability among carbamazepine formulations on patients with epilepsy. This is a prospective cohort study that included adult outpatients diagnosed with epilepsy and under pharmacological treatment with carbamazepine. Before switching the brand/manufacturer, the "Interchangeable Pharmaceutical Product in the Treatment of Epilepsies" questionnaire was applied. The questionnaires "Adverse Events Profile" and Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31, so as the plasma carbamazepine concentrations, were evaluated before and after the brand/ manufacturer switch. Physical-chemical tests aiming to assess tablets quality were performed in accordance with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 5th edition. The study population was composed by 14 patients (mean age: 44.6 years), with 10 of females. From those interviewed, 10 had no knowledge about the three antiepileptic drugs formulations available. The frequency of adverse event "problems with skin" incresead (p=0.023) and "upset stomach" decreased (p=0.041) after the changeover. The adverse events profile was associated with only two quality of life domains: "energy/fatigue" (p=0.048) and "total score" (p=0.018). Divergent results between generic and reference formulations were observed in purity-water test (reference: 1.96%, generic: 4.84%) and dissolution test, in which the generic formulation presented 66.27 to 85.77% of carbamazepine dissolved after the third level. Conclusions: Objective differences before and after the brand/manufacturer switch were not observed, in spite of patients' perceptions. Despite that, more studies in the field are necessary, especially on the interchangeability among generic antiepileptics, in order to better elucidate switching consequences on patients' life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients/classification , Carbamazepine/adverse effects , Drugs, Generic/analysis , Epilepsy/pathology , Interchange of Drugs , Anticonvulsants/analysis
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