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Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1423028


Introduction: Bacillus species are used as biological controllers for phytopathogenic fungi, and the mechanisms to produce controllers include biosynthesis of lipopeptide biosurfactants with antifungal activity. Objective: To evaluate the antifungal potential of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus strains, selected by molecular screening, on Fusarium oxysporum. Methods: We selected four molecular markers, related to the biosynthesis of surfactin, fengicin, and lichenysin (srfA, spf, fenB, LichAA) in nine Bacillus strains. We used two mineral media with several culture conditions, for biosurfactant production, and a well diffusion test for antifungal potential. Results: Only the biosurfactant produced by UFAB25 inhibits the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum (44 % ± 13): this biosurfactant was positive for srfA, spf, and fenB genes involved in the synthesis of surfactin and fengicine. Antifungal activity depends on culture conditions and the strain. Conclusions: Genetic markers are useful to detect strains with antifungal potential, facilitating the selection of bio-controllers. The biosurfactant profile is influenced by the strain and by culture conditions.

Introducción: Especies de Bacillus han sido empleadas como controladores biológicos contra hongos fitopatógenos. Entre los mecanismos utilizados se destaca la biosíntesis de biosurfactantes lipopeptídicos con actividad antifúngica. Objetivo: Evaluar el potencial antifúngico de los biosurfactantes producidos por cepas Bacillus nativas, previamente seleccionadas mediante tamizaje molecular, sobre Fusarium oxysporum. Métodos: Se utilizaron cuatro marcadores moleculares, relacionados con la biosíntesis de surfactina, fengicina y liquenisina (srfA, spf, fenB, LichAA) sobre nueve cepas de Bacillus. Se utilizaron dos medios minerales con diferentes condiciones de cultivo para la producción del biosurfactante. Se evaluó el potencial antifúngico de los biosurfactantes mediante la prueba de difusión en pozos. Resultados: Se determinó que solo el biosurfactante producido por UFAB25 actúa como inhibidor del crecimiento micelial de Fusarium oxysporum (43.6 % ± 13), esta cepa es positiva para los genes srfA, spf y fenB, involucrados en la síntesis de surfactina y fengicina. La actividad antifúngica depende de las condiciones de cultivo y la cepa. Conclusiones: Los marcadores genéticos ayudan a detectar cepas con potencial antifúngico, facilitando la selección de biocontroladores. El perfil del biosurfactante está influenciado no solo por la cepa, sino también por las condiciones del cultivo.

Bacillus/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/analysis
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 3-7, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095737


Criptococose é uma doença grave que afeta tanto imunocomprometidos quanto imunocompetentes, com isso analisar a virulência é fundamental para novas terapêuticas. Objetivo: Analisar a capacidade de virulência e susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos de Cryptococcus spp. isolados de líquor de pacientes de hospital do norte do Paraná. Métodos: A partir de dois isolados clínicos C. neoformans e C. gattii, realizou-se a confirmação da identificação. Para a virulência, avaliou-se o tamanho da cápsula, capacidade de sobrevivência após exposição a neutrófilos, produção de melanina e urease. No antifungigrama por difusão em disco utilizou-se: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, voriconazol, itraconazol e miconazol. Resultados: C. gattii destaca-se por maior desenvolvimento da cápsula além da melhor capacidade de sobreviver a fagocitose em relação ao C. neoformans. No antifungigrama, ambos os isolados se apresentam sensíveis às drogas estudadas. Conclusão: Esses achados contribuem para a compreensão das diferentes patogêneses entre C. gattii e C. neoformans.

Cryptococcosis is a serious disease that can affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals, thus the virulence analysis is fundamental for the development of new treatments. Objective: To analyze the virulence and susceptibility of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients from a hospital in the north of Paraná. Methods: From two clinical isolates, C. neoformans and C. gattii were confirmed and identified. For virulence, capsule size, survival capacity after exposure to neutrophils, melanin production and urease were evaluated. In the disc-diffusion method, the following antifungals were used: amphotericin B, ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and miconazole Results: It was observed that C. gattii presents greater results for development of the capsule beside presenting the best ability to survive phagocytosis in relation to C. neoformans. In the disc-diffusion method, both isolates presented sensitivity to the studied drugs. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of the different pathogens between C. gattii and C. neoformans.

Cryptococcosis/virology , Virulence Factors/analysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Phagocytosis , Urease/urine , Yeasts/virology , Capsules/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/analysis , Itraconazole , Cryptococcus neoformans/virology , Agar/analysis , Cryptococcus gattii/virology , Voriconazole , Melanins/analysis , Miconazole , Neutrophils/virology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17509, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132046


Amphotericin B is a broad spectrum antifungal agent used to treat fungal infections. Organogel is a semisolid preparation in which the apolar phase gets immobilized within spaces of the three-dimensional structure. The current study aimed at the formulation and comparative evaluation of sorbitan monostearate organogels and pluronic lecithin organogels (PLO). Different compositions of span 60 based organogels were prepared by varying the concentrations of the span 60 and PLO gels were prepared by varying the concentration of Pluronic F 127. The developed organogels were subjected to various characteristics such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, and drug release studies. The optimized formulations were evaluated against Candida albicans and carried out ex vivo release study. The optimized formulation was selected from span 60 based organogels, and pluronic lecithin organogels were S1 and P1, respectively. The optimized formulation (S1) showed effective inhibition against Candida albicans. The skin irritation test was carried out on albino mice for optimized formulations and results showed that no irritation to the skin. Based on the results, organogels prepared by sorbitan monostearate showed better antifungal activity, and also all the formulations were found to be stable and safe throughout the study period.

Skin , Candida albicans/classification , Amphotericin B/agonists , Growth and Development , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Viscosity , Drug Liberation , Mycoses/pathology
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(supl.1): 40-43, ago. 9, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141515


Aims: To evaluate the effect of surface coating with natural plant oils (Salvia officinalis, ginger and eucalyptus) on Candida growth and the hardness of Vertex denture lining material. Materials and method: Forty five specimens were prepared from soft acrylic lining material, twenty five of which were 10x10x2mm in size for testing antifungal activity, and twenty samples were 20mm in diameter and 12mm in thickness, for testing shore A hardness after coating samples with three types of natural oils (Salvia officinalis, ginger and eucalyptus oils). Significant differences among the groups at (p≤0.05) level of significance were determined statistically with one way analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test Result: Antifungal assay showed a significant difference between five groups regarding Candida albicans growth (p≤ 0.05). For the hardness test, comparing different times of storage in water (1, 7, 14, 30 days) revealed a significant difference within all groups (p≤0. 05). While comparing the groups coated with natural oils with the control group, significant differences were found between different times of storage in water (1, 7, 30 day) (p≤0.05), except at 14 days of water storage there was no significant difference between groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: All tested natural oils were effective as fungicidal agents and increased the softness and duration of soft acrylic lining material.

Humans , Denture, Overlay/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Candida albicans , Salvia officinalis/immunology , Eucalyptus Oil
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(2): 164-169, jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013368


Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by filamentous fungi with high impact Lactic acid bacteria; in food safety due to its toxicity. In the last decade, the presence of OTA was widely reported in different foods. In this study, the ability of Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum CRL 778 to control growth and OTA production by Aspergillus (A.) niger 13D strain, at different water activity (a w) values (0.955, 0.964, 0.971, 0.982, and 0.995) was determined in vitro. Both parame ters were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the lactobacilli and the effect depended on a w. Greatest growth rate inhibition (46.9%) was obtained at a w = 0.995, which is the most suitable value for growth and production of antifungal metabolites (lactic acid, acetic acid, phenyllac-tic and hydroxyl-phenyllactic acids) by L. plantarum CRL 778. Besides, morphological changes and inhibition of melanin synthesis were observed in colonies of A. niger 13D in presence of L. plantarum CRL 778 at a w ranged between 0.971 and 0.995. In addition, maximum reduction (90%) of OTA production took place at a w = 0.971, while inhibition of fungi growth was more evident at a w =0.995. These findings suggest that L. plantarum CRL 778 could be used for control of ochratoxigenic fungal growth and OTA contamination in different fermented foods with a w values between 0.971 and 0.995.

Ocratoxina A (OTA) es una micotoxina producida por hongos filamentosos con un alto impacto en la seguridad alimentaria debido a su toxicidad. En la última década se ha reportado ampliamente a nivel mundial, la presencia de OTA en diversos alimentos. En este estudio se evaluó in vitro, la capacidad de Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum CRL 778 de controlar el crecimiento y la producción de OTA por Aspergillus (A.) niger 13D, a diferentes valores de actividad de agua (a w): 0.955, 0.964, 0.971,0.982 y 0.995). La cepa láctica redujo significativamente (p <0.05) ambos parámetros, siendo el efecto dependiente del valor de a w. La mayor inhibición del crecimiento (46.9%) se obtuvo a a w =0.995, valor más adecuado para el crecimiento y producción de metabolitos antifúngicos (ácido láctico, ácido acético, ácidos fenil-láctico e hidroxi-fenil láctico) por la cepa láctica. Además, se observaron cambios morfológicos en las colonias de A. niger 13D, crecidas en presencia de L. plantarum CRL 778 a valores de a w de 0.971 y 0.995. El porcentaje máximo de reducción en la producción de OTA (90%) por la cepa láctica se observó a un valor de a w = 0.971, mientras la inhibición del crecimiento fúngico fue mayor cuando a w = 0.995. Estos hallazgos sugieren que L. plantarum CRL 778 podría emplearse para el control de la contaminación por hongos ocratoxigénicos en alimentos con valores de aw comprendidos entre 0.971-0.995.

Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Aspergillus niger/growth & development , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Ochratoxins/antagonists & inhibitors
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 819-827, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011330


In this study, we described the antifungal activity of three Brazilian propolis extracts: brown, green and from jataí bees against Sporothrix brasiliensis. The extracts were obtained from ethanolic extraction and their chemical composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The cellular toxicity was measured in MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cells and quantified by the MTT assay (3- (4,5 dimethylthiazol-2yl -2,5-diphenyl-2H bromine tetrazolato). For antifungal activity, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined by broth microdilution. The results showed that cell toxicity was not observed at lower concentrations (0.097 to 0.39μg/ml) for all extracts in comparison to cell control. Among the chemical compounds identified, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and rutin were quantified. In antifungal activity, green and jataí did not exhibit activity against the isolates (MIC and MFC greater than 0.78mg/ml). However, all isolates of S. brasiliensis were sensitive to brown propolis (MIC of 0.09 to 0.78mg/ml), including the standard strain (P<0.001). Among the Brazilian propolis studied, the brown propolis showed activity against the S. brasiliensis isolates and more studies should be undertaken in order to evaluate its promising use in the treatment of sporotrichosis.(AU)

Neste estudo, descreveu-se a atividade antifúngica de três extratos de própolis brasileiras: marrom, verde e de abelhas jataí (Tetragonisca angustula), contra Sporothrix brasiliensis. Os extratos foram obtidos de extração etanólica, e a sua composição química foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, acoplada à espectrometria de massa. A toxicidade celular foi medida em células MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney), avaliada por observação microscópica e quantificada pelo ensaio MTT (3- (4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-ilo -2,5-difenil-2H bromo tetrazolato). Para a atividade antifúngica, determinou-se a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração fungicida mínima (CFM) por meio de microdiluição em caldo. Os resultados mostraram que a toxicidade celular não foi observada em concentrações menores (0,097 a 0,39μg/ml). Entre os compostos químicos identificados, foram quantificados o ácido cafeico, ácido p-cumárico, ácido clorogênico, ácido ferúlico e a rutina. Na atividade antifúngica, as própolis verde e jataí não apresentaram atividade contra os isolados (CIM e CFM maior que 0,78mg/ml), porém todos os isolados de S. brasiliensis foram sensíveis à própolis marrom (CIM de 0,09 a 0,78mg/ml), incluindo a cepa padrão (P<0,001). Entre as própolis brasileiras estudadas, a marrom mostrou atividade contra S. brasiliensis, e mais estudos devem ser realizados para avaliar seu uso promissor no tratamento da esporotricose.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Propolis/analysis , Propolis/therapeutic use , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Apitherapy/veterinary , Antifungal Agents/analysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 929-935, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974283


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of nanoemulsions encapsulating essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare), both in vitro and after application on Minas Padrão cheese. Nanodispersions were obtained by the phase inversion temperature method. Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., and Penicillium sp. genera were isolated from cheese samples and used to evaluate antifungal activity. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of non-encapsulated and encapsulated oregano essential oil were determined, and they were influenced by the encapsulation of the essential oil depending on the type of fungus. The antifungal activity of the nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil in cheese slices showed no evidence of an effect of the MICs, when applied in the matrix. On the other hand, an influence of contact time of the nanoemulsion with the cheese was observed, due to the increase in water activity. It was concluded that nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil presented an inhibitory effect against the three genera of fungi evaluated. If environmental parameters, such as storage temperature and water activity, were controlled, the inhibitory effect of nanoemulsions of oregano oil could possibly be greatly improved, and they could be presented as a potential alternative for the preservation of Minas Padrão cheese against fungal contamination.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cheese/microbiology , Origanum/chemistry , Food Preservation/methods , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Cheese/analysis , Food Preservatives/analysis , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17149, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951928


ABSTRACT Griseofulvin (GF) and terbinafine (TF) are commonly used drugs to treat dermatophytosis, a fungal infection of the skin. Today there is an increase in drug resistance to these antifungals which highlight the need for alternative synergistic therapies. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of GF and TF were determined against fungi clinical isolates from local hospitals with values ranging 0.03-2.0 µg mL-1 and 0.24-4.0 µg mL-1, respectively. A checkboard test was used to determine the combination of GF:TF which could induce an additive effect against the fungi isolates Multidrug-resistant isolates showed susceptibility after treatment with 16:2 µg mL-1 GF:TF. An MTT assay further verified that GF and TF combinations have greater additive effect against pathological and multidrug-resistant isolates than antifungals alone. Herein we disclose GF:TF combinations that could constitute as a possible new anti-dermatophyte therapy.

In Vitro Techniques/methods , Drug Combinations , Griseofulvin/analysis , Tinea/pathology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Dermatomycoses/classification , Arthrodermataceae/classification , Antifungal Agents/analysis
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(3): 217-221, set. 2016. graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290640


Debido a la gran problemática mundial de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos, es necesaria la búsqueda continua de nuevas moléculas con características antimicrobianas. Este estudio evaluó el efecto antibacteriano y antifúngico de un extracto hexánico proveniente de la raíz de Salvia apiana. Los extractos de salvia a las concentraciones de 27; 13,5; 6,8 y 3,4mg/ml causaron inhibición del crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis y Candida albicans. Sin embargo, no presentaron efecto significativo sobre Escherichia coli y Candida tropicalis al compararse con los valores del vehículo en las valoraciones de difusión en pozo. Se demostró que S. apiana tiene un efecto antimicrobiano significativo sobre patógenos de gran importancia clínica, lo que abre el campo para continuar evaluando a esta lamiácea en vistas a su posible empleo en el futuro como un agente terapéutico

Due to the great global concern regarding bacterial resistance to antibiotics, an ongoing search for new molecules having antibacterial activity is necessary. This study evaluated the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of a hexane extract from the root of Salvia apiana. Salvia extracts at concentrations of 27, 13.5, 6.8 and 3.4mg/ml caused growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. However, no significant effect was observed on Escherichia coli and Candida tropicalis in comparison to vehicle. It was here demonstrated for the first time that Salvia apiana has an important antimicrobial effect on human pathogens of great clinical value, thus opening the field to continue the evaluation of this lamiaceous plant for its future use as a therapeutic agent

Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Products with Antimicrobial Action , Drug Discovery , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 428-434, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781392


Abstract The antioxidant and anticandidal activities of leaves obtained from Camellia sinensis by non-fermentation (green and white teas), semi-fermentation (red tea) and fermentation method (black tea) were investigated. It was evaluated the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau assay; antioxidant capacities were evaluated in vitro using DPPH and ABTS radicals, hypochlorous acid and superoxide anion scavenger assays, induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation by conjugated diene formation and myeloperoxidase activity. Anticandidal activity was performed on three strains of Candida spp. The results showed that non-fermented teas have a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, and then presented the best inhibitory activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the best inhibition of conjugated diene formation and more pronounced antioxidant activity in all tests. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from fermented tea, followed by non-fermented tea. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity demonstrated has no direct relation with the anticandidal activity.

Resumo A atividade antioxidante e antifúngica das folhas obtidas da Camellia sinensis pelos métodos de não-fermentação (chás verde e branco), semi-fermentação (chá vermelho) e fermentação (chá preto) foram investigadas. Foi avaliado o conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau; a capacidade antioxidante foi avaliada in vitro usando os radicais artificiais DPPH e ABTS, o ácido hipocloroso, ensaios do ânion superóxido, hemólise induzida, peroxidação lipídica por formação de dienos conjugados e atividade da Mieloperoxidase. A atividade antifúngica foi obtida sobre três cepas de Candida spp. Os resultados obtidos mostram que os chás não fermentados apresentam a maior concentração de compostos fenólicos e também, apresentam a melhor atividade inibitória, sobre hemólise induzida por APPH, sobre a formação de dienos conjugados e a mais pronunciada atividade antioxidante sobre todos os testes. A maior atividade antifúngica foi obtida pelo chá fermentado, seguido pelo semi-fermentado e não-fermentados. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a atividade antioxidante observada não apresenta relação com a atividade antifúngica.

Plant Leaves/chemistry , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Oxidation-Reduction , Phenols/analysis , Tea/chemistry , Plant Extracts , Lipid Peroxidation , Peroxidase/metabolism , Fermentation , Hemolysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(2): 221-237, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794998


ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

RESUMO Casos de esporotricose em humanos e animais sem resposta clínica satisfatória têm aumentado, sinal de alarme para o surgimento de cepas resistentes aos antifúngicos convencionais. A urgente busca por alternativas terapêuticas tem incentivado as pesquisas em plantas medicinais com atividade anti-Sporothrix spp. Um levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado com base em artigos científicos sobre a atividade antifúngica in vitro e in vivo de óleos essenciais e extratos de plantas preparados em diferentes solventes contra o complexo Sporothrix schenckii. A metodologia do estudo consistiu em uma revisão bibliográfica em Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme e Springer link com artigos desde 1986 até 2015. Foram encontradas 141 espécies de plantas já investigadas, das quais 100 espécies concentradas em 39 famílias botânicas apresentaram atividade anti-Sporothrix spp. confirmada. Combretaceae, Asteraceae e Lamiaceae representaram as famílias botânicas com maior número de espécies vegetais com potencial antifúngico, empregando diferentes metodologias. Entretanto, há poucos estudos com plantas medicinais em infecção experimental animal comprovando sua atividade no tratamento da esporotricose. Reforça-se a necessidade de mais pesquisas relacionadas à padronização de metodologias in vitro e a estudos in vivo relacionados à segurança e potencial tóxico dessas plantas com atividade anti-Sporothrix spp.

Plants, Medicinal/classification , Sporotrichosis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Asteraceae , Combretaceae , Lamiaceae
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 36(4): 491-495, 01/10/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-2583


The aim of this work was to develop a simple, fast and reproducible spectrophotometric method for the analysis of posaconazole in raw material. The established conditions were: methanol as extracting solvent, detection wavelength of 260 nm, Shimadzu double beam spectrophotometer 1800 model with 1 cm quartz cells. Linearity was demonstrated in the concentration range of 5.0 a 25.0 µg/mL (r = 0.9999). Reproducibility and intermediate precision were confirmed by low RSD values (0.49 to 0.82%). Accuracy, evaluated through recovery test, was adequate, with 98.20% of mean recovery. Specificity and robustness were also demonstrated. The mean amount found for samples was 100.82%. The proposed method was considered suitable for the intended purpose, mainly in routine analysis of quality control laboratories. When compared to the previously developed HPLC, no statistical difference was observed, what made the UV spectrophotometric method a reliable alternative.

O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um método espectrofotométrico simples, rápido e reprodutível para a análise de posaconazol na matéria-prima. As condições estabelecidas foram: metanol como solvente extrator, comprimento de onda de 260 nm e espectrofotômetro de duplo feixe Shimadzu, modelo 1800, com cubetas de quartzo de 1 cm. A linearidade foi demonstrada na faixa de concentração de 5,0 a 25,0 µg/mL (r = 0,9999). A reprodutibilidade e a precisão intermediária foram confirmadas pelos baixos valores de desvio padrão relativo (0,49 a 0,82%). A exatidão, avaliada pelo teste de recuperação, foi adequada, com recuperação média de 98,20%. A especificidade e a robustez também foram demonstradas. O teor médio encontrado nas amostras foi de 100,82%. O método proposto foi considerado adequado, principalmente para a análise de rotina em laboratórios de controle de qualidade. Quando comparado com o método por HPLC, não houve diferença estatística, o que torna o método por espectrofotometria UV uma alternativa segura.

Antifungal Agents/analysis , Triazoles/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Quality Control , Spectrophotometry/methods
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(2): 367-372, Apr.-June 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755050


Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) is a gold standard drug in dentistry and is widely used as a reference in both in vitro and in vivoexperiments. Due to ease of access, mouth washes containing CHX 0.12% are used as a substitute for aqueous CHX 0.12% solution in laboratory experiments. Additionally, it is well known that for product flavor purposes, volatile compounds are added to mouth washes formulations. Volatiles added to CHX 0.12% may improve wash's antibacterial ability. Volatiles add potency to the mouth wash formulation. Compared with an aqueous CHX 0.12% solution, it is proposed that CHX solutions and Periogard® would have antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity was assessed in the present study via disk diffusion assays against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinisand Escherichia coli. Periogard® showed a significantly higher antibacterial activity in relation to CHX 0.12% (p<0.05) and a similar activity in relation to CHX 1% (p>0.05). Periogard(r) volatiles were analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) and the presence of antibacterial menthol, menthone, isomenthol, menthyl acetate, trans-anethol and eugenol was verified. Finally, the use of Periogard® as a synonym of CHX 0.12% must be avoided, because its antibacterial activity is closely related to CHX 1%...

Gluconato de clorexidina (CHX) é um fármaco considerado padrão ouro, em Odontologia, amplamente usado como referência em estudos in vitro e in vivo. Em razão da facilidade de acesso, enxaguatórios bucais que contêm CHX 0,12% são usados em substituição à solução aquosa de clorexidina (CHX 0,12%), em experimentos laboratoriais. É sabido que devido à palatabilidade do produto, os mesmos enxaguatórios bucais contêm compostos voláteis em sua formulação, além da CHX 0.12%. Visto que voláteis adicionados podem acrescentar poder antibacteriano à formulação, a comparação da resposta antibacteriana da solução aquosa de CHX em diferentes concentrações e de Periogard® é proposta no presente artigo. Para tanto, utilizou-se o ensaio do disco de difusão em ágar com inóculos de Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis e Escherichia coli. Periogard® mostrou atividade antibacteriana significativa contra as três cepas analisadas, quando comparada à atividade de CHX 0.12% (p<0,05) e atividade similar à CHX diluída a 1% (p>0,05). A presença de compostos voláteis no Periogard® foi analisada por GC-MS e observou-se que mentol, mentona, isomentol, acetato de mentila, trans-anetol e eugenol estão presentes na formulação. Deste modo, o uso de Periogard(r) como sinônimo de CHX 0,12% deve ser evitado, uma vez que sua atividade se assemelha àquela da CHX diluída a 1%...

Humans , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Mouthwashes/analysis , Mouthwashes/pharmacokinetics , Oral and Dental Hygiene Products
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 51(3): 259-269, jul.-set. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-729715


A crescente resistência das leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida frente aos antifúngicos sintéticos, atualmente disponíveis no comércio, impulsiona a busca por novos compostos antifúngicos de origem vegetal. Assim, o propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar in vitro a atividade antifúngica dos decoctos de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (aroeira) Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) e Punica granatum Linn (romã), vendidos por raizeiros em três feiras livres distintas (A, B e C), frente a três espécies de microorganismos do gênero Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis e C. krusei). O ensaio para determinação da atividade antifúngica dos produtos naturais foi realizado pelo método da difusão em meio sólido, em triplicata, onde discos de papel de filtro estéreis embebidos em 50 µL dos extratos foram colocados sobre o meio de cultura. Os resultados foram avaliados a partir da mensuração dos diâmetros dos halos de inibição de crescimento fúngico em milímetros (mm), sendo considerada a moda dos valores obtidos. Foi observada atividade antifúngica de S. terebenthifolius Raddi e de C. zeylanicum Breym sobre C. krusei. No entanto, diferenças foram identificadas entre os produtos obtidos nos diferentes locais. O decocto de Punica granatum Linn apresentou atividade antifúngica sobre as três cepas fúngicas utilizadas no estudo. Também foram verificadas diferenças entres os produtos obtidos nas feiras livres, sendo que apenas as amostras de Punica granatum Linn provenientes da feira A foram capazes de inibir o crescimento fúngico de todas as cepas analisadas. Desta forma, conclui-se que todos os produtos avaliados apresentam atividade antifúngica, havendo diferenças relacionadas aos locais de sua obtenção e sensibilidade das cepas ensaiadas(AU)

La resistencia cada vez mayor de levaduras del género candida a los antifúngicos sintéticos disponibles en la actualidad ha llevado a la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos antifúngicos de origen vegetal. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antifúngica in vitro de decocciones de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (pimentero brasileño),Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) y Punica granatum Linn (granada) sobre tres especies del género Candida (C. albicans, C . tropicalis y C. krusei). Este material vegetal fue vendido por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) en tres ferias callejeras distintas (A, B y C). El ensayo para determinar la actividad antifúngica de los productos se realizó por triplicado. Se empleó el método de difusión en medio sólido, en el que discos de papel de filtro estériles fueron empapados en 50 µL de los extractos y colocados en medio de cultivo. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante la medición de los diámetros de los halos de inhibición del crecimiento fúngico, en milímetros, y se consideró la moda de los valores encontrados. Se observó actividad antifúngica de S. terebinthifolius Raddi y C. zeylanicum Breym contra C. krusei, pero fueron identificadas diferencias entre los productos obtenidos en diferentes lugares. La decocción de Punica granatum Linn presentó actividad antifúngica sobre las tres levaduras en estudio. Además, se encontraron diferencias entre los productos adquiridos en las ferias callejeras, pero sólo las muestras de Punica granatum Linn de la feria A fueron capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de hongos de todas las levaduras analizadas. Todos los productos evaluados mostraron actividad antifúngica, pero hubo diferencias en función de la localidad donde los productos fueron obtenidos y de la sensibilidad a las cepas ensayadas(AU)

An increasing resistance of Candida yeasts to the synthetic antifungals currently available has driven the search for new plant-derived antifungal compounds. In this respect, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of decoctions from Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper tree), Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (cinnamon) and Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) against three species of Candida genus (C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei). Such plant material was sold by herb sellers in three distinct street fairs (A, B and C). The test to determine the products antifungal activity was performed in triplicate by means of the diffusion method on solid medium, in which sterile filter paper discs were soaked in 50 µL of the extracts and then placed on culture medium. Data were assessed by measuring the diameters of halos of fungal growth inhibition, in millimeters (mm), and it was considered the mode of the values found. Antifungal activity of S. terebinthifolius Raddi and C. zeylanicum Breym was observed against C. krusei, but were identified differences among the products obtained in different locations. Punica granatum Linn decoction presented antifungal activity on the three yeasts under study. Also, were found differences among the products acquired in the street fairs, but only the samples of Punica granatum Linn from fair A were able to inhibit fungal growth of all yeasts analyzed. Thus, it is concluded that all the products assessed showed antifungal activity, but differences were found depending on the location where these were obtained and on the sensitivity to the strains assayed(AU)

Humans , Candidiasis, Oral/therapy , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(2,supl.1): 309-315, 2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719458


Hidrolato é o líquido resultante da extração de óleo essencial de plantas aromáticas por arraste a vapor apresentando em sua composição importantes metabólitos do vegetal de origem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade indutora de fitoalexinas, bem como as propriedades antifúngica e antibacteriana do hidrolato de carqueja (Baccharis trimera). Foram testadas as concentrações de 1, 10, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. A atividade indutora de fitoalexinas foi avaliada em mesocótilos estiolados de sorgo e em cotilédones de soja. A atividade antifúngica foi avaliada sobre a germinação de esporos de Pseudocercospora vitis, Cercospora kaki e Hemileia vastatrix. A atividade antibacteriana foi avaliada sobre a multiplicação de Xanthomonas campestris pv. passiflorae, Erwinia carotovora e Bacilllus subtilis. O hidrolato não induziu a produção de fitoalexinas em soja, mas promoveu esta atividade em sorgo a partir da concentração de 50%. Atividade antibacteriana ocorreu para os três isolados a partir da concentração de 75%, com inibição de até 87,9% sobre B. subtilis. O hidrolato não mostrou atividade antifúngica.

Hydrolate is a product resulting from the extraction of a plant essential oil using steam distillation, which presents major metabolites of such plants in its composition. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phytoalexin induction and the antifungal and antibacterial activities of the Baccharis trimera hydrolate, in the concentrations of 1, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Phytoalexin induction was evaluated in etiolated sorghum mesocotyl and in soybean cotyledons. The antifungal activity was evaluated on the spore germination of Pseudocercospora vitis, Cercospora kaki and Hemileia vastatrix, while the antibacterial activity was evaluate on the Xanthomonas campestris pv. passiflorae, Erwinia carotovora and Bacillus subtilis multiplication. The hydrolate did not induce the phytoalexin synthesis in soybean, but it provided activity in sorghum in the concentration of 50% and above. Antibacterial activity occurred for the three isolates tested at the concentrations of 75 and 100%, with inhibition up to 87.9% for B. subtilis. The hydrolate showed no antifungal activity.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Agrochemicals/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Baccharis/adverse effects
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1302-1308, Oct.-Dec. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665812


Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources.Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/toxicity , Dilution/methods , Ethanol/analysis , Plant Extracts/toxicity , In Vitro Techniques , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity , Grassland , Methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1315-1318, Oct.-Dec. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665814


The "In vitro" antifungal activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Bioperoxoil®) was tested on 101 samples of yeasts originating from onychomycosis using the disk diffusion method. The oil was efficacious against several clinical fungal strains: Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporonasahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii.

Antifungal Agents/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Mycoses , Onychomycosis , Plant Oils/analysis , Yeasts , Helianthus , Methods , Methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1355-1364, Oct.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665820


By using agar well diffusion assay, antifungal activity of aqueous extract prepared from Egyptian garlic (Allium sativum L.) was evaluated in vitro against two strains of Aspergillus flavus (OC1 and OC10) causing human ocular infection. The recorded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for growth inhibition of both strains was 3.60 mg/ml. Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) was used in successive in vivo tests as an attempt to cure rabbit's fungal keratitis caused by A. flavus OC1. Findings showed that diluted preparation of AGE was effective topical antifungal agent and succeeded to cure severe A. flavus keratitis in a time course less than 10 days without any observable side effects. Microscopic examination showed that AGE induced deleterious cyto-morphological aberrations inA. flavus target cells. AGE applied to Czapek's broth via contact method was more effective on growth, spores and aflatoxin B1 production than AGE applied to the same broth at the same concentration via fumigation method.

Humans , Aspergillosis , Aflatoxin B1/analysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Spores, Fungal/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/analysis , Fumigation/methods , In Vitro Techniques , Efficacy , Garlic , Methods , Patients
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(3): 880-887, July-Sept. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656648


In this work we characterized the occurrence of killer activity in 64 Candida glabrata clinical isolates under different conditions. We found that only 6.25 % of the clinical isolates tested were positive for killer activity against a Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303 sensitive strain. Sensitivity of killer activity to different values of pH and temperatures was analyzed. We found that the killer activity presented by all isolates was resistant to every pH and temperature tested, although optimal activity was found at a range of pH values from 4 to 7 and at 37ºC. We did not observe extrachromosomal genetic elements associated with killer activity in any of the positive C. glabrata isolates. The killer effect was due to a decrease in viability and DNA fragmentation in sensitive yeast.

Humans , Apoptosis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Base Sequence , Candidiasis , Candida glabrata/isolation & purification , Disease Susceptibility , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolation & purification , Genotype , Methods , Virulence
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(2): 476-481, Apr.-June 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644461


The present study was aimed at exploring the native wild isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum series in terms of their penicillin production potential. Apart from the standard medium, the efforts were made to utilize suitable agro-industrial wastes for the maximum yield of penicillin. Two series of P. chrysogenum were isolated from local sources and named as P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2. The native series were found to possess better penicillin production potential than the already reported series of P. chrysogenum. However, P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 was found to be the best candidate for high yield of penicillin starting at 100 hour as compared to P. chrysogenum series UAF R2 which produced the highest yield of penicillin at 150 hours for a shorter period of time. Addition of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) to the fermentation medium resulted in the production of 1.20g/L penicillin by P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2. The fermentation medium in which Sugar Cane Bagasse (SCB) was replaced with CSL resulted in the highest yield of penicillin (1.92g/L) by both native series of P. chrysogenum. The penicillin production was increased by 62.5% in medium with SCB as compared to that with CSL. The penicillin yield of medium containing lactose and phenyl acetate was higher than that of control medium. Overall results revealed that P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2 may be recommended for better yield of natural penicillin and this efficiency may be further enhanced by utilizing SCB as substrate in the growth medium.

Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Fungicides, Industrial/analysis , Lactose/analysis , Penicillins/isolation & purification , Penicillium chrysogenum/isolation & purification , Saccharum , Zea mays , Enzyme Activation , Methods , Plant Structures