Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 115
Filter
1.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(1): e25741, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348355

ABSTRACT

Introdução:Pacientes com depressão maior geralmente respondem ao tratamento com medicamentos antidepressivos, no entanto em 10% a 30% dos casos há apenas uma resposta parcial ou nenhuma resposta, entre os fatores que podem influenciar encontra-se o perfil das enzimas hepáticas metabolizadoras dos antidepressivos, tal como a CYP2C19.Objetivo:Caracterizar os indivíduos quanto ao perfil genético dospolimorfismos CYP2C19*2 ou CYP2C19*17 em pacientes com transtorno depressivo maior (TDM) tratados com citalopram ou escitalopram e compará-los em relação a adesão ao tratamento, sintomas de depressão e qualidade de vida.Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado com 29 pacientes com TDM. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para genotipagem de CYP2C19 por discriminação alélica TaqMan®. Após caracterização do perfil genético, os indivíduos foram comparados quanto aos dados demográfico e socioeconômico, adesão ao tratamento (TestedeMorisky-Green),sintomas de depressão (escala de Hamilton) e qualidade de vida (WHOQoL-BREF).Resultados:Quatro pacientes (13.8%) apresentaram polimorfismo para CYP2C19*2 e 10 pacientes (34.4%) para CYP2C19*17, com maior prevalência de CYP2C19*17 (p>0.05). Nenhuma associação significativa de características socioeconômicas, demográficas e clínicas entre os genótipos do CYP2C19.No TestedeMorisky-Green, aadesão moderada ao tratamento foi predominante nos pacientes CYP2C19*2 e CYP2C19*17 (p>0.05). Não foi observada associação entre sintomas de depressão e polimorfismos genéticos (p>0.05). Uma associação significativa entre o genótipo polimórfico CC do CYP2C19*17 com a satisfação com a saúde, enquanto o genótipo CT foi associado ao estado "nem satisfeito/nem insatisfeito" (p<0.05). A maioria dos indivíduos CYP2C19*2 e CYP2C19*17 relatou "necessidade de melhorar" em relação aos domínios de qualidade de vida físico, psicológico, social e ambiental (p>0.05).Conclusões:Os pacientes apresentaram maior prevalência do polimorfismo CYP2C19*17, com moderada adesão ao tratamento. Alguns pacientes, mesmo sob efeito da medicação, apresentaram sintomas de depressão moderado a intenso e relataram uma indefinição na satisfação da sua qualidade de vida (AU).


Introduction:Patients with major depression usually respond to treatment with antidepressant drugs, however in 10% to 30% of cases there is only a partial response or no response, among the factors that can influence is the profile of liver enzymes metabolizing antidepressants, such as CYP2C19.Objective:To characterize the individuals regarding the genetic profile ofCYP2C19*2or CYP2C19*17 polymorphisms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with citalopram or escitalopram, and to compare themaccording to treatment adherence, symptoms of depression and quality of life.Methodology:This is cross-sectionalstudy carried out with 29 patients with MDD. Blood samples were collected for CYP2C19 genotyping by TaqMan® allelic discrimination. After characterization of the genetic profile, the individuals were compared regarding the demographic and socioeconomic data, treatment adherence (Morisky-GreenTest), symptoms of depression (Hamilton scale) and quality of life (WHOQoL-BREF).Results:Four patients showed (13.8%) CYP219*2 and 10 patients (34.4%) CYP219*17 polymorphisms.,withhigher prevalence of CYP219*17 (p>0.05). No association between socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical features with CYP2C19 genotypes was observed. In Morisky-GreenTest, moderate adherence to treatment was predominant for CYP2C19*2 and CYP219*17 patients (p>0.05). No statistically significant association was observed between symptoms of depression and genetic polymorphisms (p>0.05). A significant association between polymorphic CC genotype of CYP219*17 with health satisfaction, while the CT genotype was associated with "neither satisfied/nor dissatisfied" status (p<0.05). Most of the CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 subjects reported "need to improve" or "regular" regarding physical, psychological, social, and environmental domainsof quality of life(p>0.05).Conclusions:The patients showed a higher prevalence of CYP219*17 polymorphism, with moderate treatment adherence. Some subjects, even under the effect of the medication, presented moderate to intense symptoms of depression, and reported a lack of definition in the satisfaction of their quality of life (AU).


Introducción:Los pacientes con depresión mayor responder al tratamiento con antidepresivos, en 10% al 30% de los casos existe una respuesta parcial o nula, entre los factores que pueden influir se encuentra el perfil de enzimas hepáticas metabolizadoras de antidepresivos, como CYP2C19.Objetivo: Caracterizar a los individuos en cuanto al perfil genético depolimorfismos CYP2C19 *2 o CYP2C19 * 17 en pacientes con trastorno depresivo mayor (TDM) tratados con citalopram o escitalopram y compararlos en relaciónpara la adherencia al tratamiento, síntomas de depresión y la calidad de vida.Metodología: Estudio transversalcon 29 pacientes con TDM. Se recogieron muestras de sangre para la determinación del genotipo CYP2C19 mediante discriminación alélica TaqMan®, los individuos fueron comparados en cuanto a los datosdemográficosy socioeconómicos, adherencia (Prueba de Morisky-Green), síntomas de depresión (escala de Hamilton) y calidad de vida (WHOQoL-BREF).Resultados: Cuatro pacientes (13,8%) con polimorfismo CYP2C19*2 y 10 (34,4%) con CYP2C19 * 17,(p> 0,05). No existe una asociación significativa de las características socioeconómicas, demográficas y clínicas con los genotipos CYP2C19. La adherencia moderada al tratamiento fue predominante en los pacientes con CYP2C19*2 y CYP2C19*17 (p> 0,05). No hubo asociación entre síntomas de depresión y polimorfismos genéticos (p> 0.05). Una asociación significativa entre el genotipo polimórfico CYP2C19 * 17 CC con la satisfacción con la salud, mientras que el genotipo CT se asoció con el estado "ni satisfecho / no insatisfecho" (p <0.05). La mayoría de CYP2C19 * 2 y CYP2C19 * 17 individuos informaron "necesidad de mejorar" en relación con los dominios físico, psicológico, social y ambientalde calidad de vida(p> 0,05).Conclusiones: Los pacients mostraron una mayor prevalencia del CYP2C19 * 17, con adherencia moderada al tratamiento, síntomas de depresión moderada a intensay informaron una falta de definición en la satisfacción de su calidad de vida (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Citalopram/pharmacology , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Quality of Life , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Drug Therapy
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10107, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142578

ABSTRACT

Ketamine (KET) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but how the drug shows its sustained effects is still a matter of controversy. The objectives were to evaluate the mechanisms for KET rapid (30 min) and long-lasting (15 and 30 days after) antidepressant effects in mice. A single dose of KET (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, po) was administered to male Swiss mice and the forced swim test (FST) was performed 30 min, 15, or 30 days later. Imipramine (IMI, 30 mg/kg, ip), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, was used as reference. The mice were euthanized, separated into two time-point groups (D1, first day after KET injection; D30, 30 days later), and brain sections were processed for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), histone deacetylase (HDAC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical assays. KET (5 and 10 mg/kg) presented rapid and long-lasting antidepressant-like effects. As expected, the immunoreactivities for brain GSK-3 and HDAC decreased compared to control groups in all areas (striatum, DG, CA1, CA3, and mainly pre-frontal cortex, PFC) after KET injection. Increases in BDNF immunostaining were demonstrated in the PFC, DG, CA1, and CA3 areas at D1 and D30 time-points. GFAP immunoreactivity was also increased in the PFC and striatum at both time-points. In conclusion, KET changed brain BDNF and GFAP expressions 30 days after a single administration. Although neuroplasticity could be involved in the observed effects of KET, more studies are needed to explain the mechanisms for the drug's sustained antidepressant-like effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Disease Models, Animal , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Histone Deacetylases
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888021

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effects of total alkaloids of Fibraurea recisa in HT22 cells damaged by corticosterone (CORT) in vitro and in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) as well as the underlying mechanisms.In cellular experiments,the viability of CORT-damaged HT22 cells was detected using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8),and the cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining.In animal experiments,C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into the control group,model group,low (100 mg·kg~(-1)),medium (200 mg·kg~(-1)) and high (400 mg·kg~(-1))-dose of total alkaloids of F.recisa groups,and positive control group.After 21 days of CUMS exposure,their depressive behaviors were observed in behavioral and Morris water maze tests.The serum levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT),dopamine (DA),and norepinephrine (NE) were assessed by ELISA.The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2,Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in HT22 cells and mouse hippocampus were detected by Western blot.The results suggested that total alkaloids of F.recisa alleviated the damage of HT22 cells induced by CORT in a dose-dependent manner.The Hoechst 33258 staining uncovered that total alkaloids of F.recisa better reduced the blue spots and inhibited cell apoptosis.The results of animal experiments showed that total alkaloids of F.recisa significantly improved the depression-like behaviors of mice and increased the serum levels of 5-HT,DA and NE as compared with those in the model group.The Western blot assays revealed a significant up-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression,but an obvious reduction in Bax and cleaved caspase-3protein expression in the total alkaloids of F.recisa group.In conclusion,total alkaloids of F.recisa inhibited depression possibly by regulating the apoptosis-related protein expression or elevating the monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Depression/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Stress, Psychological
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 576-583, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002261

ABSTRACT

Antidepressants use during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Animal models based on early life alterations in serotonin availability replicate some of the anatomical and behavioral abnormalities observed in autistic individuals. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the possible role of the hippocampus in autism. The aim of study is to examine the effects of neonatal antidepressant (CTM) exposure during a sensitive period of brain development on pyramidal and granule cells density of hippocampal formation. We examined the pyramidal and granular cells density of dorsal hippocampus using Nissl stained sections obtained from neonatal citalopram (CTM) exposed rats (5 mg/kg, twice daily, s.c.), from postnatal day 8 to 21 (PN8-21), saline and non-exposed rats. The density of pyramidal cells was significantly increased by 10.2 % in CA1, 10.6 % in CA3 and 13.2 % in CA4 in CTM treated compared with non-treated or saline treated animals (p<0.0001). The density of granule cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly increased by 12.0 % in CTM treated compared with non-treated or saline treated animals (p<0.0001). These findings were obtained only from male rats, suggesting a sexual dimorphism in neural development after SSRI exposure. These data suggest that the neonatal exposure to CTM may induce long-lasting changes in the hippcampal formation in adults, and such effects appear to preferentially target males.


El uso de antidepresivos durante el embarazo se asoció con un mayor riesgo de trastornos del espectro autista. Los modelos animales basados en alteraciones tempranas de la vida en la disponibilidad de serotonina replican algunas de las anomalías anatómicas y de comportamiento observadas en individuos autistas. En los últimos años ha habido un interés creciente en el posible papel del hipocampo en el autismo. El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los efectos de la exposición al antidepresivo neonatal (CTM) durante un período sensible del desarrollo cerebral en la densidad de las células piramidales y granulares de la formación del hipocampo. Examinamos la densidad de las células piramidales y granulares del hipocampo dorsal utilizando secciones teñidas con Nissl obtenidas de ratas expuestas al citalopram neonatal (CTM) (5 mg / kg, dos veces al día, sc), desde el día postnatal 8 a 21 (PN8-21), solución salina y ratas no expuestas. La densidad de células piramidales se incrementó significativamente en un 10,2 % en CA1, 10,6 % en CA3 y 13,2 % en CA4 en CTM tratados en comparación con animales no tratados o tratados con solución salina (p <0,0001). La densidad de células granulares en el giro dentado aumentó significativamente en un 12,0 % en los animales tratados con CTM en comparación con los animales no tratados o tratados con solución salina (p <0,0001). Estos hallazgos se obtuvieron solo en ratas macho, lo que sugiere un dimorfismo sexual en el desarrollo neural después de la exposición a ISRS. Estos datos sugieren que la exposición neonatal a la CTM puede inducir cambios de larga duración en la formación del hipocampo en adultos, y estos efectos parecen dirigirse preferentemente a los machos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Citalopram/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Autistic Disorder/chemically induced , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Citalopram/adverse effects , Cell Count , Sex Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pyramidal Cells/drug effects , Hippocampus/cytology , Hippocampus/growth & development , Animals, Newborn , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 290-296, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013469

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of amitriptyline, fluoxetine, tranylcypromine and venlafaxine on saphenous vein grafts in coronary artery bypass graft surgeries. Methods: 59 patients (40 males and 19 females; mean age 65.1 years, distribution: 45-84 years) who had coronary artery bypass graft surgery between February 2014 and May 2016 were included in the study. After the saphenous vein grafts with intact and denuded endothelium were precontracted with 3×10-6M phenylephrine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine and tranylcypromine were cumulatively added to isolated organ baths in the range of 10-11-3x10-5M, while venlafaxine was added in the range of 10-9-3×10-5M. Then, the antidepressant-induced relaxation responses were recorded isometrically. Results: While the relaxation response of amitriptyline at -6.42 (Log M) was 74.6%, the response at -6.32 (Log M) was 75.5%. While the relaxation response at -6.46 (Log M) of fluoxetine was 68.02%, the response at -6.02 (Log M) was 72.12%. While the relaxation response of tranylcypromine at -7.53 (Log M) was 61.13%, the response at -7.23 (Log M) was 65.53%. While the relaxation response of venlafaxine at -6.21 (Log M) was 29.98%, the response at -5.90 (Log M) was 32.96%. Conclusion: The maximum relaxation at minimum and maximum therapeutic concentrations was obtained with amitriptyline, fluoxetine and tranylcypromine, and the minimum relaxation was obtained with venlafaxine. The relaxation responses were independent of the endothelium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Saphenous Vein/drug effects , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Tranylcypromine/pharmacology , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Amitriptyline/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Vasodilation/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Analysis of Variance , Transplants/drug effects , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects
9.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 96(2): 103-115, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-868082

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Data have supported the influence of inflammation in the pathophysiology of depression and also the influence of depression in the development of a pro-inflammatory state. Major depressive disorder (MDD), the core depressive condition, has selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) as its first line pharmacological treatment. Efforts have been made to identify predictive factors for the responsiveness to SSRI. Therefore, we conducted this review to evaluate the hypothesis that baseline levels of inflammatory markers predict the responsiveness of MDD to SSRI treatment. Methods: A search in the PubMed database was made including the keywords ("SSRI" or "sertraline" or "citalopram" or "fluvoxamine" or "escitalopram" or "fluoxetine" or "paroxetine") and ("cytokines" or "CRP" or "TNF" or "inflammatory") and ("major depressive disorder" or "major depression"). Results: The search retrieved 245 manuscripts, from which 12 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The analysis of these manuscripts suggested that high levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and c-reactive protein (CRP) at baseline might predict low responsiveness of MDD to SSRI treatment. Confounders such as cognitive impairment, chronicity and severity of depression, melancholic subtype, age and gender were not systematically included in the studies. Conclusion: Findings of this review suggest that high levels of pro-inflammatory markers at baseline might predict low responsiveness of MDD to SSRI treatment. Studies with adequate control for confounders are needed.


A influência da inflamação na fisiopatologia da depressão e o papel da depressão no desenvolvimento de um estado pró-inflamatório têm sido apoiados por diversos estudos. O transtorno depressivo maior (TDM), principal diagnóstico de depressão, tem os inibidores seletivos da recaptação de serotonina (ISRS) como tratamento farmacológico de primeira linha. Esforços têm sido feitos para identificar fatores preditivos da responsividade ao tratamento antidepressivo os ISRS. Portanto, esta revisão tem como objetivo avaliar a hipótese de que níveis basais de marcadores inflamatórios predizem a responsividade do TDM ao tratamento com ISRS. Métodos: Pesquisamos o banco de dados PubMed, incluindo as palavras-chave ("ISRS" ou "sertralina" ou "citalopram" ou "fluvoxamina" ou "escitalopram" ou "fluoxetina" ou "paroxetina") e ("citocinas" ou "CRP" ou "TNF" ou "inflamatório") e ("transtorno depressivo maior" ou "depressão maior"). Resultados:A pesquisa identificou 245 manuscritos, dos quais 12 satisfizeram os critérios de inclusão e exclusão e foram incluídos nesta revisão. A análise destes manuscritos sugeriu que níveis elevados de interleucina 6 (IL-6), interleucina 1ß (IL-1ß), fator de necrose tumoral ­ alfa (TNF-α) e proteína C-reativa (PCR) na avaliação basal podem prever baixa responsividade da depressão ao tratamento com ISRS. Fatores de confusão como deficiência cognitiva, cronicidade e gravidade da depressão, subtipo melancólico, idade e sexo, não foram sistematicamente incluídos nos estudos. Conclusão: Os achados desta revisão sugerem que níveis elevados de marcadores pró-inflamatórios na avaliação basal podem predizer baixa responsividade do TDM ao tratamento com ISRS. Estudos com controle adequado para fatores de confusão são necessários.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cytokines , Depression/drug therapy , Inflammation , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Predictive Value of Tests
10.
Hosp. Aeronáut. Cent ; 12(2): 125-32, 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-911007

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El trastorno de la personalidad (TLP) afecta al 1-2% de la población adulta y aproximadamente al 20% de los pacientes hospitalizados por causas psiquiátricas. La tasa de mortalidad por suicidio alcanza el 10%, y se destacan las conductas suicidas que alcanzan el 84% de los pacientes, siendo éstas muy prevalentes en la consultas en los servicios de emergencia. El tratamiento psicofarmacológico aplicado en estos pacientes es uno de los abordajes clínicos que más incertidumbre generan debido a la falta de protocolos terapéuticos que cubran todas las dimensiones centrales de la personalidad. Objetivos: El objetivo del presente artículo es realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre la utilidad de antipsicóticos de segunda generación, estabilizadores del ánimo y antidepresivos para el tratamiento farmacológico aplicado a la clínica de pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno límite de la personalidad, con especificación de la evidencia científica para cada grupo farmacológico. Material y Método: Revisión y comparación bibliográfica sobre el uso y utilización de 3 grupos psicofarmacológicos (antipsicóticos de segunda generación, estabilizadores del ánimo y antidepresivos)para el tratamiento de pacientes con diagnóstico de TLP, con especificación de los indicadores y resultados de trabajos de medicina basada en la evidencia. Resultados: Según la revisión sistemática en ensayos clínicos con antipsicóticos (primera y segunda generación), estabilizadores del estado de ánimo y antidepresivos se hallaron mayores beneficios con el uso de estabilizadores del estado de ánimo (topiramato, lamotrigina y valproato de sodio) y antipsicóticos de segunda generación (aripiprazol y olanzapina). La consistencia es baja ya que el tamaño muestral fue pequeño o fue realizado mediante reportes de casos. Asimismo, la duración de los estudios varió de 5 a 24 semanas (duración promedio 12 semanas) y analizaron datos de 1714 participantes, con muestras heterogéneas en los estudios (entre 16 y 314 participantes).Conclusión: Suponemos que se debería profundizar en el abordaje de los síntomas borderline, básicamente investigaciones longitudinales a largo plazo (superior al año) con mayor número de pacientes, instrumentos de evaluación validados y tener en cuenta diseños para la traslación de resultados en contexto asistencial


Introduction: Personality disorder affects 1-2% of adult population and almost 20% of hospitalized patients for psychiatric causes. Mortality rate by suicide is almost 10%, and suicidal behaviour stand out in 84% of patients, being very prevalent in emergency service. Psicopharmacologic treatment applied to those patients is one of the approaches that more uncertainty generates because of the absence of therapeutic protocols that cover all the central dimensions of the personality. Objectives: to make a bibliographic review about second generation antipsychotics utility, mood stabilizers and antidepressants applied to patients with diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, with scientific evidence specification for each pharmacological group. Material and Method: Bibliographic review and comparison about use and utilization of three psicopharmacologic groups (second generation antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and antidepressant) for patients with borderline personality disorder treatment, with indicators specification and evidence-based medicine works results. Results: According to systematic review in clinical essays with antipsychotics (first and second generation), mood stabilizers and antidepressants, it was found more benefits with mood stabilizers (topiramate, lamotrigine and sodium valproate) and second generation antipsychotics (aripiprazole and olanzapine). The consistency is low because of the sample size or it was made with cases reports. Likewise, studies duration were between 5 and 24 weeks (average duration: 12 weeks) and 1714 data patients ́ were analysed, with heterogeneous sample (between 16 and 314). Conclusions: We assume we should deepen in borderline symptoms average with long term longitudinal studies (more than a year) with a bigger number of patients, validated evaluation instruments and take into account designs for results translation in an assistance context.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Borderline Personality Disorder/drug therapy , Borderline Personality Disorder/therapy , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Evidence-Based Medicine , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(10): 1326-1335, oct. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845448

ABSTRACT

Tamoxifen (Tmf), is a standard of care for women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Endoxifen is a Tmf metabolite generated by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Antidepressive agents (AD) are often prescribed to women with breast cancer not only for depression, but also for anxiety and hot flashes. Some AD are substrates or inhibitors of the Tmf metabolic pathway. Therefore there may be interactions when Tmf and AD are prescribed simultaneously. Oncologic protection afforded by Tmf may become less effective or null when AD are indicated, especially in poor metabolizing patients. We performed an update of the literature about the criteria for choosing AD in women receiving Tmf. Tricyclic AD, paroxetine and fluoxetine should be avoided in patients receiving Tmf, because they are strong inhibitors of CYP2D6. Bupropion, duloxetine and sertraline are only moderate inhibitors of the cytochrome and are not contraindicated. Citalopram, desvenlafaxine, escitalopram, milnacipran and venlafaxine are recommended, because they do not influence the metabolism and clinical efficacy of Tmf and have fewer drug interactions. However, other additional pharmacological and clinical issues should be considered when choosing an antidepressant in women with breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tamoxifen/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Tamoxifen/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Risk Factors , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6/drug effects , Drug Interactions , Genotype , Antidepressive Agents/metabolism
12.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(1): 65-72, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776489

ABSTRACT

Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline). Methods: Papers published until 3 April 2015 were retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and using a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. Results: Five hundred and fourteen studies were identified, of which 21 met the established criteria. Studies in animals have shown anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of ayahuasca, harmine, and harmaline, and experimental studies in humans and mental health assessments of experienced ayahuasca consumers also suggest that ayahuasca is associated with reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms. A pilot study reported rapid antidepressive effects of a single ayahuasca dose in six patients with recurrent depression. Conclusion: Considering the need for new drugs that produce fewer adverse effects and are more effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptomatology, the described effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Banisteriopsis , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , N,N-Dimethyltryptamine/pharmacology , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Harmaline/pharmacology , Harmine/pharmacology , Mice , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3): 593-606, jul.-set. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722281

ABSTRACT

Estima-se que aproximadamente 25% das drogas prescritas em todo o mundo são oriundas de espécies vegetais. Dentre as plantas com alto potencial medicinal, se destaca o Hypericum perforatum L. (HP), planta herbácea perene, pertencente à família Hypericaceae. Extratos orgânicos e aquosos de HP têm sido utilizados na medicina popular e em testes pré-clínicos para o tratamento e prevenção de diversas doenças através de efeitos nefroprotetores, atividades antioxidante, antifúngica, ansiolítica, antiviral e cicatrizante. Estudos clínicos indicaram que esta espécie pode ser útil no tratamento de desordens originadas do sistema nervoso central, especialmente na depressão unipolar. HP contém, ao menos, dez classes de compostos biologicamente ativos, dentre eles antraquinonas/naftodiantronas, derivados de floroglucinol, flavonoides, biflavonas, xantonas, óleos voláteis, aminoácidos, vitamina C, cumarinas, taninos e carotenoides. Ao mesmo tempo em que os constituintes possuem relevantes efeitos farmacológicos, os mesmos podem prejudicar, por antagonismo farmacocinético (interação com algumas enzimas do citocromo), a eficácia de outros fármacos. Devido a relevante importância do HP como agente terapêutico, ressalta-se a importância do desenvolvimento de novos estudos com o intuito de elucidar questões ainda controversas acerca do extrato de HP, e.g., dose, melhor horário para colheita, padronização dos extratos, e possíveis efeitos tóxicos, podendo assim, definir claramente os riscos e benefícios da utilização desta planta.


It is estimated that approximately 25% of prescribed drugs are derived from plant species. Among the plants with high medicinal potential, it highlights the Hypericum perforatum L. (HP), perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the family Hypericaceae. Organic and aqueous extracts of HP have been used in folk medicine and in pre-clinical testing for the treatment and prevention of several diseases through effects nefroprotetores, antioxidant, antifungal, anxiolytic, wound healing and antiviral activities. Clinical studies indicated that this specie can be useful in the treatment of central nervous system disorders, especially to unipolar depression. HP contains at least ten classes of biologically active compounds, including anthraquinones/naftodiantronas, phloroglucinol derivatives, flavonoids, biflavones, xanthones, volatile oils, amino acids, vitamin C, coumarins, carotenoids and tannins. At the same time that the secondary metabolites have important pharmacological effects, they can impair the effectiveness of other drugs by pharmacokinetic antagonism.


Subject(s)
Hypericum/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Botany , Depression/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/analysis
14.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 29(3): 467-472, jul.-sep. 2014. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-750

ABSTRACT

O modus vivendi moderno tem produzido cada vez mais um crescente descontentamento em relação à anatomia corporal e a imaginação a respeito do corpo perfeito desperta um desejo no indivíduo nem sempre condizente com sua realidade. Sem limitação para as transfigurações, o corpo é modelado com base no sonho de uma estrutura corporal perfeita, na maioria das vezes, inalcançável, com os inúmeros procedimentos cirúrgicos propostos. Assim, é fundamental que os cirurgiões plásticos conheçam o Transtorno Dismórfico Corporal (TDC) ou dismorfofobia, desordem esta prevalente em ambos os sexos, em que a visão da aparência é deturpada, caracterizada pela inquietação excessiva de uma imperfeição física minúscula ou por imperfeições corporais ilusórias. O diagnóstico pode passar despercebido pelo não conhecimento, pelo subdiagnóstico ou pela preocupação apenas com a alteração corporal, o que pode trazer prejuízos pessoais, demandas jurídicas e até ajudar a manter o distúrbio.


The modern modus vivendi has promoted a growing discontentment in regard to self body image, and imagining a perfect body leads to a desire in an individual that is not always compatible with reality. With no limits in transfiguration, the body is modeled based on the dream of a perfect body structure, which is most times unattainable and requires numerous proposed surgical procedures. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for plastic surgeons to become aware of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), or dysmorphophobia. This is a disorder that is prevalent in both sexes, in which self visual appearance is distorted. It is also characterized by an excessive concern over a tiny physical imperfection or delusive physical imperfections. The diagnosis can remain unnoticed due to lack of knowledge, misdiagnosis, or concern only over body alterations, which may lead to personal damage, legal claims, and also risk of prolonging the disorder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 21st Century , Somatoform Disorders , Surgery, Plastic , Body Image , Review Literature as Topic , Anorexia Nervosa , Evaluation Study , Body Dysmorphic Disorders , Physical Appearance, Body , Mental Disorders , Antidepressive Agents , Somatoform Disorders/pathology , Somatoform Disorders/psychology , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Body Image/psychology , Anorexia Nervosa/pathology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/surgery , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/pathology , Physical Appearance, Body/physiology , Mental Disorders/pathology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(7): 554-559, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712973

ABSTRACT

Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Fluoxetine/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Paroxetine/administration & dosage , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Sertraline/administration & dosage , Sympathetic Nervous System/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents/administration & dosage , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Baroreflex/drug effects , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Kidney/innervation , Kidney/surgery , Paroxetine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Respiratory Rate/drug effects , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sertraline/pharmacology , Vital Signs/drug effects
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(4): 413-419, jul. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-724335

ABSTRACT

Acantholippia deserticola (Phil.ex F. Phil.) Moldenke is a Verbenaceae that has long been used in traditional medicine in Tarapacá (Chile) as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac agent. Sincé alpha - and beta -thujone were identified as the main constituents (88.4 percent) of the essential oil from this plant, we investigated its biological properties. The results show that the essential oil from Acantholippia deserticola decreased locomotive and rearing activity compared to control group rats, including those treated with diazepam, but the essential oil had no effects on head movements or grooming. The essential oil also had significant anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. This essential oil, therefore, has sedative, anxiolytic and antidepressant actions on the rat central nervous system.


Acantholippia deserticola es una Verbenaceae de uso en la medicina tradicional como analgésico, antiinflamatorio y afrodisíaco en la región de Tarapacá, Chile. En el aceite esencial se ha identificado alfa - and beta -tuyonas como principales constituyentes (88.4 por ciento) de esta planta, que ha llevado a investigar sus propiedades biológicas. Los resultados muestran que el aceite esencial de Acantholippia deserticola disminuye la locomoción y el levantamiento en dos patas, en comparación con el grupo control, incluido el tratado por el diazepam, pero el aceite esencial no tuvo efecto sobre la sacudida de cabeza y el acicalamiento. En ambas pruebas, se observa un efecto significativo del aceite esencial en los efectos ansiolíticos y antidepresivos, lo que indica que el aceite esencial tiene actividad sedante, ansiolítica y antidepresiva en el sistema nervioso central.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Monoterpenes/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Central Nervous System
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Jun; 51(6): 444-449
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147612

ABSTRACT

Etazolate is a selective inhibitor of type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) class enzyme. Antidepressant-like effect of etazolate has been previously demonstrated in the rodent models of depression. The present study was designed to investigate the anxiolytic-like activity of etazolate in experimental mouse models of anxiety. The putative anxiolytic effect of etazolate (0.25-1 mg/kg, ip) was studied in mice by using a battery of behavioural tests of anxiety such as elevated plus maze (EPM), light/dark (L/D) aversion, hole board (HB) and open field (OFT) with diazepam (2 mg/kg, ip) as reference anxiolytic. Like diazepam (2 mg/kg, ip), etazolate (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, ip) significantly increased the percentage of both time spent and entries into open arms in the EPM test. In the L/D test etazolate (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, ip) increased the both total time spent in and latency time to leave the light compartment. Etazolate (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, ip) also significantly increased head dipping scores and time spent in head dipping, whereas significantly decreased the head dipping latency in HB test. In addition, etazolate (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, ip) significantly increased the ambulation scores (square crossed) and number of rearing in OFT. In conclusion, these findings indicated that etazolate exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect in experimental models of anxiety and may be considered an alternative approach for the management of anxiety disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Darkness , Diazepam/pharmacology , Emotions/drug effects , Etazolate/pharmacology , Light , Mice , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Jun; 51(6): 435-443
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147611

ABSTRACT

The compound 6o (at 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, ip) with optimum log P and pA2 value, was subjected to forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The compound 6o significantly reduced the duration of immobility in mice without affecting the base line locomotion in actophotometer. Moreover, 6o (2 mg/kg, ip), potentiated the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch responses in mice and at 1 and 2 mg/kg, ip antagonized the reserpine-induced hypothermia (RIH) in rats. In interaction studies with various standard drugs/ligands using FST, 6o (1 and 2 mg/kg, ip) potentiated the anti-depressant effect fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, ip) and reversed the depressant effect of parthenolide (1 mg/kg, ip) by reducing the duration of immobility. Furthermore, 6o (1 and 2 mg/kg, ip) potentiated the effect of bupropion (10 mg/kg, ip) in TST. The behavioural anomalies of the olfactory bulbectomised (OBX) rats were augmented by chronic 6o (1 and 2 mg/kg) treatment as observed from the modified open field test (parameters: ambulation, rearing, fecal pellet). The results suggest that compound 6o exhibited anti-depressant like effect in rodent models of depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Depression/drug therapy , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Motor Activity/drug effects , Olfactory Bulb/drug effects , Paroxetine/pharmacology , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Swimming
19.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (3): 529-535
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138309

ABSTRACT

Asperugo procumbents L. has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for the refreshing, tranquillizing and mood elevating activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidepressant and sedative-hypnotic potential of acute administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of this plant in mice. Additionally, the effects of flumazenil on the hypnotic activity of the extracts were evaluated. None of the doses of the extract could significantly reduce immobility time in comparison with control group in antidepressant tests. In hypnotic test, 250 and 400 mg/kg doses significantly increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time compared to vehicle. All of the doses of the extract significantly reduced the latency to sleep in comparison to the vehicle. Flumazenil reversed the augmented effects of extracts in pentobarbital-induced hypnotic test. The results of the present study indicate the low antidepressant and good sedative-hypnotic effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Asperugo procumbens aerial parts in mice. Central benzodiazepine receptors are involved in the sedative-hypnotic effects of this plant


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Medicine, Traditional , Mice , Plant Components, Aerial , Phytotherapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL