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1.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(3): e37304, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1341552

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: conocer el consumo de antidepresivos en la población uruguaya en el período 2010-2014. Material y método: se realizó un estudio de utilización de medicamentos para evaluar el consumo de antidepresivos utilizando el dato de dispensación de medicamentos de las farmacias de las instituciones participantes. Se utilizó la variable dosis diaria definida (DDD) por 1.000 habitantes/día (DHD). Resultados: se incluyó el 69% de la población uruguaya. Las DHD globales de antidepresivos para los años 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 y 2014 fueron: 26,49, 29,71, 30,17, 30,79 y 32,55 (promedio en los 5 años: 30,04) siendo el aumento porcentual global en dicho período de 22,88%. Los ISRS fueron el grupo de antidepresivos más consumidos. Sertralina fue el antidepresivo más consumido en los 5 años de estudio (DHD 13,65), y el de mayor aumento porcentual fue duloxetina, seguido por escitalopram. Conclusión: el consumo de antidepresivos a nivel nacional en el período analizado es inferior al constatado en otros países, con una tendencia al aumento. Éste puede ser visto como una señal para la evaluación evolutiva en el periodo 2015-2020 y para realizar análisis de las prácticas de prescripción y actuales indicaciones, utilizando otras metodologías como los estudios de prevalencia o estudios de indicación-prescripción o de prescripción-indicación.


Abstract: Objective: to learn about antidepressant use in the Uruguayan population between 2010 and 2014. Method: the use of drugs was studied to evaluate the consumption of antidepressants by analysing the dispensing of drugs in the pharmacies that are part of the participating institutions. The study used the defined daily dose variable (DDD) by 1.000 inhabitants/day (DHD). Results: 69% of the Uruguayan population was included in the study. The global antidepressant dose by inhabitants per day for 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 was 26,49, 29,71, 30,17; 30,79 and 32,55 respectively (average in the five years 30,4) being the global increase of percentage 22,88%5 for that period. The SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) were the most widely used group of antidepressants. Sertraline was the antidepressant of greatest consumption in the 5 years of the study (DHD 13,65), and the one that presented the highest percentage increase was duloxetine, followed by escitalopram. Conclusion: antidepressant use at the national level during the period analysed is lower than that seen in other countries, although a tendency to increase was found. This may be interpreted as a sign for the need to evaluate the evolution in the 2015-2020 period, and to conduct studies on prescription practices and current indications using other methodologies, such as prevalence studies or indication-prescription or prescription-indication studies.


Resumo: Objetivo: conhecer o consumo de antidepressivos na população uruguaia no período 2010-2014. Material e método: foi realizado um estudo sobre o uso de medicamentos para avaliar o consumo de antidepressivos a partir dos dados de dispensação de medicamentos nas farmácias das instituições participantes. Foi utilizada a variável dose diária definida (DDD) por 1.000 habitantes/dia (DHD). Resultados: 69% da população uruguaia foram incluídas. Os DHDs globais de antidepressivos para os anos de 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 e 2014 foram: 26,49, 29,71, 30,17; 30,79 e 32,55 (média nos 5 anos, 30,04) sendo o aumento percentual global no referido período de 22,88%. Os inibidores seletivos da recaptação da serotonina foram o grupo de antidepressivos mais amplamente utilizado. A sertralina foi o antidepressivo mais utilizado nos 5 anos do estudo (DHD 13,65), e o que apresentou maior aumento percentual foi a duloxetina, seguida do escitalopram. Conclusão: o consumo de antidepressivos em nível nacional no período analisado é inferior ao encontrado em outros países, com tendência de aumento. Isto pode ser visto como um sinal para a avaliação evolutiva no período 2015-2020 e para a realização de análises das práticas de prescrição e indicações atuais, utilizando outras metodologias como estudos de prevalência ou estudos de indicação-prescrição ou prescrição-indicação.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Prescription Drugs/supply & distribution
2.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 85-91, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280497

ABSTRACT

Resumen A lo largo de la historia, el ser humano ha buscado mejorar y tratar las diferentes patologías mentales. Con los avances en investigación, actualmente hay una amplia variedad de opciones terapéuticas que pueden resultar un factor de confusión a la hora de escoger el tratamiento más adecuado para combatir el trastorno depresivo. Por tanto, en el presente trabajo se realiza una revisión de las principales opciones de tratamiento para la depresión con el fin de brindar pautas que mejoren la toma de decisiones al abordar esta patología.


Abstract Throughout history, the human being has sought to improve and treat different mental pathologies, with advances in research, currently there is a wide variety of therapeutic options that can be a confounding factor when choosing the most appropriate treatment. This paper reviews the main treatment options for depression in order to provide guidelines that improve decision-making when addressing this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Antidepressive Agents , Depressive Disorder/prevention & control , Drug Therapy
3.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(1): 101-108, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1280646

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: caracterizar a utilização de antidepressivos no manejo da depressão pós-parto. MÉTODO: empregou-se uma revisão integrativa de literatura, das bases de dados PubMed e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, com aplicação de descritores, visando responder a pergunta norteadora do trabalho, entre os dias 25 de fevereiro e 10 de março de 2019. Com base nos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 23 artigos que, posteriormente, foram submetidos à categorização. RESULTADOS: a sertralina deve ser a droga de escolha para o tratamento farmacológico da depressão puerperal. Constatou-se também, que a utilização profilática de antidepressivos em mulheres susceptíveis é contestável e pouco se sabe sobre os possíveis efeitos colaterais. Ademais, foi encontrado que não há consenso sobre a superioridade da terapia farmacológica em detrimento às psicoterapias. CONCLUSÃO: há evidencias que fundamentam o uso de sertralina, paroxetina, duloxetina, nortriptilina e imipramina para tratar mulheres com depressão pós-parto, sendo a amamentação sempre recomendada. Ressalta-se que emerge a necessidade de estudos com amostras representativas para validar ou restringir o uso de psicofármacos na profilaxia da depressão puerperal.


OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to characterize the use of antidepressants in the management of postpartum depression. METHOD: an integrative literature review of the PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases was used, with the application of descriptors, aiming to answer the guiding question of the work, between February 25th and March 10th, 2019. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 articles were selected that were later submitted to categorization. RESULTS: sertraline should be the drug of choice for the pharmacological treatment of puerperal depression. It was also found that the prophylactic use of antidepressants in susceptible women is controversial and little is known about the possible side effects. In addition, it was found that there is no consensus on the superiority of pharmacological therapy to the detriment of psychotherapies. CONCLUSION: there is evidence supporting the use of sertraline, paroxetine, duloxetine, nortriptyline and imipramine to treat women with postpartum depression, and breastfeeding is always recommended. It is worth noting that the need for studies with representative samples to validate or restrict the use of psychotropic drugs in the prophylaxis of puerperal depression emerges.


OBJETIVO: el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la utilización de antidepresivos en el manejo de la depresión posparto. MÉTODO: revisión integradora de literatura, de las bases de datos PubMed y Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, con aplicación de descriptores, para responder a la pregunta orientadora del trabajo, entre el 25 de febrero y el 10 de marzo de 2019. Con base en los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron 23 artículos que posteriormente se sometieron a categorización. RESULTADOS: la sertralina debe ser la droga elegida para el tratamiento farmacológico de la depresión puerperal. Además, se constató que la utilización profiláctica de antidepresivos en mujeres susceptibles es discutible y poco se sabe sobre los posibles efectos colaterales. Asimismo, se encontró que no hay consenso sobre la superioridad de la terapia farmacológica en detrimento de las psicoterapias. CONCLUSIÓN: hay evidencias que fundamentan el uso de sertralina, paroxetina, duloxetina, nortriptilina e imipramina para tratar a mujeres con depresión posparto, siendo la lactancia siempre recomendada. Se destaca que surge la necesidad de realizar estudios con muestras representativas para validar o restringir el uso de psicofármacos en la profilaxis de la depresión puerperal.


Subject(s)
Psychotropic Drugs , Breast Feeding , Paroxetine , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Duloxetine Hydrochloride , Antidepressive Agents
4.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 50(1): 47-51, Jan.-Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251633

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Major neurocognitive disorder (MNCD) affects millions of people worldwide. However, the pharmacological options for its management are limited, ineffective and frequently associated with severe adverse reactions. Case report: An 85-year-old man with history of multiple chronic brain injuries (alcohol-use disorder, haemorrhagic stroke, brain trauma, chronic use of benzodiazepines) developed an MNCD, reaching 7 points on the Reisberg Global Deterioration Scale. He had minimal response to antidepressants, antipsychotics and anticholinergic medications. After the use of mother tincture of Indian hemp (cannabis), a significant improvement was found in his cognitive function, ability to carry out activities of daily living and independence. Discussion: The endocannabinoid system seems to be implicated in age-related cognitive decline. In addition, the evidence derived from in-vitro and animal models suggest that this system could play an important role in the management of MNCD of different causes. Conclusions: Cannabinoid treatment for MNCD emerges as a promising therapeutic approach that may benefit a growing number of patients who do not have other treatment options. It is therefore necessary to encourage more research efforts that will help to remove political and scientific barriers to its clinical use.


RESUMEN Introducción: El trastorno neurocognitivo mayor (TNM) afecta a millones de personas a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, las opciones farmacológicas para su manejo son limitadas, poco efectivas y se asocian a importantes reacciones adversas. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso clínico de un hombre de 85 años, con antecedente de múltiples lesiones cerebrales crónicas (abuso de alcohol, enfermedad cerebrovascular, traumatismo cerebral, uso crónico de benzodiacepinas), quien desarrolló un TNM clasificado con 7 puntos en la Reisberg Global Deterioration Scale. Tuvo poca respuesta al manejo con antidepresivos, antipsicóticos y anticolinérgicos. Tras el uso de tintura madre de cáüamo índico (cannabis), se evidenció una mejoría en la función cognitiva, la capacidad de cuidado para las actividades de la vida diaria y la independencia. Discusión: El sistema endocanabinoide parece estar relacionado con los procesos de deterioro cognitivo asociados con la edad. Además, la evidencia derivada de modelos in vitro y animales sugiere que podría tener un papel importante en el manejo del TNM de diferentes etiologías. Conclusiones: El uso de cannabinoides en el TNM se presenta como una pista terapéutica prometedora. Por lo tanto, es necesario promover procesos de investigación que contribuyan a eliminar las barreras políticas y científicas para su uso clínico, beneficiando a un número creciente de pacientes que no poseen opciones terapéuticas eficaces.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Cannabinoids , Cognition , Neurocognitive Disorders , Antipsychotic Agents , Benzodiazepines , Cannabis , Brain Injury, Chronic , Stroke , Endocannabinoids , Alcoholism , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Antidepressive Agents
5.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 16(43): 2568, 20210126. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1292040

ABSTRACT

O uso generalizado de antidepressivos tem aumentado progressivamente nos últimos anos. No entanto, as evidências para o tratamento medicamentoso da depressão são pouco consistentes, sendo restritas as formas mais graves do transtorno e com modesta melhora clínica. Além disso, os efeitos adversos e os riscos relacionados ao uso crônico dessas medicações estão bem estabelecidos na literatura científica. Assim, é importante que os médicos de família tenham uma abordagem crítica deste problema e se questionem qual a melhor forma de ajudar seus pacientes. Os autores deste artigo levantam algumas hipóteses para explicar a prescrição excessiva de antidepressivos e, principalmente, trazem orientações para médicos de família e comunidade no cuidado das pessoas com depressão, com sugestões práticas de orientar o cuidado pela prevenção quaternária, utilizando ferramentas como o compartilhamento de decisão, o cuidado colaborativo e a busca dos suportes sociais durante a consulta.


The widespread use of antidepressants has increased steadily in recent years. However, the evidence for drug treatment of depression is not very consistent, with the most severe forms of the disorder being restricted and with modest clinical improvement. In addition, the adverse effects and risks related to the chronic use of these medications are well established in the scientific literature. Thus, it is important that family doctors take a critical approach to this problem and ask themselves how best to help their patients. The authors raise some hypotheses to explain the excessive prescription of antidepressants and, mainly, bring guidelines for family and community doctors in the care of people with depression, with practical suggestions to guide care for quaternary prevention, using tools such as sharing of decision, collaborative care, and the search for social supports during the consultation.


El uso generalizado de antidepresivos ha aumentado de manera constante en los últimos años. Sin embargo, la evidencia para el tratamiento farmacológico de la depresión no es muy consistente, ya que las formas más graves del trastorno están restringidas y con una modesta mejoría clínica. Además, los efectos adversos y los riesgos relacionados con el uso crónico de estos medicamentos están bien establecidos en la literatura científica. Por lo tanto, es importante que los médicos de familia adopten un enfoque crítico de este problema y se pregunten cuál es la mejor manera de ayudar a sus pacientes. Los autores plantean algunas hipótesis para explicar la prescripción excesiva de antidepresivos y, principalmente, traen pautas para los médicos de familia y comunitarios en la atención de personas con depresión, con sugerencias prácticas para orientar la atención para la prevención cuaternaria, utilizando herramientas como el intercambio de decisiones, colaborativo atención y búsqueda de apoyos sociales durante la consulta.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Depression , Quaternary Prevention , Antidepressive Agents
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10107, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142578

ABSTRACT

Ketamine (KET) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but how the drug shows its sustained effects is still a matter of controversy. The objectives were to evaluate the mechanisms for KET rapid (30 min) and long-lasting (15 and 30 days after) antidepressant effects in mice. A single dose of KET (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, po) was administered to male Swiss mice and the forced swim test (FST) was performed 30 min, 15, or 30 days later. Imipramine (IMI, 30 mg/kg, ip), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, was used as reference. The mice were euthanized, separated into two time-point groups (D1, first day after KET injection; D30, 30 days later), and brain sections were processed for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), histone deacetylase (HDAC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical assays. KET (5 and 10 mg/kg) presented rapid and long-lasting antidepressant-like effects. As expected, the immunoreactivities for brain GSK-3 and HDAC decreased compared to control groups in all areas (striatum, DG, CA1, CA3, and mainly pre-frontal cortex, PFC) after KET injection. Increases in BDNF immunostaining were demonstrated in the PFC, DG, CA1, and CA3 areas at D1 and D30 time-points. GFAP immunoreactivity was also increased in the PFC and striatum at both time-points. In conclusion, KET changed brain BDNF and GFAP expressions 30 days after a single administration. Although neuroplasticity could be involved in the observed effects of KET, more studies are needed to explain the mechanisms for the drug's sustained antidepressant-like effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Disease Models, Animal , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Histone Deacetylases
7.
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(4): 162-166, 20201200.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146917

ABSTRACT

A ejaculação precoce é um dos transtornos sexuais mais prevalentes na população masculina com prevalência média de cerca de 30%. Possui diversas classificações de entidades médicas e classificações internacionais de doenças, todas elas tendo em comum um reduzido tempo de latência intravaginal, incapacidade de controle ejaculatório e consequências psicológicas negativas para o indivíduo e/ou para o casal. Dentre as causas da patologia, destacam-se alterações nas vias de neurotransmissão serotoninérgica, hipersensibilidade genital e causas genéticas nas patologias primárias. Na ejaculação precoce secundária devem-se pesquisar distúrbios psicogênicos, hormonais, sintomas de trato urinário inferior e disfunção erétil. O correto diagnóstico é importante para indicação e planejamento do tratamento adequado. Em casos de ejaculação precoce primária, o tratamento preferencial é o medicamentoso. Os tratamentos medicamentosos disponíveis podem ser por via oral ou de aplicação tópica. Dentre os tratamentos orais, destacam-se os antidepressivos com ação serotoninérgica que devem ser utilizados de modo contínuo. Outras classes de medicações utilizadas são os inibidores da fosfodieterase do tipo 5 e os opioides como tramadol. Como opção às medicações orais, as medicações de aplicação tópica peniana são aplicadas sob demanda na glande um período antes do encontro sexual, cujo tempo varia conforme o medicamento escolhido, e que podem ter apresentação no formato gel ou spray, contendo primariamente uma mistura de lidocaína e prilocaína ou compostos de naturais como o SS-Cream (Severance Secret Cream).


Subject(s)
Coitus , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ejaculation , Anesthetics , Antidepressive Agents
8.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 24(4): 826-832, oct.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143249

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los psicofármacos son frecuentemente consumidos por la población; su uso irracional atenta contra la calidad de vida de los pacientes que los toman regularmente sin supervisión médica. El objetivo de esta investigación es caracterizar el consumo de psicofármacos en un Grupo Básico de Trabajo en el área de salud del Policlínico Docente Universitario Martha Abreu de Estévez. Frecuentemente, se toman por automedicación, son prescriptos por complacencia y aunque tengan una indicación médica precisa, en ocasiones no se cumplen las normas establecidas para su uso correcto. Entre las variables epidemiológicas predominaron: las edades entre 50 y 64 años y el sexo femenino. Las principales causas del consumo fueron: para disminuir la tensión arterial y aliviar problemas familiares y laborales. Se concluyó que existió un alto índice de consumo de psicofármacos de manera automedicada; los entrevistados accedieron a estos a través de vías no convencionales, no relacionadas con el sistema de salud.


ABSTRACT Psychotropic drugs are frequently consumed by the population; their irrational use threatens the quality of life of patients who take them regularly without medical supervision. The objective of this research is to characterize the consumption of psychotropic drugs in a Basic Work Group from the health area of ‟Martha Abreu de Estevez" University Teaching Polyclinic. These drugs are often taken for self-medication, prescribed for complacency, and although they have a precise medical indication, sometimes the established norms for their correct use are not met. Ages between 50 and 64 years and female gender predominated among the epidemiological variables. Lower blood pressure and alleviate family and work problems were the main causes of consumption. We concluded that there was a high rate of self-medicated use of psychotropic drugs; the interviewees had access to them through unconventional ways, not related to the health system.


Subject(s)
Self Medication , Antidepressive Agents
9.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(3): 199-201, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149827

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Trazodone is used as an antidepressant in doses between 150 and 600 mg. At lower doses, it is commonly used to treat insomnia. There are few case reports about confusional symptoms as an undesirable side effect of this drug. We report a case of a patient who presented with delirium after prescription of trazodone 100 mg. She required hospitalisation but, shortly after discontinuation of trazodone, the symptoms disappeared without antipsychotic medication. Seven months after the episode, the patient remains asymptomatic.


RESUMEN La trazodona se usa como antidepresivo en dosis de 150-600 mg. En dosis más bajas, se usa comúnmente para tratar el insomnio. Hay pocos reportes de caso sobre síntomas confusionales como un efecto secundario indeseable de este medicamento. Se presenta el caso de una paciente que acudió con delirio después de la prescripción de trazodona 100 mg. La paciente requirió hospitalización pero, poco después de la interrupción de la trazodona, los síntomas desaparecieron sin medicación antipsicótica. A los 7 meses del episodio, la paciente permanecía asintomática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Trazodone , Delirium , Secondary Effect , Dosage , Prescriptions , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Antidepressive Agents
12.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 114-121, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223379

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos del ánimo (uni o bipolares) constituyen un significativo problema de salud pública, tanto por su alta prevalencia como por el elevado índice de discapacidad que generan. El presente artículo aborda el problema de la resistencia a tratamiento como también las estrategias y guías clínicas para el manejo de los cuadros de mayor complejidad. Se analizan los aportes de la terapia farmacológica, de la psicoterapia y de las terapias somáticas no farmacológicas, intentando un enfoque integrativo. El equipo multidisciplinario de la Unidad de Trastornos del Ánimo del Departamento de Psiquiatría de Clínica Las Condes busca aplicar un modelo integrativo con una mirada amplia, con el objetivo de encontrar el mejor manejo para cada paciente, orientado no solo a la remisión sintomática sino también a la recuperación funcional (autonomía, calidad de vínculos, etc.), para incidir de este modo en la calidad de vida global de los pacientes.


Affective disorders (uni­ or bipolar) represent a significant public health issue, due both to its high prevalence as well as the high index of disability that they generate. This article addresses the problem of treatment resistance, as well the use of clinical guidelines and strategies for the treatment of more complex cases. We analyze the contributions of pharmacological treatments, psychotherapy and non-pharmacological somatic therapies, from an integrative point of view. The multidisciplinary team of Mood Disorders Unit at Clínica Las Condes Psychiatry Department seeks to apply a broad-view integrative model with the aim of finding the better management strategy for each patient. Our objectives are both symptomatic remission and functional recovery (autonomy, quality of affective bonds, etc.), in order to make a difference on the patients' overall quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Mood Disorders/therapy , Psychotherapy/methods , Bipolar Disorder/therapy , Remission Induction , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Recovery of Function , Depression/therapy , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 122-129, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223502

ABSTRACT

La relación entre función tiroidea y trastornos del ánimo se ha observado desde hace más de 50 años. Las hormonas tiroideas, actúan en el cerebro modulando génicamente proteínas asociadas a la fisiopatología de los trastornos del ánimo y potenciando los sistemas de neurotransmisión serotoninérgica y noradrenérgica. En el tratamiento de un episodio depresivo, la normalización de hormonas tiroideas es fundamental, y debe realizarse en todo paciente con sintomatología anímica, especialmente en aquellos con respuestas insuficientes a tratamiento, que requieren niveles de hormonas más estrictos que lo recomendado para población general. En pacientes eutiroideos, la potenciación con triyodotironina ha sido probada, pero también se ha utilizado T4 en altas dosis en casos resistentes, en que se postula que pudiese existir un estado de resistencia a hormonas tiroideas, no reflejado en los niveles hormonales periféricos evaluados rutinariamente. Las enzimas deiodasas, el receptor de hormona tiroidea, y el transportador de hormona tiroidea en la barrera hematoencefálica son blancos a investigar. Los objetivos de la presente revisión son ofrecer orientaciones respecto del uso de hormonas tiroideas en pacientes con trastornos del ánimo, una puesta al día sobre la relación entre hormonas tiroídeas y sistema nervioso central, y las interacciones entre psicofármacos y función tiroidea.


The relationship between thyroid function and mood disorders has been observed for more than 50 years. Thyroid hormones act in the brain genetically modulating proteins associated with the pathophysiology of mood disorders and potentiating the serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission systems. In the treatment of a depressive episode, the normalization of thyroid hormones is essential, and should be performed in all patients with mood symptoms, especially in those with insufficient responses to treatment, which require more stringent hormone levels than recommended for the general population. In euthyroid patients, potentiation with triiodothyronine has been proven, but T4 has also been used in high doses in resistant cases, in which it is postulated that there might be a state of resistance to thyroid hormones, not reflected in the peripheral hormonal levels evaluated routinely. The enzymes deiodasas, the thyroid hormone receptor, and the thyroid hormone transporter in the blood brain barrier are white to investigate. The objectives of this review are to provide guidance regarding the use of thyroid hormones in patients with mood disorders, an update on the relationship between thyroid hormones and central nervous system, and the interactions between psychoactive drugs and thyroid function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Diseases/psychology , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/psychology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/drug therapy , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyroid Hormones/therapeutic use , Bipolar Disorder , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Depression , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 130-138, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223504

ABSTRACT

La depresión y la obesidad son patologías altamente prevalentes y corresponden a los principales problemas de salud pública. Estas patologías tienen un gran impacto en la morbilidad y mortalidad de los pacientes y afectan la salud y el bienestar de quienes las padecen, así como también afectan en el aspecto socioeconómico consecuencia del deterioro funcional y el gasto de recursos en salud ocasionados. Resultados de estudios epidemiológicos, ensayos clínicos y meta-análisis apoyan la asociación entre los estados depresivos y la obesidad, ya que ambos ocurren conjuntamente en todas las razas de poblaciones evaluadas. El objetivo es abordar la evidencia con respecto a 4 aspectos: (1) obesidad y respuesta a los antidepresivos, (2) trastornos depresivos y su impacto sobre la progresión de la obesidad, (3) tratamiento de la obesidad y el impacto sobre los resultados entre pacientes con trastornos depresivos, (4) el tratamiento de los trastornos depresivos y su impacto sobre los resultados de la obesidad. La evidencia existente apoya la asociación entre obesidad y los resultados adversos para la salud en individuos con trastornos depresivos. Además, destaca el concepto que el tratamiento de una de las dos enfermedades (obesidad o trastornos depresivos) es relevante para mejorar el curso de la otra patología. Puede ser beneficioso explorar dirigidamente la presencia de un trastorno depresivo en sujetos con sobrepeso u obesidad, así como el aumento de peso en personas con depresión. Conocer el efecto de los fármacos antidepresivos sobre el peso corporal es también relevante para facilitar la adherencia al tratamiento en el largo plazo.


Depression and obesity are highly prevalent illness and a mayor public health concern. These diseases have a great impact on morbidity and mortality of patients and affect the health and well-being of those who suffer them, as well as being affected in the socioeconomic aspect as a result of the functional deterioration and the spending of resources. Results of epidemiological studies, clinical trials and meta-analysis support the association between mood disorders and obesity, since both occur together in all the populations evaluated. The objective is to address the evidence regarding four aspects: (1) obesity and response to antidepressants, (2) depressive disorders and their effect on the progression of obesity, (3) treatment of obesity and the effect on outcomes among patients with depressive disorders, (4) the treatment of depressive disorders and their effect on obesity outcomes. Existing evidence supports the association between obesity and adverse health outcomes in individuals with depressive disorders. In addition, it highlights the concept that the treatment of one of the two diseases (obesity or depressive disorders) is relevant to improve the course of the other disease. It may be beneficial to explore the presence of a depressive disorders in overweight or obese subjects, as well as weight gain in subjects with depression. Knowing the effect of antidepressant drugs on body weight is relevant to facilitate adherence to long-term treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Obesity/psychology , Obesity/epidemiology , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Depressive Disorder/physiopathology , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Overweight , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/therapy
16.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 7-12, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives This study aimed to explore the effect of antidepressant treatment on the HPA axis, changes in depression score, and serum levels of TNF-α in depressed infertile women. Methods In this randomized controlled trial research, 60 infertile women who had undergone in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with depression scores between 16-47 were divided into two groups. The intervention group with fluoxetine capsule was under treatment for two months before the embryo transfer, while the control group was given placebo. Depression score, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as cortisol hormone levels were measured and recorded both before and after the intervention. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. Results We analyzed the data related to 55 subjects who had undergone embryo transfer. 7 subjects in the intervention group and 3 in the control group got pregnant. We observed a significant decrease in the depression score (p < 0/001) and serum levels of cortisol (p = 0/001) in the intervention group. There was a significant increase in the serum levels of TNF-α in the intervention group (p < 0/001). There was a significant difference between the two groups in the number of pregnancies (p = 0.04). However, there was no statistical difference between them with regard to the number of harvested oocytes (p = 0.174). Discussion Decrease in depression score and cortisol level, and an increase in the levels of TNF-α in the intervention group caused any changes in the number of oocytes in comparison with the control group. However, the number of pregnancies was larger in the intervention group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Depression/drug therapy , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/drug effects , Infertility, Female/psychology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/blood , Fertilization in Vitro , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Infertility, Female/therapy
17.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 14-21, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055366

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to determine if personality disorder (PD) predicted functional outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Data (n=71) from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled 12-week trial assessing the efficacy of 200 mg/day adjunctive minocycline for MDD were examined. PD was measured using the Standardized Assessment of Personality Abbreviated Scale. Outcome measures included Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and Range of Impaired Functioning (RIFT). Analysis of covariance was used to examine the impact of PD (dichotomized factor [≥ 3] or continuous measure) on the outcome measures-treatment group correlation. Results: PD was identified in 69% of the sample. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline scores for each of the outcome measures, there was no significant difference between participants with and without PD on week 12 scores for any of the outcome measures (all p > 0.14). Conclusion: In this secondary analysis of a primary efficacy study, PD was a common comorbidity among those with MDD, but was not a significant predictor of functional outcomes. This study adds to the limited literature on PD in randomized controlled trials for MDD. Clinical trial registration: ACTRN12612000283875.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Personality Disorders/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Minocycline/administration & dosage , Antidepressive Agents/administration & dosage , Personal Satisfaction , Personality Tests , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quality of Life , Comorbidity , Placebo Effect , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Self Report , Middle Aged
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 125-130, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1088912

ABSTRACT

A perseguição compulsiva da cauda consiste em um distúrbio caracterizado por movimentos giratórios em círculos, lentos a rápidos com ou sem foco na cauda. É uma desordem comportamental comumente observada em cães da raça Bull Terrier, sendo mais frequente em machos, com início entre três e seis meses de idade. O diagnóstico é realizado com base no histórico do paciente junto com exames físico, neurológico e laboratoriais. O tratamento pode ser feito por meio do manejo ambiental e da retirada de fatores estressantes aliados a medicamentos antidepressivos. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o caso de um Bull Terrier que apresentava perseguição compulsiva da cauda e teve evidente melhora clínica 75 dias após início do tratamento com clomipramina. A melhora foi ainda maior após a orquiectomia. A clomipramina consiste em um antidepressivo tricíclico promissor no tratamento de perseguição compulsiva da cauda em cães, devendo-se associar alteração no manejo ambiental e evitar gatilhos que induzam frustração, ansiedade e conflito.(AU)


The compulsive pursuit of the tail is characterized by a rotating movement in circles, slow to fast with or without focus on the tail. It is a disorder commonly observed in bull terrier dogs, being more frequent in males, beginning between 3 and 6 months of age. Diagnosis can be made based on patient history along with physical, neurological, and laboratory tests. Treatment can be done through environmental management and withdrawal of stressors allied with antidepressant drugs. The objective of this article is to report the case of a Bull Terrier that had compulsive pursuit of the tail and had evident clinical improvement 75 days after starting treatment with clomipramine. The improvement was even greater after orchiectomy. Clomipramine is the promising tricyclic antidepressant in the treatment of compulsive tail chasing in dogs. It should be associated with changes in environmental management and avoid triggers that induce frustration, anxiety and conflict.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Clomipramine/administration & dosage , Compulsive Behavior/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828386

ABSTRACT

Depression is a common affective disorder. The application of antidepressants can significantly alleviate the symptoms of depression, which is the most important way to treat depression in clinical practice. Due to the complex etiology, wide variety, as well as diversity and severity of serious concomitant symptoms, rational addition of other drugs into antidepressants can significantly improve the cure rates of depression, reduce adverse reactions, and improve patient compliances. Therefore, the combined applications of differential drugs have been commonly used in clinic. In this paper, more than 600 literatures about depression from 2010 to 2019 were collected based on the key words of antidepressant, depression, combined medication, synergism and increase efficiency. Based on this, by summarizing and classifying the existing combinations of antidepressant drugs, this paper systematically expounds the current combined applications of antidepressant drugs in three categories, i.e. western medicines combined with western medicines, western medicines combined with traditional Chinese medicines, and traditional Chinese medicines combined with traditional Chinese medicines, in the expectation of providing the direction and basis for the selection of rational combinations of antidepressant drugs in clinic.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Drug Interactions , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828057

ABSTRACT

Depression is a kind of mental disease with main symptoms of low mood and lack of pleasure, which seriously endangers human health. An appropriate depressive animal model is of great significance for the study of depression and new antidepressant drugs, while the suitable selection and matching of experimental animals, modeling methods and evaluation indexes are critical to eva-luate the scientificity and effectiveness of the depressive animal model. The study advance of depressive animal models in the aspects of experimental animal selection, modeling principle and method, characteristics, evaluation indexes and their application in traditional Chinese medicine are summarized through the systematic review of relevant literatures in PubMed, CNKI and other databases. The depressive animal modeling methods utilized in recent studies include stress, glucocorticoid induction, reserpine induction, lipopolysaccharide induction, surgical modeling, gene knockout, joint application modeling methods. Stress method is better to simulate the depressive symptoms of clinical patients, whereas there are some deficiencies, such as long modeling time and large cost. The depressive animal models induced by glucocorticoid, reserpine and lipopolysaccharide have the advantages of short modeling time and good controllability, but with a poor reliability. The pathogenesis of surgical modeling is highly matched with that of clinical depressive patients, whereas it has the defect of long postoperative recovery period. Gene knockout models can be used to study the precise role of specific genes in depression. However, its applicability may be restricted in studies on depression. The joint application modeling method can improve its reliability and accuracy, and attracts more and more attention. This paper provides a reference for the selection of animal models in future studies of pathological mechanism of depression, and screening and evaluation of antidepressant drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Depression , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mental Disorders , Drug Therapy , Reproducibility of Results
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