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Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 364-377, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929267


Ma-Mu-Ran Antidiarrheal Capsules (MMRAC) is traditional Chinese medicine that has been used to treat diarrhea caused by acute enteritis (AE) and bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang (China) for many years. However, the potential therapeutic mechanism of MMRAC for AE and its regulatory mechanism on host metabolism is unclear. This study used fecal metabolomics profiling with GC/MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis to explore the potential regulatory mechanisms of MMRAC on a dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced mouse model of AE. Fecal metabolomics-based analyses were performed to detect the differentially expressed metabolites and metabolic pathways. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis was used to assess the altered gut microbes at the genus level and for functional prediction. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis was used to integrate differentially expressed metabolites and altered bacterial genera. The results revealed that six intestinal bacteria and seven metabolites mediated metabolic disorders (i.e., metabolism of amino acid, carbohydrate, cofactors and vitamins, and lipid) in AE mice. Besides, ten altered microbes mediated the differential expression of eight metabolites and regulated these metabolisms after MMRAC administration. Overall, these findings demonstrate that AE is associated with metabolic disorders and microbial dysbiosis. Further, we present that MMRAC exerts protective effects against AE by improving host metabolism through the intestinal flora.

Animals , Mice , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Capsules , Enteritis/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Genes, rRNA , Metabolomics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 204-222, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007819


To explore the mechanistic basis behind smooth muscle relaxant prospective of Bismarckia nobilis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments. The methanolic extract of B. nobilis and sub-fractions have been evaluated in vitro rabbit isolated tissues, in vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice. The B. nobilis extract relaxed spontaneous and K+(80 mM)- induced contractions in rabbit isolated jejunum preparations, CCh (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in tracheal and bladder preparations, PE (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced concentrations in aorta preparations, likewise verapamil. Spasmolytic activity of dichloromethane fraction is stronger as compared to aqueous fraction. In vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice further supported spasmolytic activity. B. nobilis extract possess anti-spasmodic, anti-diarrheal, airway relaxant and vasodilator activities possible mediated through calcium channel blocking mechanism, justifying therapeutic utility of B. nobilis in diarrhea, asthma and hypertension.

El objetivo de trabajo fue explorar el mecanismo de acción relacionado con el efecto relajante del músculo liso inducido por Bismarckia nobilis (B. nobilis) en enfermedades gastrointestinales, respiratorias y cardiovasculares. El extracto metanólico de B. nobilis y subfracciones fue evaluado in vitro en tejidos aislados de conejos. Además se evaluó diarrea in vivo inducida con aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de harina de carbón vegetal en ratones. El extracto de B. nobilis relajó tanto las contracciones espontáneas como las inducidas por K+(80 mM) en preparaciones de yeyuno aisladas de conejos, las contracciones inducidas por PE (1 µM) y K+(80 mM) inducidas en preparaciones de aorta; de manera similar a verapamilo. La actividad espasmolítica de la fracción de diclorometano es más potente en comparación con la fracción acuosa. La diarrea inducida in vivo por el aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de la harina de carbón vegetal en ratones apoyaron aún más la actividad espasmolítica. El extracto de B. nobilis posee actividades antiespasmódicas, antidiarreicas, relajantes de las vías respiratorias y vasodilatadoras, posibles a través del mecanismo de bloqueo de los canales de calcio, lo que justifica la utilidad terapéutica de B. nobilis en la diarrea, el asma y la hipertensión.

Animals , Rabbits , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology , Arecaceae , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta/drug effects , Asthma/metabolism , Trachea/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Diarrhea/metabolism , Methanol , Hypotension/metabolism , Jejunum/drug effects , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1555-1564, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886762


ABSTRACT Diarrhea is an infectious disease caused by bacterial, virus, or protozoan, and dengue is caused by virus, included among the neglected diseases in several underdeveloped and developing countries, with an urgent demand for new drugs. Considering the antidiarrheal potential of species of Maytenus genus, a phytochemical investigation followed by antibacterial activity test with extracts of branches and heartwood and bark of roots from Maytenus gonoclada were conducted. Moreover, due the frequency of isolation of lupeol from Maytenus genus the antiviral activity against Dengue virus and cytotoxicity of lupeol and its complex with β-cyclodextrins were also tested. The results indicated the bioactivity of ethyl acetate extract from branches and ethanol extract from heartwood of roots of M. gonoclada against diarrheagenic bacteria. The lupeol showed potent activity against Dengue virus and low cytotoxicity in LLC-MK2 cells, but its complex with β-cyclodextrin was inactive. Considering the importance of novel and selective antiviral drug candidates the results seem to be promising.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Maytenus/chemistry , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Cell Line , Maytenus/classification , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Antidiarrheals/isolation & purification
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(3): 179-189, mayo 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907483


Seven compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated as y-fagarine (1), beta-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), alfa-amyrin (4), lupeol (5), beta-amyrin (6) and betulin (7) by extensive spectroscopic studies and by co-TLC with authentic samples. This is the first report of isolation of compounds 1-7 from this plant species. The extractives from leaves were investigated for thrombolytic, membrane stabilizing, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal and analgesic potentials along with sleep inducing property on animal model. The thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities were assessed by using human erythrocyte comparing with standard streptokinase and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively. The methanolic extract reduced frequency of diarrheal faeces when compared to the standard loperamide. In castor oil induced diarrhea in mice a dose dependent decrease of gastrointestinal transits were observed. In radiant heat tail-flick method the methanol extract showed moderate antinociceptive activity, compared to standard morphine.

Siete compuestos fueron aislados del extracto metanólico de hojas de Ziziphus mauritiana. Las estructuras de los compuestos aislados fueron identificadas como y-fagarina (1), beta-sitosterol (2), estigmasterol (3), alfa-amirina (4), lupeol (5), beta-amirina (6) y betulina (7 ) por medio de extensivos estudios espectroscópicos y por co-TLC con muestras auténticas. Este es el primer informe de aislamiento de los compuestos 1-7 a partir de esta especie vegetal. Los extractos de las hojas fueron investigados por efectos trombolíticos, estabilizadores de membrana, antimicrobianos, antidiarreicos y potenciales analgésicos junto a la propiedad de inducir sueño en el modelo animal. Las actividades trombolíticos y la estabilización de la membrana se evaluaron mediante el uso de eritrocitos humanos comparando con estreptoquinasa estándar y el ácido acetilsalicílico, respectivamente. El extracto metanólico redujo la frecuencia de las heces diarreicas en comparación con el estándar de loperamida. En la inducción por aceite de ricino de diarrea en ratones, se observó una disminución dosis dependiente de los tránsitos gastrointestinales. En el método del coletazo producido por calor radiante, el extracto metabólico mostró una actividad antinociceptiva moderada, en comparación con la morfina estándar.

Animals , Mice , Rats , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Ziziphus/chemistry , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Methanol , Triterpenes/isolation & purification
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-613286


Desmostachya bipinnata root has been used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. The antidiarrhoeal effect of both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Desmostachya bipinnata were studied in rats against castor oil induced diarrhoea and charcoal meal test at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The alcoholic extract and to a lesser extent aqueous extract significantly reduced the weight of the faces and decreased the propulsion of charcoal meal through the gastrointestinal tract. The phytochemical screening of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, phytosterol, terpenoids, polyphenolics, protein and carbohydrates. These results may support the fact that this plant is used traditionally to cure diarrhoea.

La raíz de Desmostachya bipinnata ha sido utilizada en el sistema tradicional de medicina Hindú para el tratamiento de diarrea y disentería. El efecto antidiarreico de los extractos alcohólicos y acuosos de los extractos de la raíz de Desmostachya bipinnata fueron estudiados en ratas, utilizando la diarrea inducida por aceite de castor y el ensayo de la prueba por carbón en dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg de peso corporal. El extracto alcohólico y en menor grado, el extracto acuoso, redujeron significativamente la propulsión de carbón a través del tracto gastrointestinal. El análisis de los extractos mostrarón la presencia de alcaloides, glicósidos, flavonoides, taninos, fitoesterol, terpenoides, polifenoles, proteínas y carbohidratos. Estos resultados pueden apoyar el hecho de que esta planta sea usada tradicionalmente para curar la diarrea.

Animals , Rats , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Ethanol/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Poaceae/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Castor Oil , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Motility , Rats, Wistar
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Aug; 42(8): 787-91
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61484


Effect of the aqueous leaf extract of I. gabonensis on the gastrointestinal tract was investigated on isolated rabbit jejunum, guinea pig ileum, gastrointestinal motility, castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice and castor oil-induced fluid accumulation in rats. The results showed that the extract exhibited a concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous pendular movement of isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum, and attenuated both acetylcholine-induced contraction of rabbit jejunum and histamine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum. The extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) also caused a significant dose-dependent decrease of gastrointestinal motility in mice (40.12, 39.45 and 37.45%), intestinal fluid accumulation in rats (71.43, 81.63 and 83.27%), and remarkably protected mice against castor oil-induced diarrhoea [58.33, 75 and 91.67% (Di Carlo score)] respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract of I. gabonensis revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, phenols and phlobatanins.

Animals , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Cellulose/pharmacology , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Female , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Guinea Pigs , Male , Mice , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Simaroubaceae
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Jun; 42(6): 589-94
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56029


The alkaloids from the ethanolic extract of H. antidysenterica seeds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in vitro, and their antidiarrhoeal activity on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats, in vivo. The plasmid DNA, whole cell lysate and outer membrane protein profile of a clinical isolate of EPEC was determined in presence of alkaloids of H. antidysenterica. The disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods were used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. The alkaloids showed strong antibacterial activity against EPEC strains. In castor oil-induced diarrhoea, alkaloids reduced the diarrhoea with decrease in the number of wet faeces in pretreated rats at a dose of 200-800 mg/kg. The loss of plasmid DNA and suppression of high molecular weight proteins were observed on alkaloids treatment. Taking into account the multiple antibiotic resistance of EPEC, the results suggest usefulness of alkaloids of H. antidysenterica seeds as antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal agents.

Agar/chemistry , Alkaloids/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Castor Oil/metabolism , Diffusion , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Feces/microbiology , Holarrhena/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plasmids/metabolism , Rats , Temperature
Suez Canal University Medical Journal. 2004; 7 (2): 161-167
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-69051


To determine the effectiveness of oral zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute watery diarrhea. The duration of episode of diarrhea, rate of maluse of "antidiarrheals" and antibiotics and the acceptability of zinc by the treated children. A randomized control trial. The outpatient clinic of Suez. Canal University Hospital and the urban Primary Health Center [El-Shiekh Zayed] in Ismailia governorate. 90 children aged 2-60 months were enrolled in the study. Children with diarrhea in the intervention group were treated with zinc sulphate [20 mg per day for 14 days] and oral rehydration solution while children in the control group were treated with oral rehydration solution alone zinc supplementation caused a significant reduction in the mean duration of the diarrheal episode it was 3.5 days in the zinc group compared to 4.75 days in control group with statistical significant deference between the two groups. Zinc supplementation also caused significant reduction of the use rate of "antidiarrheals" and antibiotics, the results, showed that 81.6% didn't use them in the zinc group compared to 39% in the control group, however 18.4% used them in the zinc group compared to 61% in the ORS group with significant difference between both group. Oral zinc supplementation, in under five children with acute watery diarrhea is efficacious in reducing the duration of the diarrhea episode, also reducing the maluse of "antidiarrheals" and antibiotics

Humans , Male , Female , Acute Disease , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Zinc/pharmacology , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 30(12): 1437-40, Dec. 1997.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-212588


Experiments were carried out in vitro with three viscous polysaccharides (guar gum, pectin, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) of similar initial viscosity submitted to conditions that mimic events occurring in the stomach and duodenum, and their viscosity in these situations was compared to their actions on postprandial hyperglycemia in normal human subjects. Guar gum showed greater viscosity than the other gums during acidification and/or alkalinization and also showed larger effects on plasma glucose levels (35 per cent reduction in maximum rise in plasma glucose) and on the total area under the curve of plasma glucose (control: 20,314 + 1007 mg dl(-1) 180 min (-1) vs guar gum: 18,277 + 699 mg dl(-1) 180 min (-1), P<0.01). Pectin, which showed a marked reduction in viscosity at 37 degrees Celsius and after events mimicking those that occur in the stomach and duodenum, did not have a significant effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. The performance of viscosity and the glycemia response to CMC were at an intermediate level between guar gum and pectin. In conclusion, these data suggest that temperature, the process of acidification, alkalinization and exposure to intestinal ions induce different viscosity changes in gums having similar initial viscosity, establishing a direct relationship between a minor decrease of gum viscosity in vitro and a reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia.

Adult , Female , Humans , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium/chemistry , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium/pharmacology , Cathartics/pharmacology , Galactans/chemistry , Galactans/pharmacology , Hyperglycemia , Pectins/chemistry , Pectins/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Postprandial Period/drug effects , Viscosity , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intestines/chemistry , Potassium Chloride , Random Allocation , Sodium Bicarbonate , Sodium Chloride , Temperature
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 86(supl.2): 137-139, 1991. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-623956


Baccharus triptera Mart, is a widespread Compositae used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disturbances, rheumatic disease, mild fever, diabetes and as an anti-helminthic. Water extract of small branches of the plant (WE) administered to mice and rats (0.1 to 2 g/Kg, p.o) did not alter spontaneous motor activity, sleeping time induced by barbiturates or the tailflick response in mice. The extract decreased by 40 por cento the number of writhings induced by 0.8 por cento scetic acid, i.p., but did not influence paw edema induced by carrageenan or dextran in rats WE (2g/Kg, p.o.) decreased the intestinal transit of charcoal in mice by 20//. Gastric secretion in pylorus ligated rats was reduced after treatment with WE (1 and 2 g/Kg. i.p. or intraduodenal and the gastric pH was raised. The extract (1 g/Kg, p.o.) prevented gastric ulcers induced in rats by immobilization at 4ºC, but not those induced by indomethacin (10 mg/Kg, s.c.). The results indicate that WE may relieve gastrointestinal disorders by reducing acid secretion and gastrointestinal hiperactivity. Neither analgesic nor anti-inflammatory activities were detectable. .

Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rats , Parasympatholytics/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Sleep/drug effects , Brazil , Drug Evaluation